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There is also confusion surrounding the many types of

depression that people experience — unipolar depression,

biological depression, manic depression, seasonal affective
disorder, dysthymia, etc. There have been so many terms used
to describe this set of feelings we’ve all felt at one time or
another in our lives, it may be difficult to understand the
difference between just being blue and having clinical
Depression is characterized by a number of common
symptoms. These include a persistent sad, anxious, or “empty”
mood, and feelings of hopelessness or pessimism that lasts
nearly every day, for weeks on end. A person who is depressed
also often has feelings of guilt, worthlessness, and helplessness.
They no longer take interest or pleasure in hobbies and
activities that were once enjoyed; this may include things like
going out with friends or even sex. Insomnia, early-morning
awakening, and oversleeping are all common.
Appetite and/or weight loss or overeating and weight
gain may be symptoms of depression in some people. Many
others experience decreased energy, fatigue, and a constant
feeling of being “slowed down.” Thoughts of death or suicide
are not uncommon in those suffering from severe depression.
Restlessness and irritability among those who have depression
is common. A person who is depressed also has difficulty
concentrating, remembering, and trouble making decisions.
And sometimes, persistent physical symptoms that do not
respond to traditional treatments — such as headaches,
digestive disorders, and chronic pain — may be signs of a
depressive illness.
More use of technology is linked to later increases in
attention, behavior and self-regulation problems for
adolescents already at risk for mental health issues, a
new study from Duke University finds.

“Also, on days at-risk adolescents use technology

more, they experience more conduct problems and
higher ADHD symptoms compared to days they use
technology less,” said Madeleine J. George, a Duke Ph.D.
candidate and the lead author of the study.

However, the study also found that using technology

had some positive effects: On days when adolescents
spent more time using digital technologies they were less
likely to report symptoms of depression and anxiety.

The research, published May 3 in a special issue of

Child Development, looks at associations between
adolescents’ mental health symptoms and how much
time they spent each day texting, using social media and
using the Internet.
For the study, 151 young adolescents completed
surveys on smartphones about their daily digital
technology use. They were surveyed three times a day for
a month and were assessed for mental health symptoms
18 months later. The youth participating were between
11 and 15 years old, were of a lower socioeconomic
status and were at a heightened risk for mental health

The adolescents spent an average of 2.3 hours a day

using digital technologies. More than an hour of that
time was spent texting, with the adolescents sending an
average of 41 texts a day.

The researchers found that on days when adolescents

used their devices more -- both when they exceeded their
own normal use and when they exceeded average use by
their peers -- they were more likely to experience conduct
problems such as lying, fighting and other behavioral

In addition, on days when adolescents used digital

devices more, they had difficulty paying attention and
exhibited attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder
The study also found that young adolescents who
spent more time online experienced increases in conduct
problems and problems with self-regulation -- the ability
to control one’s behavior and emotions -- 18 months

It’s unclear whether high levels of technology use were

simply a marker of elevated same-day mental health
symptoms or if the use of technology exacerbated
existing symptoms, said Candice Odgers, the senior
author of the study and a professor in Duke’s Sanford
School of Public Policy.

On the positive side, the researchers found evidence

that digital technology use may be helpful to adolescents
experiencing depression and anxiety. More time spent
texting was associated with fewer same-day symptoms of
depression and anxiety.

“This finding makes sense when you think about how

kids are commonly using devices to connect with their
peers and social networks,” said Odgers, an associate
director of the Duke Center for Child and Family Policy.

The findings suggest contemporary youth may be

using digital technology to connect in positive ways
versus isolating themselves, the authors said. In the past,
some research found that teenagers using digital
technology were socially isolated. But at that time, only a
small minority of youth were frequently online.

Odgers noted that the adolescents in the study were

already at an increased risk for mental health problems,
regardless of digital device use and it’s unclear if the
findings would apply to all adolescents. Because
this was a correlational study, it is possible that factors
other than technology use could have caused the
increase in mental health problems.

As rates of adolescent technology use continue to

climb, the researchers say more work is needed to
investigate its effects. Odgers and George are now
conducting a large study of more than 2,000 N.C.
adolescents to determine how and why high digital
device use predicts future problems among some
adolescents. The study also looks at whether being
constantly connected during adolescence could be used
to improve mental health.
Individual chronic and acute burdens involve an
accumulation of life stressors that may include current or
past stressful life events and current or past illnesses (e.g.,
chronic or acute psychological or physical illnesses). Acute
stressful life events and current or past illnesses may
precipitate or exacerbate depressive symptoms. For example,
rodent studies and preliminary human studies suggest that the
quality of the early childhood environment can shape brain
development with associated changes to neuroanatomical
structure/function and receptor levels/gene expression
(Curley et al. 2011); theoretically, any of these changes may
either be adaptive (and lead to adaptive behaviors and
decreased risk of depression) or disruptive (and lead to
unhealthy behaviors and a high risk for depression) (Garner et
al. 2012). Stressful early childhood experiences can
significantly undermine the development of adaptive coping
skills required to deal with challenges in adulthood and may
also create the foundation for unhealthy lifestyles, negative
interpersonal relationship patterns, and poor health outcomes
(Garner et al. 2012; Danese and McEwen 2012; Shonkoff et al.
2012). As another example, studies suggest that women with a
history of childhood traumas, such as sexual abuse, and low
levels of current social support are at higher risk of
unintended pregnancies, which are associated with prenatal
and postpartum depression (Mercier et al. 2013; Nelson and
Lepore 2013). To continue this example, a woman with an
unintended pregnancy may find herself unprepared to serve in
a social role in which she is expected to put others' needs
ahead of her own, which can be acutely and chronically
stressful and is highly related to both prenatal and
postpartum depression (Mercier).
The cyclic interplay of stress vulnerability, depression, and
health outcomes is represented in the conceptual
framework shown in Figure Figure1.1. The framework
represents how stress vulnerabilities play an important role
in depression and health outcomes in women (Kinser and
Lyon 2013). Stress vulnerabilities are based upon numerous
factors associated with acute and chronic stress, including
individual chronic/acute burdens, the biological
environment, and the psychosocial environment. The
variety of complex and potential stressors in an individual's
life may interact and contribute to increased risk of
depression. In addition, the experience of depression may
heighten an individual's tendency toward experiencing
stressful episodes. Persistent and profound stressors may
prevent regulatory mechanisms from adjusting
appropriately, continuing the cycle of neurobiological
dysregulations, poor health outcomes, and potentially
advanced cellular aging (Nolen-Hoeksema 2006; Kinser et
al. 2012; Kinser and Lyon 2013).
Since the stress comes from technological problems it
may lead to stress this stress could affect the environment
especially your loved ones lik family,friends and many
more. If this stress could continue to grow because of the
technology it could lead to an depression.