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Introduction

CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM

Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus lam) has originated from the mulberry family

and belongs to the family of moraceae. It is known as the largest produce fruit in the

world which are widely cultivated throughout tropical regions of the world particularly in

the Philippines. The matured jackfruit is consumed either as a main meal or a meal

accompaniment with rice and the ripe flesh as a fruit or dessert.

The jackfruit seeds were considered as waste part after utilization of jackfruit.

However, it has been found that the jackfruit seeds also contain many phytonutrients. The

seed portion of jackfruit constitute about 10-12 per cent. These seeds can be processed

and utilized for various purposes. (Mandave et.al., 2018).

Jackfruit appears in the market in springs continues until summer as it is cheaply

available in large quantities during the season. The interior of ripe fruit consist of large,

pleasant flavored yellow sweet bulbs (fully developed perianths), massed among narrow

ribbous of thin, though undeveloped perianths and a central pithy core constitute 25-30

percent of the total fruit. Each bulb encloses a smooth, oval, light brown seed (endocarp)

covered by a thin white membrane (exocarp). The seed is 2 - 4 cm long and 1.5 - 2.5 cm

thick. There may be 100 120 or up to 500 seeds in a single fruit comprising 5 6

percent of the total fruit (Butool S., 2013). Jack fruit is a highly fibrous fruit and is rich in

nutritive value, containing 18.9 g carbohydrates, 0.8 g minerals, 30 IU vitamin-A and

1

0.25 mg thiamine for every 100 grams (Samaddar, 1985). Jack fruit has been reported to

contain high levels of protein, starch, calcium and thiamine. It is a very good source of

potassium and vitamin C (Burkill, 1977, as stated by Pratima K. S., 2008).

Jackfruit

is

reported

to

possess

many

medicinal

properties.

The

phenolic

compounds isolated from jackfruit are reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory effect. The

phenylflavores present in jackfruit had shown strong anti-oxidant properties and is

expected to act against lipid peroxidation or biological membranes. Jackfruits contain

antioxidant which helps in prevention from free radicals (Abraham and Jayamuthunagai,

2014). Jackfruits have integrity of maintaining skin and mucosa because in which vitamin

A is present. Jackfruit cures anemia by iron which is present per 100 g contains 0.60 mg.

jackfruit also beneficial in typical hair growth.

The fully mature jackfruit contain fructose and sucrose sugar in quantity of 19.8 g

per 100 g edible bulb which provides 95 calories, also this have high contain of dietary

fibre which help in digestion. It contains potassium and calcium so it regulates the blood

pressure and beneficial to bones growth (Tejpal and Amrit, 2016). The hot water extract

of a mature leaves are utilized in Ayurvedic treatment for hyperglycaemia and diabetes,

lectins present in the seeds shown an antifungal properties while the crude methanolic

extracts from root bark and stems have shown bead spectrum antibacterial activity

(Ekenayake S. et. al., 2011).

2

The jackfruit seeds have the higher nutrition content so nowadays it is used in

baking cuisines and products like bread by using 10% and 20% jackfruit seed flour with

wheat flour for reducing gluten content and for digestion aid (Butool and Butool, 2013).

Cake making also done by incorporation of jackfruit seed flour 5% to 15 % and result is

increase protein and reduction in fat content (Arpit et al., 2015). Nowadays, jackfruit seed

is being used as a nut by roasting (Eke-Ejiofor et al., 2014).

Jackfruit seeds are used for preparation of thousands of value-added products. The

breakfast cereals could be prepared by using jackfruit seed flour of different composition

in which jackfruit seed flour, soy flour, sugar, milk powder, cocoa powder and salt is

used in such products that are being mixed by jackfruit seed flour. Chakraborty, et.al.,

2013).

Hence considering the jackfruit functions, the study attempt was made to

elaborate and clearly explain the functional properties of jackfruit seed flour together

with the effectiveness of seed flour to our health and to our society. Furthermore, the

main objective of this study is to create a high quality of the jackfruit seed flour with the

help of the existing study about jackfruit seed flour. The idea of making an all-purpose

will be completed as the jackfruit seeds completely undergo the process of making flour

through the help of the study.

In conclusion, this study will provide the useful

information towards effective utilization of jackfruit seed flour and wheat flour blends in

various food formulation applications.

3

Theoretical Framework

The researcher created an assumption of the theories on the evaluation of jackfruit

seed flour as a substitute or the alternative for all-purpose flour. The theories will be used

to determine the effectiveness and the factors that affect the jackfruit seed flour as an all-

purpose flour. The study uses a frame for the future researchers to easily comprehend the

theories used in this study. Thus, it will be the main guide of the whole process of the

study to complete the result and conclusion of the research.

1.1 Realistic Evaluation theory

Realistic evaluation is a theory-based evaluation. It develops and then empirically

tested the hypotheses about a certain outcome product of the study. Realistic evaluation

argued whether an interventions work depends on the underlying mechanisms in a

specific context. Mechanism is about the interventions that triggers change to occur. This

approach tends to be more research-oriented that will be focusing on the underlying

intervention theory and its behavioural assumptions at work and for a certain study that

may improve the conditions to support the interventions.

1.2 Theory-Driven Evaluation Theory

This approach is focused on the theory of change. (Chen 2015) recognizes that

programs exist is an open system, consisting of inputs, outputs, outcomes, and impacts.

These approaches suggest that evaluators should start by working with stakeholders to

understand the assumption and intended logic behind the program.

4

1.3 Values Engaged Evaluation Theory

Values engaged evaluation (VEE) is a democratic approach that is highly

responsive to the context and emphasizes stakeholder values. This approach seeks to

provide a contextualized understanding of social programs and democratic evaluation for

the stakeholder.

All the three theories are related to the study as these evaluations approach

theories can be used to determine the effectiveness of Jackfruit seed flour as an all-

purpose flour.

5

Value Engaged Evaluation Theory Utilization-Focused Evaluation Theory Theory-Driven Evaluation Theory PRODUCT:
Value Engaged Evaluation
Theory
Utilization-Focused
Evaluation Theory
Theory-Driven
Evaluation Theory
PRODUCT:
Jackfruit Seed flour
as all-purpose four
Theory PRODUCT: Jackfruit Seed flour as all-purpose four Jackfruit seed all-purpose flour Figure 1.1 Theoretical

Jackfruit seed all-purpose flour

Figure 1.1 Theoretical Paradigmn

6

Statement of the Problem

The study aims to determine the efficacy of Jackfruit as an all-purpose flour. This

study will also explore the functional properties of jackfruit seed flour in different

approach. Specifically, this study will be answered by the following question:

General Question: What is/are the effects of the properties of jackfruit seed, and the

factors that greatly contribute to the production of seed flour from jackfruit?

1. What factors greatly affect the effectiveness of jackfruit seed flour as an all-

purpose flour?

2. How efficient is the jackfruit seed in producing a seed flour product?

3. Which method of drying (Sun drying and roast drying) is more proficient to

produce a high quality jackfruit seed flour?

4. What is/are the functional properties that greatly affect the effectiveness of the

jackfruit seed flour?

Assumption

Jackfruit seed is the best alternative to produce an all-purpose flour as it will be

essential for the waste management programmed and an innovation to create a high

quality of flour from organic material. Therefore, the main assumption of the study is that

the jackfruit seed will become the alternative for making flour for the basic needs of the

society.

7

Hypothesis

H 0 The study cannot prove that jackfruit seed flour is suitable to be the alternative all-

purpose flour because there is a lack of sustainable jackfruit supply in province of

Camarines Sur, especially in the local market of Naga City. Therefore, production

of jackfruit seed will not be convenient to use for the production of alternative all-

purpose flour for the basic needs of the society.

Significance of the Study

The result of the study will give importance to the production of seed flour from

jackfruit and the will give important contributions to the following:

Consumers This study will help to innovate the flour as the consumer use the

alternative jackfruit seed flour to be one of the ingredient for cuisines purposes and other

home recipes.

Jackfruit farmer - This study is deemed to be advantageous as the products to be made

in the study is cultivated by the farmers, thus will increase the demand of jackfruit as it

will help the society to produce more jackfruit for the leading demand of producing

alternative flour.

Waste management unit of the government - This study will help the local or city

government in producing a by-product from food disposal. It will also be a livelihood

program for a women and men in a certain community to be guided by the study.

8

Entrepreneurs - This study is believed to help produce and introduce new and in-Home

Economics subject and product thus, increasing their productivity and wages.

Future researchers - This study can help to the future researchers as an additional

knowledge and guide for the future studies involved in the jackfruit flour making

industry. It would help them to be a better researcher and it will be a reference for more

studies in the future.

Scope and Delimitation

This study will focused on the production of flour from jackfruit seed. The

researchers are concerned whether the flour from the jackfruit seed can be used as all-

purpose flour as it will be elaborating the functional properties of jackfruit seed flour for

its effectiveness. This study will be comparing the commercial flour to the seed flour and

will be testing its own texture and capability to be the alternative for flour using different

experimental approach (i.e. Moisture, Flour texture, and fat content). Two methods of

drying of seeds (sun-drying and oven drying) will be used and compared in the study.

This method is the only focused of the study and will explore the possible outcome and

result of the method. Also this study, seek the factors (e.g. negative and positive effects

of flour seed to the human body) to eliminate the confusions of other researchers of

making flour from seed and its effect in our societal basic needs. Therefore, the goal of

the study is to explore and elaborate the functional properties of the jackfruit seed flour to

provide the functions and advantages of seed flour as the alternative all-purpose flour.

9

Definition of Terms

This

study

contains

certain

key

concepts

and

constructs.

Although

these

terminologies are discuss further in the chapter. The definition of terms are briefly

introduced in this early chapter of the thesis which allows the reader to make sense of

what is presented in the subsequent chapters.

Flour - Flour is mainly used in various food products and as a basic ingredient of baked

goods. In this study, flour is the output which will be evaluated as another source of all-

purpose flour.

Jackfruit - Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam) or "langka". It is a fruit where its

seed will be gathered.

Jackfruit seed jackfruit seed is the main ingredient that is used to produce flour

Recalcitrant - jackfruit is an example of recalcitrant seed

Drying - one of the oldest preservation processed. Drying is the method used in the

study.

Lye - peeling process - Method of removing the outer layer skin of the jackfruit seed by

immersion in hot caustic soda solution (sodium hydroxide).

Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) The sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or commonly known as

the caustic soda is the main ingredient to make a sodium hydroxide solution which is

used in the lye peeling process.

10

Notes

Mandave, et. al, (2018). Jackfruit seed flour: Processing technologies and applications. Internat. J. Agric. Engg., 11(Sp. Issue) :149-154, DOI: 10.15740/HAS/IJAE/11.Sp.

Issue/149-154

Butool and Butool, (2013). Nutritional Quality on Value Addition to Jack Fruit Seed Flour. Department of Food Processing & Engineering, Karunya University (Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences), Karunya Nagar, Coimbatore 641 114, India. Retrieved from International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) ISSN (Online):

Chen, H.T., (1989). Theory-driven perspective. New York: Pergamon Press

Ekanayake, et. al., (2011). Nutritional assessment of a jackfruit (Artocarpus

heterophyllus) meal. The Ceylon medical journal. Retrieved from

Eke- Ejiofor, et. al, (2014). The Effect of Processing Methods on the Functional and Compositional Properties of Jackfruit Seed Flour. International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. Vol. 3, No. 3, 2014, pp. 166-173. doi: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20140303.15

9Greene, J., et al., (2013). A values-engaged, education approach for evaluation education programs. Urbana: University of Illinios.

Prathima K.S., (2008). Processing and Utilization of Jackfruit seed for value addition. Department of food science and nutrition university of agricultural sciences gkvk,

bangalore

560

065.

Retrieved

from

Tejpal & Amrita. (2016). JACKFRUIT: A HEALTH BOON. International Journal of Research in Ayurveda & Pharmacy. 7. 59-64. 10.7897/2277-4343.073113. Retrieved

from

N

11

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter contains the review of literature and the related studies regarding the

importance of jackfruit seed, physical properties of seeds, drying of seed, and its

nutritional and functional properties of seed flour at different treatment and effect of

storage and packaging on functional properties of seed flour.

Related Literatures

According to Devi (2015) Jackfruit Seed (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam) defined

as important under-utilized fruit crop of the tropics. Moreover, it was shown that the

remaining wasted parts of Jackfruit can be useful, just like the seed, due to the lack of

information on their nutritional potential. It was stated how the Jackfruit seeds be the

main source for Pasta Production. As a result, the wasted part of Jackfruit became a

source for nutritious food. In fact, the Jackfruit seeds contains vitamin like rich in thiamin

and riboflavin that can help the food intake turns into energy and can keep the eyes, skin

and hair healthy. It also contains antimicrobial effect which might help for preventing the

food intake be contaminated with microorganisms that might have an effect on the body

and may cause illness (Agarwal, 2018).

Toasted Jackfruit Seed Flour can be an alternative for cocoa regarding the

production of Cappuccino. The search for cocoa substitute was motivated by the raise of

international demand for cocoa. It was accidentally discovered by a student using the

toasted Jackfruit seed flour for loaf bread (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São

Paulo, 2018). Furthermore, it released a natural mild chocolate aroma. Therefore, it

became

an

alternative

for

cocoa

due

to

12

growing

demand

for

chocolate

without

corresponding supply. As well as, Mandro et al. (2018) stated about the replacing of

cocoa powder through the use of Jackfruit seeds.

However, due to the high demand for food, Ocampo (2017), regarding to the

establishment laboratories that houses the researchers on alternative raw materials in the

race to food security. It includes the Sago, Munggo and Banana as an alternative flour for

the production of food. Besides, he stated that the alternative ingredients could be

substituted without affecting the finish product, such a bread and puto in terms of taste

and density among other factors. Also, the use of alternative flour would improve

nutritional values without affecting its taste and appearance too much. Furthermore, also

coconut residue eyed as flour substitute (The Manila Bulletin 2013).

According to Food and Nutrition Research Institute of Department of science and

Technology (FNRI-DOST), it is possible for the coconut as substitute for flour because of

its sepal or shredded coconut meat left after extracting the coconut milk. This is also

called, Coconut residue that can made into coconut flour. In addition to DOST-FNRI, it

can be a substitute for flour and be produced using available local equipment. Also,

according to Paska (2012) that the use of nut meals that are fine ground from a variety of

whole nuts, like almonds, hazel nut and wall nut can also be an alternative for flour. And

says that this is the best used for conjunctions with other gluten-freewhich is effective

for cellac disease treatment (damage of small intestine). When it comes in production of

Jackfruit seed flour, Simeon (2018), stated that the Department of Agriculture is planning

to promote local Jackfruit production due to domestic demand.

13

According

to

Gonzales

(2013),

new

variety

increases

jackfruit

production

according to Bureau of Agricultural research (BAR) using sweetest known Jackfruit

Variety that increases the field of farmers in Leyte, with this, the distribution of around

the Philippines is sufficient.

Fruit Industry of the Philippines including the production of Jackfruit, Bicol

Region was one of the regional levels that have main growing areas of Jackfruits (Espin,

et al., 2018). Thus, the researchers have choosen the production of jackfruit seed into a

flour because Bicol Region is one of the sufficient distributors of Jackfruit throughout the

country.

Related Studies

As stated by the Briones R.M., et al., (2012), the county’s production of jackfruit

ranges up to 50,000 in a year. On an average, 94% of the national gross supply of

jackfruit is consumed while six percent are used as feed and waste.

Because of this,

Ocloo F.C.K et al. (2010) studied about the characteristics of jackfruit flour. It was stated

in the study the jackfruit seed flour has a lot of potential in the food industry, specially its

uses as thickener and as binding agent. In addition to this, Jackfruit seed flour is also

capable of producing high quality flour which has very different characteristics compared

to

the

commercial

ones

(Grace

J,

2008).

Similarly,

Feili

R

(2013),

stated

that

incorporation of jackfruit rind flour in different ratio caused significant influence on the

bread volume and texture attributes. It is also stated in the study that jackfruits rind flour

can be used to make commercial products and with such technology would increase the

overall economic, society health and well-being.

14

Furthermore, other fruits and fruit seeds had also been made as alternative flour.

Ravinder A et al. (2018), stated that products made of Breadfruit flour are gluten free as

Breadfruit is rich in minerals, carbohydrates, and is gluten free, and also as an important

functional food as it is considered as a useful product that helps reducing symptoms of

chronic constipation, risk of colon cancer, and to minimize the symptoms of Celiac

disease. The seed of a Marang fruit, a widely cultivated fruit in the Philippines, also has a

potential to be made as flour as stated by Silonga F (2012). He also stated that marang

seed flour can be used as an alternative source of commercial flour.

Similarly, Canistel fruit, an indigenous fruit abundant in Iloilo, has been made as

fruit flour. Paragado D et al. (2014) stated that Canistel fruit flour in different proportions

can be utilized as main ingredient and can even be substituted to all-purpose flour in

making cookies. In the same way, cookies with improved functional characteristics using

banana flour and sesame seeds, with good stability in storage time, depending on the type

of packaging used, and temperature can be developed (Loza A et al., 2017). Avocado

seeds were also a good fruit flour for it contains high level of minerals, carbohydrates,

and fiber.

However, it was not was applicable for bread making due to its very high result of

failing the undetected amount of gluten (Mahawan M.A et al., 2015). Also, ripe

Rhizophora mucronata, commonly known as red mangrove, fruit flour is also a candidate

as a functional food source especially as anti-diabetic (Hardoko E et al., 2015).

15

Synthesis of the State-of-the-Art

Synthesis of the state of the art The review of related literature show about the

possibility of raw materials, such as nuts and fruits as stated by Ocampo, Manila Bulletin,

and Paskal to be an alternative for the production of flour and its effects, specifically for

the production of flour using jackfruits seed wriiten by Fundação de Amparo á Pesquisa

do Estado de São Paulo. Devi and Aragal stated tht jackfruit seed flour contains nutrients

that is helpful for the health. Jackfruit is also good to make an alternative flour as it is

stated by Simeon and Gonzales that jackfruit is widely cultivated in the Philippines,

specifically in the Bikol region as written by Espin, et al.

The review of related studies shown above revealed about the acceptability of

fruits and fruit seed as an alternative flour all over the world as stated by Ravinder, et al.,

Silonga, Paragado, et al., Loza, et al., Mahawan, et al., and Hardoko, et al. Specifically,

studies conducted by Ocloo, et al., Grace, and Feili showed the efficacy of jackfruit seed

and rind flour in the Philippines and in other countries. Jackfruits is also suitable in

becoming an alternative flour as it is widely cultivated and is sufficient in the Philippines

as stated by Briones, et al.

16

Notes

Agarwal, s., (2018). 6 Remarkable Benefits of Jackfruit Seeds. NDTV Convergence limited 2018.

Briones, R.M., & Galang, M.R., (2012). Assessment of Prospective Impact of Fruits and Vegetables Research at the Industry Level in the Philippines: the Case of the ACIAR- PCAARRD Horticulture Project. Makati, Philippines: Philippine Institute for Development Studies.

Butool and Butool, (2013). Nutritional Quality on Value Addition to Jack Fruit Seed Flour. Department of Food Processing & Engineering, Karunya University (Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences), Karunya Nagar, Coimbatore 641 114, India. Retrieved from International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) ISSN (Online):

Chen, H.T., (1989). Theory-driven perspective. New York: Pergamon Press.

Chowdhury, et. al, (2012). Study on functional properties of raw and blended Jackfruit seed flour (a non-conventional source) for food application. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources Vol. 3(3), pp. 347-353

Devi, M.T., (2015). Development of extruded products using Jackfruit bulbs and seed flour. University of Agricultural Sciences Bengaluru.

Eke- Ejiofor, et. al, (2014). The Effect of Processing Methods on the Functional and Compositional Properties of Jackfruit Seed Flour. International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. Vol. 3, No. 3, 2014, pp. 166-173. doi: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20140303.15

Ekanayake, et. al., (2011). Nutritional assessment of a jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) meal. The Ceylon medical journal. Retrieved from

Feili, R., et al., (2013). Physical and Sensory Analysis of High Fiber Bread Incorporated with Jackfruit Rind Fiber. Penang, Malaysia: Horizon Research Publishing.

Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo, (2018). Cappuccino made with

ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 3, 2018 from

jacfruitseed flour has chcolate aroma.

www.sciendedaily.com/eleases/2018/10/181026153315.htm

Grace.

Greene, J., et al., (2013). A values-engaged, education approach for evaluation education programs. Urbana: University of Illinios.

J.,

(2008).

Grind

Jackfruit

Seeds

as

Substitute

for

Flour.

17

Hardoko E et al. (2015). Study of Ripe Rhizophora Mucronate Fruit Flour as Functional Food for Antidiabetic. International Food Research Journal. 2015, Vol. 22, Issue 3, p953-

959.7p.

Loza, A., et al., (2017). Development of functional cookies with wheat flour, banana flour, ( Musa paradisiaca ), sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum ) an storage stability. Peru:

Scientia Agropecuaria.

Mahawan, M.A., et al., (2015). Characterization of flour from avocado seed kernel. Batangas, Philippines: Asia Pacific Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, Vol. 3, No. 4.

Mandave, et. al, (2018). Jackfruit seed flour: Processing technologies and applications. Internat. J. Agric. Engg., 11(Sp. Issue) :149-154, DOI: 10.15740/HAS/IJAE/11.Sp.

Issue/149-154

Mandro, G.F., et al., (2018). Physicochemical characteristics and high sensory acceptability in cappuccinos mae with jackfruit seeds replacing coca powder. PLoS ONE 13(8): e0197654 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0197654

Ocampo, Y.D., (2017). Sago, munggo. Bnanasa eyed as alternative flours. Manila bulletin, Philippine news.

Ocloo, F.C.K., et al., (2010). Physico-chemical, function and pasting charcterisics of flour produced from Jackfruits (Artocarpus heterophyllus) seeds. Legon, Ghana:

Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America.

Paragado, D., et al., (2014). Acceptability of Canistel (Lacuma Nervosa A.Dc) Fruit Flour in Making Cookies. Iloilo, Philippines: Asia Pacific Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, Vol.2, No.1.

Pawson,

Sage

Publications Inc.

Ravinder, A., et al., (2018). Studies on Production of Gluten Free Products from Breadfruit Flour. J Food Nutr Popul Health, Vol.2 No.1:8.

Silonga,

Simeon, L.M., (2018). DA eyes development of local jackfruit producton. The Philippine Star.

Prathima K.S., (2008). Processing and Utilization of Jackfruit seed for value addition. Department of food science and nutrition university of agricultural sciences gkvk,

bangalore

R.,

&

Tilley,

N.

(2014).

Realistic

evaluation.

Thousand.

London:

F.,

(2012).

Mrang

seeds

as

an alternative source of commercial flour.

560

065.

Retrieved

from

18

CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter will concentrate on the detailed information about the research and

design that will be used in this study. This chapter will include the complete procedures

of making seed flour as well as the functional properties and its result to prove the

effectiveness of jackfruit seed flour. Lastly, this chapter will present the research

instrument used, and also the data gathering together with the documentation of every

result of the experiment.

Research Method

This study approaches the qualitative, quantitative, exploratory, and experimental

research which is about the problem that the jackfruit seed flour is being used and

produce as alternative all-purpose flour. The seed flour will be compared to the existing

all-purpose flour in the market to determine the differences and the effectiveness of all-

purpose flour from jackfruit seed.

The researchers will conduct an experiment on how to produce jackfruit seed

flour and the procedures are based from the existing study. The two methods of seed

drying are being used in this study which is the sun drying and roast drying. The

experiment’s product will be then test by the means of its functional properties (e.g. crude

protein, moisture, and crude fat) that is essential of proving the effectiveness of the seed

flour. The seed flour will also be tested by the means of being used as the ingredient for

several bread and pastry cuisines (e.g. Cookies, bread, Cake etc.). Also, this study will be

testing the possible amount of flour produced from different kilogram of jackfruit seed.

19

To ensure that the study measures or tests what is actually intended, the adoption of

research methods will be established by sampling of the results of the experiment from

the functional properties that will serve as the information or the data gathered by this

study. The results of the experiment will be recorded, documented, translated and

transcribed in the graph form for it to be used as the specific result of the experiment.

Videos and photographs of the research and experiment will be recorded and included in

the compilation of the study to support the methods that is used to complete the study.

Procedure of Investigation

The investigation of the study was carried out from the Naga College foundation

Inc. Chemistry laboratory. The study aim to process and utilize the jackfruit seed for the

production of jackfruit seed flour. The procedures of investigation will render the steps

and strategy of the experiments that is used in the study. Thus, the procedures of the

investigation will be converted to a

flow chart

for

it

to

be

clearer, and easy to

comprehend. Therefore, this part of the study will help the future researcher to improve

their research about jackfruit seed flour. All analytical procedures were carried in

triplicates unless other wised indicated:

3.1.1 Laboratory apparatus and material used on investigation process

3.1.2 Procurement of jackfruit seeds

3.1.3 Seed cleaning process

3.1.4 Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) Solution for lye peeling process

3.1.5 Lye peeling process (Soaking of the seeds)

20

3.1.6

Seeds manually peeling process

3.1.7 Seed cleaning after lye peeling process

3.1.8 Drying methods of jackfruit seed after the Lye peeling

process

3.1.9 Grinding of seeds to produce seed flour from jackfruit

3.1.10 Jackfruit seed flour

3.1.1 Laboratory Apparatus and Materials used in Investigation Process

The materials and laboratory apparatus that will be used in the study investigation

process are form the researchers and most of the apparatus are property of the school

laboratory. The evaluation and investigation of result and processes of jackfruit seed flour

are done easily with the help of modern laboratory apparatus and with the quantity and its

uses on the investigation.

Table 3.1

Quantity

Name of the apparatus/equipment

Method

2

1000 ml beaker

The 1000 ml beaker is used for the lye peeling process of jackfruit seed.

1

Balance

Balance is used for measuring the accurate amount of sodium hydroxide, jackfruit seed, and also the apparatus that will be used in the experiment.

21

1

Graduated cylinder

The graduated cylinder is used if only needed a container for sodium hydroxide solution.

3

Test tubes

Test tubes are used to store the sodium hydroxide for the testing and lye peeling process solution.

1

Test tube rack

It is used to hold the test tube while the solution is being stored.

1

Stirring Rod

The stirring rod is one of the important equipment that is used in making the solution and the lye peeling process.

1

Alcohol lamp

Alcohol lamp is being used to perform the process of lye peeling it is the source of heat to heat up the solution from the beaker.

1

Hot Plate

It is also used for the heat source of the process, this hot plate is important because it maintains and accurately sustained the temperature during the process.

1

Watch glass

It is used to measure the sodium hydroxide using the balance to make the measurements accurate and precise.

22

1

Mortar and pestle

Mortar and pestle is used to grind and crushed the sodium hydroxide for it to be easily dissolved when making the solution for lye peeling process.

7

Pair of gloves

A pair of gloves is used to protect your hand while doing the sodium hydroxide solution and lye peeling processes.

3

Medium size Zip lock container

Zip

lock

container

is

used

for

3

Small size Zip lock container

storing

the

seeds

after

the

processes. It is also used to store

the

sodium

hydroxide

after

measuring

specific

 

grams

of

concentration.

 

2

1000 ml distilled water

Distilled water is the helpful way to be safe when using sodium hydroxide. It can reduce the reaction while using it with water and other processes.

Kilos

Jackfruit seed

Jackfruit seed it the main ingredient of this study it is the main point of investigation. It is the foundation of the study.

Table 3.1 Laboratory apparatus and equipments used in investigation

23

3.1.2 Procurement of Jackfruit seeds

The Jackfruit seed is the center of investigation in this study, so the gathering of

the seed and the production of seed flour will be the priority of the researchers in this

study. The local market of Naga city is one of the best locations to find jackfruit and its

seed, for it is the biggest local market in Naga city in province of Camarines sur.

Therefore, the province of Camarines sur is the best location to find jackfruits and seeds

one of it, is the barangay of Calabanga, some part of ragay, also some part of minalabac,

and other parts of the provinces of Camarines Sur.

The jackfruit seed that will be used in this study are from the local market of Naga

city and from other part of Camarines sur. The total gathered seeds by the researcher is 2

½ kilogram. However, some of the seeds during the investigation have rotten already

while the test is still processing. The gathered seeds from jackfruit will be stored in

refrigerator for the research investigation of the study. The remaining kilos of jackfruit

seed that have gathered by the researcher is from their hometown like Masbate and Ragay

that contribute for the continuation of the investigation of the research study. The table

below indicates the total weighed of the jackfruit seed from different location of possible

location for supplying the jackfruits in and out of the province of Camarines Sur.

24

Location

Jackfruit total weight

Jackfruit seed weight

1. Naga City Peoples Market

10 kilos

½ kilogram

2. Masbate City

3 kilos

½ kilogram

3. ,

Ragay

Camarines

4 kilos

1 kilogram

Sur

4. City

Naga

Peoples

1 kilo

½

kilogram

Market

 

Total

2 ½ kilogram

Table 3.2 Procurement of seeds data

3.1.3 Seed Cleaning Process

The cleaning of the jackfruit seed is an important part of this process. The

jackfruit seed were manually cleaned by water after it is removed from the jackfruit. The

process of cleaning the seeds is very important because it will avoid and prevent the

seeds to rotten while extending the nourishment of the seeds. Normally, cleaning of the

seed may take 5-10 minutes depending on the volume of seeds. The best way of cleaning

the seeds is with running water, for it is the easiest way of eliminating excess oil and

rotten parts of the seed without infecting other seeds.

3.1.4 Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) Solution for lye peeling process

The lye peeling process is famous in peeling process of the outer layer of the root

crops and vegetables (e.g. Potato) in which it includes the presence of sodium hydroxide

25

to form a solution. The Lye peeling process will not be completed without the Sodium

hydroxide (NaOH) and Water (H 2 0) to form a solution. The solution is the part of

investigation which was done by the researchers throughout the study.

The solution consisting of 3 % of Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) and 500 ml of

distilled water (Butool and Butool, 2013) in a 100 ml beaker. The sodium hydroxide is

dissolved in to 500 ml distilled water. After dissolving the Sodium hydroxide using the

stirrer, the solution can either be stored for future use or can be used directly for lye

peeling process of jackfruit seed flour. The process of determining the grams per mole of

NAOH is shown below.

% =

100%

3.1.5 Lye peeling process (Soaking of the seeds)

Seeds were soaked in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution which contains 3% of

Caustic soda dissolved in 500 ml of distilled water to be a solution. The process of lye

peeling will start from the solution that will be heat-up to 80-100 ̊C (Note: The

temperature must be monitored accurately while being heated) and then when it reached

the minimum temperature which is 80 ̊C the seeds were soaked in the solution for 3-5

minutes while stirring it slowly to help removing the outer layer of the seed. In soaking,

you may notice that the solution will turn from colorless water to purple colour indicating

that the seed coat melted in the solution. If the soaking reached the maximum time that is

when you have to stop the fire and performed the process of cleaning the seeds while

26

rubbing and removing the excess coat that remain on the seeds after the lye peeling

process.

3.1.6 Seeds manually peeling process

After the soaking procedures of jackfruit seeds, the seeds were manually peeled

by researchers in running water. The manually peeling of seeds is not hard to do because

of the sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution that helps the seed coat peeled automatically.

The soaking process will create a dark colour in a solution so the seed must have cleaned

carefully and religiously before performing the drying methods. The cleaned jackfruit

seeds will be brown for this indicates that the seed were perfectly peeled and cleaned by

the water. The peeled seed will have strong scent after soaking and peeling from sodium

hydroxide but it will be gone after drying methods is performed.

3.1.7 Seed cleaning after lye peeling process

Seeds from lye peeling process will have strong scent and dark colour from the

seed coat and solution. The cleaning of the jackfruit seeds is an important chore to do in

this study. The seed, fresh from the lye peeling is not recommendable to any person

because of its content from the sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. However, with the

help of cleaning process of the seeds, the solution will be remove from the seeds and will

be able to achieve the peeled seeds for jackfruit flour production. The cleaning process

uses the running water from your area to easily remove and eliminate the solution from

the seeds. It will take a longer time to clean the seeds because of its scent from the

solution. The maximum time of cleaning the seed after soaking is 10-20 minutes. Lastly,

the cleaning process of the seed contributes on the removing the excess caustic soda from

27

soaking and which make the seeds more clean and safe to be produce as an all pupose

flour.

Note: The seed cleaning process is important and also dangerous because of the caustic

soda make sure to wear a gloves and eyeglass protection to avoid accident.

3.1.8 Drying methods of jackfruit seed after the Lye peeling process

After the cleaning of the seeds, it will undergo the process of drying methods.

There are two methods of drying that has been used in this study, which are the sun

drying and the roast drying. The roast drying helps to detach the excess moisture inside

the seeds. It is the easiest way of drying the jackfruit seeds. The roast drying is the first

procedure before performing the sun drying method. Sun drying method is the alternative

way of drying the jackfruit seeds. Sun drying consumes a lot of time and observation

while performing this method. This method is only to make sure that the seeds are fully

dry to be able to undergo the grinding method. This two existing method of drying has

been develop through the process of this study. The sun drying and roast drying is the

foundation of making a highly recommended all-purpose flour made from jackfruit seed.

3.1.9 Grinding of seeds to produce seed flour from jackfruit

The seeds were cut in small pieces after it is processed from cleaning process and

drying methods. This procedure is the preparation for the grinding method which is the

last procedure for the seed flour production. When the grinding process is don, the nest

thing that the seed flour must do is sifting or sieving process. This method is highly

recommended to the seed flour procedure to perfectly made the seed flour refined and

28

fully cultivated. It will make the seed presentable and attractive to the consumers, for

them to experience it and think of it as a new alternative for the all-purpose flour.

3.1.10 Jackfruit seed flour

Jackfruit seed flour is now ready to

face the consumer. This study is an

experimental approach on how to produce jackfruit seed flour for the consumers to

experience with no doubt and hesitation. Therefore, the jackfruit seed flour is refined and

fully cultivated as it undergoes all the processes on making the seed flour out of jackfruit.

Jackfruit seed flour will be tested for its functional properties and stability on different

pastry and cuisines. This jackfruit flour is now ready to be experience by the consumers

to be alternative for all-purpose flour.

Jackfruit Seed Flour Testing

The jackfruit seed flour will be test for its stability to be the alternative to the

commercial flour. The test will be focusing on the functional qualities of the Jackfruit

seed flour. Furthermore, this study will also test the effectiveness of jackfruit flour to be

the ingredient of different pastry and cuisines recipes.

3.2.1 Functional Qualities

3.2.2 Water Absorption capacity

3.2.3 Oil absorption capacity

3.2.4 Flour dispersibility

3.2.5 Use of Jack Fruit Seed Flour in polvoron and pancake making

29

3.2.5.1 Process of making polvoron

3.2.1 Functional Qualities

Functional qualities such as water and oil absorption capacities, swelling power,

percent solubility, flour dispersibility and viscosity of the seed flour were analysed in this

Investigation. (Butool and Butool, 2013)

3.2.2 Water Absorption capacity

Thirty (30) grams of jackfruit seed flour was taken to be added a quantity of water

to get dough texture or moderately a stiff consistency (Butool and Butool, 2013). The

amount of water required is noted and expressed in percent.

3.2.3 Oil absorption capacity

Five (5) grams of seeds were taken to be added a 1% of oil to get the seed flour

reaction in oil absorption capacity. The observation was noted and documented for the

result and analysis of the study.

3.2.4 Flour Dispersibility

Dispersibility was measured by placing 10 grams of seed flour sample in 100ml

stoppered measuring cylinder. Distilled water added to the volume of 100ml, stirred

vigorously and allowed to settle for three hours. The volume of settled particles was

subtracted from 100 and the difference was reported as percentage dispersibility.

3.3 Use of Jack Fruit Seed Flour in polvoron and pancake making

30

The flour obtained was used in making polvoron and pancake.

3.3.1 Polvoron Making Process

The jackfruits seed flour was measured with a measuring cup and was toasted in a

frying pan in a low heat until the aroma can be smell and the color turns light brown.

Then, once toasted, cooled down for 20 minutes. The dry ingredient along with powdered

milk, granulated sugar, and crushed pinipig was mix one at a time in a mixing bowl.

Then, pour-in softened butter and mix it well. Then it was left to stand for 10 minutes for

the butter to cool. Lastly, the polvoron mixture was scooped evenly and packs in a clean

Japanese paper and was store in a refrigerator.

Jackfruit seed flour was measured (1 cup)

in a refrigerator. Jackfruit seed flour was measured (1 cup) Jackfruit seed flour was toasted in

Jackfruit seed flour was toasted in a low heat

(1 cup) Jackfruit seed flour was toasted in a low heat Mix with powdered milk (1/2

Mix with powdered milk (1/2 cup) granulated sugar (3/160 cup), crushed pinipig (9/32 cup)and softened butter (3/8 cup)

crushed pinipig (9/32 cup)and softened butter (3/8 cup) The mix was left to stand to cool

The mix was left to stand to cool the butter

(3/8 cup) The mix was left to stand to cool the butter The mixture was scoop

The mixture was scoop evenly and packed in a japanese paper

The mixture was scoop evenly and packed in a japanese paper The polvoron was stored in

The polvoron was stored in refrigerator for 12 hour

Figure 3.1 Process of making polvoron

31

3.3.2 Pancake Making Process

The Jackfruit seed flour and other dry ingredients such as backing powder, salt,

and sugar were measured in a measuring cup and were sieved through a sieve. Then the

egg and melted butter was added on the center of the dry ingredient and was mixed until

the mixture smoothened. The batter was scooped 1/8cup for evenly serving. The scooped

Jackfruit seed flour (1 1/2 cups) was seive with backing powder (3 1/2 teaspoons), white sugar (1 tablespoon), and salt (1 teaspoon)

white sugar (1 tablespoon), and salt (1 teaspoon) Other ingredients;Milk (1 1/4 cups), egg (1 piece),

Other ingredients;Milk (1 1/4 cups), egg (1 piece), and melted butter (3 tablespoons) were poured in and mix altogether.

butter (3 tablespoons) were poured in and mix altogether. the batter was stierred until it smoothened

the batter was stierred until it smoothened

mix altogether. the batter was stierred until it smoothened the batter was scooped in a 1/8

the batter was scooped in a 1/8 cup

until it smoothened the batter was scooped in a 1/8 cup cooked in an oiled frying

cooked in an oiled frying pan in a low heat

Figure 3.2 Process of making pancake

batter was cooked in an oiled frying pan in low heat.

Instrumentation

Gathering of data was done through documentary analysis, observation, and

experimental process based from the existing study of jackfruit seed flour production

(See chapter II). In this study, the materials used, and the methods adopted for various

32

experiments of the present study conducted in the laboratory for observing and well-

defined events. The method used for flour production required experiments and research

trials. The jackfruits were collected from different part of bicol region especially in Naga

City and Calabanga, Camarines Sur. Care was taken to select fresh, mature and ripe

jackfruit for experimentation. The researchers used test-re-test reliability to test the

consistency of a measure evaluated over time.

Relevant information was gathered from the laboratory experiment conducted by

the researcher on lye peeling process. Also, the functional properties were test by the

researcher regarding the effectiveness and stability of jackfruit seed flour using different

approach (e.g. protein, fats, moisture etc.). The materials and equipment used in this

study were from the laboratory and school property, for we are allowed to use it but with

handle and care. The observation was done and record for the analysis of the study to

account’s the effectiveness and functions of high-quality jackfruit seed flour produced

using the research study.

33

Notes

Banigo, E.B. and Mepba, H.D. (2005). Certain functional properties of wheat-breadfruit composite flours. In: Proced.29th Annual Conference of Nigerian Institute of Food Science and Tech.(NIFST). pp 49b-49c.

Moorthy, S.N. and T. Ramanujam, (1986). Variation in properties of starch in cassava varieties in relation to age of the crop. Starch Starke, 38: 58-61

Loos, P.J., L.F. Hood and A.J. Graham, (1981). Isolation and characterization of starch from breadfruit. Cereal Chem., 58: 282-286.

Adebowale, A.A., L.O. Sanni and M.O. Onitilo, (2008). Chemical composition and pasting properties of Tapioca grits from different Cassava varieties and roasting methods. Afr. J. Food Sci., 2: 77-82.

Nwoji, V.C. (2004). Effect of processing on the storage stability and functional properties of cowpea (Vigna unguculata) flour in the production of cowpea bean (akara) and paste (moin-moin). In:

Proced. 29th Annual Conference of Nigeria Institute of Food Science and Tech. (NIFST). pp 199.

Ogbuju, N.J., Oti, E. and Etudaiye, E. (2005). Functional properties of flours produced from raw and cooked cocoyam and sweet potato genotypes. 29th Annual conference, NIFST proceedings. pp 286.

Omoniyi et al. (2016). Functional Properties of Composite Flour made from Wheat and Breadfruit Applied. Tropical Agriculture 21 (2) Special Issue, 89-93.

34

CHAPTER IV

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

This chapter presents the discussion of the result from the analysis done. This

presents the collected data from the experiments conducted by the researcher; the

equipment used, the way the investigation is conducted, the processes of making seed

flour using jackfruit seeds, the functional properties and effectiveness of jackfruit seed

flour.

Table 4.1

Jackfruit Seeds

Origin

Seed Type

Quantity

1

Naga City People’s Market

Ripe fruit seed

214 grams

2

Naga City People’s Market

Ripe fruit seed

312.5 grams

3

Ragay

Young fruit seed

246 grams

4

Masbate

Ripe fruit seed

112.5 grams

Table 4.1 Gathering of Jackfruit seed

It is manifested in Table 4.1 that there are four (4) separated seed that was used to

investigate the study. The seeds from (1) Naga City People’s Market are 214 grams and

the seed type is ripe fruit seed, the second (2) is from the same origin and seed type but

with 312.5 grams of seed. The third seeds origins of the seed are from the town of (3)

35

Ragay which is the young seed and with 246 grams. The last seed which is the number

four (4) is also a ripe fruit seed and it weighed a total of 112.5 grams.

All these four (4) separated seed will be used for the investigation of the study.

The Jackfruit seed will undergo the processes that will help to produce jackfruit seed

flour.

Table 4.2

Lye peeling process

Seed sample

Weight before soaking (Grams)

Weight after soaking (Grams)

Heat

temperature

   

C)

Seed Sample No.1

214

grams

258.0

grams

79

̊C

Seed Sample No. 2

312.5

grams

397.8

grams

75.9

̊C

Seed Sample No.3

246

grams

254. 4 grams

76.4

̊C

Seed Sample No.4

112.5

grams

120.3

grams

84

̊C

Table 4.2 Jackfruits sample seed data in lye-peeling process

36

As shown in Table 2, there are four (4) seed sample that undergoes the process of

lye peeling and were investigated through the continuation of the process. The seed will

undergo the same process and treatment. However, the gaps of the seeds are their weight

differences that will be investigated in the study.

The investigation of the process will be provided by the study. The observation

and data will be shown below to formally show the result of lye-peeling process from the

different sample of seed that are shown above:

Lye-Peeling Process

Seed Sample No. 1

Origin: Naga City People’s Market (Naga City)

The Seed Sample No. 1 weighed 214 grams before soaking in to the sodium

hydroxide solution with an initial temperature of 38 ̊C. The Seed Sample No. 1 will be

process on 1000 ml beaker. The sodium hydroxide (NaOH) will be dissolved to 500 ml

distilled water to form the lye solution.

This sample was put on the hot plate with an

average heat of 80 ̊C for the seeds to be soaked and peeled on the solution.

The Seed sample no. 1 was a ripe fruit seed. The result of lye peeling is that the

ripe fruit seed was easy to peel and soaked with 3% of sodium hydroxide. The initial

weight of jackfruit seed is 214 grams before soaking and the final weighed jackfruit seed

after soaking is 258.0 grams. The final weight of the sample seed rose to 44 grams after

the soaking process.

37

Lye-Peeling Process

Seed Sample No. 2

Origin: Naga City People’s Market (Naga City)

The Seed Sample No. 2 weighed 312.5 grams before soaking in to the sodium

hydroxide solution with an initial temperature of 38 ̊C. The Seed Sample No. 2 will be

process on 1000 ml beaker. The sodium hydroxide (NaOH) will be dissolved to 500 ml

distilled water to form the lye solution.

This sample was put on the hot plate with an

average heat of 80 ̊C for the seeds to be soaked and peeled on the solution.

The Seed sample no. 2 was a ripe fruit seed. The result of lye peeling is that the

ripe fruit seed was easy to peel and soaked with 3% of sodium hydroxide. The initial

weight of jackfruit seed is 312.5 grams

before

soaking

and

the

final

weighed

jackfruit seed after soaking is 397.8 grams. The final weight of the sample seed rose to

85.3 grams after the soaking process.

Lye-Peeling Process

Seed Sample No. 3

Origin: Ragay

The Seed Sample No. 3 weighed 246 grams before soaking in to the sodium

hydroxide solution with an initial temperature of 38 ̊C. The Seed Sample No. 3 will be

process on 1000 ml beaker. The sodium hydroxide (NaOH) will be dissolved to 500 ml

distilled water to form the lye solution.

This sample was put on the hot plate with an

average heat of 80 ̊C for the seeds to be soaked and peeled on the solution.

38

The Seed sample no. 3 was a young fruit seed. The result of lye peeling is that the

ripe fruit seed was easy to peel and soaked with 3% of sodium hydroxide. The initial

weight of jackfruit seed is 246 grams before soaking and the final weighed jackfruit seed

after soaking is 254.4 grams. The final weight of the sample seed rose to 8.4 grams after

the soaking process. The results of the seed of young jackfruit are rotten seeds a day after

lye peeling process. Making it unused and unfit for the characteristic of making a seed

flour.

Lye-peeling Process

Seed Sample No 4

Origin: Masbate

The Seed Sample No. 4 weighed 112.5 grams before soaking in to the sodium

hydroxide solution with an initial temperature of 38 ̊C. The Seed Sample No. 4 will be

process on 1000 ml beaker. The sodium hydroxide (NaOH) will be dissolved to 500 ml

distilled water to form the lye solution.

This sample was put on the hot plate with an

average heat of 80 ̊C for the seeds to be soaked and peeled on the solution.

The Seed sample no. 4 was a ripe fruit seed. The result of lye peeling is that the

ripe fruit seed was easy to peel and soaked with 3% of sodium hydroxide. The initial

weight of jackfruit seed is 112.5 grams before soaking and the final weighed jackfruit

seed after soaking is 120.3 grams. The final weight of the sample seed rose to 7.8 grams

after the soaking process. The gathered seed rotten after the soaking process making it

unfit in becoming flour.

39

4.2 Functional Properties of seed flour

The functional properties are important in the food systems for the creation of

new products. The jackfruit seeds are very essential to get the characteristics of various

properties.

Applying

various

important

analysis,

to

determine

the

water

and

oil

absorption capacities, dispersibility, swelling power and percent solubility of jack seed

flour. The mean value for the water absorption capacity of the flour recorded 72ml/100g

whereas; higher value (86ml/100g) was recorded for oil absorption capacity. The

dispersibility of the seed flour noted 33 per cent. The swelling power (1.46 g/g) of the

seed flour was higher than the per cent solubility (2.31 %).

Properties

Values

Water absorption capacity (ml/g)

72.00

Oil absorption capacity (ml/g)

86.00

Dispersibility (%)

33

Swelling power (g/g)

1.46

Percent solubility (%)

2.31

Table 4.3 Functional properties of jackfruits seed flour

Water absorption capacity

40

Water absorption capacity is 72%. High water absorption capacity may be

attributed to the breakdown of starch during blanching and ease of absorption of water by

partly gelatinized starches (Ogbugu et al., 2005). Jackfruits seed flour has low water

absorption capacity compared to wheat flour with 161% (Omoniyi et al.). Water

absorption characteristics represent the ability of a product to associate with water under

conditions where water is limiting such as dough and paste (Nwoji, 2004).

Water Absorption Percentage Breakdown

72%
72%

161%

Seed flour Water Absorption capacityWater Absorption Percentage Breakdown 72% 161% Wheat flour Water Absorption Capacity

Wheat flour Water Absorption CapacityWater Absorption Percentage Breakdown 72% 161% Seed flour Water Absorption capacity

Figure 4.1 Water absorption Capacity and percentage breakdown comparing to wheat flour.

Oil absorption capacity

Oil absorption capacity of the jackfruit seed flour is 86%.The oil absorption

capacities of the flour blends suggests that they may be useful in food preparation that

involve mixing like bakery products where oil is an important ingredient (Banigo and

Mepba, 2005). The oil absorption capacities of the composite flours tended to increase

with increase in protein content since the protein in foods influences fat absorption.

41

Swelling power

The swelling power of the jackfruit seed flour is 1.46 g/g. The swelling power of

flour depends on size of particles, types of variety and types of processing methods or

unit operations. (Moorthy and Ramanujam 1986) reported that the swelling power of

flour granules is an indication of the extent of associative forces within the granule. As

per literature, the flour of parboiled rice has more swelling power as compared to

jackfruit seed flour (Chandra, 2015)

Solubility

The solubility of the flour sample is 2.31%.

Swelling power is related to the

water absorption index of the starch-based flour during heating (Loos et al., 1981).

Dispersibility

The value of dispersibility which is an index of the ease of the jackfruit seed flour

in water is 33%. The dispersibility of wheat relatively which was 73% is higher than of

the jackfruit seed flour sample. Because of these, jackfruit seed flour cannot easily

reconstitute to give fine consistency dough during mixing (Adebowale et al., 2008).

42

Jackfruit Seed Flour Functional Properties Evaluation

2.31% 33% 72% 86%
2.31%
33%
72%
86%

Water Absorption CapacitySeed Flour Functional Properties Evaluation 2.31% 33% 72% 86% Oil Absorption Capacity Dispersability Solubility

Oil Absorption CapacitySeed Flour Functional Properties Evaluation 2.31% 33% 72% 86% Water Absorption Capacity Dispersability Solubility

DispersabilityFlour Functional Properties Evaluation 2.31% 33% 72% 86% Water Absorption Capacity Oil Absorption Capacity Solubility

SolubilityFunctional Properties Evaluation 2.31% 33% 72% 86% Water Absorption Capacity Oil Absorption Capacity Dispersability

Figure 4.2 jackfruit seed flour functional properties evaluation graph

Figure 4.2 shows the relation of the functional properties of jackfruits seed flour.

The oil absorption capacity of jackfruits seed flour great affect its functional properties

with

86%

than

with

other

properties

such

as

water

absorption

capacity

(72%),

dispersibility (33%), and solubility (2.31%). This means that jackfruit seed flour can be

useful in food preparation that involves mixing where oil is an important ingredient. It is

also potentially useful in stractural interaction in the food specially in flavor retention,

improvement of palatability and extension of shelf life particularly in bakery where fat

absorption is desired (Aremu et al. 2007). Jackfruit seed flour is also proven useful in

products where good viscosity is required such as soups and gravies as it also has high

water absorption ( Butt and Batool 2010).

43

Notes

Aremu MO, Olaofe O, Akintayo ET. (2007). Functional properties of some Nigerian varieties of legume seed flour concentration effect on foaming and gelation isolates. J Food Technol 5(2): 109-115

Banigo, E.B. and Mepba, H.D. (2005). Certain functional properties of wheat-breadfruit composite flours. In: Proced.29th Annual Conference of Nigerian Institute of Food Science and Tech.(NIFST). pp 49b-49c.

Moorthy, S.N. and T. Ramanujam, (1986). Variation in properties of starch in cassava varieties in relation to age of the crop. Starch Starke, 38: 58-61

Loos, P.J., L.F. Hood and A.J. Graham, (1981). Isolation and characterization of starch from breadfruit. Cereal Chem., 58: 282-286.

Adebowale, A.A., L.O. Sanni and M.O. Onitilo, (2008). Chemical composition and pasting properties of Tapioca grits from different Cassava varieties and roasting methods. Afr. J. Food Sci., 2: 77-82.

Nwoji, V.C. (2004). Effect of processing on the storage stability and functional properties of cowpea (Vigna unguculata) flour in the production of cowpea bean (akara) and paste (moin-moin). In:

Proced. 29th Annual Conference of Nigeria Institute of Food Science and Tech. (NIFST). pp 199.

Ogbuju, N.J., Oti, E. and Etudaiye, E. (2005). Functional properties of flours produced from raw and cooked cocoyam and sweet potato genotypes. 29th Annual conference, NIFST proceedings. pp 286.

Omoniyi et al. (2016). Functional Properties of Composite Flour made from Wheat and Breadfruit Applied. Tropical Agriculture 21 (2) Special Issue, 89-93.

44

CHAPTER V

SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents the general summary of the study as well as the significant

findings and conclusions derived from the collection and analysis of functional properties

and effectiveness of jackfruit seed flour. Recommendations for the betterment of the

similar succeeding studies are also presented.

Problem No. 1: What factors greatly affects the effectiveness of jackfruit seed flour as

an all-purpose flour?

Findings

a.) The first factor that greatly affect the effectiveness of jackfruit seed flour is

the “Amount of sodium hydroxide” which has the vital role in the process of

making jackfruit seed flour.

b.) The second factor that affects the effectiveness of jackfruit seed is “Type of

seed”. These will determined if the seed will be processed into flour. Seed

type is very important when producing jackfruit seed flour it will affect the

product if the seeds are not suitable for the process.

45

Conclusions

The factors that greatly affect the effectiveness of the jackfruit seed flour are the

amount of sodium hydroxide used and the type of seed to be used. Sodium hydroxide is a

harmful substance that can cause great damage when contact special in the eyes. Proper

use of it is notice in doing the process of lye peeling. Type of seed is a significant factor

that affects the effectiveness of the jackfruit seed flour as it determines the fitness of a

seed to become flour. It could be inferred in the process that young seeds cannot

withstand the effect of lye peeling as well the over ripped seeds.

Recommendations

The researchers recommend lowering the amount of sodium hydroxide in lye

peeling to make the soaked seed less harmful and the washing procedure after the soaking

to be less timely. The researchers also recommend using ripe seed to prevent from seed

spoilage.

Problem No. 2: How efficient is the jackfruit seed in producing a seed flour product?

Findings

The

researchers

test

the

jackfruit

flour

for

its

efficiency using

functional

properties. The testing of functional properties and bread and pastry cuisines will test the

stability of jackfruit flour as an alternative flour. These will provide how the jackfruit

flour is efficient to use as alternative for existing commercial flour.

46

a.) The first test of functional properties that jackfruit seed flour will be tested for is

its “water absorption capacity”. The testing will be continued to make dough, for

b.)

bread and pastry cuisines.

The second that will be tested for the efficiency of jackfruit seed flour is the “Oil

Absorption capacity”. It is also a same process of water absorption capacity.

However, this is just to make a conclusion on how the jackfruit seed flour will

react to oil if it is needed for any cuisines as ingredients.

c.) The third test of jackfruit seed flour efficiency will be based from the result on

making “bread and pastry cuisines. These investigations test the efficiency of

jackfruit seed flour as an alternative flour. The cuisines results proved that the

jackfruit seed flour can be an ingredient for any bread and pastry cuisines.

Conclusions

The researchers found out that the jackfruit flour is an alternative for the existing

commercial flour in the market. They collaboratively study the factors and characteristic

that makes the jackfruit flour efficient to use as main ingredient of cuisines. The

researcher did find out the medical and the nutritional evaluation that the jackfruit seed

flour is a special alternative that will provide and sustain the nutritional balance in our

body.

In conclusion, the jackfruit seed flour proved its own efficiency and stability to be

the alternative of all-purpose flour. The seed flour proved its own characteristics that will

47

be unique to other flour as it will be produce to be the alternative for the all-purpose flour

in the market.

Recommendations

The researcher recommends that future researcher and the future user of jackfruit

seed flour must use only the seed from ripe fruit. Since the process of making jackfruit

seed flour will include the sodium hydroxide (NaOH), the seed from young fruit will only

be absorb the solution and will rotten after a day of drying. The researchers recommend

the production of jackfruit seed flour must be guided by the study or research. The

recommendation is freely to change if there are new study about making jackfruit seed

flour that are less procedures and affordable.

Problem No. 3: Which method of drying (Sun drying and roast drying) is more

proficient to produce the high quality jackfruit seed flour?

Findings

a.) “Sun drying method” is the most famous or common way of drying the jackfruit

before and after it is will processed as jackfruit seed flour. The lowest range of

sun drying is nine (9) days and highest is ten (12) days.

b.) Roast Drying” is the leading alternative for drying method of the jackfruit seed.

Roast drying is a fast method of drying the jackfruit seed when the other method

cannot be done due to weather. The roast drying can be done 5 15 minutes with

the heat temperature of 80 100 ̊C.

48

Conclusions

The study results in determining the leading and the collaborative way of drying

seeds during the investigation. The researchers found out that the two (2) method of

drying is important to be able to produce jackfruit seed flour. When the investigation is

being done, the researcher found out that the two (2) method of drying is essential to all

the types of weather. The sun drying is essential to do when sunny day. This method is

long method of drying to be able to produce a good quality of seed. However, the roast

drying is a useful method when the weather is not good. Therefore, the two (2) methods

of drying is both useful to all types of weather. This two methods of drying will have the

same result but with different process. The sun drying and the roast drying method is the

best way to investigate the jackfruit seed that will perfectly produce a high quality of seed

flour.

Recommendations

The following recommendations are given:

1. The future researcher must not focus on the existing methods of drying that has

given by the existing study. This study can create and accept any methods of

drying that will be essential depending on the time that the study is needed.

2. These

recommend

that

when

the

drying

method

is

being

performed

the

observation must have recorded for the analysis and results of the study will be

clear to the readers.

49

Problem No. 4: What is/are the functional properties that greatly affect the effectiveness

of the jackfruit seed flour?

Findings

a.) “Water absorption capacity” is used to test the reaction of jackfruit seed flour to

water. This method will create a stir or dough texture to the jackfruit seed flour.

The findings on this method are that the water can absorbed the jackfruit seed

flour. However, when the 50% jackfruit seed flour and 50% wheat flour is

combined, the result of the test is the seed flour with wheat flour can be dough

like texture and can make any bread and pastry cuisines.

b.) “Oil absorption capacity” used to test the capacity of jackfruit seed flour using

oil absorption. The result shows that the jackfruit seed flour has 86% capacity on

oil absorption. These shows that the jackfruit flour has the higher stability and

suitable for making cuisines that consisting of oily products.

c.) The third functional property that contributes to the investigation of the study is

the “dispersibility”. It is the method of making the seed flour stiff or dough

texture to test its characteristics. It has shown that the jackfruit seed flour cannot

make into dough texture for bread making, unless the half of seed flour is

accounted with a 50% of wheat flour. This method shows the great result in

making bread and pastry cuisines during the investigation.

Conclusions

Functional properties of the jackfruit seed flour such as water absorption capacity,

oil

absorption

capacity,

swelling

power,

50

and

dispersibility

greatly

affects

the

effectiveness of it. The tests revealed that jackfruit seed flour lack in water absorption

capacity, oil absorption capacity, swelling power and dispersibility compared to other

flours.

Recommendations

The researchers recommend using accurate measurements and centrifuging for

more accurate results of test. This recommendation will make a lot of clear way to

analyse the study in the future researcher.

Summary

The results from the study show that the jackfruit seed flour has a lot of potential

in the food industry, especially its uses a thickener and binding agent in the food system.

The Functional properties of the jackfruit seed flour such as water absorption capacity, oil

absorption capacity, swelling power, and dispersibility greatly affects the effectiveness of

it when it comes to usage of the flour.

The two (2) drying method which are the Sun drying and roast drying method has

greatly contribution to the factors that provides the effectiveness of jackfruit seed flour in

any approach. The two methods of drying dictate whether the seed can be processed as

flour, it can determine if the seed will rotten when the process is being done.

In conclusion, the Jackfruit seed flour has a lot of potential to many aspects that

will make it effective and useful to the consumer. The functional properties show the test

to prove the efficiency of jackfruit seed flour. The result of the discussion shows that the

jackfruit seed flour has the higher absorption to oil. However, the jackfruit seed flour has

51

lower capability in water absorption unless it is combined to 50% of wheat flour to make

dough or stiff texture of flour for bread and pastry cuisines. Lastly, the two factors that

contributes to make an effective jackfruit seed flour is the “Seed type” and the “Amount

of Sodium hydroxide” that will be used in the lye-peeling process. It shows that the two

factors has the power to make the seed flour better or make it worse in the process.

52

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Briones, R.M., & Galang, M.R., (2012). Assessment of Prospective Impact of Fruits and Vegetables Research at the Industry Level in the Philippines: the Case of the ACIAR- PCAARRD Horticulture Project. Makati, Philippines: Philippine Institute for Development Studies.

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56

APPENDICES

Naga College Foundation Basic Education Department City of Naga

Naga College Foundation Basic Education Department City of Naga

January 29, 2019

Ms. Sharon Prado Ilagan Custodian, Chemistry Laboratory

Dear Ms. Sharon,

We, the researchers from Grade 12-Diakonia writing our thesis titled “An experimental study of the effectiveness of jackfruit seed flour as an alternative all-purpose flour” would like to ask your permission to use the Chemistry Laboratory at ST Building Room No. 210 in gathering data for our research paper. In addition, we would also like to use the following laboratory equipment in our project because our study requires a sodium hydroxide solution for the lye peeling which plays a vital role in our experiment.

1000 mL beaker

Balance

Hot Plate

Mortar and Pestle

Thermometer

Stirring rod

Alcohol lamp

● Crucible ● Crucible Tong ● Watch Glass ● Evaporating dish

Rest assured that the equipments will be handled with care and with utmost responsibility. We are hoping that you will approve our request. Thank you so much for your kind consideration.

Sincerely yours, John Paul S. Bansales Research Team Representative Grade 12-Diakonia, SHS Department

NOTED:

Mr. Jervin P. Roco

Capstone Research Adviser

Ms. Jamaica T. Nasayao

Research Project Adviser

Ms. Francia B. Gomez BED, Assistant Principal

Ms. Marilou Lelis Head, PMD

58

Ms. Francia Climaco

Practical Research II Adviser

LYE-PEELING PROCESS

1. Prepare the materials:

i) Hot plate

ii) Watch glass

iii) Mortar and pestle

iv) Balance

v) Rod

vi) Thermometer

vii) Beaker

viii)

ix) Jackfruit seed flour

x) Distilled water

xi) Sodium hydroxide

Twizzer

2. Put on protected gears such as, gloves, laboratory coat and face mask

3. Weight the jackfruit seeds using the balance, record it and put the jackfruit seed in the beaker.

4. Crush the sodium hydroxide using mortar and pestle.

5. Weight the sodium hydroxide by three grams.

6. Add the weight sodium hydroxide in 500 ml distilled water in a separate beaker.

7. Heat up the sodium hydroxide and water mixture until 80 degrees Celsius. Measure the temperature using the thermometer.

8. Add the jackfruit seed into the mixture when it reached 80 degrees Celsius. Stir the mixture for 10 minutes.

9. Measure the temperature of the mixture after stirring and record it.

10. Remove the jackfruit seed from the mixture and wash it well until it is not slime.

11. Sun dry it for 24 hours.

59

MATERIALS:

MATERIALS: PROCESS: Weight the seed Crush the sodium hydroxide 60
MATERIALS: PROCESS: Weight the seed Crush the sodium hydroxide 60

PROCESS:

MATERIALS: PROCESS: Weight the seed Crush the sodium hydroxide 60
MATERIALS: PROCESS: Weight the seed Crush the sodium hydroxide 60

Weight the seed

MATERIALS: PROCESS: Weight the seed Crush the sodium hydroxide 60

Crush the sodium hydroxide

MATERIALS: PROCESS: Weight the seed Crush the sodium hydroxide 60

60

MATERIALS: PROCESS: Weight the seed Crush the sodium hydroxide 60
Weight the crushed sodium hydroxide Mix the crushed sodium hydroxide with 500 mL distilled water

Weight the crushed sodium hydroxide

Weight the crushed sodium hydroxide Mix the crushed sodium hydroxide with 500 mL distilled water Heat
Weight the crushed sodium hydroxide Mix the crushed sodium hydroxide with 500 mL distilled water Heat

Mix the crushed sodium hydroxide with 500 mL distilled water

Mix the crushed sodium hydroxide with 500 mL distilled water Heat up the solution Add the

Heat up the solution

hydroxide with 500 mL distilled water Heat up the solution Add the jackfruit seed into the
hydroxide with 500 mL distilled water Heat up the solution Add the jackfruit seed into the

Add the jackfruit seed into the solution and stir continually

with 500 mL distilled water Heat up the solution Add the jackfruit seed into the solution

61

Remove the jackfruit seed from the solution Wash the seed Sun dry for 24 hours

Remove the jackfruit seed from the solution

Remove the jackfruit seed from the solution Wash the seed Sun dry for 24 hours 62
Remove the jackfruit seed from the solution Wash the seed Sun dry for 24 hours 62

Wash the seed

Remove the jackfruit seed from the solution Wash the seed Sun dry for 24 hours 62

Sun dry for 24 hours

62

CURRICULUM VITAE

John Paul S. Bansales Zone 2, Catalotoan Sagñay, Camarines Sur Block 3 Lot 10 Deca Homes Langon Vista Cararayan, Naga City Email: bansalesjp11@gmail.com Mobile Phone: 09077813786

Personal Data:

Date of Birth: September 11, 2000

Place of Birth: Naga City

Sex: Male

Age: 18

Nationality: Filipino

Religion: Roman Catholic

Civil Status: Single

Educational Attainment:

Elementary

Catalotoan Elementary School

Catalotoan Sag̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴ñay Camarines Sur

Secondary

JHS

Catalotoan National High School

Catalotoan Sag̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴ñay, Camarines Sur

SHS

Naga College Foundation, Inc.

M.T. Villanueva Avenue,Naga City

63

CURRICULUM VITAE

Charlotte A. Buenafe Zone 5, Bigaas, Calabanga, Camarines Sur Email: Charlottebuen@gmail.com Mobile Phone: 09196010210

Personal Data:

Date of Birth: June 03, 2000 Place of Birth: Calabanga Sex: Female Age: 18 Nationality: Filipino Religion: Roman Catholic Civil Status: Single

Educational Attainment:

Elementary

Calabanga Central Division Pilot School

San Francisco, Calabanga, Camarines Sur

Secondary

JHS

Calabanga National Science High School

Calabanga, Camarines Sur

SHS

Naga College Foundation, Inc.

M.T. Villanueva Avenue, Naga City

64

CURRICULUM VITAE

Maria Lounah C. Dualan Zone 2, Sabang, Calabanga, Camarines Sur Email: marialounahd@gmail.com Mobile Phone: 09196010210

Personal Data:

Date of Birth: June 07, 2001 Place of Birth: Calabanga Sex: Female Age: 17 Nationality: Filipino Religion: Protestant

Civil Status: Single

Educational Attainment:

Elementary

Sabang Elementary School

Sabang, Calabanga, Camarines Sur

Secondary

JHS

Central Bicol State University of Agriculture

Calabanga, Camarines Sur

SHS

Naga College Foundation, Inc.

M.T. Villanueva Avenue, Naga City

65

Jay Laurence Encinas

Bolod, San Pascual, Masbate Mobile Phone: 09669115426

CURRICULUM VITAE

Personal Data:

Date of Birth: February 20, 2000 Place of Birth: Bolod, San Pascual, Masbate Sex: Male Age: 18 Nationality: Filipino Religion: Roman Catholic Civil Status: Single

Educational Attainment:

Elementary

San Pascual Central School

San Pascual, Masbate

Secondary

JHS

San Pascual National High School

San Pascual, Masbate

SHS

Naga College Foundation, Inc.

M.T. Villanueva Avenue, Naga City

66

Jemwell S. lavandero

CURRICULUM VITAE

Antipolo, Minalabac, Camarines Sur Email:Jemlavandero@gmail.com Mobile Phone: 09771619120

Personal Data:

Date of Birth: November 23, 2000 Place of Birth: Naga City Sex: Male Age: 18 Nationality: Filipino Religion: Roman Catholic Civil Status: Single

Educational Attainment:

Elementary

Antipolo Elementary School

Antipolo, Minalabac, Camarines Sur

Secondary

JHS

Antipolo National High School

Antipolo, Minalabac, Camarines Sur

SHS

Naga College Foundation, Inc.

M.T. Villanueva Avenue, Naga City

67

CURRICULUM VITAE

Cielo B. Maquiñana Blk 17 Lot 8. Deca Homes Grand Vale I, San Felipe Naga City Email: cieloma92@gmail.com Mobile Phone: 09271683448

Personal Data:

Date of Birth: March 27, 2001 Place of Birth: Naga City Sex: Female Age: 17 Nationality: Filipino Religion: Born Again Christian Civil Status: Single

Educational Attainment:

Elementary

Naga Central School II Naga City

Secondary

JHS

Camarines Sur National High School

SHS

Naga City Naga College Foundation, Inc. M.T. Villanueva Avenue,Naga City

68

Brix Kyle Ordoñez GRS Ragay Camarines Sur Email: Brixordonez@gmail.com Mobile Phone: 09395269987

Personal Data:

Date of Birth: Oct.25 1999

CURRICULUM VITAE

Place of Birth: GRS Ragay Camarines Sur Sex: Male Age: 19 Nationality: Filipino Religion: Roman Catholic Civil Status: Single

.

Educational Attainment:

Elementary

Godofredo Reyes Sr. Elementary School

GRS Ragay Camarines Sur

Secondary

JHS

Godofredo Reyes Sr. National Highschool

GRS Ragay Camarines Sur

SHS

Naga College Foundation, Inc.

M.T. Villanueva Avenue, Naga City

69