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C Language Notes

C Programming Language

The C Language is developed for creating system applications that direct interacts to the
hardware devices such as drivers, kernals etc.

C programming is considered as the base for other programming languages, that is why it is
known as mother language.

It can be defined by following ways:

1. Mother language
2. System programming language
3. Procedure-oriented programming language
4. Structured programming language
5. Mid level programming language

1) C as a mother language

C language is considered as the mother language of all the modern languages because most of
the compilers, JVMs, Kernals etc. are written in C language and most of languages follows c
syntax e.g. C++, Java etc.

It provides the core concepts like array, functions, file handling etc. that is being used in many
languages like C++, java, C# etc.

2) C as a system programming language

A system programming language is used to create system softwares. C language is a system


programming language because it can be used to do low level programming (e.g. driver and
kernel). It is generally used to create hardware devices, OS, drivers, kernels etc. For example,
linux kernel is written in C.

It can?t be used in internet programming like java, .net, php etc.

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C Language Notes

3) C as a procedural language

A procedure is known as function, method, routine, subroutine etc. A procedural


language specifies a series of steps or procedures for the program to solve the problem.

A procedural language breaks the program into functions, data structures etc.

C is a procedural language. In C, variables and function prototypes must be declared before


being used.

4) C as a structured programming language

A structured programming language is a subset of procedural language. Structure means to


break a program into parts or blocks so that it may be easy to understand.

In C language, we break the program into parts using functions. It makes the program easier to
understand and modify.

5) C as a mid-level programming language

C is considered as a middle level language because it supports the feature of both low-level
and high level language. C language program is converted into assembly code, supports pointer
arithmetic (low level), but it is machine independent (feature of high level).

Low level language is specific to one machine i.e. machine dependent. It is machine dependent,
fast to run. But it is not easy to understand.

High Level language is not specific to one machine i.e. machine independent. It is easy to
understand.

History of C Language

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C Language Notes

History of C language is interesting to know. Here we are going to discuss brief history of c
language.

C programming language was developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at bell laboratories of


AT&T (American Telephone & Telegraph), located in U.S.A.

Dennis Ritchie is known as the founder of c language.

It was developed to overcome the problems of previous languages such as B, BCPL etc.

Initially, C language was developed to be used in UNIX operating system. It inherits many
features of previous languages such as B and BCPL.

Let's see the programming languages that were developed before C language.

Language Year Developed By

Algol 1960 International Group

BCPL 1967 Martin Richard

B 1970 Ken Thompson

Traditional C 1972 Dennis Ritchie

K&RC 1978 Kernighan & Dennis Ritchie

ANSI C 1989 ANSI Committee

ANSI/ISO C 1990 ISO Committee

C99 1999 Standardization Committee

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C Language Notes

Features of C Language

C is the widely used language. It provides a lot of featuresthat are given below.

1. Simple
2. Machine Independent or Portable
3. Mid-level programming language
4. structured programming language
5. Rich Library
6. Memory Management
7. Fast Speed
8. Pointers
9. Recursion
10. Extensible

1) Simple

C is a simple language in the sense that it provides structured approach (to break the problem
into parts), rich set of library functions, data types etc.

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C Language Notes

2) Machine Independent or Portable

Unlike assembly language, c programs can be executed in many machines with little bit or no
change. But it is not platform-independent.

3) Mid-level prorgramming language

C is also used to do low level programming. It is used to develop system applications such as
kernel, driver etc. It also supports the feature of high level language. That is why it is known
as mid-level language.

4) Structured prorgramming language

C is a structured programming language in the sense that we can break the program into parts
using functions. So, it is easy to understand and modify.

5) Rich Library

C provides a lot of inbuilt functions that makes the development fast.

6) Memory Management

It supports the feature of dynamic memory allocation. In C language, we can free the allocated
memory at any time by calling the free() function.

7) Speed

The compilation and execution time of C language is fast.

8) Pointer

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C Language Notes

C provides the feature of pointers. We can directly interact with the memory by using the
pointers. We can use pointers for memory, structures, functions, array etc.

9) Recursion

In c, we can call the function within the function. It provides code reusability for every
function.

10) Extensible

C language is extensible because it can easily adopt new features.

How to install C

There are many compilers available for c and c++. You need to download any one. Here, we are
going to use Turbo C++. It will work for both C and C++. To install the Turbo C software, you
need to follow following steps.

1. Download Turbo C++


2. Create turboc directory inside c drive and extract the tc3.zip inside c:\turboc
3. Double click on install.exe file
4. Click on the tc application file located inside c:\TC\BIN to write the c program

1) Download Turbo C++ software

You can download turbo c++ from many sites. download Turbo c++

2) Create turboc directory in c drive and extract the tc3.zip

Now, you need to create a new directory turboc inside the c: drive. Now extract the tc3.zip file in
c:\truboc directory.

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C Language Notes

3) Double click on the install.exe file and follow steps

Now, click on the install icon located inside the c:\turboc

It will ask you to install c or not, press enter to install.

First C Program

Before starting the abcd of C language, you need to learn how to write, compile and run the first
c program.

To write the first c program, open the C console and write the following code:

1. #include <stdio.h>
2. main(){
3. printf("Hello C Language");
4. }

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C Language Notes

#include <stdio.h> includes the standard input output library functions. The printf() function
is defined in stdio.h .

main() The main() function is the entry point of every program in c language.

printf() The printf() function is used to print data on the console.

How to compile and run the c program

There are 2 ways to compile and run the c program, by menu and by shortcut.

By menu

Now click on the compile menu then compile sub menu to compile the c program.

Then click on the run menu then run sub menu to run the c program.

By shortcut

Or, press ctrl+f9 keys compile and run the program directly.

You will see the following output on user screen.

You can view the user screen any time by pressing the alt+f5 keys.

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C Language Notes

Now press Esc to return to the turbo c++ console.

Change your drive to c, press c.

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C Language Notes

Press enter, it will look inside the c:\turboc directory for the required files.

Select Start installation by the down arrow key then press enter.

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C Language Notes

Now C is installed, press enter to read documentation or close the


software.

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C Language Notes

4) Click on the tc application located inside c:\TC\BIN

Now double click on the tc icon located in c:\TC\BIN directory to write the c program.

In windows 7 or window 8, it will show a dialog block to ignore and close the application
because fullscreen mode is not supported. Click on Ignore button.

Now it will showing following console.

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C Language Notes

Flow of C Program

The C program follows many steps in execution. To understand the flow of C program well, let
us see a simple program first.

File: simple.c

1. #include <stdio.h>
2. main(){
3. printf("Hello C Language");
4. }

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C Language Notes

Execution Flow

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C Language Notes

Let's try to understand the flow of above program by the figure given below.

1) C program (source code) is sent to preprocessor first. The preprocessor is responsible to


convert preprocessor directives into their respective values. The preprocessor generates an
expanded source code.

2) Expanded source code is sent to compiler which compiles the code and converts it into
assembly code.

3) The assembly code is sent to assembler which assembles the code and converts it into object
code. Now a simple.obj file is generated.

4) The object code is sent to linker which links it to the library such as header files. Then it is
converted into executable code. A simple.exe file is generated.

5) The executable code is sent to loader which loads it into memory and then it is executed. After
execution, output is sent to console.

printf() and scanf() in C

The printf() and scanf() functions are used for input and output in C language. Both functions are
inbuilt library functions, defined in stdio.h (header file).

printf() function

The printf() function is used for output. It prints the given statement to the console.

The syntax of printf() function is given below:

1. printf("format string",argument_list);

The format string can be %d (integer), %c (character), %s (string), %f (float) etc.

scanf() function

The scanf() function is used for input. It reads the input data from the console.

1. scanf("format string",argument_list);

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C Language Notes

Program to print cube of given number

Let's see a simple example of c language that gets input from the user and prints the cube of the
given number.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. main()
3. {
4. int number;
5. printf("enter a number:");
6. scanf("%d",&number);
7. printf("cube of number is:%d ",number*number*number);
8. }

Output
enter a number:5
cube of number is:125

The scanf("%d",&number) statement reads integer number from the console and stores the
given value in number variable.

The printf("cube of number is:%d ",number*number*number) statement prints the cube of


number on the console.

Program to print sum of 2 numbers

Let's see a simple example of input and output in C language that prints addition of 2 numbers.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. main()
3. {
4. int x=0,y=0,result=0;
5.
6. printf("enter first number:");
7. scanf("%d",&x);
8. printf("enter second number:");
9. scanf("%d",&y);
10.
11. result=x+y;

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C Language Notes

12. printf("sum of 2 numbers:%d ",result);


13.
14. }

Output
enter first number:9
enter second number:9
sum of 2 numbers:18

Variables in C

A variable is a name of memory location. It is used to store data. Its value can be changed and it
can be reused many times.

It is a way to represent memory location through symbol so that it can be easily identified.

Let's see the syntax to declare a variable:

1. type variable_list;

The example of declaring variable is given below:

1. int a;
2. float b;
3. char c;

Here, a, b, c are variables and int,float,char are data types.

We can also provide values while declaring the variables as given below:

1. int a=10,b=20;//declaring 2 variable of integer type


2. float f=20.8;
3. char c='A';

Rules for defining variables

o A variable can have alphabets, digits and underscore.


o A variable name can start with alphabet and underscore only. It can't start with digit.
o No white space is allowed within variable name.

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C Language Notes

o A variable name must not be any reserved word or keyword e.g. int, float etc.

Valid variable names:

1. int a;
2. int _ab;
3. int a30;

Inalid variable names:

1. int 2;
2. int a b;
3. int long;

Types of Variables in C

There are many types of variables in c:

1. local variable
2. global variable
3. static variable
4. automatic variable
5. external variable

Local Variable

A variable that is declared inside the function or block is called local variable.

It must be declared at the start of the block.

1. void function1(){
2. int x=10;//local variable
3. }

You must have to initialize the local variable before it is used.

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C Language Notes

Global Variable

A variable that is declared outside the function or block is called global variable. Any function
can change the value of the global variable. It is available to all the functions.

It must be declared at the start of the block.

1. int value=20;//global variable


2. void function1()
3. {
4. int x=10;//local variable
5. }

Static Variable

A variable that is declared with static keyword is called static variable.

It retains its value between multiple function calls.

1. void function1(){
2. int x=10;//local variable
3. static int y=10;//static variable
4. x=x+1;
5. y=y+1;
6. printf("%d,%d",x,y);
7. }

If you call this function many times, local variable will print the same value for each function
call e.g, 11,11,11 and so on. But static variable will print the incremented value in each
function call e.g. 11, 12, 13 and so on.

Automatic Variable

All variables in C that is declared inside the block, are automatic variables by default. By we can
explicitly declare automatic variable using auto keyword.

1. void main()
2. {
3. int x=10;//local variable (also automatic)

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C Language Notes

4. auto int y=20;//automatic variable


5. }

External Variable

We can share a variable in multiple C source files by using external variable. To declare a
external variable, you need to use extern keyword.

myfile.h

1. extern int x=10;//external variable (also global)


program1.c

1. #include "myfile.h"
2. #include <stdio.h>
3. void printValue(){
4. printf("Global variable: %d", global_variable);
5. }

Data Types in C

A data type specifies the type of data that a variable can store such as integer, floating, character
etc.

There are 4 types of data types in C language.

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C Language Notes

Types Data Types

Basic Data Type int, char, float, double

Derived Data Type array, pointer, structure, union

Enumeration Data Type enum

Void Data Type void

Basic Data Types

The basic data types are integer-based and floating-point based. C language supports both signed
and unsigned literals.

The memory size of basic data types may change according to 32 or 64 bit operating system.

Let's see the basic data types. Its size is given according to 32 bit architecture.

Data Types Memory Size Range

Char 1 byte −128 to 127

signed char 1 byte −128 to 127

unsigned char 1 byte 0 to 255

Short 2 byte −32,768 to 32,767

signed short 2 byte −32,768 to 32,767

unsigned short 2 byte 0 to 65,535

Int 2 byte −32,768 to 32,767

signed int 2 byte −32,768 to 32,767

unsigned int 2 byte 0 to 65,535

short int 2 byte −32,768 to 32,767

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C Language Notes

signed short int 2 byte −32,768 to 32,767

unsigned short int 2 byte 0 to 65,535

long int 4 byte -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647

signed long int 4 byte -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647

unsigned long int 4 byte 0 to 4,294,967,295

Float 4 byte

Double 8 byte

long double 10 byte

Keywords in C

A keyword is a reserved word. You cannot use it as a variable name, constant name etc.
There are only 32 reserved words (keywords) in C language.

A list of 32 keywords in c language is given below:

auto break case char const continue default do

double else enum extern float for goto if

int long register return short signed sizeof static

struct switch typedef union unsigned void volatile while

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C Language Notes

C Operators

An operator is simply a symbol that is used to perform operations. There can be many types of
operations like arithmetic, logical, bitwise etc.

There are following types of operators to perform different types of operations in C language.

o Arithmetic Operators
o Relational Operators
o Shift Operators
o Logical Operators
o Bitwise Operators
o Ternary or Conditional Operators
o Assignment Operator
o Misc Operator

Precedence of Operators in C

The precedence of operator species that which operator will be evaluated first and next. The
associativity specifies the operators direction to be evaluated, it may be left to right or right to
left.

Let's understand the precedence by the example given below:

1. int value=10+20*10;

The value variable will contain 210 because * (multiplicative operator) is evaluated before +
(additive operator).

The precedence and associativity of C operators is given below:

Category Operator Associativity

Postfix () [] -> . ++ - - Left to right

Unary + - ! ~ ++ - - (type)* & sizeof Right to left

Multiplicative */% Left to right

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C Language Notes

Additive +- Left to right

Shift << >> Left to right

Relational < <= > >= Left to right

Equality == != Left to right

Bitwise AND & Left to right

Bitwise XOR ^ Left to right

Bitwise OR | Left to right

Logical AND && Left to right

Logical OR || Left to right

Conditional ?: Right to left

Assignment = += -= *= /= %=>>= <<= &= ^= |= Right to left

Comma , Left to right

Comments in C

Comments in C language are used to provide information about lines of code. It is widely used
for documenting code. There are 2 types of comments in C language.

1. Single Line Comments


2. Multi Line Comments

Single Line Comments

Single line comments are represented by double slash \\. Let's see an example of single line
comment in C.

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C Language Notes

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. main()
3. {
4. //printing information
5. printf("Hello C");
6. }

Output:

Hello C

Even you can place comment after statement. For example:

1. printf("Hello C");//printing information

Multi Line Comments

Multi line comments are represented by slash asterisk \* ... *\. It can occupy many lines of code
but it can't be nested. Syntax:

1. /*
2. code
3. to be commented
4. */

Let's see an example of multi line comment in C.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. main(){
3. /*printing information
4. Multi Line Comment*/
5. printf("Hello C");
6. return 0;
7. }

Output:

Hello C

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C Language Notes

Escape Sequence in C

An escape sequence in C language is a sequence of characters that doesn't represent itself when
used inside string literal or character.

It is composed of two or more characters starting with backslash \. For example: \n represents
new line.

List of Escape Sequences in C

Escape Sequence Meaning

\a Alarm or Beep

\b Backspace

\f Form Feed

\n New Line

\r Carriage Return

\t Tab (Horizontal)

\v Vertical Tab

\\ Backslash

\' Single Quote

\" Double Quote

\? Question Mark

\nnn octal number

\xhh hexadecimal number

\0 Null

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C Language Notes

Escape Sequence Example

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. main()
3. {
4. int number=50;
5. printf("You\nare\nlearning\n\'c\' language\n\"Do you know C language\"");
6. }

Output:

You
are
learning
'c' language
"Do you know C language"

Constants in C

A constant is a value or variable that can't be changed in the program, for example: 10, 20, 'a',
3.4, "c programming" etc.

There are different types of constants in C programming.

List of Constants in C

Constant Example

Decimal Constant 10, 20, 450 etc.

Real or Floating-point Constant 10.3, 20.2, 450.6 etc.

Octal Constant 021, 033, 046 etc.

Hexadecimal Constant 0x2a, 0x7b, 0xaa etc.

Character Constant 'a', 'b', 'x' etc.

String Constant "c", "c program", "c language" etc.

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C Language Notes

2 ways to define constant in C

There are two ways to define constant in C programming.

1. const keyword
2. #define preprocessor

1) C const keyword

The const keyword is used to define constant in C programming.

1. const float PI=3.14;

Now, the value of PI variable can't be changed.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. main()
3. {
4. const float PI=3.14;
5. printf("The value of PI is: %f",PI);
6. }

Output:

The value of PI is: 3.140000

If you try to change the the value of PI, it will render compile time error.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. main()
3. {
4. const float PI=3.14;
5. PI=4.5;
6. printf("The value of PI is: %f",PI);
7. }

Output:

Compile Time Error: Cannot modify a const object

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C Language Notes

2) C #define preprocessor

The #define preprocessor is also used to define constant. We will learn about #define
preprocessor directive later.

C Control Statements

C if else Statement

The if statement in C language is used to perform operation on the basis of condition. By using
if-else statement, you can perform operation either condition is true or false.

There are many ways to use if statement in C language:

o If statement
o If-else statement
o If else-if ladder
o Nested if

If Statement

The single if statement in C language is used to execute the code if condition is true. The syntax
of if statement is given below:

1. if(expression){
2. //code to be executed
3. }

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C Language Notes

Flowchart of if statement in C

Let's see a simple example of c language if statement.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. main()
3. {
4. int number=0;
5. printf("enter a number:");
6. scanf("%d",&number);
7. if(number%2==0){
8. printf("%d is even number",number);
9. }
10. }

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C Language Notes

Output
enter a number:4
4 is even number
enter a number:5

If-else Statement

The if-else statement in C language is used to execute the code if condition is true or false. The
syntax of if-else statement is given below:

1. if(expression){
2. //code to be executed if condition is true
3. }else{
4. //code to be executed if condition is false
5. }

Flowchart of if-else statement in C

Let's see the simple example of even and odd number using if-else statement in C language.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. main()
3. {
4. int number=0;
5. printf("enter a number:");

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C Language Notes

6. scanf("%d",&number);
7. if(number%2==0){
8. printf("%d is even number",number);
9. }
10. else{
11. printf("%d is odd number",number);
12. }
13. }

Output
enter a number:4
4 is even number
enter a number:5
5 is odd number

If else-if ladder Statement

The if else-if statement is used to execute one code from multiple conditions. The syntax of if
else-if statement is given below:

1. if(condition1){
2. //code to be executed if condition1 is true
3. }else if(condition2){
4. //code to be executed if condition2 is true
5. }
6. else if(condition3){
7. //code to be executed if condition3 is true
8. }
9. ...
10. else{
11. //code to be executed if all the conditions are false
12. }

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Flowchart of else-if ladder statement in C

The example of if-else-if statement in C language is given below.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. main()
3. {
4. int number=0;
5. printf("enter a number:");
6. scanf("%d",&number);
7. if(number==10){
8. printf("number is equals to 10");
9. }
10. else if(number==50){
11. printf("number is equal to 50");
12. }
13. else if(number==100){

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C Language Notes

14. printf("number is equal to 100");


15. }
16. else{
17. printf("number is not equal to 10, 50 or 100");
18. }
19. return 0;
20. }

Output
enter a number:4
number is not equal to 10, 50 or 100
enter a number:50
number is equal to 50

C Switch Statement

The switch statement in C language is used to execute the code from multiple conditions. It is
like if else-if ladder statement.

The syntax of switch statement in c language is given below:

1. switch(expression){
2. case value1:
3. //code to be executed;
4. break; //optional
5. case value2:
6. //code to be executed;
7. break; //optional
8. ......
9.
10. default:
11. code to be executed if all cases are not matched;
12. }

Rules for switch statement in C language

1) The switch expression must be of integer or character type.

2) The case value must be integer or character constant.

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C Language Notes

3) The case value can be used only inside the switch statement.

4) The break statement in switch case is not must. It is optional. If there is no break statement
found in switch case, all the cases will be executed after matching the case value. It is known
as fall through state of C switch statement.

Let's try to understand it by the examples. We are assuming there are following variables.

1. int x,y,z;
2. char a,b;
3. float f;
Valid Switch Invalid Switch Valid Case Invalid Case

switch(x) switch(f) case 3; case 2.5;

switch(x>y) switch(x+2.5) case 'a'; case x;

switch(a+b-2) case x+2;

switch(func(x,y)) case 'x'>'y'; case 1,2,3;

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C Language Notes

Flowchart of switch statement in C

Let's see a simple example of c language switch statement.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. main()
3. {
4. int number=0;
5. printf("enter a number:");
6. scanf("%d",&number);
7. switch(number){
8. case 10:
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C Language Notes

9. printf("number is equals to 10");


10. break;
11. case 50:
12. printf("number is equal to 50");
13. break;
14. case 100:
15. printf("number is equal to 100");
16. break;
17. default:
18. printf("number is not equal to 10, 50 or 100");
19. }
20. }

Output
enter a number:4
number is not equal to 10, 50 or 100
enter a number:50
number is equal to 50

C Switch statement is fall-through

In C language, switch statement is fall through, it means if you don't use break statement in
switch case, all the case after matching case will be executed.

Let's try to understand the fall through state of switch statement by the example given below.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. main()
3. {
4. int number=0;
5.
6. printf("enter a number:");
7. scanf("%d",&number);
8.
9. switch(number){
10. case 10:
11. printf("number is equals to 10\n");
12. case 50:
13. printf("number is equal to 50\n");

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C Language Notes

14. case 100:


15. printf("number is equal to 100\n");
16. default:
17. printf("number is not equal to 10, 50 or 100");
18. }
19. return 0;
20. }

Output
enter a number:10
number is equals to 10
number is equals to 50
number is equals to 100
number is not equal to 10, 50 or 100
enter a number:50
number is equal to 50
number is equals to 100
number is not equal to 10, 50 or 100

C Loops

The loops in C language are used to execute a block of code or a part of the program several
times.

In other words, it iterates a code or group of code many times.

Why use loops in C language?

Suppose that you have to print table of 2, then you need to write 10 lines of code.

By using the loop statement, you can do it by 2 or 3 lines of code only.

Advantage of loops in C

1) It saves code.

2) It helps to traverse the elements of array (which is covered in next pages).

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C Language Notes

Types of C Loops

There are three types of loops in C language that is given below:

1. do while
2. while
3. for

do-while loop in C

It iterates the code until condition is false. Here, condition is given after the code. So at least
once, code is executed whether condition is true or false.

It is better if you have to execute the code at least once.

The syntax of do-while loop in c language is given below:

1. do{
2. //code to be executed
3. }while(condition);
Flowchart and Example of do-while loop

while loop in C

Like do while, it iterates the code until condition is false. Here, condition is given before the
code. So code may be executed 0 or more times.

It is better if number of iteration is not known by the user.

The syntax of while loop in c language is given below:

1. while(condition){
2. //code to be executed
3. }
Flowchart and Example of while loop

C Language notes Page 39


C Language Notes

for loop in C

Like while, it iterates the code until condition is false. Here, initialization, condition and
increment/decrement is given before the code. So code may be executed 0 or more times.

It is good if number of iteration is known by the user.

The syntax of for loop in c language is given below:

1. for(initialization;condition;incr/decr){
2. //code to be executed
3. }

do while loop in C

To execute a part of program or code several times, we can use do-while loop of C language.
The code given between the do and while block will be executed until condition is true.

In do while loop, statement is given before the condition, so statement or code will be executed
at lease one time. In other words, we can say it is executed 1 or more times.

It is better if you have to execute the code at least once.

do while loop syntax

The syntax of C language do-while loop is given below:

1. do{
2. //code to be executed
3. }while(condition);

C Language notes Page 40


C Language Notes

Flowchart of do while loop

do while example

There is given the simple program of c language do while loop where we are printing the table of
1.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. main(){
3. int i=1;
4. do{
5. printf("%d \n",i);
6. i++;
7. }while(i<=10);
8. }
Output
1
2
3
4

C Language notes Page 41


C Language Notes

5
6
7
8
9
10

Program to print table for the given number using do while loop
1. #include<stdio.h>
2. main()
3. {
4. int i=1,number=0;
5. printf("Enter a number: ");
6. scanf("%d",&number);
7. do{
8. printf("%d \n",(number*i));
9. i++;
10. }while(i<=10);
11. }
Output
Enter a number: 5
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Enter a number: 10
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

C Language notes Page 42


C Language Notes

Infinitive do while loop

If you pass 1 as a expression in do while loop, it will run infinite number of times.

1. do{
2. //statement
3. }while(1);

while loop in C

The while loop in C language is used to iterate the part of program or statements many times.

In while loop, condition is given before the statement. So it is different from the do while loop. It
can execute the statements 0 or more times.

When use while loop in C

The C language while loop should be used if number of iteration is uncertain or unknown.

Syntax of while loop in C language

The syntax of while loop in c language is given below:

1. while(condition){
2. //code to be executed
3. }

C Language notes Page 43


C Language Notes

Flowchart of while loop in C

Example of while loop in C language

Let's see the simple program of while loop that prints table of 1.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. main()
3. {
4. int i=1;
5. while(i<=10){
6. printf("%d \n",i);
7. i++;
8. }
9. }
Output
1
2
3
4

C Language notes Page 44


C Language Notes

5
6
7
8
9
10

Program to print table for the given number using while loop in C

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. main()
3. {
4. int i=1,number=0,b=9;
5. printf("Enter a number: ");
6. scanf("%d",&number);
7. while(i<=10){
8. printf("%d \n",(number*i));
9. i++;
10. }
11. }
Output
Enter a number: 50
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
Enter a number: 100
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
C Language notes Page 45
C Language Notes

Infinitive while loop in C

If you pass 1 as a expression in while loop, it will run infinite number of times.

1. while(1){
2. //statement
3. }

for loop in C

The for loop in C language is also used to iterate the statement or a part of the program several
times, like while and do-while loop.

But, we can initialize and increment or decrement the variable also at the time of checking the
condition in for loop.

Unlike do while loop, the condition or expression in for loop is given before the statement, so it
may execute the statement 0 or more times.

When use for loop in C

For loop is better if number of iteration is known by the programmer.

Syntax of for loop in C

The syntax of for loop in c language is given below:

1. for(initialization;condition;incr/decr){
2. //code to be executed
3. }

C Language notes Page 46


C Language Notes

Flowchart of for loop in C

Example of for loop in C language

Let's see the simple program of for loop that prints table of 1.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. main()
3. {
4. int i=0;
5. for(i=1;i<=10;i++){
6. printf("%d \n",i);
7. }

C Language notes Page 47


C Language Notes

8. }
Output
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

C Program : Print table for the given number using C for loop

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. main()
3. {
4. int i=1,number=0;
5. printf("Enter a number: ");
6. scanf("%d",&number);
7. for(i=1;i<=10;i++){
8. printf("%d \n",(number*i));
9. }
10. }
Output
Enter a number: 2
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Enter a number: 1000
1000
2000
3000
4000

C Language notes Page 48


C Language Notes

5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000

Infinitive for loop in C

If you don't initialize any variable, check condition and increment or decrement variable in for
loop, it is known as infinitive for loop.

In other words, if you place 2 semicolons in for loop, it is known as infinitive for loop.

1. for(;;){
2. printf("infinitive for loop example by c language");
3. }

C break statement

The break statement in C language is used to break the execution of loop (while, do while and
for) and switch case.

In case of inner loops, it terminates the control of inner loop only.

There can be two usage of C break keyword:

1. With switch case


2. With loop

Syntax:
1. jump-statement;
2. break;

The jump statement in c break syntax can be while loop, do while loop, for loop or switch case.

C Language notes Page 49


C Language Notes

Flowchart of break in c

Example of C break statement with switch case

Click here to see the example of

C break with switch statement.

Example of C break statement with loop

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. main()
3. {
4. int i=1;//initializing a local variable
5. //starting a loop from 1 to 10
6. for(i=1;i<=10;i++){
7. printf("%d \n",i);
8. if(i==5){//if value of i is equal to 5, it will break the loop
9. break;
10. }
11. }

C Language notes Page 50


C Language Notes

12. }
Output
1
2
3
4
5

As you can see on console output, loop from 1 to 10 is not printed after i==5.

C break statement with inner loop

In such case, it breaks only inner loop, but not outer loop.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. main()
3. {
4. int i=1,j=1;//initializing a local variable
5. for(i=1;i<=3;i++){
6. for(j=1;j<=3;j++){
7. printf("%d &d\n",i,j);
8. if(i==2 && j==2){
9. break;//will break loop of j only
10. }
11. }//end of for loop
12. return 0;
13. }
Output
11
12
13
21
22
31
32
33

C Language notes Page 51


C Language Notes

As you can see the output on console, 2 3 is not printed because there is break statement after
printing i==2 and j==2. But 3 1, 3 2 and 3 3 is printed because break statement works for inner
loop only.

C continue statement

The continue statement in C language is used to continue the execution of loop (while, do while
and for). It is used with if condition within the loop.

In case of inner loops, it continues the control of inner loop only.

Syntax:
1. jump-statement;
2. continue;

The jump statement can be while, do while and for loop.

Example of continue statement in c

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. int main(){
3. int i=1;//initializing a local variable
4. //starting a loop from 1 to 10
5. for(i=1;i<=10;i++){
6. if(i==5){//if value of i is equal to 5, it will continue the loop
7. continue;
8. }
9. printf("%d \n",i);
10. }//end of for loop
11. return 0;
12. }
Output
1
2
3
4
6

C Language notes Page 52


C Language Notes

7
8
9
10

As you can see, 5 is not printed on the console because loop is continued at i==5.

C continue statement with inner loop

In such case, C continue statement continues only inner loop, but not outer loop.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. main()
3. {
4. int i=1,j=1;//initializing a local variable
5. for(i=1;i<=3;i++){
6. for(j=1;j<=3;j++){
7. if(i==2 && j==2){
8. continue;//will continue loop of j only
9. }
10. printf("%d %d\n",i,j);
11. }
12. }//end of for loop
13. }
Output
11
12
13
21
23
31
32
33

As you can see, 2 2 is not printed on the console because inner loop is continued at i==2 and
j==2.

C goto statement

C Language notes Page 53


C Language Notes

The goto statement is known as jump statement in C language. It is used to unconditionally jump
to other label. It transfers control to other parts of the program.

It is rarely used today because it makes program less readable and complex.

Syntax:

1. goto label;

goto example

Let's see a simple example to use goto statement in C language.

1. #include <stdio.h>
2. main()
3. {
4. int age;
5. ineligible:
6. printf("You are not eligible to vote!\n");
7.
8. printf("Enter you age:\n");
9. scanf("%d", &age);
10. if(age<18)
11. goto ineligible;
12. else
13. printf("You are eligible to vote!\n");
14.
15. }

Output:

You are not eligible to vote!


Enter you age:
11
You are not eligible to vote!
Enter you age:
44
You are eligible to vote!

C Language notes Page 54


C Language Notes

C Functions

Functions in C

The function in C language is also known as procedure or subroutine in other programming


languages.

To perform any task, we can create function. A function can be called many times. It
provides modularity and code reusability.

Advantage of functions in C

There are many advantages of functions.

1) Code Reusability

By creating functions in C, you can call it many times. So we don't need to write the same code
again and again.

2) Code optimization

It makes the code optimized, we don't need to write much code.

Suppose, you have to check 3 numbers (781, 883 and 531) whether it is prime number or not.
Without using function, you need to write the prime number logic 3 times. So, there is repetition
of code.

But if you use functions, you need to write the logic only once and you can reuse it several times.

Types of Functions

There are two types of functions in C programming:

1. Library Functions: are the functions which are declared in the C header files such as
scanf(), printf(), gets(), puts(), ceil(), floor() etc.

C Language notes Page 55


C Language Notes

2. User-defined functions: are the functions which are created by the C programmer, so
that he/she can use it many times. It reduces complexity of a big program and optimizes
the code.

Declaration of a function

The syntax of creating function in c language is given below:

1. return_type function_name(data_type parameter...){


2. //code to be executed
3. }

Return Value

A C function may or may not return a value from the function. If you don't have to return any
value from the function, use void for the return type.

Let's see a simple example of C function that doesn't return any value from the function.

Example without return value:

1. void hello(){
2. printf("hello c");
3. }
C Language notes Page 56
C Language Notes

If you want to return any value from the function, you need to use any data type such as int, long,
char etc. The return type depends on the value to be returned from the function.

Let's see a simple example of C function that returns int value from the function.

Example with return value:

1. int get(){
2. return 10;
3. }

In the above example, we have to return 10 as a value, so the return type is int. If you want to
return floating-point value (e.g. 10.2, 3.1, 54.5 etc), you need to use float as the return type of the
method.

1. float get(){
2. return 10.2;
3. }

Now, you need to call the function, to get the value of the function.

Parameters in C Function

A c function may have 0 or more parameters. You can have any type of parameter in C program
such as int, float, char etc. The parameters are also known as formal arguments.

Example of a function that has 0 parameter:

1. void hello(){
2. printf("hello c");
3. }

Example of a function that has 1 parameter:

1. int cube(int n){


2. return n*n*n;
3. }

Example of a function that has 2 parameters:

1. int add(int a, int b){

C Language notes Page 57


C Language Notes

2. return a+b;
3. }

Calling a function in C

If a function returns any value, you need to call function to get the value returned from the
function. The syntax of calling a function in c programming is given below:

1. variable=function_name(arguments...);

1) variable: The variable is not mandatory. If function return type is void, you must not provide
the variable because void functions doesn't return any value.

2) function_name: The function_name is name of the function to be called.

3) arguments: You need to provide arguments while calling the C function. It is also known
as actual arguments.

Example to call a function:

1. hello();//calls function that doesn't return a value


2. int value=get();//calls function that returns value
3. int value2=add(10,20);//calls parameterized function by passing 2 values

Example of C function with no return statement

Let's see the simple program of C function that doesn't return any value from the function.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. void hello(){
3. printf("hello c programming \n");
4. }
5. main(){
6. hello();//calling a function
7. hello();
8. hello();
9. return 0;
10. }

C Language notes Page 58


C Language Notes

Output
hello c programming
hello c programming
hello c programming

Example of C function with return statement

Let's see the simple program of function in c language.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. //defining function
3. int cube(int n){
4. return n*n*n;
5. }
6. main(){
7. int result1=0,result2=0;
8.
9. result1=cube(2);//calling function
10. result2=cube(3);
11.
12. printf("%d \n",result1);
13. printf("%d \n",result2);
14. }

Output
8
27

Call by value and call by reference in C

There are two ways to pass value or data to function in C language: call by value and call by
reference. Original value is not modified in call by value but it is modified in call by reference.

C Language notes Page 59


C Language Notes

Let's understand call by value and call by reference in c language one by one.

Call by value in C

In call by value, original value is not modified.

In call by value, value being passed to the function is locally stored by the function parameter in
stack memory location. If you change the value of function parameter, it is changed for the
current function only. It will not change the value of variable inside the caller method such as
main().

Let's try to understand the concept of call by value in c language by the example given below:

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. void change(int num) {
3. printf("Before adding value inside function num=%d \n",num);
4. num=num+100;
5. printf("After adding value inside function num=%d \n", num);
6. }

C Language notes Page 60


C Language Notes

7. main() {
8. int x=100;
9. printf("Before function call x=%d \n", x);
10. change(x);//passing value in function
11. printf("After function call x=%d \n", x);
12. }
Output
Before function call x=100
Before adding value inside function num=100
After adding value inside function num=200
After function call x=100

Call by reference in C

In call by reference, original value is modified because we pass reference (address).

Here, address of the value is passed in the function, so actual and formal arguments shares the
same address space. Hence, value changed inside the function, is reflected inside as well as
outside the function.

Let's try to understand the concept of call by reference in c language by the example given
below:

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. void change(int *num) {
3. printf("Before adding value inside function num=%d \n",*num);
4. (*num) += 100;
5. printf("After adding value inside function num=%d \n", *num);
6. }
7. main()
8. {
9. int x=100;
10. printf("Before function call x=%d \n", x);
11. change(&x);//passing reference in function
12. printf("After function call x=%d \n", x);
13. }
Output
Before function call x=100

C Language notes Page 61


C Language Notes

Before adding value inside function num=100


After adding value inside function num=200
After function call x=200

Difference between call by value and call by reference in c

No. Call by value Call by reference

1 A copy of value is passed to the function An address of value is passed to the


function

2 Changes made inside the function is not Changes made inside the function is
reflected on other functions reflected outside the function also

3 Actual and formal arguments will be Actual and formal arguments will be
created in different memory location created in same memory location

Storage Classes in C

Storage classes are used to define scope and life time of a variable. There are four storage classes
in C programming.

o auto
o extern
o static
o register

Storage Storage Default Scope Life-time


Classes Place Value

auto RAM Garbage Local Within function


Value

C Language notes Page 62


C Language Notes

extern RAM Zero Global Till the end of main program, May be
declared anywhere in the program

static RAM Zero Local Till the end of main program, Retains
value between multiple functions call

register Register Garbage Local Within function


Value

1) auto

The auto keyword is applied to all local variables automatically. It is the default storage class
that is why it is known as automatic variable.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. main()
3. {
4. int a=10;
5. auto int b=10;//same like above
6. printf("%d %d",a,b);
7. }

Output:

10 10

2) register

The register variable allocates memory in register than RAM. Its size is same of register size. It
has a faster access than other variables.

It is recommended to use register variable only for quick access such as in counter.

3) static

The static variable is initialized only once and exists till the end of the program. It retains its
value between multiple functions call.

The static variable has the default value 0 which is provided by compiler.

1. #include<stdio.h>

C Language notes Page 63


C Language Notes

2. int func(){
3.
4. static int i=0;//static variable
5. int j=0;//local variable
6. i++;
7. j++;
8. printf("i= %d and j= %d\n", i, j);
9. }
10. main() {
11. func();
12. func();
13. func();
14. return 0;
15. }

Output:

i= 1 and j= 1
i= 2 and j= 1
i= 3 and j= 1

4) extern

The extern variable is visible to all the programs. It is used if two or more files are sharing same
variable or function.

1. extern int counter=0;

Arrays:-

Array in C language is a collection or group of elements (data). All the elements of c array
are homogeneous (similar). It has contiguous memory location.

C array is beneficial if you have to store similar elements. Suppose you have to store marks of 50
students, one way to do this is allotting 50 variables. So it will be typical and hard to manage.
For example we can not access the value of these variables with only 1 or 2 lines of code.

Another way to do this is array. By using array, we can access the elements easily. Only few
lines of code is required to access the elements of array.

C Language notes Page 64


C Language Notes

Advantage of C Array

1) Code Optimization: Less code to the access the data.

2) Easy to traverse data: By using the for loop, we can retrieve the elements of an array easily.

3) Easy to sort data: To sort the elements of array, we need a few lines of code only.

4) Random Access: We can access any element randomly using the array.

Disadvantage of C Array

1) Fixed Size: Whatever size, we define at the time of declaration of array, we can't exceed the
limit. So, it doesn't grow the size dynamically like LinkedList which we will learn later.

Declaration of C Array

We can declare an array in the c language in the following way.

1. data_type array_name[array_size];

Now, let us see the example to declare array.

1. int marks[5];

Here, int is the data_type, marks is the array_name and 5 is the array_size.

Initialization of C Array

A simple way to initialize array is by index. Notice that array index starts from 0 and ends with
[SIZE - 1].

1. marks[0]=80;//initialization of array
2. marks[1]=60;
3. marks[2]=70;

C Language notes Page 65


C Language Notes

4. marks[3]=85;
5. marks[4]=75;

C array example

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. main()
3. {
4. int i=0;
5. int marks[5];//declaration of array
6. marks[0]=80;//initialization of array
7. marks[1]=60;
8. marks[2]=70;
9. marks[3]=85;
10. marks[4]=75;
11. //traversal of array
12. for(i=0;i<5;i++){
13. printf("%d \n",marks[i]);
14. }//end of for loop
15. }
Output
80
60
70
85
75

C Language notes Page 66


C Language Notes

C Array: Declaration with Initialization

We can initialize the c array at the time of declaration. Let's see the code.

1. int marks[5]={20,30,40,50,60};

In such case, there is no requirement to define size. So it can also be written as the following
code.

1. int marks[]={20,30,40,50,60};

Let's see the full program to declare and initialize the array in C.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. main()
3. {
4. int i=0;
5. int marks[5]={20,30,40,50,60};//declaration and initialization of array
6. //traversal of array
7. for(i=0;i<5;i++){
8. printf("%d \n",marks[i]);
9. }
10. return 0;
11. }
Output
20
30
40
50
60

Two Dimensional Array in C

The two dimensional array in C language is represented in the form of rows and columns, also
known as matrix. It is also known as array of arrays or list of arrays.

The two dimensional, three dimensional or other dimensional arrays are also known
as multidimensional arrays.
C Language notes Page 67
C Language Notes

Declaration of two dimensional Array in C

We can declare an array in the c language in the following way.

1. data_type array_name[size1][size2];

A simple example to declare two dimensional array is given below.

1. int twodimen[4][3];

Here, 4 is the row number and 3 is the column number.

Initialization of 2D Array in C

A way to initialize the two dimensional array at the time of declaration is given below.

1. int arr[4][3]={{1,2,3},{2,3,4},{3,4,5},{4,5,6}};

Two dimensional array example in C

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. main(){
3. int i=0,j=0;
4. int arr[4][3]={{1,2,3},{2,3,4},{3,4,5},{4,5,6}};
5. //traversing 2D array
6. for(i=0;i<4;i++){
7. for(j=0;j<3;j++){
8. printf("arr[%d] [%d] = %d \n",i,j,arr[i][j]);
9. }//end of j
10. }//end of i
11. return 0;
12. }
Output
arr[0][0] = 1

C Language notes Page 68


C Language Notes

arr[0][1] = 2
arr[0][2] = 3
arr[1][0] = 2
arr[1][1] = 3
arr[1][2] = 4
arr[2][0] = 3
arr[2][1] = 4
arr[2][2] = 5
arr[3][0] = 4
arr[3][1] = 5
arr[3][2] = 6

C Pointers

The pointer in C language is a variable, it is also known as locator or indicator that points to an
address of a value.

Advantage of pointer

1) Pointer reduces the code and improves the performance, it is used to retrieving strings,
trees etc. and used with arrays, structures and functions.

2) We can return multiple values from function using pointer.

3) It makes you able to access any memory location in the computer's memory.

Usage of pointer

There are many usage of pointers in c language.

1) Dynamic memory allocation

In c language, we can dynamically allocate memory using malloc() and calloc() functions where
pointer is used.

C Language notes Page 69


C Language Notes

2) Arrays, Functions and Structures

Pointers in c language are widely used in arrays, functions and structures. It reduces the code and
improves the performance.

Symbols used in pointer

Symbol Name Description

& (ampersand sign) address of operator determines the address of a variable.

* (asterisk sign) indirection operator accesses the value at the address.

Address Of Operator

The address of operator '&' returns the address of a variable. But, we need to use %u to display
the address of a variable.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. main(){
3. int number=50;
4. printf("value of number is %d, address of number is %u",number,&number);
5. return 0;
6. }
Output
value of number is 50, address of number is fff4

Declaring a pointer

The pointer in c language can be declared using * (asterisk symbol).

1. int *a;//pointer to int

C Language notes Page 70


C Language Notes

2. char *c;//pointer to char

Pointer example

An example of using pointers printing the address and value is given below.

As you can see in the above figure, pointer variable stores the address of number variable i.e.
fff4. The value of number variable is 50. But the address of pointer variable p is aaa3.

By the help of * (indirection operator), we can print the value of pointer variable p.

Let's see the pointer example as explained for above figure.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. main(){
3. int number=50;
4. int *p;
5. p=&number;//stores the address of number variable
6. printf("Address of p variable is %x \n",p);
7. printf("Value of p variable is %d \n",*p);
8. return 0;
9. }
Output
Address of number variable is fff4
Address of p variable is fff4
Value of p variable is 50

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C Language Notes

NULL Pointer

A pointer that is not assigned any value but NULL is known as NULL pointer. If you don't have
any address to be specified in the pointer at the time of declaration, you can assign NULL value.
It will a better approach.

int *p=NULL;

In most the libraries, the value of pointer is 0 (zero).

Pointer Program to swap 2 numbers without using 3rd variable

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. main()
3. {
4. int a=10,b=20,*p1=&a,*p2=&b;
5. printf("Before swap: *p1=%d *p2=%d",*p1,*p2);
6. *p1=*p1+*p2;
7. *p2=*p1-*p2;
8. *p1=*p1-*p2;
9. printf("\nAfter swap: *p1=%d *p2=%d",*p1,*p2);
10.
11. return 0;
12. }
Output
Before swap: *p1=10 *p2=20
After swap: *p1=20 *p2=10

C Pointer to Pointer

In C pointer to pointer concept, a pointer refers to the address of another pointer.

In c language, a pointer can point to the address of another pointer which points to the address of
a value. Let's understand it by the diagram given below:

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C Language Notes

Let's see the syntax of pointer to pointer.

1. int **p2;

C pointer to pointer example

Let's see an example where one pointer points to the address of another pointer.

As you can see in the above figure, p2 contains the address of p (fff2) and p contains the address
of number variable (fff4).

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. main(){
3. int number=50;
4. int *p;//pointer to int
5. int **p2;//pointer to pointer
6. p=&number;//stores the address of number variable
7. p2=&p;
8. printf("Address of number variable is %x \n",&number);
9. printf("Address of p variable is %x \n",p);
10. printf("Value of *p variable is %d \n",*p);
11. printf("Address of p2 variable is %x \n",p2);
12. printf("Value of **p2 variable is %d \n",*p);
13. }

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C Language Notes

Output
Address of number variable is fff4
Address of p variable is fff4
Value of *p variable is 50
Address of p2 variable is fff2
Value of **p variable is 50

C Strings

String in C language is an array of characters that is terminated by \0 (null character).

There are two ways to declare string in c language.

1. By char array
2. By string literal

Let's see the example of declaring string by char array in C language.

1. char ch[10]={ ]={‘w’,e’,’l’,’c’,’o’,’m’,’e’,'\0'};

While declaring string, size is not mandatory. So you can write the above code as given below:

1. char ch[]={]={‘w’,e’,’l’,’c’,’o’,’m’,’e’ '\0'};

You can also define string by string literal in C language. For example:

1. char ch[]="welcome";

In such case, '\0' will be appended at the end of string by the compiler.

Difference between char array and string literal

The only difference is that string literal cannot be changed whereas string declared by char array
can be changed.

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C Language Notes

String Example in C

Let's see a simple example to declare and print string. The '%s' is used to print string in c
language.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. #include <string.h>
3. int main(){
4. char ch[11]={‘w’,e’,’l’,’c’,’o’,’m’,’e’, '\0'};
5. char ch2[11]="welcome";
6.
7. printf("Char Array Value is: %s\n", ch);
8. printf("String Literal Value is: %s\n", ch2);
9. return 0;
10. }

Output:

Char Array Value is: welcome


String Literal Value is: welcome

C gets() and puts() functions

The gets() function reads string from user and puts() function prints the string. Both functions are
defined in <stdio.h> header file.

Let's see a simple program to read and write string using gets() and puts() functions.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. #include <string.h>
3. int main(){
4. char name[50];
5. printf("Enter your name: ");
6. gets(name); //reads string from user
7. printf("Your name is: ");
8. puts(name); //displays string
9. return 0;
10. }

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C Language Notes

Output:

Enter your name: Sonoo Jaiswal


Your name is: Sonoo Jaiswal

C String Functions

There are many important string functions defined in "string.h" library.

No. Function Description

1) strlen(string_name) returns the length of string name.

2) strcpy(destination, source) copies the contents of source string to destination string.

3) strcat(first_string, concats or joins first string with second string. The result
second_string) of the string is stored in first string.

4) strcmp(first_string, compares the first string with second string. If both strings
second_string) are same, it returns 0.

5) strrev(string) returns reverse string.

6) strlwr(string) returns string characters in lowercase.

7) strupr(string) returns string characters in uppercase.

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C Language Notes

C String Length: strlen() function

The strlen() function returns the length of the given string. It doesn't count null character '\0'.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. #include <string.h>
3. main(){
4. char ch[20]={‘w’,’e’,’l’,’c’,’o’,’m’,’e’, '\0'};
5. printf("Length of string is: %d",strlen(ch));
6. return 0;
7. }

Output:

Length of string is:7

C Copy String: strcpy()

The strcpy(destination, source) function copies the source string in destination.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. #include <string.h>
3. main(){
4. char ch[20]={ ]={‘w’,’e’,’l’,’c’,’o’,’m’,’e’, '\0'};
5. char ch2[20];
6. strcpy(ch2,ch);
7. printf("Value of second string is: %s",ch2);
8. return 0;
9. }

Output:

Value of second string is: welcome

C String Concatenation: strcat()

The strcat(first_string, second_string) function concatenates two strings and result is returned to
first_string.

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C Language Notes

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. #include <string.h>
3. main(){
4. char ch[10]={'h', 'e', 'l', 'l', 'o', '\0'};
5. char ch2[10]={'c', '\0'};
6. strcat(ch,ch2);
7. printf("Value of first string is: %s",ch);
8. return 0;
9. }

Output:

Value of first string is: helloc

C Compare String: strcmp()

The strcmp(first_string, second_string) function compares two string and returns 0 if both strings
are equal.

Here, we are using gets() function which reads string from the console.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. #include <string.h>
3. main(){
4. char str1[20],str2[20];
5. printf("Enter 1st string: ");
6. gets(str1);//reads string from console
7. printf("Enter 2nd string: ");
8. gets(str2);
9. if(strcmp(str1,str2)==0)
10. printf("Strings are equal");
11. else
12. printf("Strings are not equal");
13. return 0;
14. }

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C Language Notes

Output:

Enter 1st string: hello


Enter 2nd string: hello
Strings are equal

C Reverse String: strrev()

The strrev(string) function returns reverse of the given string. Let's see a simple example of
strrev() function.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. #include <string.h>
3. main(){
4. char str[20];
5. printf("Enter string: ");
6. gets(str);//reads string from console
7. printf("String is: %s",str);
8. printf("\nReverse String is: %s",strrev(str));
9. return 0;
10. }

C String Lowercase: strlwr()

The strlwr(string) function returns string characters in lowercase. Let's see a simple example of
strlwr() function.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. #include <string.h>
3. main(){
4. char str[20];
5. printf("Enter string: ");
6. gets(str);//reads string from console
7. printf("String is: %s",str);
8. printf("\nLower String is: %s",strlwr(str));
9. return 0;
10. }

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C Language Notes

C String Uppercase: strupr()

The strupr(string) function returns string characters in uppercase. Let's see a simple example of
strupr() function.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. #include <string.h>
3. main(){
4. char str[20];
5. printf("Enter string: ");
6. gets(str);//reads string from console
7. printf("String is: %s",str);
8. printf("\nUpper String is: %s",strupr(str));
9. return 0;
10. }

C Math

C Programming allows us to perform mathematical operations through the functions defined in


<math.h> header file. The <math.h> header file contains various methods for performing
mathematical operations such as sqrt(), pow(), ceil(), floor() etc.

C Math Functions

No. Function Description

1) ceil(numb rounds up the given number. It returns the integer value which is greater
er) than or equal to given number.

2) floor(num rounds down the given number. It returns the integer value which is

C Language notes Page 80


C Language Notes

ber) less than or equal to given number.

3) sqrt(numb returns the square root of given number.


er)

4) pow(base, returns the power of given number.


exponent)

5) abs(numb returns the absolute value of given number.


er)
There are various methods in math.h header file. The commonly used functions of math.h header
file are given below.

C Math Example

Let's see a simple example of math functions found in math.h header file.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. #include <math.h>
3. main()
4. {
5. printf("\n%f",ceil(3.6));
6. printf("\n%f",ceil(3.3));
7. printf("\n%f",floor(3.6));
8. printf("\n%f",floor(3.2));
9. printf("\n%f",sqrt(16));
10. printf("\n%f",sqrt(7));
11. printf("\n%f",pow(2,4));
12. printf("\n%f",pow(3,3));
13. printf("\n%d",abs(-12));
14. return 0;
15. }

Output:

4.000000
4.000000

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C Language Notes

3.000000
3.000000
4.000000
2.645751
16.000000
27.000000
12

Structure in C

Structure in c language is a user defined datatype that allows you to hold different type of
elements.

Each element of a structure is called a member.

It works like a template in C++ and class in Java. You can have different type of elements in it.

It is widely used to store student information, employee information, product information, book
information etc.

Defining structure

The struct keyword is used to define structure. Let's see the syntax to define structure in c.

1. struct structure_name
2. {
3. data_type member1;
4. data_type member2;
5. .
6. .
7. data_type memeberN;
8. };

Let's see the example to define structure for employee in c.

1. struct employee
2. { int id;

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C Language Notes

3. char name[50];
4. float salary;
5. };

Here, struct is the keyword, employee is the tag name of structure; id, name and salary are the
members or fields of the structure. Let's understand it by the diagram given below:

Declaring structure variable

We can declare variable for the structure, so that we can access the member of structure easily.
There are two ways to declare structure variable:

1. By struct keyword within main() function


2. By declaring variable at the time of defining structure.

1st way:

Let's see the example to declare structure variable by struct keyword. It should be declared
within the main function.

1. struct employee
2. { int id;
3. char name[50];
4. float salary;
5. };

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C Language Notes

Now write given code inside the main() function.

1. struct employee e1, e2;

2nd way:

Let's see another way to declare variable at the time of defining structure.

1. struct employee
2. { int id;
3. char name[50];
4. float salary;
5. }e1,e2;

Which approach is good

But if no. of variable are not fixed, use 1st approach. It provides you flexibility to declare the
structure variable many times.

If no. of variables are fixed, use 2nd approach. It saves your code to declare variable in main()
fuction.

Accessing members of structure

There are two ways to access structure members:

1. By . (member or dot operator)


2. By -> (structure pointer operator)

Let's see the code to access the id member of p1 variable by . (member) operator.

1. p1.id

C Structure example

Let's see a simple example of structure in C language.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. #include <string.h>

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C Language Notes

3. struct employee
4. { int id;
5. char name[50];
6. }e1; //declaring e1 variable for structure
7. main( )
8. {
9. //store first employee information
10. e1.id=101;
11. strcpy(e1.name, "Sonoo Jaiswal");//copying string into char array
12. //printing first employee information
13. printf( "employee 1 id : %d\n", e1.id);
14. printf( "employee 1 name : %s\n", e1.name);
15. return 0;
16. }

Output:

employee 1 id : 101
employee 1 name : Sonoo Jaiswal

Let's see another example of structure in C language to store many employees information.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. #include <string.h>
3. struct employee
4. { int id;
5. char name[50];
6. float salary;
7. }e1,e2; //declaring e1 and e2 variables for structure
8. main( )
9. {
10. //store first employee information
11. e1.id=101;
12. strcpy(e1.name, "Sonoo Jaiswal");//copying string into char array
13. e1.salary=56000;
14.

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C Language Notes

15. //store second employee information


16. e2.id=102;
17. strcpy(e2.name, "James Bond");
18. e2.salary=126000;
19.
20. //printing first employee information
21. printf( "employee 1 id : %d\n", e1.id);
22. printf( "employee 1 name : %s\n", e1.name);
23. printf( "employee 1 salary : %f\n", e1.salary);
24.
25. //printing second employee information
26. printf( "employee 2 id : %d\n", e2.id);
27. printf( "employee 2 name : %s\n", e2.name);
28. printf( "employee 2 salary : %f\n", e2.salary);
29. return 0;
30. }

Output:

employee 1 id : 101
employee 1 name : Sonoo Jaiswal
employee 1 salary : 56000.000000
employee 2 id : 102
employee 2 name : James Bond
employee 2 salary : 126000.000000

Array of Structures in C

There can be array of structures in C programming to store many information of different data
types. The array of structures is also known as collection of structures.

Let's see an example of structure with array that stores information of 5 students and prints it.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. #include <string.h>
3. struct student{
4. int rollno;
5. char name[10];

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C Language Notes

6. };
7. main(){
8. int i;
9. struct student st[5];
10. printf("Enter Records of 5 students");
11. for(i=0;i<5;i++){
12. printf("\nEnter Rollno:");
13. scanf("%d",&st[i].rollno);
14. printf("\nEnter Name:");
15. scanf("%s",&st[i].name);
16. }
17. printf("\nStudent Information List:");
18. for(i=0;i<5;i++){
19. printf("\nRollno:%d, Name:%s",st[i].rollno,st[i].name);
20. }
21. return 0;
22. }

Output:

Enter Records of 5 students


Enter Rollno:1
Enter Name:Sonoo
Enter Rollno:2
Enter Name:Ratan
Enter Rollno:3
Enter Name:Vimal
Enter Rollno:4
Enter Name:James
Enter Rollno:5
Enter Name:Sarfraz

Student Information List:


Rollno:1, Name:Sonoo
Rollno:2, Name:Ratan
Rollno:3, Name:Vimal
Rollno:4, Name:James
Rollno:5, Name:Sarfraz

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C Language Notes

Nested Structure in C

Nested structure in c language can have another structure as a member. There are two ways to
define nested structure in c language:

1. By separate structure
2. By Embedded structure

1) Separate structure

We can create 2 structures, but dependent structure should be used inside the main structure as a
member. Let's see the code of nested structure.

1. struct Date
2. {
3. int dd;
4. int mm;
5. int yyyy;
6. };
7. struct Employee
8. {
9. int id;
10. char name[20];
11. struct Date doj;
12. }emp1;

As you can see, doj (date of joining) is the variable of type Date. Here doj is used as a member in
Employee structure. In this way, we can use Date structure in many structures.

2) Embedded structure

We can define structure within the structure also. It requires less code than previous way. But it
can't be used in many structures.

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C Language Notes

1. struct Employee
2. {
3. int id;
4. char name[20];
5. struct Date
6. {
7. int dd;
8. int mm;
9. int yyyy;
10. }doj;
11. }emp1;

Accessing Nested Structure

We can access the member of nested structure by Outer_Structure.Nested_Structure.member as


given below:

1. e1.doj.dd
2. e1.doj.mm
3. e1.doj.yyyy

C Nested Structure example

Let's see a simple example of nested structure in C language.

1. #include <stdio.h>
2. #include <string.h>
3. struct Employee
4. {
5. int id;
6. char name[20];
7. struct Date
8. {
9. int dd;
10. int mm;
11. int yyyy;

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C Language Notes

12. }doj;
13. }e1;
14. main( )
15. {
16. //storing employee information
17. e1.id=101;
18. strcpy(e1.name, "Sonoo Jaiswal");//copying string into char array
19. e1.doj.dd=10;
20. e1.doj.mm=11;
21. e1.doj.yyyy=2014;
22.
23. //printing first employee information
24. printf( "employee id : %d\n", e1.id);
25. printf( "employee name : %s\n", e1.name);
26. printf( "employee date of joining (dd/mm/yyyy) : %d/%d/%d\n", e1.doj.dd,e1.doj.mm,e1.doj.y
yyy);
27. return 0;
28. }

Output:

employee id : 101
employee name : Sonoo Jaiswal
employee date of joining (dd/mm/yyyy) : 10/11/2014

C Union

Like structure, Union in c language is a user defined datatype that is used to hold different type
of elements.

But it doesn't occupy sum of all members size. It occupies the memory of largest member only. It
shares memory of largest member.

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C Language Notes

Advantage of union over structure

It occupies less memory because it occupies the memory of largest member only.

Disadvantage of union over structure

It can store data in one member only.

Defining union

The union keyword is used to define union. Let's see the syntax to define union in c.

1. union union_name
2. {
3. data_type member1;
4. data_type member2;
5. .
6. .
7. data_type memeberN;
8. };

Let's see the example to define union for employee in c.

1. union employee
2. { int id;
3. char name[50];

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C Language Notes

4. float salary;
5. };

C Union example

Let's see a simple example of union in C language.

1. #include <stdio.h>
2. #include <string.h>
3. union employee
4. { int id;
5. char name[50];
6. }e1; //declaring e1 variable for union
7. main( )
8. {
9. //store first employee information
10. e1.id=101;
11. strcpy(e1.name, "Sonoo Jaiswal");//copying string into char array
12. //printing first employee information
13. printf( "employee 1 id : %d\n", e1.id);
14. printf( "employee 1 name : %s\n", e1.name);
15. return 0;
16. }

Output:

employee 1 id : 1869508435
employee 1 name : Sonoo Jaiswal

C Preprocessor Directives

The C preprocessor is a micro processor that is used by compiler to transform your code before
compilation. It is called micro preprocessor because it allows us to add macros.

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C Language Notes

All preprocessor directives starts with hash # symbol.

Let's see a list of preprocessor directives.

o #include
o #define
o #undef
o #ifdef
o #ifndef
o #if
o #else
o #elif
o #endif
o #error
o #pragma

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C Language Notes

C #define

The #define preprocessor directive is used to define constant or micro substitution. It can use any
basic data type.

Syntax:

1. #define token value

Let's see an example of #define to define a constant.

1. #include <stdio.h>
2. #define PI 3.14
3. main() {
4. printf("%f",PI);
5. }

Output:

3.140000

Let's see an example of #define to create a macro.

1. #include <stdio.h>
2. #define MIN(a,b) ((a)<(b)?(a):(b))
3. void main() {
4. printf("Minimum between 10 and 20 is: %d\n", MIN(10,20));
5. }

Output:

Minimum between 10 and 20 is: 10

C #undef

The #undef preprocessor directive is used to undefine the constant or macro defined by #define.

Syntax:

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C Language Notes

1. #undef token

Let's see a simple example to define and undefine a constant.

1. #include <stdio.h>
2. #define PI 3.14
3. #undef PI
4. main() {
5. printf("%f",PI);
6. }

Output:

Compile Time Error: 'PI' undeclared

The #undef directive is used to define the preprocessor constant to a limited scope so that you
can declare constant again.

Let's see an example where we are defining and undefining number variable. But before being
undefined, it was used by square variable.

1. #include <stdio.h>
2. #define number 15
3. int square=number*number;
4. #undef number
5. main() {
6. printf("%d",square);
7. }

Output:

225

C #ifdef

The #ifdef preprocessor directive checks if macro is defined by #define. If yes, it executes the
code otherwise #else code is executed, if present.

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C Language Notes

Syntax:

1. #ifdef MACRO
2. //code
3. #endif

Syntax with #else:

1. #ifdef MACRO
2. //successful code
3. #else
4. //else code
5. #endif

C #ifdef example

Let's see a simple example to use #ifdef preprocessor directive.

1. #include <stdio.h>
2. #include <conio.h>
3. #define NOINPUT
4. void main() {
5. int a=0;
6. #ifdef NOINPUT
7. a=2;
8. #else
9. printf("Enter a:");
10. scanf("%d", &a);
11. #endif
12. printf("Value of a: %d\n", a);
13. getch();
14. }

Output:

Value of a: 2

But, if you don't define NOINPUT, it will ask user to enter a number.

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C Language Notes

1. #include <stdio.h>
2. #include <conio.h>
3. void main() {
4. int a=0;
5. #ifdef NOINPUT
6. a=2;
7. #else
8. printf("Enter a:");
9. scanf("%d", &a);
10. #endif
11.
12. printf("Value of a: %d\n", a);
13. getch();
14. }

Output:

Enter a:5
Value of a: 5

C #error

The #error preprocessor directive indicates error. The compiler gives fatal error if #error
directive is found and skips further compilation process.

C #error example

Let's see a simple example to use #error preprocessor directive.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. #ifndef __MATH_H
3. #error First include then compile
4. #else
5. void main(){
6. float a;
7. a=sqrt(7);

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C Language Notes

8. printf("%f",a);
9. }
10. #endif

Output:

Compile Time Error: First include then compile

But, if you include math.h, it does not gives error.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. #include<math.h>
3. #ifndef __MATH_H
4. #error First include then compile
5. #else
6. void main(){
7. float a;
8. a=sqrt(7);
9. printf("%f",a);
10. }
11. #endif

Output:

2.645751

C #if

The #if preprocessor directive evaluates the expression or condition. If condition is true, it
executes the code otherwise #elseif or #else or #endif code is executed.

Syntax:

1. #if expression
2. //code
3. #endif

Syntax with #else:

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C Language Notes

1. #if expression
2. //if code
3. #else
4. //else code
5. #endif

Syntax with #elif and #else:

1. #if expression
2. //if code
3. #elif expression
4. //elif code
5. #else
6. //else code
7. #endif

C #if example

Let's see a simple example to use #if preprocessor directive.

1. #include <stdio.h>
2. #include <conio.h>
3. #define NUMBER 0
4. void main() {
5. #if (NUMBER==0)
6. printf("Value of Number is: %d",NUMBER);
7. #endif
8. getch();
9. }

Output:

Value of Number is: 0

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C Language Notes

Let's see another example to understand the #if directive clearly.

1. #include <stdio.h>
2. #include <conio.h>
3. #define NUMBER 1
4. void main() {
5. clrscr();
6. #if (NUMBER==0)
7. printf("1 Value of Number is: %d",NUMBER);
8. #endif
9.
10. #if (NUMBER==1)
11. printf("2 Value of Number is: %d",NUMBER);
12. #endif
13. getch();
14. }

Output:

2 Value of Number is: 1

File Handling in C

File Handling in c language is used to open, read, write, search or close file. It is used for
permanent storage.

Advantage of File

It will contain the data even after program exit. Normally we use variable or array to store data,
but data is lost after program exit. Variables and arrays are non-permanent storage medium
whereas file is permanent storage medium.

Functions for file handling

There are many functions in C library to open, read, write, search and close file. A list of file
functions are given below:

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No. Function Description

1 fopen() opens new or existing file

2 fprintf() write data into file

3 fscanf() reads data from file

4 fputc() writes a character into file

5 fgetc() reads a character from file

6 fclose() closes the file

7 fseek() sets the file pointer to given position

8 fputw() writes an integer to file

9 fgetw() reads an integer from file

10 ftell() returns current position

11 rewind() sets the file pointer to the beginning


of the file

Opening File: fopen()

The fopen() function is used to open a file. The syntax of fopen() function is given below:

1. FILE *fopen( const char * filename, const char * mode );

You can use one of the following modes in the fopen() function.

Mode Description

r opens a text file in read mode

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w opens a text file in write mode

a opens a text file in append mode

r+ opens a text file in read and write mode

w+ opens a text file in read and write mode

a+ opens a text file in read and write mode

rb opens a binary file in read mode

wb opens a binary file in write mode

ab opens a binary file in append mode

rb+ opens a binary file in read and write mode

wb+ opens a binary file in read and write mode

ab+ opens a binary file in read and write mode

Closing File: fclose()

The fclose() function is used to close a file. The syntax of fclose() function is given below:

1. int fclose( FILE *fp );

C fprintf() and fscanf()

Writing File : fprintf() function

The fprintf() function is used to write set of characters into file. It sends formatted output to a
stream.

Syntax:

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C Language Notes

1. int fprintf(FILE *stream, const char *format [, argument, ...])

Example:

1. #include <stdio.h>
2. main(){
3. FILE *fp;
4. fp = fopen("file.txt", "w");//opening file
5. fprintf(fp, "Hello file by fprintf...\n");//writing data into file
6. fclose(fp);//closing file
7. }

Reading File : fscanf() function

The fscanf() function is used to read set of characters from file. It reads a word from the file and
returns EOF at the end of file.

Syntax:

1. int fscanf(FILE *stream, const char *format [, argument, ...])

Example:

1. #include <stdio.h>
2. main(){
3. FILE *fp;
4. char buff[255];//creating char array to store data of file
5. fp = fopen("file.txt", "r");
6. while(fscanf(fp, "%s", buff)!=EOF){
7. printf("%s ", buff );
8. }
9. fclose(fp);
10. }

Output:

Hello file by fprintf...

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C Language Notes

C File Example: Storing employee information

Let's see a file handling example to store employee information as entered by user from console.
We are going to store id, name and salary of the employee.

1. #include <stdio.h>
2. void main()
3. {
4. FILE *fptr;
5. int id;
6. char name[30];
7. float salary;
8. fptr = fopen("emp.txt", "w+");/* open for writing */
9. if (fptr == NULL)
10. {
11. printf("File does not exists \n");
12. return;
13. }
14. printf("Enter the id\n");
15. scanf("%d", &id);
16. fprintf(fptr, "Id= %d\n", id);
17. printf("Enter the name \n");
18. scanf("%s", name);
19. fprintf(fptr, "Name= %s\n", name);
20. printf("Enter the salary\n");
21. scanf("%f", &salary);
22. fprintf(fptr, "Salary= %.2f\n", salary);
23. fclose(fptr);
24. }

Output:

Enter the id
1
Enter the name
sonoo
Enter the salary
120000

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C Language Notes

Now open file from current directory. For windows operating system, go to TC\bin directory,
you will see emp.txt file. It will have following information.

emp.txt

Id= 1
Name= sonoo
Salary= 120000

C fputc() and fgetc()

Writing File : fputc() function

The fputc() function is used to write a single character into file. It outputs a character to a stream.

Syntax:

1. int fputc(int c, FILE *stream)

Example:

1. #include <stdio.h>
2. main(){
3. FILE *fp;
4. fp = fopen("file1.txt", "w");//opening file
5. fputc('a',fp);//writing single character into file
6. fclose(fp);//closing file
7. }

file1.txt

Reading File : fgetc() function

The fgetc() function returns a single character from the file. It gets a character from the stream. It
returns EOF at the end of file.

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C Language Notes

Syntax:

1. int fgetc(FILE *stream)

Example:

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. #include<conio.h>
3. void main(){
4. FILE *fp;
5. char c;
6. clrscr();
7. fp=fopen("myfile.txt","r");
8.
9. while((c=fgetc(fp))!=EOF){
10. printf("%c",c);
11. }
12. fclose(fp);
13. getch();
14. }

myfile.txt

this is simple text message

C fputs() and fgets()

The fputs() and fgets() in C programming are used to write and read string from stream. Let's see
examples of writing and reading file using fgets() and fgets() functions.

Writing File : fputs() function

The fputs() function writes a line of characters into file. It outputs string to a stream.

Syntax:

1. int fputs(const char *s, FILE *stream)

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C Language Notes

Example:

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. #include<conio.h>
3. void main(){
4. FILE *fp;
5. clrscr();
6.
7. fp=fopen("myfile2.txt","w");
8. fputs("hello c programming",fp);
9.
10. fclose(fp);
11. getch();
12. }

myfile2.txt

hello c programming

Reading File : fgets() function

The fgets() function reads a line of characters from file. It gets string from a stream.

Syntax:

1. char* fgets(char *s, int n, FILE *stream)

Example:

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. #include<conio.h>
3. void main(){
4. FILE *fp;
5. char text[300];
6. clrscr();
7.
8. fp=fopen("myfile2.txt","r");

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C Language Notes

9. printf("%s",fgets(text,200,fp));
10.
11. fclose(fp);
12. getch();
13. }

Output:

hello c programming

C Programs

Fibonacci Series in C

Fibonacci Series in C: In case of fibonacci series, next number is the sum of previous two
numbers for example 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21 etc. The first two numbers of fibonacci series are 0
and 1.

There are two ways to write the fibonacci series program:

o Fibonacci Series without recursion


o Fibonacci Series using recursion

Fibonacci Series in C without recursion

Let's see the fibonacci series program in c without recursion.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. main()
3. {
4. int n1=0,n2=1,n3,i,number;
5. printf("Enter the number of elements:");
6. scanf("%d",&number);
7. printf("\n%d %d",n1,n2);//printing 0 and 1
8. for(i=2;i<number;++i)//loop starts from 2 because 0 and 1 are already printed
9. {

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C Language Notes

10. n3=n1+n2;
11. printf(" %d",n3);
12. n1=n2;
13. n2=n3;
14. }
15. return 0;
16. }

Output:

Enter the number of elements:15


0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 89 144 233 377

Prime Number program in C

Prime number in C: Prime number is a number that is greater than 1 and divided by 1 or itself.
In other words, prime numbers can't be divided by other numbers than itself or 1. For example 2,
3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23.... are the prime numbers.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. main(){
3. int n,i,m=0,flag=0;
4. printf("Enter the number to check prime:");
5. scanf("%d",&n);
6. m=n/2;
7. for(i=2;i<=m;i++)
8. {
9. if(n%i==0)
10. {
11. printf("Number is not prime");
12. flag=1;
13. break;
14. }
15. }
16. if(flag==0)

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C Language Notes

17. printf("Number is prime");


18. return 0;
19. }

Output:

Enter the number to check prime:56


Number is not prime
Enter the number to check prime:23
Number is prime

Palindrome program in C

Palindrome number in c: A palindrome number is a number that is same after reverse. For
example 121, 34543, 343, 131, 48984 are the palindrome numbers.

Palindrome number algorithm

o Get the number from user


o Hold the number in temporary variable
o Reverse the number
o Compare the temporary number with reversed number
o If both numbers are same, print palindrome number
o Else print not palindrome number

Let's see the palindrome program in C. In this c program, we will get an input from the user and
check whether number is palindrome or not.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. main()
3. {
4. int n,r,sum=0,temp;
5. printf("enter the number=");
6. scanf("%d",&n);
7. temp=n;
8. while(n>0)
9. {

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C Language Notes

10. r=n%10;
11. sum=(sum*10)+r;
12. n=n/10;
13. }
14. if(temp==sum)
15. printf("palindrome number ");
16. else
17. printf("not palindrome");
18. return 0;
19. }

Output:

enter the number=151


palindrome number
enter the number=5621
not palindrome number

Factorial Program in C

Factorial Program in C: Factorial of n is the product of all positive descending integers.


Factorial of n is denoted by n!. For example:

1. 5! = 5*4*3*2*1 = 120
2. 3! = 3*2*1 = 6

Here, 5! is pronounced as "5 factorial", it is also called "5 bang" or "5 shriek".

The factorial is normally used in Combinations and Permutations (mathematics).

There are many ways to write the factorial program in c language. Let's see the 2 ways to
write the factorial program.

o Factorial Program using loop


o Factorial Program using recursion

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C Language Notes

Factorial Program using loop

Let's see the factorial Program using loop.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. main()
3. {
4. int i,fact=1,number;
5. printf("Enter a number: ");
6. scanf("%d",&number);
7. for(i=1;i<=number;i++){
8. fact=fact*i;
9. }
10. printf("Factorial of %d is: %d",number,fact);
11. return 0;
12. }

Output:

Enter a number: 5
Factorial of 5 is: 120

Armstrong Number in C

Before going to write the c program to check whether the number is Armstrong or not, let's
understand what is Armstrong number.

Armstrong number is a number that is equal to the sum of cubes of its digits. For example 0, 1,
153, 370, 371 and 407 are the Armstrong numbers.

Let's try to understand why 153 is an Armstrong number.

1. 153 = (1*1*1)+(5*5*5)+(3*3*3)
2. where:
3. (1*1*1)=1
4. (5*5*5)=125
5. (3*3*3)=27

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C Language Notes

6. So:
7. 1+125+27=153

Let's try to understand why 371 is an Armstrong number.

1. 371 = (3*3*3)+(7*7*7)+(1*1*1)
2. where:
3. (3*3*3)=27
4. (7*7*7)=343
5. (1*1*1)=1
6. So:
7. 27+343+1=371

Let's see the c program to check Armstrong Number in C.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. main()
3. {
4. int n,r,sum=0,temp;
5. printf("enter the number=");
6. scanf("%d",&n);
7. temp=n;
8. while(n>0)
9. {
10. r=n%10;
11. sum=sum+(r*r*r);
12. n=n/10;
13. }
14. if(temp==sum)
15. printf("armstrong number ");
16. else
17. printf("not armstrong number");
18. return 0;
19. }

Output:

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C Language Notes

enter the number=153


armstrong number
enter the number=5
not armstrong number

C Program without main() function

We can write c program without using main() function. To do so, we need to use #define
preprocessor directive.

Let's see a simple program to print "hello" without main() function.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. #define start main
3. void start() {
4. printf("Hello");
5. }

Output:

Hello

Matrix multiplication in C

Matrix multiplication in C: We can add, subtract, multiply and divide 2 matrices. To do so, we
are taking input from the user for row number, column number, first matrix elements and second
matrix elements. Then we are performing multiplication on the matrices entered by the user.

In matrix multiplication first matrix one row element is multiplied by second matrix all column
elements.

Let's try to understand the matrix multiplication of 2*2 and 3*3 matrices by the figure given
below:

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C Language Notes

Let's see the program of matrix multiplication in C.

1. #include<stdio.h>
2. #include<stdlib.h>
3. main(){
4. int a[10][10],b[10][10],mul[10][10],r,c,i,j,k;
5. system("cls");
6. printf("enter the number of row=");
7. scanf("%d",&r);
8. printf("enter the number of column=");
9. scanf("%d",&c);
10. printf("enter the first matrix element=\n");
11. for(i=0;i<r;i++)
12. {
13. for(j=0;j<c;j++)

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C Language Notes

14. {
15. scanf("%d",&a[i][j]);
16. }
17. }
18. printf("enter the second matrix element=\n");
19. for(i=0;i<r;i++)
20. {
21. for(j=0;j<c;j++)
22. {
23. scanf("%d",&b[i][j]);
24. }
25. }
26.
27. printf("multiply of the matrix=\n");
28. for(i=0;i<r;i++)
29. {
30. for(j=0;j<c;j++)
31. {
32. mul[i][j]=0;
33. for(k=0;k<c;k++)
34. {
35. mul[i][j]+=a[i][k]*b[k][j];
36. }
37. }
38. }
39. //for printing result
40. for(i=0;i<r;i++)
41. {
42. for(j=0;j<c;j++)
43. {
44. printf("%d\t",mul[i][j]);
45. }
46. printf("\n");
47. }

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C Language Notes

48. return 0;
49. }

Output:

enter the number of row=3


enter the number of column=3
enter the first matrix element=
111
222
333
enter the second matrix element=
111
222
333
multiply of the matrix=
666
12 12 12
18 18 18

Let's try to understand the matrix multiplication of 3*3 and 3*3 matrices by the figure given
below:

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C Language Notes

All the Best

C Language notes Page 118