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The Child and Adolescent Learners

and Learning Principles

Sigmund Freud’s
Group 1
Alla, Janna Mafer
Bascuguin, Lenard
De la Cuesta, Jobelyn
Delos Reyes, John Carlo
Ilagan, Erica
Macalindong, Cathleen
Marasigan, Maribel
Plaza, Mary Anne
The term psychoanalysis derives from the Greek words psyche and analysis: psyché(ψυχή)
refers to the soul, spiritual life, mental state, and even a way of thinking while analỳο (άνάλυο,
άνάλυδις) stands for resolution, distinction, separation and/or examination of particularities (Klaić,

The most attractive and controversial is one of Freud’s most important concepts: the theory of
the libido. According to Sigmund Freud (2000), the libido indicates active
psychic energy, an instinctive human force that arises at birth and disappears
at death.

Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of

psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through
dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst. Freud was born to Galician
Jewish parents in the Moravian town of Freiberg, in the Austrian Empire.

Born: 6 May 1856, Příbor, Czechia

Died: 23 September 1939, Hampstead, London, United Kingdom
Known for: Psychoanalysis Fig. 1 Sigmund Freud’s Photo
Education: University of Vienna (1873–1881)
Spouse: Martha Bernays (m. 1886–1939)
Children: Anna Freud, Ernst L. Freud, Jean Martin Freud, Mathilde Freud, Oliver Freud

As a young boy, he was passionate about literature and was proficient in a number of languages
such as German, French, Italian, Hebrew, Greek and Latin. He was also an avid reader of Shakespeare’s
works, whose works apparently, helped him understand human psychology.

He started his private practice in 1886 and adopted the use of ‘hypnosis’ for his clinical work,
inspired by his friend and collaborator, Josef Breuer. The treatment of one particular patient, ‘Anna O’,
proved to be transformative to Freud’s clinical career

In addition to this practice, he also discovered that a patient’s dreams could be analyzed and the
psychic repression of an individual could also be studied and cured. By 1896, he carried out extensive
research on a new subject, which he coined as ‘psychoanalysis’.

He also concluded that repressed childhood memories of sexual molestation or assault were
prerequisites to understand a certain psychological condition called ‘neuroses’. In order to further his
research on the same, he developed the ‘seduction theory’, which threw light on how horrifying
childhood memories related to sexual abuse or other gruesome physical encounters can become
causative factors for the afore mentioned condition.

He delivered lectures on his newly-formulated theories to small audiences at the lecture hall at
the university and his works generated considerable amount of interest among a small group of
Viennese physicians.

The id. Freud says that child is born with the id. The id plays a vital role in one's personality
because as a baby, it works so that the babys essential needs are met. The id operates on the pleasure
principle. It focuses on immediate gratification or satisfaction of it's needs.

The ego. As the baby turns into a toddler and then into a preschooler, he/she relates more with
the environment, the ego slowly begins to emerge. The ego operates using the reality principle. It is
aware that others also have needs to be met. It is practical because it knows that being impulsive or
selfish can reseult to negative consequences later, so it reasons and considers the best response to

The superego. Near the end of the preschool year's, or the end of the phallic stage, the
superego develops. The superego embodies a person's moral aspect. This develops from what the
parents, teachers and other perosns who exert influence impart to be good or moral. The superego is
likened to conscience because it exerts influence on what one considers right and wrong.


Unconscious. Freud said that most what we go through in our lives, emotions, beliefs, feelings,
and impulses deep within are not available to us at a conscious level. He believed that most of what
influence us in our unconscious. The Oedipus and Electra complex mentioned earlier were both buried
down into the unconscious, out of our awareness due to the extreme anxiety they caused. While these
complexes are in our unconscious, they still influence our thinking feeling and doing in perhaps dramatic

The Conscious. Freud also said that all that we are aware of is stored in our conscious mind. Our
conscious mind only comprises a very small part of who we are so that, in our everyday life, we are only
aware of a very small part of what makes up our personality; most of we are hidden and out of reach.

The Subconscious. The last part is the preconscious or subconscious. This is the part of us that
we can reach if prompted, but is not in our active conscious. It's right below the surface, but still
"hidden" somewhat unless we search for it. Information such as our telephone number, some childhood
memories, or the name of your best childhood friend is stored in preconscious.

Fig. 2 Freud’s Conception of the Human Psyche

(The Iceberg Metaphor)

1. The Oral Stage

Age Range: Birth to 1 year
Erogenous Zone: Mouth
 During the oral stage, the infant’s primary source of interaction occurs through the mouth, so
the rooting and sucking reflex is especially important.
 The child develops a sense of trust and comfort through this oral stimulation.
 The primary conflict at this stage is the weaning process—the child must become less
dependent upon caretakers.
2. The Anal Stage
Age Range: 1 to 3 years old
Erogenous Zone: Bowel and Bladder Control
 During the anal stage, Freud believed that the primary focus of the libido was on controlling
bladder and bowel movements.
 The major conflict at this stage is toilet training, the child has to learn to control his or her bodily
 Developing this control leads to a sense of accomplishment and independence.
 Unsuccess of developing this stage may result to anal-expulsive personality, according to Freud.
3. The Phallic Stage
Age Range: 3 to 6 years old
Erogenous Zone: Genitals
 During the phallic stage, the primary focus of the libido is on genitals.
 Children discover the differences between males and females.
 The Oedipus complex describes the feelings of young boys wanting to possess the mother and
the desire to replace the father and Electra complex describes the feelings of young girls
experienced penis envy.
 A fear of father punishment is castration anxiety.
4. The Latent Period
Age Range: 6 to Puberty
Erogenous Zone: Sexual Feelings Are Inactive
 During this stage, the superego continues to develop while the id’s energies are suppressed.
 Children develop social skills, values and relationships with peers and adults outside of the
 The development of the ego and superego contribute to this period of calm.
5. The Genital Stage
Age Range: Puberty to Death
Erogenous Zone: Maturing Sexual Interests
 During the final stage of psychosexual development, the individual develops a strong sexual
interest in the opposite sex
 The goal of this stage is to establish a balance between the various life areas.

The three components and personality adjustments

According to Freud, a well-adjusted person is one who has strong ego, who can help satisfy the
needs of the id without going against the superego while maintaining the presence sense of what is
logical, practical and real.

Of course, it is not easy for the ego to do all that and strike a balance. Here are the possibilities:

1. If the id exerts too much power over the ego

Example: The person becomes too impulsive and pleasure-seeking behavior takes over one's
2. On the opposite direction, one may find the superego so strong that the ego is overpowered.
Example: The person becomes too harsh and judgmental to himself and others’ actions.
3. The person's best effort to be good may still fall short of the superego’s expectations.

The ability of a learner to be well adjusted is highly influenced by how the learner is brought up.

His experiences on about:

1. how his parents met his needs

2. how he was allowed to do the things he wanted to do
3. how he was taught about right and wrong.

All figures to the type of personality and consequent adjustment that a person will make.
Freud believed that the personality of an individual is formed early during the childhood years.

Through this theory, child’s learning development may be analyzed as:

1. Freud stated that the child must learn to control their instincts. It would be impossible for them to
get freedom without their instincts being regulated. Education has a similar mission: to find its way
between the Scylla (gratification) and Charybdis (frustration).
2. The development of the concept of “good enough mother” of Donald Woods Winnictt (1896-
1971), as part of developmental psychology was linked on how important it is to have a “good
enough teacher” – a teacher who will in some way be able to bear the burden of a child’s growth
and development and be their rediscovered parental figure that the child loves and hates, whose
love can be gained and lost (Bibby, 2011).
3. Deepening the teacher’s capacity to understand their students, especially in terms of encouraging
communication within the complex teacher-student relationship
4. Teachers may find the right ratio of gratification and punishment of students
5. Development of practical therapeutic methods to assist those students with psychological
difficulties that have additionally opened-up during the process of education (Wool, 1989).