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International Journal of Education & Management © 2015 Indian Association of Health, Research and Welfare

Studies, 2015, 5(2), 169-174 ISSN-p-2231-5632-e-2321-3671

Understanding advertising and consumer behaviour

Pankaj Kumar
Department of Commerce, Government College, Barwala, Hisar, Haryana

The role of advertisement in today's fast changing economic and social scenario hardly needs to be emphasised.
Every entrepreneur, big or small adheres to some kind of publicity. It may be well planned, organised or just a
common passing phase. This very important tool in the marketing mix of any organisation has been approached
through various paths and traditions which have continuously been changing. The approaches adopted in
advertisements have given them sometimes customary and traditional look and sometimes the presentations appear
to be wearing a distinct and fresh look which is well taken not only by the consumers but by general public too. The
various studies and researches have undoubtedly revealed positive impact of advertisement on customer's mind and
have supported advertisement as a very important demand push factors. The present paper highlights on
understanding advertisement and consumer behaviours.

Keywords: advertisement, consumer behaviour

Advertising in today's business world has attained and earned way in understanding consumer behaviour on the whole. The buying
importance in magnifying proportions. Marketing mix of any or consumer behaviour starts when the first spark to use or consume
business whether big or small cannot be thought of without this very a particular commodity appears. Gradually that spark or ignition
handy and important tool of marketing. Every marketing effort takes a bigger shape, resulting into the proximity to product
somehow and some where is surrounded by the advertising activity. knowledge, use and satisfaction, repurchase evolving into brand
The marketers of today are busy in finding new ways and means to preference and then brand loyalty. The behaviour that a consumer
communicate with the consumers and disseminate the required displays in searching for, purchasing, using, evaluating and
information among them. Some ways prove to be effective while disposing of products and services that they expect shall satisfy their
others fail in their mission. This success and effectiveness of the needs is at the centre of the concept of consumer behaviour in the
effort makes marketing and its people feel pumped up to think afresh context of marketing (Leon, Kanuk, Sciffman, & Leslie, 2008).
with renewed energy and vision. The budget allotted to this activity,
the efforts, and the magnitude of endeavours being put in compels
Factors affecting consumer behaviour
one to ponder over the factors which go a long way in making such The whole crux of consumer behaviour primarily revolves around
efforts effective and on the other hand otherwise too. The success of the below mentioned basic factors:-
advertising campaigns today is considered
n to be judged on various Cultural factors
parameters which require proper understanding
n of the true and real Social factors
meaning of marketing as a very important
function of management. Personal factors
Advertising in today's complexn and competitive business Psychological factors
environment has attained a very important and significant position in
Of the above mentioned factors the psychological factors are the
the marketing tool box of any company. Advertising in general is
soft targets for the advertisement agencies. They try to make impact
understood to perform the task of providing important and vital
on the motivations, perceptions and attitudes which reside in the
information to the audience with regard to the product and brand. The
psychology of consumers. Thus in order to judge the effectiveness of
information disseminated through advertisements is persuasive in
such efforts, it shall be worthwhile to examine various psychological
nature and is meant for the general audience without various kinds of
factors which go a long way in shaping consumer behaviour.
bias present in the market (Thomas, 1996). The presentations in
advertisements are paid, sponsored and for some specific purpose Motivation
which primarily aims at the benefit of sponsors in the form of Every individual has his own needs, wants and desires some of them
companies whose products are being advertised (Burnett, 2007). satisfied or fulfilled and some yet to be fulfilled. The desires which
Advertisements not necessarily target the short term goals. are still unsatisfied create some kind of induced tensions which
Advertisements generally are drafted with such messages which result into desires, into the driving forces which in turn can be
target long term goals and objectives of a concern (Oracle, 2002). described as motivations for buying (Maheshwaran &
Every individual uses various kinds of goods and services to make Strenthal,1990). The satisfied desires too tend to create or build
his life comfortable, or even to sustain his life with bare minimum some kind of motivation, the motivation to remain in comfort zone
necessities of life. One has to toil hard to buy these goods and offered by the product. The immense or near full satisfaction also
services. Hence the entire process of buying and consuming these generates motivation for repurchase, the motivation for not
goods and services might appear to be the simplest one, yet it deviating or tilting towards other products or brands and thus
involves various factors-personal, social, cultural which go a long creating brand value and loyalty. Motivational aspect happens to be
the most important part of the consumer behaviour.
Correspondence should be sent to Pankaj Kumar, Department of
Commerce, Government College, Barwala, Hisar, Haryana Consumer behaviour is always goal oriented and the goals are the

sought after results of motivated behaviour (Maheshwaran & of appeals in their respective advertisements. Some appeals tend to
Strenthal, 1990). touch consumers in a very delicate and subtle way, while others try
Goals targeted: The selection of goal as a result of consumer the direct approach of highlighting their product with its features.
behaviour stems from the thought process and the previous The use of source in the form of renowned celebrities is also being
experiences. The factors emerging from thought process are termed commonly used by different advertisers. The appeals selected to be
as cognitive factors while factors emerging from past experiences are targeted by them are based on above mentioned needs. The ways and
known to be the learnt factors. The goals targeted by the consumers means to approach and exploit various kinds of appeals based on
are of two kinds i.e. generic goals and product specific goals' needs and motivations of the consumers tend to differ. The unique
(Baggozi &Dholakia, 1999). and innovative approach makes the advertisement creative one. The
Generic goals are related with the satisfaction of certain needs i.e. present study is aimed at testing the effectiveness of not only the
need to own a car or bike, need to have a mobile phone connection, advertisement but of the novel, unique approach on different
need for the use of construction material such as cement, adhesive, parameters which can make the advertisement effective on every
paint etc. Product specific goal is related with the choice of platform. The most effective and important platform obviously
specifically branded product that might satisfy consumer's needs. happens to be the psychological aspect of consumer behaviour. As
The present study is suited to the product specific goals of the everything, cost effectiveness, ethical aspect comes after that. Once
consumer as effort is being made to measure impact of selected an advertisement clicks with the consumers in general, it gets the
works of advertisements of some selected brands on the minds and much required foothold from where the other aspects which
buying behaviour of the consumers. Although motivation factor contribute to the effectiveness of an advertisement can be tested and
occupies a very prominent and important place as for as study of tried.
consumer behaviour is concerned yet there might be some deviations Perception
or variations what so ever. People with same goals may have
different needs and in the same way people with same needs may For a marketer it is not important that what things are, but important
approach them with different goals in mind. Hence, various studies is how things are seen by consumers, how consumers react, how
on motivational aspect of consumer's behaviour have not yet they behave and how they act in market in the given set of
concluded or arrived at some definite pattern which can be applied on circumstances and stimuli offered by the marketers. Consumer's
all the consumers in general. Such consumer behaviour keeps the need actions, responses and buying habits move or tend to change on the
for research in the field of marketing alive. The volatile behaviour of basis of how consumers look at a particular phenomenon or concept
consumer makes the marketing action important and challenging both. which is termed as Perception (Maslow,1943)
The goals or the motives guide the purchase patterns of the consumers Any marketing effort without the clear cut understanding and
which in turn drive the marketing action in a suitable way. The human knowledge of consumer perception towards a particular point
needs and their pyramid has been explained in the above mentioned cannot bring in the desired results. Hence the study of consumer
model known as Maslow's Hierarchy of needs pyramid. perception or how consumers perceive. The factors which can affect
perception become all the more important to judge the effectiveness
of any marketing tool whether it is an advertisement or any other
sales promotion activity. In order to understand the perception
building process, we need to understand various elements involved
in making of perception. Any input to our senses is known as
stimulus, while response to that stimulus is termed as sensation
which occupies not only the basic but the foremost important
position in the structure of perception (Palmer & Martein, 2003).
Sensory organs are the sensory receptors. (Wansink, Brian, &
Ittersum, 2005). The activities of seeing, hearing, feeling, tasting,
smelling are all related to sensory functions of human body. These
are all put to collective or joint action when any product or its related
marketing activity is offered before consumers, The outcome of
these marketing efforts depend heavily on consumer perception of
those related products or communications. The important thing is
how the consumer receives or adapts himself or is made to adapt
himself to the flurry of products and their presentations.
Stimuli: Every consumer comes across different innumerous stimuli
daily. Some such stimuli are deservingly accepted by consumer and
others which are rejected bounce back. The rejected or bounced back
Maslow's hierarchy of needs lays down five levels of human needs stuff of stimuli are consciously or subconsciously blocked by human
namely physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, egoistic beings as these stimuli are not perfectly attuned to match one's
needs and self actualization needs (Murray, 1955). The advertisers needs, desires, aspirations and physical environments. Stimuli that
and marketing people generally try to integrate the above mentioned penetrate through different layers, passes through and makes their
needs and related motivations in their advertisements and try to own ways and paths into first the body (sensory receptors), then to
exploit various appeals to reach and influence consumers. The heart and finally activate the mind to act or react can be termed as the
advertisers of selected products and brands have used various kinds effective stimuli. The others which could not make inroads deep into
International Journal of Education & Management Studies, 2015, 5(2), 169-174 171

the heart and mind are automatically bounced back. Some are important role in building or moulding such perceptions in the minds
instantly accepted by only the body and even by the heart and are of consumers. The products and presentations which perfectly
immediately stored there itself to be reprieved when the needs, wants match the perceptions or are positioned and presented to match
and environments change. These stored stimuli gradually get perfectly, have a much better chance of being successful. The
recharged and make their way to the mind of consumer even after a advertisers through their efforts even try to change the existing
very long gap of time. Hence, to be the effective one, it is not perception of the consumer to match the inherent features of the
necessary for the stimuli to instantly reach the mind of consumer and product being advertised.
initiate actions accordingly. Even to make a place or space in one's Consumers often perceive various kinds of risks which at times
body or heart and be stored there in such a way to last for a longer can be founded or can even be unfounded at several times in respect
period of time and make sustainable impact there from can also of their purchase decisions. These risks can be of several types such
make any product or its presentation worth it. Marketing people as physical risks, financial risks, time risks, social risks,
understand the importance of targeting their product and its psychological risks etc. These risks pose formidable hindrances or
presentation attuned to the perceived needs and aspirations of obstacles in the success of the product and its presentation by the
consumers. The market can then be segmented into various classes advertisers. The advertisers through their presentations try to
based on the basis of different perceptions and communications minimize or mitigate altogether such risks as increased information,
with the consumers and messages are drafted strictly according to reassurance, faith, pride, warranties and guarantees if presented
that. Consumers react or behave to such communications strategically, can go a long way in changing one's negative
depending upon their perceptions in the following manner (Leon & perceptions or perceived risks.
Kanuk, 2003).
Selective exposure: Consumers or human beings sometimes
consciously or deliberately give space or get themselves exposed “An attitude is defined as a learned predisposition to behave in a
to such advertisements which remind them of wisdom of their consistently favourable or unfavourable way, with respect to a given
purchase decision. The consumer after the purchase of any object”. (Leon, 2008). An attitude, its building or change, governs in
particular brand automatically gets interested in the brand's a very important way the behaviour of the consumer in selection of a
particular brand or product. The advertisers can form or change the
advertisement and likes to see or experience the wisdom of their
attitude of consumer or consumers towards a particular product or
purchase decision.
brand through their presentations also. The creative people in the
Selective attention: The consumers tend to give notice to those
advertisement industry often try and test various approaches to make
advertisements which depict or have proximity to their needs,
impact on the attitudes of consumers in a very subtle yet effective
desires and aspirations. They tend to ignore communications of
way. Some advertisement agencies adhere to the path of employing
those products in which they have no interest at all. The ways and
or engaging established celebrities as their brand ambassadors and
means of communications, the style and design, the medium, the
project them in their advertisements to make impact on the attitude
media vehicle, all go a long way in accepting or rejecting the of consumers. The image and reputation enjoyed by the celebrity is
particular communication in the process of advertisement. exploited this way to build or change the attitude of the consumers.
Perceptual defence: Consumers tend to ignore or reject stimuli that The use of some catchy phrases and lines and jugglery of worlds
are not in tune with their perceptions. Even though the exposure with the touch of semantics or a novel idea or approach is also tried
has taken place, consumers deliberately try to screen out the by advertising people to change the perceptions and attitude of the
'unwanted' and 'undesired' communications from their hearts consumers. Out of various models of attitude formation the most
and minds. Perceptual defence also comes as an obstacle in the suitable and worthy model for the purpose and object of this study is
way of making advertisements effective as this can block the Attitude-towards-thead- model (Ajzen, 1980).
way or path which can guide the consumer to enact the real Attitude towards the Ad Model
Perceptual blocking: Nothing which goes against one's desires, one's
perceptions, founded or unfounded, is allowed even to reach the
sensory receptors. Skipping over the channels, ignoring the
advertisement part, muting the advertisements breaks are in fact
the results of perceptual blocking which also poses obstacles in the
process of making advertisements have their desired impact. The
stimuli, some accepted and some rejected are jointly or
collectively organized by the consumers to form perception. Thus
advertisers through their styles of presentations try to make longer
lasting impact on the minds of consumers and even try to make
dent on the perceptions build by consumers which tend to block or
slow down the effectiveness of their presentations.
The way every human being or every individual perceives his
image, consumers perceive the image of various brands and products
in the same way. This perceived image of brand or product plays the (Julie A. Edell, Marian Chapman Burke 'The Power of Feelings in
pivotal role in the ultimate success of the brand. Understanding Ad Effects'. Journal of Consumer Research 14
The advertisers through their product presentations can play a very

The above model of attitude formation depicts that an advertisement that a reference group can make on consumer behaviour depends on
presented in a distinct, innovative and different way generates a fair various factors such as nature of consumer, nature of product,
amount of feelings in the consumers which in turn tend to affect economic status of consumer, age group of consumer etc. For
favourable beliefs towards brands. The same feelings generated from making this study purposeful and effective, the nature of products
advertisements may develop favourable or unfavourable attitudes whose advertisements and their effectiveness and impact is being
towards the ad itself and through it, if the signals or feelings are measured is of prime importance. An effort has specifically been
strong enough travel through to building or formation of attitude made to gather responses from respondents as to who among the
towards brand which in turn leads to enactment of purchase. Various many reference groups influences their purchase decision regarding
studies conducted so far, to gauge the impact of various ads on the a particular product. The impact of creativity of the advertisement is
attitude of consumers reveal positive relationship between the then tested and tried subjectively on that particular reference group
attitude towards the ad and purchase intention for the advertised to determine the real impact and effectiveness of that creative aspect
products. The studies conducted on measuring the effectiveness of of advertisement.
advertisements are mostly concerned with FMCGs which are Apart from the characteristics of the product and consumers,
comparatively low priced products and thus ads may have greater characteristics of reference groups are equally important in making
impact on the purchase intentions of the consumers. This study in the impact on consumer behaviour. Information, experience, credibility,
forthcoming pages tries to explore and analyze the impact of unique, social status, attractiveness, reputation, proximity of the reference of
out of box presentations on the minds and feelings of consumers and the reference group has its clear say in moulding and shaping
beyond that on the favourable attitude formation of the consumers consumer behaviour.
towards a particular brand.
The attitude is formed in the process of search of a suitable brand
Communication and consumer behaviour
for the satisfaction of a particular need. The information already with The basic essence of any work of advertisement is undoubtedly
him or being made available to him provides the platform on which communicating with the target audience. The target audience can be
attitudes (positive or negative) are formed. Consumers are not the users of the product, the prospective consumers, and consumers
always willing or capable to analyze the complete details of each and of the rival or competitive brands or sometimes the non users also
every feature of the product. Instead they tend to focus on the who can suitably be allured into the fold of brand users. The
selected factors only. Only such selected or chosen factors dominate advertisers evolve or chalk out various means and ways of
the formation of attitudes. The other factors which are of no or lesser communication through distinct and innovative styles and manners
importance provide little input for building favourable attitudes. to reach the consumers in the desired and effective way. The ways
Instead they tend to form negative attitude towards the product and and means of reaching the consumers can be verbal and non verbal
its advertisement as they leave consumers in utmost confused state of both. Use of attractive and meaningful colors, symbols, pictures,
mind. computer graphics, cartoon characters and real life celebrities as
The Maruti-800 (the brand and its advertisement under study) brand ambassadors are in a way non verbal communication. The use
have tried to shape their advertisements on only a few selected of taglines highlighting products features, comparison with the rival
factors to influence Indian consumers. Fuel efficiency, availability of brands, storey line, catchy slogans are the types of verbal communi-
wide service network, availability of affordable spares, availability cation mostly used by the advertisers to reach their respective
of easy payment plans have been focused in the advertisements of targets.
their product in an effort to build or form the favourable consumer The object of the present study is to gauge the effectiveness of
attitude of the consumers towards their product. The consumers in such communication vis-a-vis impact on consumer which can lead
general and the consumers related to brands under the present study to improved demand of the product. There are certain factors which
in particular have a strong urge and need to know hence they are attract or boost the impact of such communication while at the same
cognitive ones. The buying behaviour regarding these products time improper use and handling of these factors renders the whole
which are comparatively high priced and at the same time tend to be process of communication ineffective. Such factors start
kept for a comparatively longer period of time, is considerably based functioning as hindrances or obstacles in the path of communication
on analysis of information either gained through advertisement or and fail the basic purpose and object of such communication. The
from friends and experts or from one's own observations and advertisers are supposed to know their positives as well as negative
experiences. Hence it becomes all the more important for advertisers factors playing for and against their works. The advertisers on their
to shape and mould their presentations or provide the vital part try to combat the negative forces present and make effort to
information in such a way that consumers readily and eagerly accept bank upon the positive platform. The effective and successful work
that. is supposed to mitigate or minimize the negative factors or the 'noise'
as it is often termed in the marketing circles and smartly amplify the
Reference groups positive forces which make the communication go in the desired and
A reference group is any person or a group of persons that serves purposeful manner.
various or some specific benchmarks or provides vital platform in the It shall be advisable for the basic purpose of this study to analyze
form of opinion, suggestion or advice to the consumers on which the threadbare both these factors and test them on the parameters of
entire decision making process of selection of a particular brand can creative advertisement messages or works and draw conclusions on
be established. These reference groups sometimes formally and their strength of effectiveness. The factors which facilitate or
sometimes informally make considerable impact on the behaviour of smoothen the process of communication or can pose obstacles and
the consumer. Consumer's beliefs, his perception, his attitude can roughen this process are described as under:-
strongly be affected by these reference groups. The degree of impact Sender: The sender is a person who initiates the message or
International Journal of Education & Management Studies, 2015, 5(2), 169-174 173

communication. The credibility of the sender plays a vital role in features. The younger persons in the household shall not be
making communication effective. Various studies have revealed interested in the advertisement of cement and other construction
that senders with non commercial and non profit motive are materials, the way matured and grown up people who are in thick
received with fair amount of belief and trust in comparison to the of things while constructing or renovating a house are. People
sender with profit motive. Hence the publicity programs for tend to pay attention to only advertisements of those products in
awareness of general public regarding various social evils which they are interested in one way or the other. They seem to
plaguing the society, depicting social evils and other menaces are ignore or pay no serious attention to the message related to the
found to be taken seriously by the receivers. The findings of product not related to them.
various studies have compelled marketers to adhere to WOM Rationality: The advertisements of the products whose buying
(Word of Mouth) (Thorsten 2004) advertising programs where decisions are based on rationality are not taken seriously by their
scripted words are made to come from lesser renowned models prospective buyers unless and until such advertisement messages
who enact to be the common users of the product. That provides directly communicate the real benefits and uses of the product.
the hint that experiences of the users are being shared with the The advertisements which highlight the advantages, the edge
general public through the advertisement. The words coming from over rival or competitive brands, discounts offered, quality
the mouth of general public through the advertisement sequence norms, technical features described in the simpler way are of
also lend a fair amount of credibility and hence taken seriously by extreme interest for consumers relying heavily on rationality
the receivers, fulfilling the basic purpose of advertisement. factors.
Synergy between the Sender/Endorser and the Product Advertised Repetition or the Repeated Exposure: Repetition or the frequency
: The synergy between the endorser or the spokesperson and the of the advertisement message being communicated can also make
product plays a crucial role in making the communication the message reach even the persons who are not extremely
effective. Therefore the beauty products are often advertised by interested in receiving the message and is smoothly stored in the
glamorous beauty queens, attractive models or cine stars. While memory box which can be revived and put to use at some later
the products not related with beauty and glamour are often stage. Baba Ram Dev a severe and most vocal critique of aerated
advertised by technicians, engineers, doctors etc. The soft drinks often in his discourses vehemently criticizes Coca
advertisements of Mobil oils, tyres, construction material, and Cola as 'Thanda Matlab Toilet Cleaner'. Although he is not at all
medicines are enacted by models posing as truck drivers, builders, interested in the use of product, yet he knows the advertisement
and doctors. This automatically generates the required synergy and the tag line used in the advertisement and thrives his whole
which in turn establishes the bond of natural trust and faith criticism on the platform of this advertisement and its tag line
between the receiver and the product, making communication itself. That shows that simple words if repeated regularly and
move in the desired way (Michael, 1991) given repeated exposure tend to reach even the distant
Draft of the message: The words used or the formal draft of the destinations.
communication intended to be transmitted also plays its own Positioning and the USP (Unique Selling Proposition): Keeping
distinct role in making it effective and work for desired motive. in view the above mentioned factors which can facilitate or
The use of uncommon, extremely technical and semantically smoothen the communication process and can otherwise render it
crafted words make it difficult for the receiver to properly decode rough and jammed also, one fact which emerges very clearly is
the message and understand its extremely hidden meaning in the that the Brahmastra of communication in advertisements is the
sense in which it is desired to be delivered. The messages with effective positioning and highlighting the unique selling
precisely hidden meaning, with finest of the literary or poetic proposition of the product which is sometimes buried deep under
touch can project the outer shell of the message in a very strong the whims of various creative people engaged in making of the
way, but the real inner essence of the message intended to be advertisement and other marketing activities. The so called
transmitted is lost completely. The length of the storey or the event creativity thus gains the foreground and the basic purpose and
sequence with which the message is intended to be transmitted is essence of the advertisement and message goes deep in the back
also important. Unduly long and lengthy sequences make the real ground which ultimately fails the basic purpose of the
message fade or lost in between. The studies have often revealed advertisement.
that the use of excessive sex and glamour renders the real message
to the back seat thereby making the advertisement ineffective in Advertising appeals
the real sense (Dana, Alden, 2000). The observed ad scenario has The process of communication flows unhindered and its objective
also revealed that relatively simpler and straight forward accomplished in relatively easier way if the suitable communication
messages are received by the audience with fair amount of ease appeal is effectively addressed. The advertisers and especially the
and smoothness. 'Yeh Dil Maange More' from Pepsi and 'Thanda creative people involved in such advertisement process tend to rely
Matlab Coca cola' from Coca Cola stand testimony to such heavily on various appeals. The right appeal if struck at the right
claims. 'Kuch Meetha Ho Jaaye (Cadbury) and 'A Gift For juncture, time and at the right person can do wonders in making the
Someone You Love' (Amul) are certain other examples cementing advertisement effective. Advertising people often use emotional,
such claims. humorous, fear, and rational appeals, according to the target
Involvement or the Association of the Receiver: The degree of the audience and circumstances prevailing in the market. The products
involvement or the association of the receiver with the product is involving rational behaviour are required to be advertised through
also of utmost importance in effective transmission of the rational appeals. Comparatively younger audience can be
message. The person not intending to buy laptop in the near future approached with emotional and humour appeals. The products
shall ignore the otherwise attractive advertisement highlighting its involving personal hygiene, health care, medical risk covers and

other high cost or value products having lengthy retention period are Such advertisements can be seen successful, at the recall test
and can be effectively advertised using rational and fear appeals. The podium, can entertain the masses, and can even be seen being
whole structure of advertisement can be rendered ineffective if right showered the accolades, but their efficacy at the most important lap
kind of appeal to right type of people and at right juncture of time is of increasing the sales is yet to be proven.
not taken care of. The appeals used in the advertisements selected for Emotional appeals have been found to be effective when target
the present study are as under:- audience is young and purchase decisions involve low levels of
BRAND APPEAL USED rationality. The so called creative works of advertisements thrive
Fevicol Humour more on emotional appeals with somewhat distinct and innovative
Asian Paints Emotional, Humour storey line which can very easily strike the emotional chord. The
Ambuja Cement Rational, Emotional purpose of this present study is to find whether the target audience of
these advertisements is effectively reached or not, do such creative
Hero Honda Rational, Emotional
works successfully touch the heart and through it, the pocket of the
Maruti Rational, Humour consumer? Persuasiveness part of the advertisement may start with
Vodafone Humour the initial liking of the advertisement by the target audience, but this
The coming pages of this study try to explore the effectiveness of liking in many cases does not ignite effectively, rendering the
such appeals in the selected advertisements of some selected advertisement fall at the final and most important hurdle and
products. The selected advertisements have been recognized as the juncture of making decision in favour of a particular brand.
works of exquisite creativity and have been awarded and rewarded
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