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May 2017. Horticultural Plant Journal, 3 (3): 101–104.

May 2017. Horticultural Plant Journal, 3 (3): 101–104. Horticultural Plant Journal Available online at
May 2017. Horticultural Plant Journal, 3 (3): 101–104. Horticultural Plant Journal Available online at

Horticultural Plant Journal

http://www.journals.elsevier.com/horticultural-plant-journal Germplasm Diversity of Chinese Kale in China LEI Jianjun *,

Germplasm Diversity of Chinese Kale in China

LEI Jianjun *, CHEN Guoju, CHEN Changming, and CAO Bihao

Key Laboratory of Biology, Innovation and Utilization for Germplasm Resources in Horticultural Crops in Southern China, College of Horticulture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China

Received 12 January 2017; Received in revised form 16 March 2017; Accepted 24 April 2017

Available online 4 July 2017

ABSTRACT

Chinese kale is an important vegetable crop in China, especially in South China where the majority of varieties are grown. It originated in

South China and spread throughout Southeast Asia thereafter. Chinese kale can be classified into two types according to whether the petals

are white or yellow. There are also three main cultivated types based on the edible organs, including the stalk and leaf type, the stalk type,

and the leaf type. Two primary types have also been defined based on stalk color, including green stalks and red stalks. They are also culti-

vated based on the type of stalk, including main stalk and lateral stalk types. Significant differences have also been observed in glucosinolate

content among the varieties, and a 40-fold difference in neoindle-3-methyl glucosinolate was detected across the cultivars.

Keywords : Chinese kale; Brassica alboglabra Bailey; diversity

1. Introduction

Chinese kale was first taxonomically named by Bailey (1992) . However, Bailey had only been familiar with the white petal variety, and had not discovered the yellow petal variety. Thus, he named Chinese kale Brassica alboglabra Bailey ( albo, from the Latin albus, means ‘white’). Chinese kale originated in South China and spread to Southeast Asia ( Yui, 1998 ). South China is the global center of diversity of Chinese kale, a cultivar of Brassica oleracea L . that includes many commonly cultivated foods such as broccoli and cabbage. Gommez-Campo (1999) believed that B. oleracea was cultivated in South Italy, and prob ably reached China from the Mediterra- nean region. Chinese kale is mainly cultivated in South China, particularly in Guangdong Province, followed by Guangxi, Fujian, and Taiwan. It was introduced into East and North China in the early 21th century. It spread to Southeast Asia in the 20th century, particularly in Japan ( Yui, 1998 ). South China remains the global center of diversity of Chinese kale. Few scientists outside of China have studied Chinese kale, and not many reports are available on the diversity of Chinese kale.

2. Materials and methods

2.1. Materials

Forty-three Chinese kale collections were collected from Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian and Taiwan, China.

2.2. Methods

All the collections were cultivated in the autumn–winter from 1996 to 2016. The morphology was observed and mea- sured by normal methods. The glucosinolate data were introduced from Si et al. (2009).

3. Results

3.1. Diversity in morphology

There are many morphological types, and many different classification methods exist and have been based on differ- ent characters. They are discussed below.

3.1.1. Types based on petal color and variety numbers Chinese kale can be classified into 2 types according to the petal color: white or yellow. Most germplasms have white

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +86 20 85288275 E-mail address : jjlei@scau.edu.cn Peer review under responsibility of Chinese Society for Horticultural Science (CSHS) and Institute of Vegetables and Flowers (IVF), Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS)

2468-0141/© 2017 Chinese Society for Horticultural Science (CSHS) and Institute of Vegetables and Flowers (IVF), Chinese Academy of Agri- cultural Sciences (CAAS). This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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1 0 2 LEI Jianjun et al. Fig. 1 Chinese kale with white petal and yellow

Fig. 1 Chinese kale with white petal and yellow petals

petals, while only a few cultivars have yellow petals ( Fig. 1 ). Bailey (1992) was familiar only with the white petal variety when he gave Chinese kale its Latin name.

3.1.2. Kale types based on edible organs and distribution Three forms are cultivated based on the edible organs, in- cluding those cultivated for (i) both stalks and leaves, (ii) only the stalks, and (iii) only the leaves ( Fig. 2 ). Most varieties are the stalk and leaf type (Fig. 2, A), which are distributed mainly in the Pearl River Delta Region in Guangdong Province, Guangxi,

Fujian, and Taiwan. The stalk type ( Fig. 2, B ) is distributed in the East Guangdong Province including Shantou, Chaozhou, and others, and in East China including the Shanghai, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang areas. The production area and yield of the stalk type are similar to that of the stalk and leaf type. The leaf type ( Fig. 2, C ) is grown in East Guangdong Province, including Shantou and Chaozhou. This is the least variety cultivated in China.

3.1.3. Kale types based on the stalk color and distribution

Two types have been described based on stalk color, in- cluding green stalk kale and red stalk kale ( Fig. 3 ). The green

stalk kale is more prevalent than the red variety in China. The former is distributed throughout the Chinese kale produc- tion region, while the latter is mainly cultivated in the East Guangdong Province in China.

3.1.4. Types based on the number of commercial lateral stalks and

variety number Two forms have been defined based on the number of lateral stalks, including a main stalk and lateral stalk type ( Fig. 4 ). It

is very difficult to develop a lateral stalk once the main stalk has been harvested in the main stalk varieties. Conversely, in the lateral stalk varieties, it is very easy to develop the lateral stalk once the main stalk has been harvested, and even before the main stalk has been harvested. It can be harvested for

the main stalk has been harvested. It can be harvested for Fig. 2 Chinese kale types

Fig. 2 Chinese kale types based on edible organ (A) Stalk and leaf Chinese kale; (B) Stalk Chinese kale; (C) Leaf Chinese kale.

and leaf Chinese kale; (B) Stalk Chinese kale; (C) Leaf Chinese kale. Fig. 3 Chinese kale

Fig. 3 Chinese kale types based on the stalk color

Germplasm Diversity of Chinese Kale in China

103

Table 1 Aliphatic glucosinolate and indole glucosinolate in Chinese kale

mg·g 1 DW

Variety

No.

Aliphatic glucosinolate

Progoitrin 4-Methyl sulfinyl buty Sinigrin 3-Butenyl

Glucobrassicanpin Total

Indole glucosinolate

4-Hydroxyglucobrassicin Glucobrassicin 4-Methoxyglucobrassicin Neoglucobrassicin Total

 

(PRO)

glucosinolate (RAA)

(SIN)

GS (NAP) (GBN)

aliphatic GSs (4OH)

(GBC)

(4ME)

(NEO)

indole GSs

1

0.3862

0.8328

1.2110 13.6571

0.2278

16.3150

0.2268

0.8542

0.1428

0.4492

1.6730

2 0.2760

0.1177

0.3123

2.4278

0.1461

3.2798

0.1222

0.8639

0.1657

0.5137

1.6655

3 0.5104

0.4065

0.7198

3.2814

0.1198

5.0379

0.1944

1.3051

0.1863

0.9883

2.6741

4 0.5469

0.6751

2.2579

3.4799

0.2853

3.2074

0.4977

5.5996

9.5900

5 0.2943

0.2627

0.9093

1.8359

0.2453

3.5475

0.0670

0.5757

0.1458

0.4438

1.2323

6

0.4596

0.6638

0.7655

4.9655

6.8544

0.2366

1.2973

0.2560

1.5056

3.2956

7

1.4295

0.3329

0.8798

0.6174

0.3059

3.5655

0.0858

0.4099

0.2098

0.2992

1.0049

8 0.8105

0.1219

0.1209

0.7322

1.7856

0.0970

1.0318

0.1662

0.4563

1.7513

9 0.4024

0.1740

0.6368

7.2651

8.4783

0.2122

1.4735

0.1804

1.9808

3.8469

10 0.1786

0.0872

3.4090

3.6748

0.0881

0.5654

0.6620

1.3154

11

0.4753

0.1655

0.6122

3.2425

0.2652

4.7607

0.0697

0.4085

0.1074

0.6140

1.1996

12

2.8964

0.2214

0.9493

6.5681

10.6353

0.3307

2.1797

0.2752

1.9185

4.7040

13

0.6197

0.4878

0.2291

0.5616

0.2364

2.1346

0.0875

0.4217

0.1203

0.6053

1.2349

14 0.7281

1.1205

0.8773

2.9473

0.8720

6.5453

0.2310

1.4142

0.4823

2.2453

4.3728

15 0.4088

0.4799

0.7373

3.3149

0.7737

5.7146

0.2189

0.6090

0.2647

0.7613

1.8539

16 0.1747

0.2098

0.3114

1.0563

1.7522

0.1893

0.3770

0.2228

1.2568

2.0460

17 0.8259

0.8616

6.1410

0.4433

8.2718

0.2868

1.3190

0.3234

0.5965

2.5256

18 0.3826

0.3388

0.8377

2.8854

0.1840

4.6284

0.0976

0.4116

0.1446

0.2824

0.9362

19 0.7780

0.3323

0.1874

5.7645

0.3144

7.3766

0.2733

2.1577

0.3652

2.0011

4.7973

20 0.5724

0.2425

0.2324

1.7978

0.2230

3.0680

0.0873

0.4666

0.1184

0.5876

1.2599

21 0.3484

0.1353

0.8594

3.0796

4.4228

0.0997

0.5816

0.1594

0.8188

1.6594

22 0.7215

0.6281

3.0270 12.3395

0.5484

17.2645

0.4205

1.5334

0.3782

1.7413

4.0733

23 0.3232

1.0491

0.1972

2.3146

0.6667

4.5507

0.1149

0.9540

0.2505

0.5842

1.9037

24 0.9455

0.5442

1.4879

5.2477

0.4881

8.7134

0.1791

1.1010

0.6488

1.7887

3.7176

25 0.2454

0.5110

0.6599

1.1248

0.1155

2.6565

0.5277

2.8612

0.4619

1.9508

5.8015

26 0.2765

0.2283

0.1818

1.9192

0.1397

2.7454

0.0858

0.7104

0.1547

0.6782

1.6290

27 0.4683

0.3011

0.6882

3.4400

0.2439

5.1414

0.1762

0.7445

0.2955

0.7152

1.9314

28

0.2682

0.2177

0.9613

0.0925

1.5397

0.1450

1.1761

0.1014

1.2343

2.6567

29

0.1917

0.4483

0.3184

0.9349

1.8933

0.2051

1.9131

0.3042

1.7471

4.1694

30 1.4582

0.1460

0.5839

3.8616

0.1584

6.2081

0.1151

0.5588

0.1450

0.5081

1.3269

31 5.2591

0.4924

1.1309

6.2741

0.2385

13.3950

0.4081

2.1415

0.4938

0.6467

3.6901

32 1.0061

0.5352

5.5667

0.5496

7.6575

0.2097

1.1298

0.1978

3.1903

4.7276

33 0.4676

0.1737

0.8332

2.5007

0.1705

4.1458

0.0664

0.4695

0.0890

1.7774

2.4024

34 0.5104

0.3684

0.8309

3.8299

0.2455

5.7852

0.1773

0.7502

0.2680

0.4569

1.6523

35 1.2685

0.8445

0.6431

4.1547

0.4550

7.3658

0.4628

1.8334

0.5922

0.9494

3.8378

36 0.5470

0.4830

0.3411

6.9811

0.5900

8.9422

0.3534

2.7406

0.4346

2.1619

5.6906

37 2.1974

0.2169

0.6589

1.9259

4.9992

0.0874

0.7556

0.2021

0.9595

2.0047

38 0.6770

0.8199

1.2653

6.6341

0.2904

9.6866

0.3708

0.8698

0.6353

0.9159

2.7918

39

0.6609

0.1875

0.2371

1.2403

0.1325

2.4584

0.0480

0.3432

0.1961

0.3336

0.9209

40

0.4472

0.3307

1.4449

0.3001

2.5229

0.0867

0.5067

0.1211

0.7314

1.4460

41

0.5260

0.1814

3.2707

0.1903

4.1683

0.1433

0.7378

0.2257

0.3233

1.4301

42

0.4210

0.1420

0.6142

1.7190

0.0997

2.9960

0.1051

0.3237

0.2262

0.1426

0.7976

43

1.1466

0.7140

0.6502

9.3673

0.7879

12.6660

0.3037

1.7981

0.4549

2.4643

5.0210

Average 0.7800

0.4147

0.7150

3.6014

0.3291

5.6472

0.1949

1.1136

0.2717

1.1764

2.7503

Note: Introduced from Si et al. (2009).

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LEI Jianjun et al.

1 0 4 LEI Jianjun et al. Fig. 4 Chinese kale types based on the stalk

Fig. 4 Chinese kale types based on the stalk form

longer time during the production in lateral stalk variety, and its yield is higher than the main stalk type.

3.2. Diversity in glucosinolates

Si et al. (2009) analyzed the content of glucosinolates in 43 collections of Chinese kale. Glucosinolate content differed sig- nificantly among the varieties tested (Table 1). The content of 3-butenyl GS (NAP) was 0.5616–12.3395 mg·g 1 DW. The NAP content in variety No. 22 was 22 times that of variety No. 13. There were also major differences in the anti-cancer glucosinolate, 4-methyl sulfinyl buty glucosinolate (RAA), which was 12 times higher in the former variety. Differences in neoglucobrassicin (NEO) reached 40 times (0.1426–5.5996 mg·g 1 DW) among the varieties.

4. Discussion

Chinese kale spread gradually from its center of diversity in South China to other areas in Asia. The production area has since rapidly increased in the Southeast and North of China. Consump- tion habits differ across different regions, for example the stalk type is popular in Southeast China and East of the Guangdong Province, while the stalk and leaf type is more popular in the Pearl River Delta Region in Guangdong Province, Guangxi, Fujian, and Taiwan. Chinese kale was first named by Bailey in 1992. At that time, he was familiar only with the white petal variety, and had not ob- served the yellow petal variety. Thus he named Chinese kale B.

alboglabra Bailey. He believed it constituted a single species. After that, the yellow petal variety was discovered, and hybridization with B. oleracea L. was also observed. It was therefore suggested that Chinese kale constitutes a variety of B . oleracea L. However, the name has not been modified since this discovery. As there is no barrier to compatibility between B . alboglabra Bailey and B . oleracea L., it is incorrect for Chinese kale to retain the name

B . alboglabra Bailey. However, it is also incorrect if it is named B .

oleracea L. var. alboglabra Bailey, as Bailey did not give its name. Many Latin names have been used to describe Chinese kale in the literature, including B. alboglabra Bailey (Panda et al., 2003), B. oleracea L. var. alboglabra L. H. Bailey (Okuda and Fujime, 1998; Okuda et al., 2000; Matsui et al., 2002 ), B . oleracea var. alboglabra Bailey ( Zhang

and Zhang, 2014; Yin et al., 2015 ), and B . oleracea var. alboglabra

( de Jonge et al., 2016; Yu et al., 2016; Zhu et al., 2016 ). However,

they are unsuitable, as a complete Latin name should include the name of the genus and the species, and should be named ac- cording to the nomenclatural rules for the naming of plants. It is therefore necessary to modify the Latin name of Chinese kale appropriately. The word utilis in Latin means ‘stalk’. Although the commercial organ is the stalk in most of the varieties, in some Chinese kale varieties the commercial organ is the leaf rather than the stalk. Therefore, it is not suitable to name B . oleracea L. var. utilis. We suggest B . oleracea L. var. chinensis Lei due to its origin in South China.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Key Project of Guangdong Science and Technology Section (2013B051000069, 2014B020202005), the Key Project of Science and Information Technology of Gua- ngzhou (201508030021) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31401874).

REFERENCES