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DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

VISAYAS STATE UNIVERSITY

REINFORCED CONCRETE
DESIGN
CENG 144
Engr. MARCELO T. ABRERA, Jr.
Instructor
CEng 144 REINFORCED DESIGN
PRE-REQUISITE: STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 2

4 UNITS: LECTURE –3
LABORATORY -1

SCHEDULE:
BLOCK 031

Lec: 7-8:30 TTh EB-203A


Lab: 10-1 W EB-103

BLOCK 151

Lec: 8:30-10 TTh EB-105A


Lab: 10-1 M EB-103
CEng 144 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

PASSING REQUIREMENT: 60%

REMOVAL EXAM RANGE: 50-59.99%

EXEMPTION FOR FINAL EXAM AT LEAST 80%


MUST HAVE NO RATING OF
BELOW 60% IN ANY EXAMINATION
GRADING SYSTEM

Major Examinations 35%


Long Examinations 30%
Quizzes/Seatworks 20%
Courseworks 15%
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total 100%
EXAMINATION RULES

1. NO SPECIAL EXAMINATION

2. NO GOING OUT DURING EXAMINATION

3. NO USING OF CELLPHONES/LAPTOP/NOTES DURING EXAMINATION

4. NO CHEATING
HAVE YOUR OWN HARDBOUND/SOFTBOUND
OF THE FOLLOWING:
1. ACI 318-14

2. NSCP 2015
CONCRETE
is a mixture of sand, gravel, crushed rock or other
aggregates held together in a rocklike mass with a
paste of cement and water.

Concrete has high compressive strength and a very low


tensile strength.

REINFORCED CONCRETE
is a combination of concrete and steel wherein the steel
reinforcement provides the tensile strength lacking in
the concrete.
ADVANTAGES OF REINFORCED CONCRETE
AS A STRUCTURAL MATERIAL

1. It has considerable compressive strength per unit


cost compared with most other materials.
2. Reinforced concrete has great resistance to the
actions of fire and water.
3. Reinforced concrete structures are very rigid.
4. It is a low-maintenance material.
5. As compared with other materials, it has a very
long service life.
6. It is usually the only economical material
available for footings, floor slabs, basement walls,
piers and similar applications.
ADVANTAGES OF REINFORCED CONCRETE
AS A STRUCTURAL MATERIAL

7. A special feature of concrete is its ability to be


cast into an extraordinary variety of shapes from
simple slabs, beams, and columns to great
arches and shells.
8. In most areas, concrete takes advantage of
inexpensive local materials (sand, gravel and
water) and requires relatively small amounts of
cement and reinforcing steel.
9. A lower grade of skilled labor is required for
erection as compared to other materials such as
structural steel.
DISADVANTAGES OF REINFORCED
CONCRETE AS A STRUCTURAL MATERIAL
1. Concrete has a very low tensile strength,
requiring the use of tensile reinforcing.
2. Forms, falseworks and shoring, that are required
to hold the concrete in place until it hardens
sufficiently, are very expensive.
3. The low strength per unit weight of concrete leads
to heavy members.
4. The low strength per unit volume of concrete
means members will be relatively large, an
important consideration for tall buildings and
long-span structures.
5. The properties of concrete vary widely because of
variations in its proportioning and mixing.
SPECIFICATIONS AND BUILDING CODES
ACI 318-14
AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE’s BUILDING CODE
REQUIREMENT FOR STRUCTURAL CONCRETE

referral code for the design of reinforced concrete.


not legally enforceable document
set of recommendations or statement of current good
practice in reinforced concrete design.

AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE (ACI)


is a non-profit technical society and standards
developing organization
SPECIFICATIONS AND BUILDING CODES

NSCP Specifications
structural code addressing the design an installation of
structural systems.

ASEP (Association of Structural Engineers of the


Philippines)
organization of structural designers/engineers in the
Philippines.
LIMIT STATE
Those conditions of a structure at which it ceases to
fulfill its intended function

TWO CATEGORIES
STRENGTH
Limit states are such behavioral phenomena as
achieving ductile maximum strength, buckling, fatigue,
fracture, overturning and sliding

SERVICEABILITY

Limit states are those concerned with occupancy of a


building, such as deflection, vibration, permanent
deformation, and cracking.
CONCRETE
Ultimate Strength of Concrete, 𝒇′𝒄

3000 psi 20.685 MPa

4000 psi 27.580 MPa

5000 psi 34.475 MPa


Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete

𝑬𝒄 = 𝟒𝟕𝟎𝟎 𝒇′𝒄 where 𝒇′𝒄 is in MPa

𝑬𝒄 = 𝟓𝟕𝟎𝟎𝟎 𝒇′𝒄 where 𝒇′𝒄 is in psi

Modulus of Elasticity of Steel

𝑬𝒔 = 𝟐𝟎𝟎, 𝟎𝟎𝟎 𝑴𝑷𝒂


LONGITUDINAL DEFORMED BARS

Yield Strength, 𝒇𝒚

Grade 40 40 ksi 275.8 MPa

Grade 60 60 ksi 413.7 MPa


WORKING STRESS DESIGN (WSD)
assumes the elastic behavior of concrete under service load
conditions (unfactored loading), limits the stresses on steel
and concrete to half of their strength capacity
FLEXURAL ANALYSIS OF BEAMS

THREE DISTINCT STAGES BEFORE THE COLLAPSE


OCCURS:

1. UNCRACKED CONCRETE STAGE

2. CONCRETE CRACKED-ELASTIC STRESSES


STAGE

3. ULTIMATE STRENGTH STAGE


FLEXURAL ANALYSIS OF BEAMS

1. UNCRACKED CONCRETE STAGE

MODULUS OF RUPTURE, 𝒇𝒓
is the bending tensile stress at which the concrete begins to crack

At small loads when the tensile stress are less than the
modulus of rupture, the entire cross-section of the
beam resists bending, with compression on one side
and tension on the other.
FLEXURAL ANALYSIS OF BEAMS

2. CONCRETE CRACKED-ELASTIC STRESSES


STAGE

When the load is increased, the tensile stress in the bottom of the
beam becomes equal to the modulus of rupture (cracking
moment), the cracks then starts to develop.

𝐶𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 < 0.5𝑓𝑐 ′

𝑆𝑡𝑒𝑒𝑙 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 < 𝑓𝑦


FLEXURAL ANALYSIS OF BEAMS

3. ULTIMATE STRENGTH STAGE


(BEAM FAILURE)

As the load is increased further so that the compressive stresses


are greater than 0.50𝑓𝑐 ′, the tensile cracks move farther upward, as
does the neutral axis, and the concrete compression stresses begin
to change appreciably from a straight line.

𝐶𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 ≥ 0.5𝑓𝑐 ′

𝑆𝑡𝑒𝑒𝑙 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 ≥ 𝑓𝑦
FLEXURAL ANALYSIS OF BEAMS

1st Stage
- small moments less
than the cracking
moment
- The entire beam cross-
section is available to
resist bending

2nd Stage
- When the moment is
increased beyond the
cracking moment, 𝑀𝑐𝑟 ,
the slope of the curve will
decrease a little because
the beam is not quite as
stiff as it was in the
initial stage before it
3rd Stage cracked
- Until the steel yields, a fairly large additional
load is required to appreciably increase the
beam’s deflection
FLEXURAL ANALYSIS OF BEAMS

The stress in the concrete at any point a distance y from the


neutral axis of the cross-section can be determined from the
following flexure formula in which M is the bending moment equal
to or less than the cracking moment of the section and 𝐼𝑔 is the
gross moment of inertia of the cross-section
FLEXURAL ANALYSIS OF BEAMS

Stage 1
UNCRACKED CONCRETE STAGE

CRACKING MOMENT

𝑦𝑡 = 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑖𝑑𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑡𝑜 𝑖𝑡𝑠 𝑒𝑥𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑚𝑒 𝑓𝑖𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛
FLEXURAL ANALYSIS OF BEAMS

MODULUS OF RUPTURE
① Assuming the concrete is uncracked,
compute the bending stresses, in psi, in the
extreme fibers of the beam shown for a bending
moment of 25 k-ft. The normal weight concrete
has an 𝒇𝒄 ′ of 4000 psi.
② Determine the cracking moment of the
section, in kip-ft.

Answer
back

① 𝐟 = 𝟒𝟔𝟐. 𝟗𝟔 𝒑𝒔𝒊
② 𝑴𝒄𝒓 = 𝟐𝟓. 𝟔𝟏𝟒 𝒌𝒊𝒑 − 𝒇𝒕

Next
① If the T-beam shown is uncracked, calculate the stress
in the concrete at the top and bottom extreme fibers under a
positive bending moment of 80 kip-ft.
② If 𝒇′𝒄 = 𝟑𝟎𝟎𝟎 𝒑𝒔𝒊 and normal-weight concrete is used, what
is the maximum uniformly distributed load, in lb/ft, the beam
can carry if it is used as a simple beam with 24-ft span without
exceeding the modulus of rupture of the concrete?
③ Repeat part (b) if the beam is inverted.

Answer
back

① 𝒇𝒕𝒐𝒑 = 𝟏𝟕𝟐. 𝟒𝟑 𝒑𝒔𝒊 𝒇𝒃𝒐𝒕𝒕𝒐𝒎 = 𝟑𝟑𝟖 𝒑𝒔𝒊


② 𝐰 = 𝟏𝟑𝟓𝟎. 𝟒𝟐 𝐥𝐛/𝐟𝐭
③ 𝒘 = 𝟐𝟔𝟒𝟕 𝒍𝒃/𝒇𝒕
Stage 2
ELASTIC-STRESSES CONCRETE CRACKED

When the bending moment is sufficiently large to cause the tensile


stress in the extreme fibers to be greater than the modulus of
rupture, it is assumed that all of the concrete on the tensile side of
the beam is cracked and must be neglected in the flexure
calculations.

MODULAR RATIO, n
the ratio of the steel modulus to the concrete modulus

𝑬𝒔
𝒏=
𝑬𝒄
TRANSFORMED-SECTION METHOD

1. Locate the NA
2. Compute the Moment of Inertia
3. Compute the bending stresses
① Calculate the bending stresses, in psi, in the
beam shown in the figure by using the transformed
area method, 𝒇′𝒄 = 𝟑𝟎𝟎𝟎 𝒑𝒔𝒊, 𝒏 = 𝟗, and 𝑴 = 𝟕𝟎 𝒌𝒊𝒑 − 𝒇𝒕.
② Determine the allowable resisting moment, in
kip-ft, of the beam if the allowable stresses are 𝒇𝒄 =
𝟏𝟑𝟓𝟎 𝒑𝒔𝒊 and 𝒇𝒔 = 𝟐𝟎, 𝟎𝟎𝟎 𝒑𝒔𝒊

Answer
① 𝒇𝒄 = 𝟏𝟒𝟎𝟎. 𝟔𝟑 𝒑𝒔𝒊 𝒇𝒔 = 𝟏𝟖, 𝟗𝟗𝟔. 𝟖𝟓 𝒑𝒔𝒊
② 𝑴 = 𝟔𝟕. 𝟒𝟕 𝒌𝒊𝒑 − 𝒇𝒕

Next
Compute the bending stresses in the beam shown
in the figure using the transformed-area method;
𝒏 = 𝟖 and 𝑴 = 𝟏𝟏𝟎 𝒌𝒊𝒑 − 𝒇𝒕

Answer
back

𝒇𝒄 = 𝟏, 𝟏𝟐𝟗. 𝟔𝟓 𝒑𝒔𝒊
𝒇𝒔 = 𝟏𝟑, 𝟐𝟕𝟐. 𝟎𝟗 𝒑𝒔𝒊

Next
Stage 2
ELASTIC-STRESSES CONCRETE CRACKED
ANALYSIS OF DOUBLY-REINFORCED BEAM

DOUBLY-REINFORCED BEAM
beam that has compression steel as well as tension steel

Note:
For the transformed area of the compression side equals
the gross compression area of the concrete plus 2𝑛𝐴𝑠 ′ minus the
area of the holes in the concrete (1𝐴′𝑠 ), which theoretically should
not have included in the concrete part.
Compute the bending stresses in the beam shown
in the figure; 𝒏 = 𝟏𝟎 and 𝑴 = 𝟏𝟏𝟖 𝒌𝒊𝒑 − 𝒇𝒕.

Answer
back

𝒇𝒄 = 𝟏, 𝟑𝟓𝟖. 𝟎𝟖 𝒑𝒔𝒊
𝒇′𝒔 = 𝟏𝟔, 𝟔𝟒𝟎. 𝟒𝟑 𝒑𝒔𝒊
𝒇𝒔 = 𝟐𝟑, 𝟐𝟒𝟑. 𝟓𝟕 𝒑𝒔𝒊

Next
Stage 3
ULTIMATE STRENGTH STAGE
CALCULATION OF THE ULTIMATE OR NOMINAL FLEXURAL
STRENGTH OF THE BEAMS

It is assumed that the tensile reinforcing bars are stressed to their


yield point before the concrete on the compressive side beam is
crushed.

After the concrete compression stresses exceed about 0.50𝑓𝑐 ′, they


no longer vary directly as the distance from the neutral axis or as a
straight line.
Stage 3

It is assumed that the curved compression diagram is replaced


with a rectangular one with a constant stress of 0.85𝑓𝑐 ′ over a
depth a equal to 𝛽1 𝑐 where 𝛽1 is a value determined by the code.
Stage 3
Simple steps to obtain the nominal or theoretical moment strength
of the beam:

1. Compute the total tensile force 𝑇 = 𝐴𝑠 𝑓𝑦 .

2. Equate the total compression force 𝐶 = 0.85𝑓𝑐′ 𝑎𝑏 to T and


solve for a. In this expression, ab is the assumed area stressed in
compression at 0.85𝑓𝑐 ′. The compression force C and the tensile
force T must be equal to maintain equilibrium at the section.

3. Calculate the distance between the centers of gravity of T


𝑎
and C. (For rectangular cross-section, it equals 𝑑 − 2 .)

4. Determine 𝑀𝑛 , which equals T or C times the distance


between their centers of gravity.
𝐸𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑖𝑠ℎ 𝑁𝑜.
𝐷𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 𝑖𝑛𝑐ℎ𝑒𝑠
8
𝑀𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐 𝑁𝑜. −1 𝐸𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑖𝑠ℎ 𝑁𝑜.
= 𝐸𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑖𝑠ℎ 𝑁𝑜. = 𝐷𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝐼𝑁𝐶𝐻𝐸𝑆
3 8
Determine the nominal moment strength of
the beam, in kN-m, shown in the figure if
𝒇′𝒄 = 𝟐𝟖 𝑴𝑷𝒂 and 𝒇𝒚 = 𝟒𝟐𝟎 𝑴𝑷𝒂

Answer
back

247.4 kN-m

Next
Calculate the nominal or theoretical ultimate
moment strength of the beam section shown in the
figure if 𝒇𝒚 = 𝟔𝟎, 𝟎𝟎𝟎 𝒑𝒔𝒊 and 𝒇′𝒄 = 𝟑𝟎𝟎𝟎 𝒑𝒔𝒊. The 6-in.-
wide ledges on top are needed for the support of
precast concrete slabs.

Answer
back

303.02 kip-ft

Next