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Integration “Tricks” Sergei V. Shabanov

Department of Mathematics, University of Florida

1 Basic indeﬁnite integrals

In what follows the integration constant is omitted. The indeﬁnite integral is deﬁned on an interval of continuity of the integrand.

2 Algebraic functions

Trick 1. Integrals

dx

(x + a) m (x + b) n =

1

n+m1 (1 t)

t

m

n+m2

(b a)

dt

may be evaluated by the substitution

Trick 2.

Let y(x) = ax 2 + bx + c.

t = x + a x + b If P n (x) is a polynomial of degree n, then there is a

polynomial Q n1 (x) of degree n 1 and a constant µ such that

P n (x)

y(x) dx = Q n1 (x) y(x) + µ

dx

y(x)

dx

y(x)

=

a ln 2 y (x) + ay(x)

1

1

Trick 3. If P (x) and Q(x) are polynomials, then the integral

P(x)

Q(x)y(x) dx

may be evaluated by using the partial fraction decomposition of the rational function P (x)/Q(x). Trick 4. Some of integrals similar to the above may be evaluated by the substitution

x = α + βt 1 + t

for a suitable choice of constants α and β. Trick 5. Euler substitutions, y(x) = ax 2 + bx + c,

 y(x) = ±a √ ax + z, a > 0 y(x) = xz ± √ c, c > 0 y(x) = z(x − x 1 ), y(x 1 ) = 0

1

Trick 6. Chebyshev substitutions for the integral with m, n, and p being rational numbers

x m (a + bx n ) p dx

(i) if p is an integer, then x = z N where N is the common denominator of m and n

(ii) if (m + 1)/n is an integer, then a + bx n = Z N where N is the denominator of p (iii) if p + (m + 1)/n is an integer, then ax n + b = z N where N is the denominator of p.

3 Trigonometric integrals

Trick 7. Let R(u, v) be a rational function. Then the integral

R(sin(x), cos(x))dx

can be evaluated with the substitution t = tan(x/2). However, the following substitutions may lead to the answer faster:

(i) if R(u, v) = R(u, v) or R(u, v) = R(u, v), use t = cos(x) or t = sin(x), respectively;

(ii) if R(u, v) = R(u, v), use t = tan(x). Trick 8. The following decomposition may be useful:

a 1 sin(x) + b 1 cos(x) = A(a sin(x) + b cos(x)) + B(a cos(x) b sin(x))

Trick 9. It is similar to Trick 8:

a 1 sin(x) + b 1 cos(x) + c 1 a sin(x) + b cos(x) + c

= Ax + B ln |a sin(x) + b cos(x) + c| + C

dx

a sin(x) + b cos(x) + c

with a suitable choice of the constants A, B, and C. Trick 11. With a suitable choice of the constants A, B, and C,

a 1 sin 2 (x) + 2b 1 sin(x) cos(x) + c 1 cos 2 (x) a sin(x) + b cos(x)

dx = A sin(x) + B cos(x) + C

dx

a sin(x) + b cos(x)

Trick 12.

Let (a c) 2 b 2

= 0 and λ 1,2

be roots of (a λ)(b λ) b 2

= 0.

Put u j

=

(a λ j ) sin(x) + b cos(x) and k j = (a λ j ) 1 where j = 1, 2. the constants A and B

Then with a suitable choice of

a sin 2 (x) + 2b sin(x) cos(x) + c cos 2 (x) dx = A k 1 u 2 + λ 1 + B k 2 u 2 2 + λ 2

1

a 1 sin(x) + b 1 cos(x)

du 1

dx

Trick 13. With a suitable choice of the constants A, B, and C

dx

=

(a sin(x) + b cos(x)) n

A sin(x) + B cos(x)

n1 +

(a sin(x) + b cos(x))

dx

(a sin(x) + b cos(x)) n2

where n is a positive integer. Trick 14. With a suitable choice of the constants A, B, and C,

A sin(x)

dx

(a + b cos(x)) n =

dx

(a + b cos(x)) n1 + B (a + b cos(x)) n1 + C (a + b cos(x)) n2

dx

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