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INDEX

SR NO. CONTENT PAGE


NO.
INTRODUCTION
01 03

02 OBJECTIVE 05
03 BRIEF LITERATURE SURVEY 06
04 METHODOLOGY 08
05 NEED OF CYBER SECURITY 12
06 VARIOUS FORM OF CYBERCIME 13
PURPOSE AND APPLICABILITY
07 14
08 CONCLUSION 15
09 REFERANCE 16

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ABSTRACT
Governments, military, organizations, financial institutions, universities and other businesses
collect, process and store a large amount of confidential information and data on computers and
transmit that data over networks to other computers. With the continuous rapid growth of volume
and sophistication of cyber attacks, quick attempts are required to secure sensitive business and
personal information, as well as to protect national security. The paper details about the nature of
cyberspace and shows how the internet is unsecure to transmit the confidential and financial
information. We demonstrate that hacking is now common and harmful for global economy and
security and presented the various methods of cyber attacks in India and worldwide.

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CHAPTER01
INTRODUCTION
Cyber security is defined as technologies and processes constructed to computers,
computer hardware, software, networks and data from unauthorized access, vulnerabilities supplied
through Internet by cyber criminals, terrorist groups and hackers. Cyber security is related to
protecting your internet and network based digital equipment sand information from unauthorized
access and alteration. Internet is now not only the source of information but also has established as a
medium through which we do business, to advertise and sell our products in various forms,
communicate with our customers and retailers and do our financial transactions. The internet offers
lots of benefits and provides us opportunity to advertise our business across the globe in minimum
charges and in less human efforts in very short span of time. As internet was never constructed to
track and trace the behavior of users . The Internet was actually constructed to link autonomous
computers for resource sharing and to provide a common platform to community of researchers . As
internet offers on the one hand huge number of benefits and on the other hand it also provides equal
opportunities for cyber-terrorists and hackers. Terrorist organizations and their supporters are using
internet for a wide range of purposes such as gathering information and dissemination of it for
terrorist purpose, recruiting fresh terrorists, funding attacks and to motivate acts of terrorism.
It is often used to facilitate communication within terrorist groups and gathering and
dissemination of information for terrorist purposes Cyberspace is virtual space that use electronics
and electromagnetic spectrum to store, modify and exchange information through the use of
networked system and concerned physical structure. It is intangible where communications and
internet related activities take place. Cyberspace is imaginary where contained objects are neither
exist nor representation of physical world. It is totally virtual environment wherein information
exchange and communication occurs that connects about 2.7 billion people Today man is able to
send and receive any form of data may be an e-mail or an audio or video just by the click of a
button but did he ever think how securely his data id being transmitted or sent to the other person
safely without any leakage of information?? The answer lies in cyber security. Today Internet is the
fastest growing infrastructure in every day life. In today’s technical environment many latest
technologies are changing the face of the man kind. But due to these emerging technologies we are
unable to safeguard our private information in a very effective way and hence these days cyber
crimes are increasing day by ay. Today more than 60 percent of total commercial transactions are
done online, so this field required a high quality of security for transparent and best transactions.
Hence cyber security has become a latest issue. The scope of cyber security is not just limited to
securing the information in IT industry but also to various other fields like cyber space etc. Even the
latest technologies like cloud computing, mobile computing, E-commerce, net banking etc also
needs high level of security. Since these technologies hold some important information regarding a
person their security has become a must thing. Enhancing cyber security and protecting critical
information infrastructures are essential to each nation's security and economic wellbeing. Internet
safer (and protecting Internet users) has become integral to the development of new services as well
as governmental policy. The fight against cyber crime needs a comprehensive and a safer approach.
Given that technical measures alone cannot prevent .

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computer security comprises mainly "preventive" measures, like firewalls or an exit procedure. A
firewall can be defined as a way of filtering network data between a host or a network and another
network, such as the Internet, and can be implemented as software running on the machine, hooking
into the network stack (or, in the case of most UNIX-based operating systems such as Linux, built
into the operating system kernel) to provide real-time filtering and blocking. Another
implementation is a so-called "physical firewall", which consists of a separate machine filtering
network traffic. Firewalls are common amongst machines that are permanently connected to
the Internet. Some organizations are turning to big data platforms, such as Apache Hadoop, to
extend data accessibility and machine learning to detect advanced persistent threats.However,
relatively few organisations maintain computer systems with effective detection systems, and fewer
still have organized response mechanisms in place. As a result, as Reuters points out: "Companies
for the first time report they are losing more through electronic theft of data than physical stealing
of assets. One use of the term "computer security" refers to technology that is used to implement
secure operating systems. In the 1980s the United States Department of Defense used the "Orange
Book" standards, but the current international standard ISO/IEC 15408, "Common Criteria" defines
a number of progressively more stringent Evaluation Assurance Levels. Many common operating
systems meet the EAL4 standard of being "Methodically Designed, Tested and Reviewed.

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CHAPTER 02
OBJECTIVE
The objective of this micro project is to study about the method that ensure the cyber security
like Computer access control, Defence in Depth, Application security, Antivirus software,
Secure coding. Secure by design. Secure operating systems.Also studied about the security
measures and computer protection.

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CHAPTER 03
BRIEF LITERATURE SURVEY
In 1988, only 60,000 computers were connected to the Internet, and most were mainframes,
minicomputers and professional workstations. On 2 November 1988, many started to slow down,
because they were running a malicious code that demanded processor time and that spread itself to
other computers – the first internet "computer worm".The software was traced back to 23-year-
old Cornell University graduate student Robert Tappan Morris, Jr. who said "he wanted to count
how many machines were connected to the Internet".In early 2007, American apparel and home
goods company TJX announced that it was the victim of an unauthorized computer systems
intrusion and that the hackers had accessed a system that stored data on credit card, debit
card, check, and merchandise return transactions. Employee behavior can have a big impact on
information security in organizations. Cultural concepts can help different segments of the
organization work effectively or work against effectiveness towards information security within an
organization. Information security culture is the "...totality of patterns of behavior in an organization
that contribute to the protection of information of all kinds.″ Andersson and Reimers (2014) found
that employees often do not see themselves as part of the organization information security "effort"
and often take actions that ignore organizational Information Security best interests. Research
shows information security culture needs to be improved continuously. In ″Information Security
Culture from Analysis to Change″, authors commented, ″It's a never ending process, a cycle of
evaluation and change or maintenance.
To manage the information security culture, five steps should be taken: pre-evaluation,
strategic planning, operative planning, implementation, and post-evaluation.
 Pre-Evaluation: to identify the awareness of information security within employees and to analyze
the current security policy.
 Strategic Planning: to come up with a better awareness program, clear targets need to be set.
Clustering[definition needed]people is helpful to achieve it.
 Operative Planning: a good security culture can be established based on internal communication,
management-buy-in, and security awareness and a training program.
 Implementation: four stages should be used to implement the information security culture. They are:

1. Commitment of the management.


2. Communication with organizational members.
3. Courses for all organizational members.
4. Commitment of the employees.

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A state of computer "security" is the conceptual ideal, attained by the use of the three processes:
threat prevention, detection, and response. These processes are based on various policies and system
components, which include the following:

 User account access controls and cryptography can protect systems files and data,
respectively.
 Firewalls are by far the most common prevention systems from a network security
perspective as they can (if properly configured) shield access to internal network services,
and block certain kinds of attacks through packet filtering. Firewalls can be both hardware-
or software-based.
 Intrusion Detection System (IDS) products are designed to detect network attacks in-progress
and assist in post-attack forensics, while audit trails and logs serve a similar function for
individual systems.
 "Response" is necessarily defined by the assessed security requirements of an individual
system and may cover the range from simple upgrade of protections to notification
of legal authorities, counter-attacks, and the like. In some special cases, a complete
destruction of the compromised system is favored, as it may happen that not all the
compromised resources are detected.

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CHAPTER04
METHODOLOGY
 Cyber security protection methods
1. Computer access control.
2. Defence in Depth.
3. Application security. Antivirus software. Secure coding. Secure by default. Secure by
design. Secure operating systems.
4. Authentication. Multi-factor authentication.
5. Authorization.
6. Data-centric security.
7. Encryption.
8. Firewall.

 Computer protection:
Security by design, or alternately secure by design, means that the software has been designed
from the ground up to be secure. In this case, security is considered as a main feature. Some of
the techniques in this approach include:
1. The principle of least privilege, where each part of the system has only the privileges that
are needed for its function. That way even if an attacker gains access to that part, they
have only limited access to the whole system.
2. Automated theorem proving to prove the correctness of crucial software subsystems.
3. Code reviews and unit testing, approaches to make modules more secure where formal
correctness proofs are not possible.
4. Defense in depth, where the design is such that more than one subsystem needs to be
violated to compromise the integrity of the system and the information it holds.
5. Default secure settings, and design to "fail secure" rather than "fail insecure" (see fail-
safe for the equivalent in safety engineering). Ideally, a secure system should require a
deliberate, conscious, knowledgeable and free decision on the part of legitimate
authorities in order to make it insecure.
6. Audit trails tracking system activity, so that when a security breach occurs, the
mechanism and extent of the breach can be determined. Storing audit trails remotely,
where they can only be appended to, can keep intruders from covering their tracks.
7. Full disclosure of all vulnerabilities, to ensure that the "window of vulnerability" is kept
as short as possible when bugs are discovered.

 Security architecture:
The Open Security Architecture organization defines IT security architecture as "the
design artifacts that describe how the security controls (security countermeasures) are positioned,
and how they relate to the overall information technology architecture. These controls serve the
purpose to maintain the system's quality attributes: confidentiality, integrity, availability,
accountability and assurance services". Techopedia defines security architecture as "a unified
security design that addresses the necessities and potential risks involved in a certain scenario or

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environment. It also specifies when and where to apply security controls. The design process is
generally reproducible." The key attributes of security architecture are:

1. the relationship of different components and how they depend on each other.
2. the determination of controls based on risk assessment, good practice, finances, and legal
matters.
3. the standardization of controls.

 Security measures
A state of computer "security" is the conceptual ideal, attained by the use of the three processes:
threat prevention, detection, and response. These processes are based on various policies and system
components, which include the following:

1. User account access controls and cryptography can protect systems files and data,
respectively.
2. Firewalls are by far the most common prevention systems from a network security
perspective as they can (if properly configured) shield access to internal network
services, and block certain kinds of attacks through packet filtering. Firewalls can be both
hardware- or software-based.
3. Intrusion Detection System (IDS) products are designed to detect network attacks in-
progress and assist in post-attack forensics, while audit trails and logs serve a similar
function for individual systems.
4. "Response" is necessarily defined by the assessed security requirements of an individual
system and may cover the range from simple upgrade of protections to notification
of legal authorities, counter-attacks, and the like. In some special cases, a complete
destruction of the compromised system is favored, as it may happen that not all the
compromised resources are detected.

Today, computer security comprises mainly "preventive" measures, like firewalls or


an exit procedure. A firewall can be defined as a way of filtering network data between a host or a
network and another network, such as the Internet, and can be implemented as software running on
the machine, hooking into the network stack (or, in the case of most UNIX-based operating systems
such as Linux, built into the operating system kernel) to provide real-time filtering and blocking.
Another implementation is a so-called "physical firewall", which consists of a separate machine
filtering network traffic. Firewalls are common amongst machines that are permanently connected
to the Internet. Some organizations are turning to big dataplatforms, such as Apache Hadoop, to
extend data accessibility and machine learning to detect advanced persistent threats.
However, relatively few organisations maintain computer systems with effective detection systems,
and fewer still have organized response mechanisms in place. As a result, as Reuters points out:
"Companies for the first time report they are losing more through electronic theft of data than
physical stealing of assets". The primary obstacle to effective eradication of cyber crime could be
traced to excessive reliance on firewalls and other automated "detection" systems. Yet it is basic
evidence gathering by using packet capture appliances that puts criminals behind bars.

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 Vulnerability management:
Vulnerability management is the cycle of identifying, and remediating or
mitigating vulnerabilities, especially in software and firmware. Vulnerability management is
integral to computer security and network security.Vulnerabilities can be discovered with
a vulnerability scanner, which analyzes a computer system in search of known vulnerabilities. such
as open ports, insecure software configuration, and susceptibility to malware. Beyond vulnerability
scanning, many organizations contract outside security auditors to run regular penetration
testsagainst their systems to identify vulnerabilities. In some sectors, this is a contractual
requirement.
 Reducing vulnerabilities:
Two factor authentication is a method for mitigating unauthorized access to a
system or sensitive information. It requires "something you know"; a password or PIN, and
"something you have"; a card, dongle, cellphone, or other piece of hardware. This increases security
as an unauthorized person needs both of these to gain access. Social engineering and direct
computer access (physical) attacks can only be prevented by non-computer means, which can be
difficult to enforce, relative to the sensitivity of the information. Training is often involved to help
mitigate this risk, but even in a highly disciplined environments (e.g. military organizations), social
engineering attacks can still be difficult to foresee and prevent.Enoculation, derived
from inoculation theory, seeks to prevent social engineering and other fraudulent tricks or traps by
instilling a resistance to persuasion attempts through exposure to similar or related attempts.It is
possible to reduce an attacker's chances by keeping systems up to date with security patches and
updates, using a security scanner and hiring competent people responsible for security.(This
statement is ambiguous. Even systems developed by "competent" people get penetrated) The effects
of data loss/damage can be reduced by careful backing up and insurance.

 Computer security compromised by hardware failure:


1. While hardware may be a source of insecurity, such as with microchip vulnerabilities
maliciously introduced during the manufacturing process, hardware-based or assisted
computer security also offers an alternative to software-only computer security. Using
devices and methods such as dongles, trusted platform modules, intrusion-aware cases,
drive locks, disabling USB ports, and mobile-enabled access may be considered more
secure due to the physical access (or sophisticated backdoor access) required in order to
be compromised. Each of these is covered in more detail below.
2. USB dongles are typically used in software licensing schemes to unlock software
capabilities, but they can also be seen as a way to prevent unauthorized access to a
computer or other device's software. The dongle, or key, essentially creates a secure
encrypted tunnel between the software application and the key. The principle is that an
encryption scheme on the dongle, such as Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) provides
a stronger measure of security, since it is harder to hack and replicate the dongle than to
simply copy the native software to another machine and use it. Another security
application for dongles is to use them for accessing web-based content such as cloud
software or Virtual Private Networks. In addition, a USB dongle can be configured to
lock or unlock a computer.

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3. Trusted platform modules (TPMs) secure devices by integrating cryptographic
capabilities onto access devices, through the use of microprocessors, or so-called
computers-on-a-chip. TPMs used in conjunction with server-side software offer a way to
detect and authenticate hardware devices, preventing unauthorized network and data
access.[115]
4. Computer case intrusion detection refers to a device, typically a push-button switch,
which detects when a computer case is opened. The firmware or BIOS is programmed to
show an alert to the operator when the computer is booted up the next time.
5. Drive locks are essentially software tools to encrypt hard drives, making them
inaccessible to thieves.[116] Tools exist specifically for encrypting external drives as
well.[117]
6. Disabling USB ports is a security option for preventing unauthorized and malicious
access to an otherwise secure computer. Infected USB dongles connected to a network
from a computer inside the firewall are considered by the magazine Network World as
the most common hardware threat facing computer networks.

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CHAPTER05
NEED OF CYBER SECURITY
Cybersecurity now considered as important part of individuals and families, as well as
organizations, governments, educational institutions and our business. It is essential for families and
parents to protect the children and family members from online fraud. In terms of financial security,
it is crucial to secure our financial information that can affect our personal financial status. Internet
is very important and beneficial for faculty, student, staff and educational institutions, has provided
lots of learning opportunities with number of online risks [5]. There is vital need for internet users
to understand how to protect themselves from online fraud and identity theft. Appropriate learning
about the online behavior and system protection results reduction in vulnerabilities and safer online
environment. Small and medium-sized organizations also experience various security related
challenges because of limited resources and appropriate cyber security skills [5]. The rapid
expansion of technologies is also creating and making the cyber security more challenging as we do
not present permanent solutions for concerned problem. Although, we are actively fighting and
presenting various frameworks or technologies to protect our network and information but all of
these providing protection for short term only. However, better security understanding and
appropriate strategies can help us to protect intellectual property and trade secrets and reduce
financial and reputation loss [5]. Central, state and local governments hold large amount of data and
confidential records online in digital form that becomes primary target for a cyber attack [5]. Most
of time governments face difficulties due to inappropriate infrastructure, lack of awareness and
sufficient funding. It is important for the government bodies to provide reliable services to society,
maintain healthy citizen- to-government communications and protection of confidential information

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CHAPTER06
VARIOUS FORMS OF CYBERCRIME
Cybercrime denotes criminal activity including internet, computers or any other inter-connected
infrastructure. The term that covers crimes like phishing, credit card frauds, illegal downloading,
industrial espionage, child pornography, scams, cyber terrorism, creation and/or distribution of
viruses, Spam and so on.
It is defined as an act which is frequently done by intruding into individuals’ personal life to cause
distress, anxiety and fear . Cyber Stalkers often take the advantages of anonymity of internet that
allow them to continue their activities without being detected. Actually, an intrusion is possible in
individuals’ personal life by approaching to their friend circle, family members or sending fake
letters and mails to targeted person electronically. Cyber stalking harasses a person psychologically
therefore it is sometimes referred as “psychological rape” or “psychological terrorism” . About 90%
stalkers are male and around 80% females are victims of such kind of harassment .5.2 Intellectual
Property Intellectual property is defined as an innovation, new research, method, model and formula
that have an economic value. Intellectual property is protected with having patentsand trademarks
and with the copyright on videos and music as well. It is clear that market secrets and internal
business information are highly attacked assets for any organization.
This business information may be in various forms such as future product design, customer lists and
price lists etc. the internet is the frequently used medium to facilitate the Intellectual property theft
because it is easy to mask the identity on network.Salami AttackIn the salami cyber attack, cyber
criminals and attackers steal money in very little amount from several bank accounts to make a
huge amount. The alteration becomes so insignificant that in a single case it would be difficult to
notice. Suppose, a bank employee creates a program into banking software, that reduces a
insignificant amount of money (say Rs. 3 a month) from the account of each customer. It is general
perception that no customer will probably notice this unauthorized deduction, but it will be
beneficial to cyber criminals that make large money.5.4 E-Mail BombingIt is sending of enormous
amount of e-mails to a targetedperson. A large amount of e-mails simply fill up the recipient's inbox
on the server or, in some cases, server becomes fail to receive such large amount data and
stopsfunctioning [9]. There are many ways to create an e-mail bomb like “zombie” or “robot”
which are capable to send continuous thousands or even millions of e-mails torecipients’ e-mail
address [10]. E-mail is bombing and e-mail flooding, both the terms are used interchangeably and
represent the same phenomena. It is said e-mail bombing as the recipient’s inbox gets filled u with
large number of undesired mails and the targeted person does not become able to receive further
important e-mails.

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CHAPTER07
PURPOSE AND APPLICABILITY
The purpose of this publication is to provide an understanding of the specific, standards-
basedsecurity controls that make up a best practice cybersecurity program. Implementation of
controls is expected to vary between Dealer Members subject to different threats, different
vulnerabilities, and different risk tolerances. Investment industry members can determine activities
that are important to critical service delivery, and can prioritize investments to maximize the impact
of each dollar spent. Specific objectives that follow from this micro project are.
 Establishing and maintaining a robust and properly implemented cybersecurity awareness
program, and ensuring that end-users are aware of the importance of protecting sensitive
information and the risks of mishandling information.
 Facilitating a consistent and comparable approach for selecting and specifying security
controls for Dealer Member computer systems.
 Providing a catalogue of security controls to meet current information protection needs and
the demands of future protection needs based on changing threats, requirements, and
technologies.
 Creating a foundation for the development of internal assessment methods and procedures
for determining security control effectiveness.This best practices framework is intended to
function as a living document, and will continue to be updated and improved as industry
provides feedback on implementation. Lessons learned from early distribution of this
framework to Dealer Members will be integrated into future versions. This will ensure that
the document continues to meet the needs of Dealer Members in an environment of dynamic
threats and innovative solutions.

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CHAPTER 08
CONCLUSION :
In this micro-project we have detailed about the nature of cyberspace and defined the
cyber security with ts necessities across the world. Significant statistics show that India stands on
third position in the usage of internet and also experiencing the problem of cyber security. We have
also explained various methods of cyber attacks and showed how the websites hacking incidents are
common and growing with time worldwide. Also studied about the cyber security ensures methods
like computer protection,security measure with their purposes.

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CHAPTER09
REFERENCES
1. Lipson. Tracking and Tracing Cyber-Attacks: Technical Challenges and Global Policy Issues,
Carnegie Mellon Software Engineering Institute, Pittsburgh, November 2002.
2. A Report from United Nations offices on drugs and Crime (UNODC), the use of the Internet For
terrorist purposes, New York, USA, 2012.
3. A Report available on http://searchsoa.techtarget.com/definition/cyberspace.
4. A Report available on http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/cyberspac e.html.
5. A Report form CISCO, Cybersecurity: Everyone’s Responsibility, 2010.
6. A Fifty Second Report. Cyber Crime, Cyber Security and Right to Privacy, Ministry of
Communications and Information Technology, Department of Electronics and Information
Technology, Govt. of India, February 2014.
7. A Report, Digital India 2014, IAMAI 2013. Gisela Wurm, Stalking, A Report before Committee
on Equality and Non-Discrimination, June 2013.
8. A Fifty Second Report. Cyber Crime, Cyber Security and Right to Privacy, Ministry of
Communications and Information Technology, Department of Electronics and Information
Technology, Govt. of India, February 2014.
9. A Report on Internet Security Threat Report 2014, Symantec Corporation, Volume 19, April
2014.
10. A Report on, Crime in India 2013 compendium, National Crime records Bureau, Ministry of
Home affairs, Govt. Of India.

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