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1899 1901

D. RANDAttwVAClVER, M.A ., and A. G. MACE

With a Chapter by

F. Ll. GRIFFITH, M.A., F.8.A.





and 8, Beacon Street, Boston, Mass., U.^.A.
and by KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER & CO., 1'aiernoster House, Chabing Cross R"w>, W.C.

B. QUARITCH, 15. Piccadilly, ASHER & CO.. 13,

W. ; Bkueord Street, Covent Garden, W.C.
and HENRY FROWDE, Amen Corner, E.C.

L899 1901


With a Chapter by






and 8, Beacon Street, Boston, Mass., U.S.A.
PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER & CO.. Patebnoster House. Charing Cross Road, W.C.
and by KEGAN
W.ASHER & CO., 13, Bedford Street, '..vent Garden, W.C.
B. QUARITCH, 15, Piccadilly, ;

and HENRY FROWnrc, Amen Corner, B.C.




.S., V.P.S.A.

Page 43, col. 2, line 24, for Palentologia >, D.C.L. (France).
Ph.D. (Germany).
Page 72, col. 2, line 8, for dish of tomb of 29 (xlviii.) read dish Esq. (Australia).
of tomb 29 (xlviii.}.
tsch (Switzerland).
Page 79, col. 2, line 23, for left side of
pi. xxxi. read right
of pi. xxxi.

Esq. (Boston, U.S.A.).

J. S. Cotton, Esq., M.A.

/Flbcmbcre of Committee.

T. H. Baylis, Esq., M.A., K.C., V.D. The Marquess of Northampton.

Miss M. Brodrick, Ph.D. (for Boston). Francis Wm. Percival, Esq., M.A., F.S.A.

Major E. B. Cassatt, B.A. F. G. Hilton Price, Esq., Dir.S.A.

Mrs. Cornelius Stevenson, Sc.D. (for
Somers Clarke, Esq., E.S.A.
W. E. Crum, Esq., M.A. Philadelphia).

Louis Dyer, Esq., M.A. (for Chicago). Herbert Thompson, Esq.

Arthur John Evans, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. Mrs. Tirard.
F. Ll. Griffith, Esq., M.A., F.S.A. The Rev. H. G. Tomkins, M.A.
T. Farmer Hall, Esq. Emanuel M. Underdown, Esq., K.C.
F. G. Kenyon, Esq., M.A., Litt.D. E. Towry Whyte, Esq., F.S.A.
Mrs. McClure. Major-General Sir Charles W. Wilson,
The Rev. W. MacGregor, M.A. K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S.

A. S. Murray, Esq., L.L.D., F.S.A.


SIR JOHN EVANS, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., F.B.8., V.P.S.A.


Sir E. Maunde-Thompson, K.C.B., D.C.L., Prof. G. Maspero, D.C.L. (France).

LL.D. Prof. Ad. Erman, Ph.D. (Germany).
General Lord Grenfell, G.C.B., G.C.M.G. Josiah Mullens, Esq. (Australia).
The Eev. Prof. A. H. Sayce, M.A., LL.D. M. Charles Hentsch (Switzerland).

The Hon. Chas. L. Hutchinson (U.S.A.).

1I)oii. ^Treasurers.

H. A. Grueber, Esq., F.S.A. P. C. Foster, Esq. (Boston, U.S.A.).

1bon. Secretary*.

J. S. Cotton, Esq., M.A.

Members Committee.

T. H. Baylis, Esq., M.A., K.C., V.D. The Marquess of Northampton.

Miss M. Brodrick, Ph.D. (for Boston). Francis Wm. Percival, Esq., M.A., F.S.A.

Major E. B. Cassatt, B.A. F. G. Hilton Price, Esq., Dir.S.A.

Somers Clarke, Esq., F.S.A. Mrs. Cornelius Stevenson, Sc.D. (for

W. E. Crum, Esq., M.A. Philadelphia).

Louis Dyer, Esq., M.A. (for Chicago). Herbert Thompson, Esq.

Arthur John Evans, Esq., M.A., F.E.S. Mrs. Tirard.
F. Ll. Griffith, Esq., M.A., F.S.A. The Rev. H. G. Tomkins, M.A.
T. Farmer Hall, Esq. Emanuel M. Underdown, Esq., K.C.
F. G. Kenyon, Esq., M.A., Litt.D. E. Towry Whyte, Esq., F.S.A.

Mrs. McClure. Major-General Sir Charles W. Wilson,

The Eev. W. MacGregor, M.A. K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S.

A. S. Murray, Esq., LL.D., F.S.A.



Introductory to El Am rah.
Description of site ....


Some rich Tombs at El Amrah.

Tomb a 23 36
.. a 88 36

.. a 96 37
.. b 62 37
.. bin 39


Objects of new kinds found at El Amrah.

Ivory-handled dagger .... 40

Copper dagger without handle .40
I 'opper knife

. .




Model axe of ivory

. . . . .41


( Hay and pottery animals . . . .41

Pottery model of a boat . . . .41
Pottery dolls 41
Model of a house .42
Baskets ....... .

Box with charcoal drawings

. .


. .42

Remarkable specimens of pottery . . 42


General classes of objects found at El


Worked Hints, described by Mr. H. Balfour 44

Objects of copper ... .46



The Site.

Introductory 63

Position of cemetery 63

Date of cemetery 63
The tombs 64

Stonework in tombs 65

The bricks 65

Plundering of tombs . 65


Tombs of the XIIIth — XVIItii Dynasties.

The " Pan-grave " people . . . . 67

The .69

Objects found ...... 69

Tombs of the XVIIIth Dynasty and Temple
of Aahmes I.

a. XVIIIth Dynasty tombs



Sketch Map of the District 1

View of the Valley .

The Site, with Men at Work 1

The Excavators' Quarters .

Courtyard filled with Pottery 1,2

II. Typical Tombs 11, 12, 25, 26, 27, 29, 34

III. 11, 12, 13 26, 27, 29, 30, 33, 34, 39

IV. Evolution of the form of Tomb 3, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 1 17, 26, 29, 30, 31, 32, 39

V. Selected Graves . . . . 8, 9, 16, 17, 18 19 20 23 31, 36, 37, 43

VI. Dagger, Cylinder and roughly worked Flints from bottom of Craves. 13, 23, 39, 40,
44, 45

VII. Groups from Individual Tombs 13. 16, 17, 18, 19, 22, 23, 25, 26, 36, 37, 40, 44,
47, 48
Tomb B 20, 21, 37, 38, 44
VIII. Contents of 62

IX. Clay Animals and Dolls . .

16, 17, 36, 41

X. Various Objects . .
16,17,18,19,20 21, 22, 23 30, 40, 42, 45
XI. Basket-work and Woodwork .
. 31 32, 33, 34, 42

XII. Various Objects 1(1,19,22,25 27, 36, 40 41, 42, 44, 48

XIII. New Types of Pottery, Classes R and L . .
.18 I'D, 23, 25 27, 28, 29, 30
XIV. „ „ „ B, PandD 11, 16, 19 20, 22, 23 24, 27, 42, 43

XV. New Examples of Pottery, Class C 16, 17, 36, 43

XVI. New Types and Characteristic Forms of Stone Vases . 1 19, 20, 24 27, 28, 39, 48
XVII. Marks on the Pottery
XVIII. Roughly worked Flints from filling of Graves .
. 44, 45



Contrasted Skulls
Temple of Usertesen

„ top Surface

near Abydos
. 44,

47. 57


XXI. „ 57, 58, 59

„ „
Objects of Middle and
General Plan of Mastabas
Temple and Tomb Plans, XVIIIth Dynasty
New Empire
..... . 55, 56

64, 76,









The village of El Amrah lies six miles to the live. So, having decided upon the exact point
south-east of the Royal Tombs of Abydos. A at which the excavations should commence,
wide valley (pi. i. 1), scored with numerous we chose a position for our house in the wide
shallow channels that tell of heavy rain- valley already referred to, immediately under
storms, opens about half a mile to the north of its northern bank ; thus securing a shelter from
the village itself and leads up to the cliffs of the the high winds that blew incessantly for many
desert plateau. It is on a small piece of table- weeks in January and Here we
land immediately bounding this valley on its were within five minutes' walk of any part of
northern side that the ancient cemeteries are the prehistoric burying ground, the existence
situated which will be described in the follow- of which was sufficiently attested by numerous
ing chapters. A quadrangular plot (pi. i. 2), broken potsherds and half-filled graves left by
extending three hundred yards along the road the modern plunderers who had already visited
which skirts the cultivated land, and rather the spot.
less than six hundred yards inwards from this In spite of the not unnatural objections of
road towards the western cliffs, comprises the the local authorities, who fail to understand
whole area in which the work lay. Another that explorers prefer a new house built on
three hundred yards to the north stands a clean desert sand to the insanitary filth of
picturesque group of whitewashed Shekhs' a native village, the building (pi. i. 3) was
tombs, at the head of the dyke which forms successfully completed in six days. It con-
the boundary between the provinces of Girgeh sisted of a very large living-room, three bed-
and of Keneh. In plate i. is given a sketch rooms, and a narrow store-room running nearly
map, adapted from the Government survey, which its whole length, which opened into one of the
shows the position of El Amrah in relation to bedrooms by a door fitted with strong fasten-
the neighbouring places. ings. In front was a large courtyard, at
Itwas the middle of December, 1900, when opposite corners of which were placed the
Mr. Anthony Wilkin and I arrived upon the kitchen and a small room for the two night-
site of our future work. The first thing guards whom the village supplies. Before
requisite was to have some place in which to many weeks had elapsed this courtyard (pi. i. 4)


was almost completely filled with such of the It would seem that the native plunderers had
more bulky and less valuable antiquities as the been more attracted by the numerous graves of
store-room failed to accommodate. the Xllth and XVIIIth Dynasties than by those
The men, to the number of between thirty of the pre-dynastic and proto-dynastic period.

and forty, were placed in a small house which Hundreds of tombs of the Middle or earlier

they built for themselves about a hundred New Empire, lying between our own ground
yards in front of our own. Nearly all of them and the line of the boundary dyke, had been
were old hands drawn from the neighbourhood opened by them, as well as a considerable
of Guft (Koptos) but a small gang of lads
; number belonging to the same periods which
from the village of Shekh Ali near Abadiyeh, were interposed between the pre-dynastic graves
who had been trained by myself for two years in the tract which we appropriated. It is likely

exclusively in this class of work, were the most on the other hand that the earlier graves did not

skilful of the entire body. so readily yield objects of considerable market

A well, sunk in the middle of the valley at value, and the Arabs may well have supposed
a sufficient distance from the high road, yielded that t those sections which contained them had
excellent water filtered through the gravel at been almost completely cleai'ed. It needs some
a depth of about fifteen feet, and did not run little experience of these early cemeteries to
dry by the beginning of April. Digging was realize how closely the graves are packed
begun on December 22nd at the north-western together, generally with only a space of a few
corner of the area which had been selected. inches between each, and even a careful ex-
The ground presented the appearance of cavator may easily overlook some ; indeed, it is

having been thoroughly worked over. Many almost certain that he will do so unless special
acres were pitted with deep holes and littered precautions are taken.
with the rubbish which had been thrown out. As our object was to deal only with the
In fact, the site of El Amrah had already been earlier period, we left untouched almost the
exploited no less than four times. M. de whole region north of a little divide, which
Morgan first signalized the existence of a runs up from the high road at about half the
prehistoric cemetery there, and he himself distance from the dyke to the wide valley. In
opened a few graves in 1896. Further, at that part, as has been said, there are numerous
his instigation, M. Amelineau sent a gang of graves, apparently of the XVIIIth and perhaps
fifty men under native overseers to dig there also of the Xllth Dynasty, some of which
for a fortnighl : and later the fella/tut, whom may still repay working at a future date,
these desultory operations had set upon the though it is not likely that many have
track of valuable antiquities, rifled a large escaped being sacked in ancient or in modern
number of graves. The accounts published by times. Starting only a few yards north of this
the two archaeologists (De Morgan, Becherches divide, and at the extreme western edge of the
stir lea Oritjiucs tic /'
I'Jtji/pte, 1896 and 1<S!>7; burying ground, we worked southwards and
Amelineau, Vowvelles Fouilles d'Abydos, 1895-6) eastwards.
are so meagre that it was impossible to judge In from three weeks to a month over two
how much had been done and how much still hundred graves had been noted in full detail
remained to do. We hoped, however, that the besides a small number of others which were
site would prove to be less exhausted than it at cleared but not noted, as they contained nothing
in -l appeared ;
and it soon became evident that of more value than a skeleton and a single pot.
these hopes were to he more than justified. This proved to be the entire extent of a small


but highly interesting cemetery on the western cemetery b includes every stage and variety of
side. Its precise size is difficult to state, as so tomb, from the beginning of the pre-dynastic
many of the graves had already been worked. As, down to the full proto-dynastic period which is

however, almost all these were reopened, and in contemporary with the Royal Tombs of Abydos.
many cases with good results, such as contained In its arrangement, cemetery b was less

"pottery or objects of interest were registered in symmetrical than might have been expected.
our notes. With all due allowance therefore The earliest graves, it is true, were in its western
for graves which had already been depleted, as corner, while the eastern side was monopolized
well as for some XVIIIth Dynasty encroach- by the latest. But the middle space between
ments, it is improbable that the cemetery ever the two included all the intermediate steps of
included more than GOO graves. Its range the pre-historic without any graduated chrono-
was from the very beginning of the pre-historic logical disposition ; so that we were disappointed
down to the opening of the " late pre-historic in our expectation of finding the graves arranged
period, and the graves from it are recorded with in consecutive plots corresponding to their exact

their respective numbers under the letter a. relative antiquity. It looks as though the
On its eastern side this cemetery a had been pi'e-historic sexton had anticipated modern
cut into at the time of the XVIIIth Dynasty methods so far as to stake out the limits of his
and when it had been ascertained that no more burial ground, and then to dig the graves
early graves remained there which we had without paying very particular attention to the
not opened, operations were transferred to a order in which he put them.
spot several hundred yards further to the east, The total number of graves in cemetery b
where broken pottery showed that there existed was about 400, which may be considered nearly
at any rate a certain number of graves of the to represent its whole original extent. It

latest pre-historic period. This eastern ceme- formed a rough right angle open on the south
tery, the graves of

letter b,
which are noted under the
proved to be of considerable size and
side ;
and between the arms of the right angle
were a considerable number of shallow graves
importance, and kept us fully occupied for the of the Xllth to XVth Dynasties, which we
remainder of the season. When its limits worked in so far as it was necessary to deter-
were determined it was seen that it was of mine whether there were earlier graves among
very comprehensive character. On its western them. These Middle Empire burials, which
border, that is to say about 250 yards from the Avere very poor in character, had encroached
eastern limit of a, there were graves of the very to some extent on the early cemetery ; but as
earliest pre-historic period. Its eastern ex- the graves were mere surface trenches they had
tremity was within a few yards of the high- not usually penetrated to the level of the earlier
road, and it was at this point that a class of interment, which in this part was generally
graves was brought to light which were the five or six feet down. was by no In fact, it

most interesting of any that occurred upon the means uncommon after working through a rough
site. They were oblong brick constructions of surface grave of the Middle Empire to find an

various dimensions (pi. iv. 5-8) ; which, from untouched prehistoric burial beneath it.

their intrinsic character, and from the objects A little experimental digging disclosed brick
they contained, can be safely dated to the 1st graves of the proto-dynastic time north of the
and, perhaps, to the Ilnd Dynasty. A con- divide which formed the limit of our systematic
tinuous and unbroken line connected them with !
work ; but it is clear from their relative position
the burials of the pre-dynastic period, so that that these formed part of a third cemetery,


which is probably too much destroyed to repay then appeared as they are shown in pis. ii.

dicing. and iii. Any disarrangement could be readily

The space of about 250 yards which separated detected, and dismissal was the penalty for
cemeteries a and b from one another we left repeatedly moving objects, as also for un-
untouched : it was full of XVIIIth Dynasty justifiable damage or breaking.
graves (shallow pits with chambers), which When a grave had been thus far cleared the

had apparently been thoroughly rifled by archaeologist himself descended into it, after

modern plunderers. roughly sketching the relative j>osition of the

A word may be inserted with regard to our body and of the principal objects as seen from
methods of work. They were those which have the top. With his own hands he then removed
become traditional with Professor Petries school, the pottery and other objects, as well as the
and are based on the principle that all results skull and bones, and carefully noted them in his

are untrustworthy or even useless which are register, with a diagrammatic drawing of all

not obtained by the personal observation of the but the most commonplace graves.
excavator. A staff of workmen, of whom nine- It has been said that in these early cemeteries
tenths were highly trained, while the remainder the graves are so thickly packed that it is

were intelligent enough to learn their business difficult to be certain that a cemetery has been
speedily when put into partnership with those thoroughly exhausted. Consequently we used
ofmore experience, did all the actual digging. to peg out a small patch, and, even when it

They were stationed in a plot marked out for appeared to be finished, keep the men at work
them, and though allowed to use their dis- inside it. It was not until the entire gang of
cretion as to picking likely spots within this thirty or forty diggers had failed for a whole
closely-limited area, they were never allowed to day to find a single grave within such a small
go outside it. One or other of us, generally plot, or at the most had lighted upon a single
both, remained unintermittently on the ground, worthless interment, that they were allowed to
save for an hour or so in the early morning, move on to the next section. It may be con-
when only the top surface was being dug so ; by this means the whole ground
sidered that
that we were free to devote this interval to draw- which we worked was completely exhausted
ing, photography, and arrangement. Until they and in more than one instance we were
reached the level of the interment the men rewarded by finding a valuable object in a
might work without reference to us though, ; grave which had been passed over in the
if any peculiar features were met with in previous search.
digging through the upper surface, these had
at once to be reported before the digging The excavations had been successfully con-
proceeded. A strict inquisition was always cluded, the antiquities packed and despatched,
held upon objects which were stated to have and the house destroyed, when we left El Amrah
been found in the upper levels, such finds of at the very beginning of April. Mr. Wilkin,
course only occurring where the graves had who was then in perfect health, had planned an
been previously plundered. Arrived at the expedition to the neighbouring oasis of El-
level of the interment, the workman was Khargeh, which, in company with two friends,
expected to clear off all superflous sand and he shortly afterwards carried It was
rubbish, and to leave the tomb furniture and either there, or, as seems more probable, on
the skeleton lying unencumbered exactly in the his return to Cairo, that he contracted dysentery
places in which tiny were found. The graves of so violent a character that the efforts of the

most experienced physicians were unable to name has been omitted from the title page of
save him, and he died in the nursing home at this volume, yet in the account of El-Amrah
Cairo in the third week of May. His death will I am writing the record of work which is fully

he most deeply feltby his numerous friends, as much his as my own. Indeed this part of
and will be deplored by that wider public to the volume is especially indebted to his talents,
whom his literary abilities were beginning to inasmuch as the great majority of the illustra-

make him known. A short sketch of his life tions are from his camera or pencil. Egypt-
will be found in the Archaeological Report for ologists and anthropologists alike will feel that

the year 1901. they have lost a gifted fellow-worker, whose

The reader will understand that though, for achievements gave promise of a brilliant

reasons of practical convenience, Mr. Wilkin's future.




A FEW lines are needed to explain to the reader and to stone vases which are not illustrated in

the principle of the numerous references to our plates, the letters and numbers quoted are
types and to dating of objects which will be those under which they may be found in Naqada
made in this and the following chapters. and Ballas and in Diospolis Parva. Only a
It would not be possible, if it were desirable, very few of the innumerable varieties of earthen-
to publish an illustration of every object found ware pots are actually represented in the present
in these earliest cemeteries. The quantity of volume, as the illustrations are confined to types
small material is so great that the cost of figur- which were not previously known. Similarly,
ing ir would be excessive, while the repetition though some photographs are given in pi. xvi.

of identical illustrations in several memoirs of characteristic stone vases, these are only
would in any case be irksome, if not misleading. representative specimens, and do not include all

\ irdingly in the section of this volume which the kinds found ; in order to ascertain which the
deals with El Amrah the same principle has reader must refer, by the letter and number
been followed which was initiated in Diospolis given in each case, to the corpus of stone vases
Parva. That is to say, Naqada and Ballas contained in the two volumes named.
(Petrie and Quibell, 1896) is taken as the Again, it has been found possible by carefully
standard work of reference, and all objects of recording all the combinations of objects found in
well-known types are referred to by the letters the many hundreds of graves brought to light
and numbers under which they are there at Naqada, Abadiyeh, and Hou, to work out a
illustrated. In that very complete publication complete gradation of all the products of this
were figured all the characteristic products of early culture. The system by which Prof.
the period which is now known to be partly Petrie did this, and the results which he
pre-dynastic and partly proto-dynastic. In achieved, are set out in Diosjjolis Parva. Here
particular the foundations were laid for a it may be said briefly that the entire period was
complete classification of all the types of distributed on a conventional plan over a scale
pottery and stone vases. Subsequent excava- numbered from 30 to 80 ; 30 representing the
tions have amplified and added to the series, beginning and 80 the close of the term, so far as
and many new forms are to be seen in Diospolis itsclose had yet been ascertained. This system
Parva (Petrie, 1901). But the original num- was termed " sequence-dating," and is invalu-
bering of the pottery and stone vases was able for recording the comparative stages to
purposely made elastic, so as to leave room which graves and their contents belong. In
to include whatever new kinds mierht be the following pages frequent reference is

discovered later, and from this point of view made to it, and the letters s.D. are used to
the two volumes constitute a -ingle whole. denote "sequence-dating"; the accompanying
When therefore reference is made to pottery numerals, whatever they may be between 30
. — 9 —


and 80, marking the relative chronological are, on the whole, intermediate between those
point according to this conventional system. of 1 — 3 and those of 6 — 9, but may overlap at
either end with one group or the other.
The wide range and the varied character of The various forms may now be described in
the two cemeteries excavated at El Amrah give full detail.

them what is, perhaps, their principal interest.

All stages of the early period are there repre-
Class 1. Round Shallow Graves.
sented, from the earliest beginnings of the
" New Race " down to the time when its The average depth of these is three or four
culture mei'ges into that of the first two feet,and they are only just wide enough to
Egyptian dynasties. This characteristic of the accommodate the body and the sparse tomb
site made it possible to trace many small de- furniture. The body, which is laid in the
tails of change and development, and we were contracted position characteristic of the whole
the better able to do this as previous experience period, is wrapped in a leathery substance
had already familiarized us with the more resembling goatskin, and again enclosed in a
ordinary features of these graves. Particular reed-matting. Two undoubted cases occurred

attention was paid to the evolution of the form in which the limbs had been disarticulated
of the tomb, and this chapter contains the before burial. Of this practice, which is dis-

results of the observations made on that point. tinctly exceptional, an example is shown in

Tombs as studied at El Amrah may be pi. iv. 1, where many of the bones have

divided into the following classes :

been drawn as may suffice to indicate their
1 Round shallow graves. abnormal position. It is not always easy to
2. Oblong or roughly oval graves averaging distinguish between instances in which the
5 —6 feet in depth. bones have been disarranged by ancient or even
3. Graves with a recess which was cut in contemporaneous plundering, and those in which
the rock. the body was partially or completely broken up
4. Graves with a rock-recess and with a when originally interred. Such cases of dis-

coffin. articulated burial, however, as are cited in the

5. Pot-bui'ials. present memoir are taken from graves which

6. Plain quadrangular brick graves. had certainly never been plundered. In this
7. Brick graves with a recess at one end connection it may be stated that there was no
formed by a single partition. indication of any practice suggestive of canni-

8. Brick graves in which the recess is balism, so that " cut-up " burials are most
further divided into two compart- reasonably explained by the theory of secondary
ments. interment.
9. Brick graves with recesses at both ends. Double burials occurred twice, and a triple

This arrangement shows a complete logical burial occurred once, in the The round graves.
evolution, but it is only partly chronological. tomb -furniture was small in quantity, but was
Class 1 is the earliest, but Classes 2 and 3 are occasionally of some value, as may be seen from
very nearly contemporary with it, and are quite grave b 127, which contained no fewer than
contemporary with one another. Classes 6 — four of the rare white-lined red pots.
are probably to some extent, at least, contem- The graves of Class 1 are certainly the
porary with one another, though clearly sub- earliest in the entire series. They would seem
sequent to Classes 1 — 3. Again, Classes 4 and 5 to have lasted down to s.D. 43, and perhaps
— ;


even a little later, in the " sequence datings " the richer tombs, on the other hand, are con-

but their nourishing time was from s.D. 30 — 38, siderably larger (cf. pi. v. 6). The type begins
after which they were replaced by the typos at least as early as s.D. 35, and continues in use
ibed as Class 2 and Class 3. throughout the whole period, until near the
beginning of the 1st Dynasty, when it is

superseded at the precise time when the coffin

Class 2. Oblong or Roughly Oval Graves. comes into vogue.
(a) Unroofed graves, oblong or roughly oval (b) Roofed graves are uncommon in the pre-

in shape (pL ii. 1, v. 1, &c), and averaging five dynastic, though, as will shortly be shown, they

to six feet in depth, are the most numerous of are quite characteristic of the proto- dynastic

any kind. Together with those which are to period. At a stage corresponding to about 60

be described in Class 3, they may be considered in the " sequence-datings," when a considerable

to be the most typical and characteristic forms amount of space was needed to accommodate
of the pre-dynastic period. the quantity of large pots which were buried

The body is wrapped in a skin and a reed with the dead person, oblong graves such as
mat. Most commonly there is a triple layer of those which have been described attained to

coverings, viz. cloth next to the body, then skin very large dimensions. They might then be
or leather, outside which is a wide mat. The roofed over with boughs, but this was only
body is first laid on the mat, which is then occasionally done, and there are not more than

folded over until its two edges meet, thus four undoubted instances of the practice at

enclosing the body and frequently a great part El Amrah.

of the tomb furniture. Two of these may be described as typical.
There are some variations of detail which are The first (b 154) was a plain large tomb,
interesting. Thus in several cases the body 8 ft. long by 6 ft. wide, and 7 ft. deep ; and
was not only wrapped up in the way described, contained twenty-one pots, mostly of consider-
but was also laid on twigs lashed together so as able size, ranged on ledges round three of its

to form a sort of tray. A peculiar example sides. The other (b 221) was of very similar
(pi. iv. 2) was that in which such a tray was dimensions, viz. 8 ft. long by 4^ ft. wide, and
placed, not under, but over the body. This 7 ft. deep. It contained no less than twenty
grave, which deserves a special notice, is fully of the large ash-jars (types R 80, R 81) placed

described in chap. v. Once, instead of the in two rows, one above the other, along one
twig-work tray, a wooden bier, made in a side of the tomb besides seven wavy-handled

single piece like a " dug-out," was put under jars (types W 43, 41, 25), three ash-jars, a
tin' reed mat. The bier was 5 ft. long by 2 ft. polished-red bowl (P 22), and a vessel of the
7 in. outside breadth, with side pieces 4 in. " late " ware (L 40) at the two ends. The roof
bigh; the uniform thickness of the wood was had been made of boughs plastered with mud ;

I in. and, as there was no trace of any supports, it

Disarticulated burials occur, but are even was probably laid on the top after the interior

rarer than in Class 1. There are occasional had been simply filled up with sand almost to

cases of double or multiple interments. the level of the natural desert. Inside the
The graves included in Class 2a vary con- grave there were planks enclosing the central
Biderably in dimensions. The smallest are only space, and rising to a height of 20 in. from the
ju-t wide enough and long enough to accommo- floor. On parts of these planks there were
date the contracted body and one or two pots ;
vestiges of cord. The exact purpose of this


internal construction was not quite apparent. When the recess is only very slightly stepped
It was not a lining to the tomb, as it did not back and is cut in rather soft rock, it is apt to
approach the sides, nor yet did it appear to be become obliterated in the process of excava-

a coffin. It was probably in the nature of a tion, and for this reason Class 3 may sometimes
retaining fence, like those to be described in come to be confounded with Class 2. In the
the following section, intended to keep the most characteristic cases, however, the recess is

central part from being choked with rubbish. cut back to a width about equal to that of the
pit, and it can then easily be distinguished. A
very typical instance was b 157, in which the
Class 3. Graves with a Recess which
well or pit of the tomb was 4 ft. long by 3 ft.
was cut in the rock.
wide and 3 ft. deep ; while the recess was 3 ft.

When a number of objects were to be long by 2 ft. C> ins. broad and 2 ft. high, with
deposited, and some of them were as bulky as 1 ft. depth of rock overhanging it.

the large jars filled with ashes, it was only In pi. iv. 4 is seen a more perfected form,
natural to devise some plan for methodically which merits particular attention. The recess
arranging the contents of the grave. Thus is here fenced off by a partition of twigs, made
there arose a tendency, even when the graves into a sort of wattle-work. This was observed
Avere of the plain oval or oblong kind, to range several times. At first only one or two upright
the larger pots in a row along one side, leaving sticks were found in a position which warranted
the other side free to accommodate the body the inference that a wattle fence had existed,
and the smaller articles of personal use which but did not enable the point to be established
immediately accompanied it. In pi. iv. 3 and with complete certainty. The policy, however,
in pi. v. 2 may be seen a development of this of offering a substantial reward for fragile

idea, in pursuance of which a number of pots woodwork which was not broken or displaced,
are placed on a distinct ledge at a slightly enabled us to recover exact details with regard
higher level than the space which contains the to the construction of these and of vai'ious other

actual burial. On this principle is evolved a very delicate pieces of reed and basket work.
fresh type of tomb, in which there is a more Such objects crumble almost at a touch and
or less distinct recess cut back into the rock to would be destroyed by the slightest carelessness
receive the body ; while the larger objects are of the workman, or even by the unfortunate
placed just outside the recess, in what, but for springing up of a high wind. We were able
its small size, might be aptly characterized as to note three unquestionable cases (b 135, b 186,
the " pit " of the tomb. b21G), in which the wattle-work was clearly
This evolution takes place quite early, and visible. In another instance (b 37) only parts
the recessed graves are, generally speaking, of the vertical posts had survived. In b 48, and
contemporary with the plain oval and oblong. in two or three other graves, there were traces

They are well established by s.d. 40, but tend of wood which could fairly be inferred to have
to become commoner in the middle and later formed part of a similar construction.
prehistoric period ;
and though it could not be In the best preserved arrangement of the
said that at El Amrah they ever quite superseded kind, which is that shown in pi. iv. 4, the
the plain graves, yet in the cemetery lettered uprights were unbarked sticks of an inch to
as U at Hou (referred to in Diospolis Parva) the two inches in diameter, and the cross-pieces were
recess was the peculiar characteristic of all the similar, but a little less substantial. The height
latest graves. of the upright sticks was about twelve inches.
— —


between the late pre-dynastic and the earliest

Class 4. Gbaves with a Kecess cut in the
proto-dynastic period. This much can be
Rock and with a Coffin*.
stated without particular l-eference to the

The distinguishing characteristic of this class " sequence-datings."

is tlic employment of a coffin, which may be The material for sequence-datings is un-
either of wood, of half-baked clay, or of fully- fortunately somewhat scanty for Class 4. The
baked red pottery, with or without a lid. There wealth of pottery and artistic products which
is a resemblance to Class 3 in so far that an characterizes the typical prehistoric grave has

essential feature is the recess cut back in the disappeared ; and the equipment of the dead is

rock ; but the form has so far developed that almost confined to one or two rough and
the pit is now wholly subordinated to the unshapely pots. The latter, however, such as
recess, and is nothing more than an empty they are, may be of great assistance for dating
entrance to the true grave. The body is in a purposes. Almost all of them are approximations

coffin, which occupies almost the whole recess, to or derivatives from one or two forms, such as
and the scanty pottery is placed beside the L 38, L 72 and L 33, which are known to be

coffin, while any small objects of personal use very late in the prehistoric Four

are put with the body itself. representative examples are shown in pi. xiii.,
A tomb of this class is well illustrated in numbered as L 33d, e, f, and g. The pots are
pi. ii. 2 (grave b 4). The pit was 5 ft. deep, so roughly made as sometimes to oscillate

4 ft. long, and 2 ft. wide to the opening of the between two or three forms of this series, but
recess. The coffin, which filled the recess, was in character they are quite homogeneous.
of pottery and oval in shape, 27 in. long by Further, L 53 with its subordinate types occurs
24 in. The body was in the invariable
wide. several times ; and a single specimen of L 7<J,

contracted position no objects accompanied it,

; a rough bowl shaped like R 34a, the stone
but a very rough pot of the type L 33f (see vases S 4b, S 17d and those shown in pi. xvi.

pi. xiii.) was laid beside the coffin. 2 and 6, complete the catalogue of dating
Nineteen graves of this kind occurred at objects.
El Amrah; the examples which contained any This collocation justifies the assignment of
objects of interest are fully entered in the small pit-graves with recess and coffin to a
inventory (p. 25). They may be differentiated time not earlier than s.d. 70, and extending in
into two subdivisions, viz. (a) graves in which all probability down to s.D. 80. The upper
the recess was not separated from the pit by limit would attach them to the latest stage of
any partition, (h) those in which the recess was the pre-dynastic, and the lower limit would
partitioned off from the pit by a brick wall, assign them to the 1st Dynasty.
which narrowed as it, so as to present a
roughly semicircular front.
Class 5. Pot Burials.
This entire class is certainly very late in the
series. It was entirely confined to the stretch Large pots were occasionally used for inter-

of ground lying exactly between the normal ring the body in the late pre-dynastic or in
prehistoric and the brick graves which are the proto-dynastic period. Their more precise
considered under Classes 6 9. The tomb — dating has hitherto been a matter of doubt, but
furniture confirms the view which is suggested El Amrah seems to supply the desired link in
both by tin- local position and by the structure of the rave occurrence of coffins which are merely
raves: namely, that they arc transitional sunk in the soil without any form of tomb. Of


this practice there were five examples. One projecting rim, made of thick red ware and
was an oval clay coffin sunk three feet well baked. (For the method by which such
below the surface, and containing the body pots were manufactured see an article by
of a child. The second was the burial of an Mr. J. Garstang in Man, March, 1902.) In a
adult in a clay coffin sunk five feet below unicpie case (grave b 32) the bones were covered
the surface, accompanied by the pots L 34d, with a black substance resembling pitch. This
L 53d, and an L bowl shaped like R 34a. The was the only instance at El Amrah of anything
third was similar to the second, but sunk to a approaching to an artificial treatment of the
depth of only two feet, and unaccompanied by body.
objects. The fourth was an oblong coffin of Burials of this fifth class seldom include any
red baked pottery, lying a little below the objects. None of those which were discovered
surface of the ground, and containing a skull at El Amrah were accompanied even by a
and some bones but no objects ; it is a doubtful single pot. At Abydos, however (1899-1900),
case, as the coffin had been plundered, and in an untouched grave of cemetery x (see p.
might therefore have been removed from some 54) the pot W85 was with the body under
adjoining brick grave. The fifth is the most the inverted burial-pot, while two specimens of
satisfactory as a connecting link. It was a L 36a and one of L 38a were immediately out-
round clay coffin, very similar to the burial- side it (cf. p. 55, graves x 60, x 72).
pots both in shape and dimensions, placed three Pot-burials then may be considered to belong
feet below the surface, and covered over with to a definitely late stage, and to be roughly
bricks. It contained the body of a not quite contemporary with those of Class 4, though it

adult male, without any accompanying objects. is possible that they may begin a little earlier

The large pot, which was used to contain it is almost certain, however, that they also
the body in ten cases noted on this site, may continue later than the period s.D. 70-80.
therefore be regarded as a variety of such a
method of interment. It is merely the substitu- Classes 6-9 are composed of graves wholly
tion of a cheap ready-made receptacle for the different from those which have been described
more elaborate cist or coffin. above. They are all four-sided constructions of
A typical example of the kind is shown in brick, which vary only in the degree of elabora-

pi. ii. 3, in which the pot, as often happens, had tion exhibited in them. Plans of such are given
been broken at the top by plunderers, in order in pi. iv. 5, 6, 7, 8. Their general appearance
to ascertain whether it contained objects of may be understood from pi. ii. 4, 5, 6, and from
value. "Whenever these burials have not been pi. hi.; while details of the most important
disturbed, so far as my own experience goes, the are given below in Chap. IV. Tombs of
pot is always inverted over the body, and is this kind were described by M. de Morgan
never turned with the mouth upwards. Its (Becherches, 1897, p. 138) as existing at

dimensions vary considerably, but the diameter Kawamil, El Amrah and elsewhere. The same
at the mouth is always sufficient to enclose a Avriter pointed out thp resemblance between
body which is laid in a violently contracted them and the private tombs surrounding that
position. In one of the few graves which were of the king who was buried at Naqada. Since
opened north of the divide a rough pot of the the publication of his volume, however, a large
unusual shape of B 3c (see pi. xiv.) had been amount of new information has been acquired
employed ; but the normal form is that of a with which our results may be more usefully
plain red basin, with a well-marked, but not collated. Brick buildings of the El Amrah

type occurred frequently in connection with the earlier types. The coffins were either of clay or
Royal Tombs at A.bydos; and it is with the of wood. In two instances, viz. b 33 (pi. ii. 5)
results obtained on that site by Prof. Petrie and b 50, there seemed to be a wooden lining
that this section should be compared. to the sides ; but on so small a scale it was not
The essential character in Classes 6 —9 is that very easy to distinguish between a coffin which
of a four-sided enclosure of brick, sunk a few might be placed in a grave so as almost to fill
feel below the desert surface. There is a con- it, and a wooden lining which would be prac-

siderable difference in the dimensions of the tically identical with a coffin in its dimensions.

various examples, which are larger or smaller (Cf. p. 33).

according to the importance of the burial. The The usual contents of the brick graves may
smallest was a child's grave only 2 ft. long, be seen from the inventory pp. 20-30. In this
and the largest was the great tomb shown in place it is only necessary to refer briefly to the
pi. iii. 6, and pi. iv. 8. There were various pottery and stone vases as evidence of dating.
intermediate sizes (see pi. iv. and cf. Ch. TV.). The pottery, comprising only a small number of
Roofs were made for all of them in either of varieties, was all of definitely late character.
two ways. viz. with bricks or with boughs. Far the commonest form was L 38, which
The brick roof was the usual covering of the occurred in almost every gi'ave. Bowls such as
smaller graves, and was sometimes supported L 12 and L 17, of salmon colour and with wide
by piles of other bricks from the floor divisions between the burnishing lines, were
on tbe more elaborate construction
inside. A hardly less constant; and L 53 with its various
was that of the grave shown unopened in sub-types was often found. Of the other pots
pi. iii. 5, where the walls were made of bricks several bear the closest typological relation to
overlapping one another on the cantilever the specimens which have been named, and all

principle, so as gradually to bring the sides are of forms which are definitely ascribed to the
together in what would have formed a false same stage in the period. The earliest point at
arch if the projecting edges of the bricks had which these combinations of pottery can occur
been trimmed (see p. 34 for full description). is s.d. 70, and the upper limit is thus exactly

The larger graves, as well as a certain number fixed. But, in the absence till this year of
of the smaller, were roofed with unbarked tombs known to bridge the interval between
boughs of two to four inches diameter, which the late prehistoric and the early proto-dynastic,
were laid across the width of the aperture. A it has not hitherto been possible to define the
layer of twigs or of reeds was subsequently latest range of some of the pottery in question.
placed on the boughs ; and the whole was then It may be considered certain that such combina-
covered with several inches of plastered mud. tions as occurred in the brick graves are not
hi pi. ii. 4 is shown a characteristic example. earlier than s.d. 70 ; but it must be remembered
The grave is lying open with the body un- that the lower limit cannot be so precisely
disturbed, and on the left side of the picture determined and may well fall considerably after
can be seen the ends of the boughs which had that point.
spanned it.
A great deal of light is thrown on this part of

A feature common to these graves and to those the question by the discoveries lately made at
of Class 1 is the use of a coffin, though this is Abydos. If our inventory, see pp. 26-30, be
nol invariable. Nine examples out of a total of compared with plates xli. and xlii. of the
forty did not contain coffins, but only such a Royal Tom//* the First Dynasty (Petrie,
reed mat as occurs in the familiar graves of 1900), it will be seen that virtually all the
; —


types of pottery that characterize these graves may have extended a short way into the Ilnd

at El Amrah were found also on the neighbour- Dynasty.

ing site, where they are well dated. Judging The last piece of evidence as regards the
then in the first instance by the sole evidence of brick graves is that, in the largest and probably
pottery,it may be said that the El Amrah the latest of them, viz. b 91 (pi. iii. 6, and pi.

tombs of Classes 6 9 are as late as the 1st iv. 8), was found an inscribed steatite cylinder,

Dynasty, and that there is no evidence for (p. 39, pi. vi. 6). No inscribed cylinders have
putting them earlier. hitherto been noted from pre-dynastic graves.
The stone vases confirm this view, and fix The nearest approach to anything of the kind

the limits more closely. The forms which occur was an ivory cylinder with an ornamental pattern
are S lc, 2, 4c, 8, 17a, 17e, 26, 30, 31, 40a, found at Hou in 1898-99 (see Biospolis Parva,
40c, 46, 47, 50, 55, 130, as well as the new pi. x., Petrie, 1901). It was incised with a
types given in our pi. xvi. 3, 4, 7, 8, and the pattern which is rather an ornamental design
handled vases H 35 and H 63b. In pi. vii. 3 than an inscription ; and the tomb from which
is shown a group from a single tomb, and it came is dated s.d. 65 — 76, the lower limit of

pi. xvi. 10 — 13 gives four specimens typical of which may well be proto-dynastic. So that
those which have been enumerated. the occurrence of a well-inscribed cylinder dates
Types identical with or bearing the closest the elaborate grave b 91 to the 1st or, perhaps,
resemblance to almost all of those which have to the Ilnd Dynasty.
been entered in the above list were found in the The entire group of brick graves may be
royal tombs at Abydos (see The Royal Tombs sub-divided according to the details of their
of the Earliest Dynasties, Petrie, 1901). It is construction ; only it must be noted that such
true that one or two of them, e.g. S lc and a classification will be typological rather than
S 130, have a long range and begin quite early ;
chronological, since several, if not all, of the
but on the other hand several, notably S 17e, varieties are probably contemporary with one
do not appear at all until the full pro to- dynastic another. With this reservation they may be
time. At El Amrah of course the graves described as :

were comparatively poor, whereas at Abydos Class 6. — Plain four-sided enclosures of

enormous numbers of stone vases and bowls brick without any recesses or sub-
accompanied each of the kings who was interred sidiary chambers (pi. iv. 5).
but very important to observe that the


forms coincide precisely with those

Class 7. — Similar enclosures in which a
small dividing wall is built at one end,
in the repertoire of Abydos. Perhaps there is a
so as to bar off a section of the entire
shade of difference to be noted in the bowls, in-
length and form a chamber for the
asmuch as at El Amrah the forms described as
reception of vases or offerings (pi. iv. 6).
S 46 and S 55 are not recurved at the rim, like
the majority of the bowls from the Royal Tombs, Class 8. — Resembling Class 7 except that

a feature which might point to the former being the development has been carried one

a trifle the earlier ; but this argument cannot stage further, the chamber being itself

be laboured, since recurved bowls, e.g. S 130, divided into two parts by a small
were cross-wall at right angles to the first
also found on our site. The evidence
of the stone vases therefore definitely assigns partition (pi. iv. 7).

graves of Classes 6 —9 to the 1st Dynasty, Class 9. — Graves with recesses at both
without excluding the possibility that they ends (pi. iv. 8).

The general orientation of the pre-dynastic which it was laid on its left side with the face
graves was from North (magnetic) to South, to the West. In a few instances, though the
but most of them varied a few points to the grave was cut in the usual direction, the body
East or to the West of the true axial line. was laid with the head to the North and the
The very great majority, in fact, lay actually feet to the South. The illustrations in pis.

N.N.W. and S.S.E. this being a line which

ii. — v. are not arranged according to any system
brought them parallel with the edge of the of orientation.
low table-land that bounds the cultivation in The proto-dynastic graves were oriented in
this place. Only about a dozen graves were practically the same direction as those which
oriented East and West. The position of the preceded them, that is to say, North (N.N.W.)
body was always that which is known as the and South (S.S.E.). The position of the body,
embryonic " or " contracted " ; i.e. the arms however, differed slightly from that which was
and legs were sharply bent, so that in extreme most usual in the earlier time. As in the latter

cases came against the face, and the

the hands it was always in the contracted attitude, but it

thighs against the elbows. The body was lay almost invariably on its left instead of on its

normally laid with the head to the South and right side, and so faced to the West instead of
on its right side with the face to the East. to the East.
There were, however, some twenty cases in



The two following chapters contain an epito- Only tombs which contained objects or com-
mized description of all the important tombs binations of some interest are entered here.
found at El Amrah and of their contents. The Those which yielded nothing more valuable
present chapter is devoted to the pre-dynastic. than a few common and well-known pots, or
the next to the proto-dynastic period. The perhaps one slate palette, do not merit any
pre-dynastic graves are here grouped according special description. Such cumulative results as
to their relative antiquity, on the principle of have been derived from them are mentioned in
" sequence-dating " referred to on p. 6. For various passages of this volume.
the 1st Dynasty, however, and for the transi- In these catalogues the construction of each
tion period which immediately precedes it, the grave is described by a reference to the classifi-
" sequence-datings " are not yet so completely cation of graves made in the last chapter.
coi'related ; so that in Chap. IV. the type of Slates and other objects are noted according
tomb construction has been taken as the basis to the numbers given to each type in the
of arrangement. corpus of various objects published in Naqada
In the present chapter the groups are and Ballas, which has been continued in a
purposely made comprehensive, and are not supplementary form in Diospolis Farm. Such
minutely sub-divided ; but the reader who an entry therefore as " slate of type 37," or
wishes to determine the exact place of any " slate of type 96," means that the type in
grave within these divisions, can do so by question can be seen by referring to the plates
merely comparing the entries of pottery and of slates in Naqada and Ballas or if the number ;

objects given in this list with the tables of should not occur in that volume then it will be
"sequence datings " given in Diospolis Parva. found in the supplementary list, i.e. in Diospolis
In assigning the graves to their respective Parva. In the same way ivories, stone vases,

groups, the latest possible date has always pottery, etc., are all recorded by the numbers
been taken as fixing the limit of each example. which they bear in those plates of Naqada and
Thus, for instance, among those which are Diospolis which deal with ivories, stone vases,

classed as before s.d. 46, some may go back, pottery, or whatever kind of object may be in
and probably do actually go back, before question. The letters given to the classes of
s.d 41 ; but as they cannot be proved with pottery should perhaps be explained. They
certainty to be so early they have been deposed are as follows : P for " Polished Red," B for
to the later group, where they are approxi- " Black-topped Red," C for " Cross-lined (i.e.

mately placed as being certainly not later, white-ornamented) Red," F for " Fancy forms,"
though they may be a good deal earlier, than W for " Wavy-handled," D for " Decorated,"

s.d. 46. R for " Rough-faced," L for " Late " ware.

tracted than usual. Basket-work. Car-

nelian and steatite beads. Slate of type 37.
Grates before s.n. 41. Pots B lie, B 61, B 75 b, and fragments
of two more B.
a 18. Grave of Class 2a. Body that of child,
probably half-grown. Fragments of a 85 1
. Grave of Class 2a. Body $ . Plaque

basket-work near head. Pots P 53, B lib, of selenite measuring 5 in. X 3 in., and
B 78, D 83. \ in. to ^ in. thick. Alabaster bowl 4 in.

diameter. Fragments of malachite. String

a 23. Grave of Class 2a (see pi. v. 1). Body
Stand of 4 clay cows (pi. and
of steatite beads at head. Pots B lid,
3 . ix. 1 3).

Baton of clay painted in red stripes with

B22c, B 25c, B 63a, R lid.

imitation mace-head of clay (pi. xii. 1). a 88. Grave of Class 3. Body $ . Set of
Small red pottery box, four-sided, 9 in. x slate, ivory, and limestone ornaments
6 in. Leg bones of small animal. Pots B (pi. vii. 2). Bones of small animal. Pot
35a, B 53b, B 57b, large B (in fragments), R 91b.
C 55 (pi. xv. 10). a 90. Grave of Class Body $. Diorite

a 41. Grave of Class 2a. Body ?. Red pot- mace (pi. x. 6). Head of curly-haired
tery box, 9 in. X 6 in., with charcoal clay doll. Limestone mace painted with
drawings on it (pi. xii. 10 — 13). Small black spots (pi. x. 6). Pots B 21c, B 25c,

clay doll, with curly hair and curly beard. B 27b, B 29b, C 20 (pi. xv. C 75d

Slate of type 98. Pots B 25h, B 26a, (pi. xv. 20), C shape of 14, but with waved
B 26c (two), B 77a, B 79a (two), F 14 pattern (cf. pi. xv. 10a).

a 57. Grave of Class 3. Body ? . Frag- a 94. Grave of Class 2a. Body ? . Red
ments of basket and of female doll. Ivory paste doll (pi. xii. 7). Large shell. Pots
bracelet. Pots P 1 Id, P 2Gb, P 56b, B la, P 80 (pi. xiv.), B llf, B 15, B 24c, B 63b,

B 75b, B 77a, B 79a. B 72b, F 27 (in red polished ware).

a 58. Grave of Class 2a. Body $. Flint b 88. Grave of Class 2a, with ledge for pots.

lance, type Xaq. 66. String of steatite Body ? . Slate of type 42. Ivory spoon.
beads at neck. Pieces of thin folded Two beads of garnet and one of carnelian.
copper. Pots B 74 or 78 (broken), and Limestone vase of type H 7. Pots P 41c,
two C pots which were slight variants of P 93d, B 53b, B 58a, B 74b, D of shape
C44. 47 and pattern 45, D 67 c, R 23b, R 34a,

a 67. Grave of Class 1, but 6 feet deep. R 81 (three).

Body $? Two rings of copper. Small b 117. Grave of Class 2a. Body S- Pieces of
chain of copper. Jawbone of small animal. charcoal. Copper needle. Several inches
Clay male doll (broken). of rope. Pots P lie (pi. xiv.), B 22h,

a 72. Grave of Class 2a. Body S. Four B 25c.

clay cows, their clay stand lying near them. b 127. Grave of Class 1 (pi. iv. 1). Body $,
loll. Pots B 11a, B 19b, B 26a, dismembered before burial. Pots P lie,
fragments -4' B 5(5 or 58, and of another P 13, C 19, C 30, C 66 (pi. xv. 15, 7, 5),

B (21 ?), fragments of R 80 and of a C pot and another C pot.

lattice pattern).
b 136. Grave of Class 1. Three bodies, viz.
a 82. Grave of Class 2a. Body ? , less con- two c? and one 9 . Six small clay animals

(pi. ix. 4a, 4b). Head of a small animal. type 98. Pots B 19a, B 26b, B 57b,

Pots B 35, C 39 (pi. xv. 16). B 62b.

b 144. Grave of Class 2a (pi. iv. 2). Elabo- a 55. Grave of Class 1 . Body ?. Two slate

rate arrangement of latticed twig covering pendants of type Naq. pi. lxii. 43. Minia-

the body £. Clay model of mace-head ture turtle-slate (2 in. long) of type nearly

painted in stripes. Remains of basket con- 18. Ivory comb of type Naq. 55. Pieces

taining red haematite. Basalt vase, type of resin. Carneliau and calcite beads.

H 72. Tots P (of shape C 45), B 27g, C. Pot B 76a.

b 163. Grave of Class 2a. Body child, with a 56. Grave of Class 3 (pi. v. 8). Body tf.

twig work underneath it. Two clay Two small quadrangular red pottery boxes.

animals (pi. ix. 5). Three clay cones Two fine red pottery dolls (pi. ix. 11) both

spotted with white (pi. ix. 7). Two small male. Four clay kine on a stand. Clay

quadrangular clay boxes. Two small clay boat in fragments (pi. ix. 8). Bones of a
saucers. Two small baskets. Pots B 18a, small animal. Pots B 11a, llf, B 23b,
B 18c, B 64c. B 71b, B 78b, B 791), R 22, R 80, F 42a.

b 184. Grave of Class 2a. Body S- Clay a 59. Grave of Class 2a. Body ?. Three
cow (pi. ix. 2). Tavo small spherical ivories of type Naq. 19. Pots P 22b
and one small oval basket. Pot C of (coarse), B la, B 74b, B 78c.

shape P 15b, ornamented merely with a Grave of Class Body Small red
a 66. 3. <$ .

few white bars on the rim. pottery box, 5 in. X 5 in. Flint lance of
b 202. Grave of Class 2a. Body S. Model type Naq. 66. Two limestone pegs (cf.

adze of wood, 8 inches long (pi. x. 8). pi. vii. 2 centre). Pieces of red haematite.
Fragments of clay male doll, with grotesque Limestone vase of type H 70. Pots P 16,

Punch-like head. Bottom of small spiral B llf, B 26b, B 37b (two), B 69a, B 69b,
basket. Pot B 22d and fragments of B 75b, F 42a. P resembling F 30 (small).

another B. Body Slate of

a 89. Grave of Class 3. ? .

b 212. Grave of Class 2a. Body <?. Pottery type 90. One limestone and one ivory
bull, cow, and calf (pi. ix. 6, 9, 10). peg (cf. pi. vii. 2, centre and bottom).
Pots P 68a, B 22e, B 22f, C 30c (pi. xv. Pots P 22, B 35d, B 49, B 74a (two),
6). R22a.
a 116. Grave of Class 3. Body ? . Shape-
less slate palette. Lump of resin. Frag-
Graves before s.d. 46.
ments of wood. Pieces of malachite.

a 33. Grave of Class 2a. Double burial. small ovoid carnelian pendants among
Basalt pot 3 in. high, broken at top and fingers. Pots P 16a, P 23a, B 76, F lib,
with one handle gone, of type H 69. Pots R 16, R 81.

B 63a, B 72c, B 74c, an old B which had a 118. Grave of Class 2a, with ledge for pots
been broken and the rim ground down (pi. v. 2). Body ? young. Five mud
before it was put in grave, R 23a, R 80, sticks, 4 in. to 5 in. long (perhaps ill-made
R 93a. dolls). Small limestone vase, 1£ in. high,

a 45. Grave of Class 2a. Body ? . Three of type H 37 {not 27 as erroneously entered
small ivories of type Naq. 19. Slate of on the plan in pi. v.). Two slates of type

40. Malachite. Necklace and bracelets D 7a, D 17b, D 43, R 11, R 23a, R 42b,
of carnelian, lapis-lazuli, calcite, steatite, R 69c, R 80 (two), R 81 (two).
and green glaze beads. Some seeds. Pots b 220. Grave of Class 2a. Body $ , accom-
P 40b, B 39b, B 53a, D 7a, D of shape 36 panied by that of an (unborn ?) infant.
(the pattern being all spirals), D 63aj Ivory earring of type Naq. 37. Slate
E 69c, R 69d, R 81 (three). pendants of type Naq. pi. lxiv. 89. Ivory
a 127. Grave of Class 2a. Plundered, only tag (cf. pi. vii. 2, bottom). Basalt vase of
one or two bones left. Twig tray under type H 61. Pots P 22, B 78c, and a
the reed mat. Basket work. Pots P la broken B.
(two), P lid (two), B 25h, B 35a (two),
B 74b.
Graves before s.d. 51.
a 139. Grave of Class 3 (pi. v. 9). Body ? .

Slate of type 35. Slate of type 41. Bones a 12. Grave of Class 3. Body child. Slate
of small animal. Broken ostrich - egg. of type between 40 and 56. By head were
Copper pin. Ivory armlets. Bracelets of 4 large carnelian, 1 green glaze, 2 steatite
small green glaze beads. Necklace of beads, and a few large beads covered with
'beads, viz. lapis-lazuli, calcite, garnet, gold foil. Pots P 4, D 17a, R 22, R 28,
green glaze, and one or two coated with R 67, R 71b.
gold-foil. Pots P lib, P 22, B llf, B 53b, a 92. Grave of Class 2a. Body ? . Two
Pot all black (shape P 47a), D 7a (two), ivory pegs of the type Naq. 1. A slate
D 41b, R 23a, R 23b (two), R 65c, R 67. peg like the ivories, but unornamented.
a 140. Grave of Class 3. Body ?. Three Three limestone pegs (cf. pi. vii. centre).

small shells hung as pendants from neck. Rough limestone pot about 3 in. high,
Pots P 57, B 68b, R 23c, R 24, R 34b, •
studded with beads (pi. x. 6, left top).

R 42b, R 45, R 69c, R 71b (two), W 3. Pots B 74b, B 78b.

b 27. Grave of Class 2a. Body J, young. a 121. Grave of Class 2a. Body not adult.

Bones disarranged by plunderers. Flint Basket. Pots B 44b, B 74a, R 22, R 100
knife lying in two halves (pi. x. 8). Mala- (pi. xiii.), R 91c.
chite. Carnelian and limestone beads. a 122. Grave of Class 3. Body ? . Fish-
Pots P 22, B 75b, B 76, F 15, F 19a in shaped slate. Necklace of green glaze and
red ware (two), R 69c. some gold-covered beads. Two shells.

b 28. Grave of Class 3. Body ? . Copper Seeds. Fragments of basket containing

finger-ring (plain broad strip folded over). malachite, resin, and a dark mineral (pro-
Malachite. Carnelian and shell beads. bably iron ore). Pots P 22, P 22b, P 23a,
PotsP14,Pl6, P22, P 54, B 35c, B 58c P 42, P 57a, B 53a, B 66a, D 17a (two),
(two), B 68a, R 23b, R 67, R 81 (two), D 67c, R 23a, R 24, R 45b, R 67, R 6! In,

1192. R 69b, R 81 (two).

b 37. Grave of Class 3. Body?. Traces of b 23. Grave of Class 2. Body ? . Palette of

upright wooden posts. Slate of type 43. curiously spotted slate (pi. x. 4). Pots
.Malachite. Round marbles, viz. three
P 40b, R22a, R51, R 81.

black, one In-own, and one white, lots b 68. Grave of Class 2a. Body of child. Slate
1' HI-, P16 (two), I' 22, 1' 57a, P 93d, pendant of type Naq. pi. lxiv. 89. Two


limestone pegs. Small stone vase, only a 96. Grave of Class 2a (pi. v. 6). Body d,
2 in. high, of type H 65. Pots P 13b, which had been dismembered before inter-
P 21, B 71b, B 75b. ment. Contents (pi. vii. 1 ) were : Breccia

b 119. Grave of Class 3. Body ? . Slate of

celt ; Limestone mace ; Diorite mace
type between 37 and 45. Stone vase of marble mace ; Breccia peg ; Slender rod or

type H 27. String of green glaze,

pin of ivory ; Five flint lances. Seven
carnelian, garnet, and calcite beads on round marbles ;
Slate of type 42 ; Slate of

head. Pots P P 26a, B 53a, D type 79 ; Lapis-lazuli, green glaze, carne-

14, 51,
R 42b, R 68a, R 80 (six).
lian, and gold-coated beads. Leg bone of
small animal. Pots P 17, P 47b (two;,
b 132. Grave of Class 2a (pi. v. 4). Triple
P 93a, P 93d, B 11a, B 13a, B 38c, D 7b
burial, viz. <$ and two children. Basket.
(mottled), D 67c, R 23a (four), R 69b,
Four clay cows. Pots P 1 (or 2), P 2a,
R 81, R 92, L 44, and the new type F 1
P 11a (two), B 18a (broken), B 18b (two),
(pi. xiv.).
B 18d, B 21a (two), B 26b, B 62a.
b 21. Grave of Class 3, partially plundered.
Body ?. Bone harpoon (pi. xii. 4). Pots
Graves before s.d. 56. P B 53a, B of type between 55
22, and
74a, D of shape 47 but pattern 45, D 63a,
a 16. Grave of Class 2a. Body ? . Slate of
R 23a, R 67, R 81 (three).
type 98. Slate of a new type (pi. x. 7).
Two slates of type 63a. String of carne-
b 22. Grave of Class 3. Body ? . Slate of

and beads type 37. Armlets of green glaze and shell

lian calcite along the arms.
Ivory comb of type 67. Stone vase of
beads. Pots B lie (two), B 25e, B 38d,

type S 4c. Pots B 26c, B 58c, B of shape

B 47, B 58a, F of type between 12 and 14,

F 14, broken B (either 77a or 78a).

R 23a, R 92.
a 19. Grave of Class 3. Body S. Stone vase b 35. Grave of Class 3. Plundered, and no
of type H 71. Two round stones, respec- bones remaining. Flint knife (pi. x. 11,

tively 4i; in. and 2^ in. diameter, not bored, left). Resin. Malachite. Five round
so possibly were pestles or pounders. Pots discs of roughly baked pottery (i.e. bases

P 57b, P 58b, B lie, B 26c, F 15. on which to manufacture pots ?). Pots

Grave of Class Body not

P 22, P 57a (two), B 53a, broken B,
a 75. 3. adult but
probably S- Several small round balls of
broken D, D 67c, W 3, R lc, R 67, R 69c,
R81 (four).
black haematite and several small white
pebbles with them,' Malachite. Pots P 22, b 78. Grave of Class 2a. Body $ . Slate of
B 49 (two), B 68b. type 91. One ivory and two slate

pendants of type Naq. lxiv. 89. Three

a 95. Grave of Class 2a or 3, which had been
opened in recent years, but incompletely
ivory tags of type Naq. 19. Pots B 11a,

cleared. There remained in it, three

B62a, B63a, F 15, R 80.
basalt vases of types S lb (unpatterned), b 107. Grave of Class 2a. Body S. Flint
H 62 (flat bottomed), and that shown in lance-head. Shapeless slate palette. Resin.
PI. xvi. 1 ; 6 large shells ; a broken Several marbles. Head and bones of small
rhomboid slate, the pot B 15 ; a lump of animal. Malachite. Pots P 22, P 23b,
ore (probably iron ore). P 40c, B 53b (two), D 62, D 49 (pi. xiv.),

W 19, F 15, R 23b, R 51, R 59c, R 74, Graves between s.d. 56 and 64.

i; si (four), i; 91.
a 131. Large grave of Class 2a. Plundered.
b 139. Grave of Class 3. Body tf. Four(?) .V head in the rubbish of the grave 2 ft.

clav animals, apparently cows, which had from ground. Copper dagger 6 in. long
crumbled to pieces it was clear that some ; (pi. x. 5) in the middle of the grave on
of these were painted in white with black floor level. Beside the dagger and on the
stripes, others in white with red stripes, same bottom level were Pots P 22, P 22b,
viz. one stripe horizontally down the back P 40 (broken), B lie, B 24c, B 53b, W 23,
and three vertically on each flank. Pieces W 25, R 23c, R 75 and a few inches above

of a plain wooden rod \ inch in diameter it four flints apparently worked (pi. x. 5).

Lying parallel to the trunk of the body No other objects of any kind.
from the fore-arm to the thigh. Lumps of
b 17. Grave of Class 2a. Double burial, viz.
resin. Bones of an animal larger than the On the man's face was jawbone
S and 9 .

goat. Pots P 16 (two), P 23a, P 58a, of a small animal (goat or gazelle).

B llg, B 56, B 57a, B 57b, B 58a, F 27, Woman's head surrounded by green glaze,
R 23c, R 34a, R82a, R91c, R 50 (pi. xiii.). gold-covered and lapis-lazuli beads. At
b 143. Grave of Class 1 (pi. v. 5). Two vertex of this head was an abortive boring

bodies, viz. a <? and a $ . Slate of type as if for trephining. Pots P 22b (two),
96a, in two halves. Flint lance. Pots P23e, D67c, D 67c (small), W43, R24,
B 74b, F 15. R45b (two), R81 (four), R82a, and a
broken R.
b 151. Grave of Class 2a. Two bodies, viz.

adult ? and child. Basalt vase (pi. xvi., b 62. Large grave of Class 2a, roughly oval

photo 4). Slate of type between 44 and in shape and measuring 6 ft. by 4 ft. to

45. Calcite, haematite, steatite, and pottery 5 ft. and 6 ft. deep. Had been plundered,

1 icads, with agate pendant, of which

all so that many of the objects (see below)

belonged to the child. Remains of small were found at various depths in the

basket. Pots D 4c, R 67, R 80 (three), filling. Sex ? , bones disai'ranged but
K 54 (pi. xiii.). not removed. On floor of tomb and
clearly in position were, slate (pi. viii. 2)
b 166. Grave of Class 2b, which may be as
with sign analogous to the emblem of the
late as s.d. 60. Plundered and bones gone,
god Min ; the slates shown in pi. viii. 1
but a skull of S iu the filling of the grave.
(top and bottom), and pi. viii. 3 (bottom) ;

Pots P 22a, P 23b, B 37b, B 42b, B 53b,

two miniature red pots (pi. viii. 4, centre
R 22a (two), R 23a (two), R 23c, R 24,
and left centre) ; Breccia vase (pi. viii. 4,
I! si (four), R 91c, D 68c (pi. xiv.),
bottom right) ; horned head of a small
fragments of W of type similar to Wa animal; Pots P 14, P 22c, P23e, P 40e,
(pi. xiv.).
P41c, P82b, B53b, W 25, D shape 50
b 215. Crave of Class 2a (pi. v. 7). Body too but pattern 59b, R 24, R 6Ua, R 76, R 80,
damaged to be sexed. Slate of type 13. 1181.
Slate of type 96a. Ivory comb of type 67. In filling of the grave at various depths
Large shell, lots P 58a, B K>, fragments were found a number of shells bored for
of other B, F 15, Black pot incised with stringing ; 7 gold covered beads ; 8 large
while pal tern (see pi. v. 7). green glaze, 6 large garnet, and some tiny



lapis lazuli beads ;

2 plain ivory combs (four), W25, R24, R 45b, R 67, R 69c,
3 wire copper anklets or bracelets; an R 81 (five). From the filling P lid
ivory spoon ; 2 ivory hairpins ; 2 miniature (two).
hanging vases of limestone, each about
b 189. Grave of Class 2a. Head and bones
1 inch high (pi. viii. 4, centre, below the
disarranged by plunderers. Objects all in
spoon) ; marble vase with bottom made of a
position, viz., large slate with doubled
disc of lapis-lazuli (pi. viii. 4, right centre)
birds' heads (pi. x. 9), 14f inches long;
pieces of a small stone vase of type H 27 ;
shapeless slate ; small copper implement,
pieces of a fish-shaped slate palette (pi. viii.
2J X \ inch, curved at one end ostrich ;

3, top. Miniature slate about 2 inches

egg some beads
; plain ivory hair-pin ; ;

long two rubber pebbles malacbite,

; ;
Malachite ; resin ; stone vases H 34, H 35,
and a miniature vase without handles,
There were no other objects. The whole
shaped like H 34 ; horned head of small
contents of the tomb are illustrated in
animal; pots Plld, P 22, P 23e, P 40e,
pi. viii.
P 41a, P 46f, P 82a, P 98, B 53b, W42
b 65. Grave of Class 2a, partially plundered. (two), R 23a, R 45b, R 80 (three), L 53c
Double burial, viz. S lying intact, and (three).

some disarranged bones of another body

b 210. Grave of Class 3. Plundered out,
beside him. With the undisturbed body
Head 9 . Fragments of ostrich shell.
were : Copper needle, and slate of type
Copper bracelet or anklet. Beads of shell
110a. Pots P broken (some sort of bowl),
and of carnelian, with a glazed pendant.
B W25, L53a, R81. With the dis-
turbed body were : two heads of horned
Pots P 22, W 41, W 43, R 23c, R 67c, R 76,
animals ; slate of type 56 ; large shell
Pots P 23,F 31c, R 2 lb (two), R 22a, R 23c, b 222. Grave of Class 2a. Body ?. String

R 67, R 81 (two). From the rubbish of of beads at head, viz., quartzite, green
the tomb were : Slate of type 96a ; fore- glaze, amethyst, haematite, and carnelian.
leg of goat or gazelle; Pots P lib, P 22, Slate of type 45. Malachite. Resin.

B 53b, R 26. Pots P22, B39b, B 53b, W 25, R 23c,

R 67, R 76, R 80 (five), L 12b, L 44.
b 87. Grave of Class 3. ? . Partially
plundered, and fore-arms removed. Several b 232. Grave of Class 2a. Plundered. Some
gold-covered beads on the cheek. Basalt bones S, and of a small animal. Breccia
vase of type H 34. Basalt vase of type vase H 21. Pots P 21b, P 36b, P 38, B 53a,
H 63b. Slate broken anciently and ground F 31d, R 3a, R 24, R 67 (two), R 80 (two),
down ; its original type would have been R 81 (three), R 93a, L 44a, L 53.
between 70 and 75. Head of a horned
Grave of Class Some
b 235. 2a. Plundered.
animal. Pots B 53a, W 25, R 23b, R 69a,
leg bones <$. Bones of an ox. Bones of
R 69b, R 71b, R 81 (two).
small homed animal. Cylindrical piece of

b 154. Grave of Class 2b, with ledges for copper. Fragment of wood which had
pottery. Plundered out. Skull of ? in probably been handle of some implement.
filling. In position were Pots P 1 6, P 40c, Stone pot H 40. Pots P 1 lb, P 93d, B 38c,

P 41a, P 93d, B 39a, D of shape 4a but (two), B 53b, W 25, R 21 (six), R 23c (two),
pattern 41b with waves added, W 14, W 19 R 66, R 69c, R 80 (two), R 81 (two).


Graves between s.d. 4<> and 64, hardly to a 124. Grave of Class 3. Body ? . Rubber
be more precisely dated. pebble, but no slate to accompany it.

Bones of small animal. Armlet of carnelian

a 3. Grave of Class 2a. ? (?) with yellowed, and green glaze beads. Pots P 22c, P 23b,
i.e. discoloured, hair on head. Head of a P 58a, B 37a, B 42b, B 68b.
small animal. Three small gold, one green
b 40. Grave of Class 3. ? ,
young. Slate of
glaze, and two carnelian beads. Pots
type 82. Necklace of lapis-lazuli, shell,
P 221), P 40c, D (17c, R 23c (two), R 67,
and carnelian beads, with some tubular
R 80 (two), R 81 (four).
Pots P B 53a,
gold-covered beads. 57,
a 4. Grave which had been opened in recent D 17b, D 67c, R lc, R 24 (two), R 45a,
wars. Contained no bones, and only R 67, R 81 (three).
broken pots, which could be recognized
b 43. Grave of Class 2a. Body £. Slate
as P 40, D 67c, R 38. With these were
palette. 22 marbles along the arm. Flint
pieces of a curious pottery box, which, on
knife and rough flints (see group of contents
being fitted together, proved to be in the
of this grave in pi. vii. 4). Pots P lid,
form of a house with doors and windows
(pi. x. 1 and 2). The period must be P 23c, R 22a, R 23a, B 53a, W 19 (two),

between s.d. 44 and 64.

R 80 (two).

b 46. Grave of Class 2a, with ledge for pots.

a 6. Grave of Class 2a. Plundered out
tibiae and fragments of arm-bones re-
Body <?. Malachite. Slate of type be-
tween 35 and 40. In position, viz., some
mained. Head of a small animal (probably
at head and arms, some at feet, were the
goat), which was cut away at the back
stones and flint flakes shown in pi. vii. 6.
so as to resemble the bucrania at Hou
(cf. Dio8polis Parra, s. v. "bucrania")
Basalt vase H 33. Pots P 40e, P 42,

but was not painted. Pots P 22 (two),

B 53b, B 58a, D 61, D 62 in fragments,
P 40e, D 67c, Wa (pi. xiv.) 5 R 22b, R 23,
D 67c, W 43, R 69c, R 81, R 92.
R 68, R 69b, R 69d, R 75, R 81 (two). b 63. Grave of Class 2a. Body ? . Slate
of type 63a. Three large shells. Ivory
a 76. Grave of Class 3. Plundered out ; leg
model axe (pi. xii. 8). Pot B 18b.
bones remained. Stone vase H 30. Pottery
imitation of the stone vase H 27. Pots, b 106. Grave of Class 3. Body child. Large
P bowl of shape of L 7b, P lib, P 16, date stones. Resin. Quantities of mala-
P 22b, P 40e, B 38c, D 38 (pi. xiv.), R 92, chite. Garnet, green glaze, lapis lazuli,

with a sharp collar (which characterizes and tubular gold-covered beads. Bone
only the latest forms of R pots), L 16, harpoon (cf. pi. xii. 4). Pots P 22, P 22c,
I. 41. P 40c, D 50b (pi. xiv.), R 3a, R 23b, R 23c,

a 87. Grave of Class 2a. Plundered out

R 24, R 67, R 69c, R 80 (two).
head remained. Slate made in rough b 199. Grave of Class 1 or 2a. Bones dis-
imitation of a duck or goose (cf. types 20, disordered, but rather by plunderers than
21, 27), with (lie leg pointing backwards owing to re-interment ; they appeared to
instead of forwards. Three limestone pegs be $ . A pair of hollow horns (cf. pi. vii.

(cf. pi. vii. 2, centre;, perforated at the 2, top left). Pots P 22a, B 74c, R 69d s

top. Pots B lie, B 72a, and B 38a R 91c. Broken slate of type 96a with a
sharply curved iii below the centre. mark incised at one end, viz. &(.

b 225. Grave of Class 3. Body just a 74. Grave of Class

?, 2a. Body of child laid
adult. Basalt vase H 27. Pots P 22b, on twig tray as well as in the usual reed
P 40e, P 95b, D shape 19 with boat mat. Female doll in red pottery. Four
pattern, D 41, L 7b, and the magnificent bone bracelets. Part of small spirally-
wavy-handled decorated pot D 46 (see coiled basket. A
set of miniature slates,
pi. xiv.). Period is between s.D. 46 and viz. a tortoise, a bird, and a tiny triangular
63, but probably nearer to the earlier than slate perforated with two suspension-holes
to the later limit. on the long side. String of pottery and
b 230. Grave of Class 3. Plundered and steatite beads by the jaw. Pots P 471 1,
contained no bones. Carnelian, green B lie, B21c, B25e.
glaze, lapis-lazuli, and garnet beads. Pots a 86. Grave of Class 1. Triple burial, viz.
P lib, P lid, P22 or23 (broken), another an adult and two children.
<$, By the
P bowl, P 40e, B39a, B 53b, D shape of man were pots P 68a, B 26b. By head of
33b with wave pattern, D 36a with boat one of the children an ivory comb of type
pattern as well as plant, D 63a, D 67c, 67, and a limestone peg of shape Naq.
D 68 (two), B 69c, B 69d, L 53a. Ivory- lxii. 19, with pattern of Naq. pi. lxiv.
handled copper dagger with blade 7 in. 96.
long (pi. vi. 1 and 2), broken in half and
a 91. Grave of Class 2a (pi. v. 3). Body ?.
with the handle still attached.
Slate in form of a tortoise with a head at
each end. Two tusks (cf. pi. vii. 2, top
left). Two plain limestone pegs (cf. pi. vii.
Predynastic Graves of ill-defined stage in
2, centre). Five large carnelian beads.
the Period. Alabaster vase S 4a. Pot F 17a.

a 26. Grave of Class 3. Body child. Slate a 102. Grave of Class 2a. Sex impossible to
of type 32. Broken slate of type from 91 judge from the broken bones. Slate of
to 98. Four ivory armlets. Two lime- type 98. Diorite mace-head (pi. x. 6, right
stone pendants at the throat (earrings?) of centre), with a fragment of wood still

type very similar to Naq. pi. lxii. 149. remaining in the perforation. Part of a
Green glaze and carnelian beads. Pots basket. Three lumps of resin. Pots
P 23a, P 58a, B 57b. B 35c, B 58a, B 98, F 51b.

a 62. Grave of Class 3. Body 9 . String of a 104. Grave of Class 2a, unusually shallow.
beads on the head, viz. carnelian and green Two bodies, viz. a c? and another of
glaze, with a small shell as pendant. A uncertain sex. With the man were a pair
shapeless slate palette. Two large shells. of copper tweezers, about 2 in. long, and

Pots P 93a, D between 7a and 7c, R 17a, Pot B 78d (pi. xiv.). Between the two
R 22 (two), R 23b, R 23c, R 71b, R 81 heads was a flint which might have been a
(two). broken lance-head. From filling of grave

a 73.
came half a rhomboid slate palette.
Grave of Class 2a. Body ? ,
Slate of type 13. Pair of tusks about 10 in.
a 112. Grave of Class 2a. ?. Pots B 58c,
long (cf. pi. vii. 2, top left), perforated with B 74b, R80, R41b (pi. xiii.).

a hole at each end. Pots B lie, B 72b a 113. Grave of Class 2a. ? . Head absent.
Some marbles. Piece of ivory comb of

type 67. Scapula of a crocodile. Large a 143. Grave of Class 3. Body young, bones
shell. Pots B llf, B 18d. unossified. Pots P 22b, P 40e (small),
a 117. Grave of Class 2a. Body young. Half B 53b, D 3c (pi. xiv.), D 69b, (pi. xiv.),

the head of a clay doll. Malachite. Pots R 23c, R 65c, R 80 (five).

P22. P We, P98b, R 23b, R 69d, R 92, b 32. Grave of Class
2a. Body adult (sex ?).
L 16a (rough-faced). Black pot of shape Pots L 39 (six), L 53f, a broken L, a
P 94c. broken L bowl (salmon-coloured, with wide
a 120. Grave of Class 3. ?. Plain ivory burnishing). All these pots had the sharp

comb of type 55. Small limestone box (cf. collar which is characteristic of late forms.

pi. x. 6, top left). Slate roughly made but It is evident that the range of L 39 must
similar in form to 48, with two well- be extended beyond what has hitherto been
marked fins on back. Pots B lie, B 57b, assigned to it, as indeed might be suspected
B 58, B 71a, R 45a. from the fact that it is apparently a deri-

a 129. Grave of Class 2a. Child. Necklace

vative and not a prototype of L 38.
This tomb was in immediate proximity to
of shell, carnelian, steatite, and calcite
the pot-burials and the burials in clay coffins.
beads. Ivory finger-riug. Large tubular
carnelian bead. Shell armlet on each arm. b 104. Grave of Class 2a. Body J. Lapis
Small shapeless slate. Pots P la, R 57a. lazuli, green glaze and gold-coated beads.
R 69d. Lump of mud shaped to resemble Pots P lid, D 51b (pi. xiv.), L 44.

a gourd. b 224. Grave of Class 2, large. Plundered.

b 49. Grave of Class 2a. Body?. Carnelian Humerus (sex ?). Horn of a small animal,
beads. Tortoise-shaped slate. Fish-shaped ivory spoon. Stone vase H 35, and similar
slate. Several ivory pendants. A large vase in pottery to imitate stone. Pots P
ivory finger-ring. Fragment of an ivory 23e, P 40e (three), B 53b, \Y/3 (pi. xiv.),

comb. Pots B la, B 57b, R 80, R 81. W 25, R 23c, R 67, R 80 (four), L 44.

b 75. Grave of Class 2a. Body 9 (?). Along b 227. Grave of Class 3. Plundered. Head
tin' forearm were three ivory tags of type d, in rubbish. Fine flint knife (broken,
39. P. 4s P Hi, P 54b, B 78b, F 15, R 65c. pi. x. 11) in rubbish. Pots P 22, P 82a,

b 236. Grave of Class 2a. Plundered, only a W 41, R 23c, R 67, R 80, L 44.
lew bones which no doubt
left. Slate b 233. Grave of Class 2. Plundered. Bones
had been of type 75, but the birds' heads of a child in the filling. Skull of a small
had been broken off anciently and ground animal (goat?). Pieces of ivory hairpin.
down, leaving only the comb-like indenta- A fish-shaped slate. A large marble.
tions at top of slate. Three stone vases, Some shells pierced for suspension. One
viz. II 23, H 32, H 34. large shell. Steatite and calcite beads.
Small copper spoon with silver bowl.
Oval -sectioned slate vase (pi. xvi. 9).
Graves between s.d. 60 and 70.
Stone vase H 34. Seven tiny rough pots
a 126. Grave of Class 3, with remains of which are diminutive forms of familiar
wood as fence to the recess. Plundered, rough-faced (R) pots, and were no doubt put
but head and most of the bones of ? re- in as appropriate to the child. Other pots
mained. Pots P 40e, P 84b (pi. xiv.), were P 31b, P 40e, P bowl, P 95b, B 53a,
1) 61, i; -ii (two). I.' 24, R 1,2c, R 75, R 80, R 81, L 44a.




PROTO-DYNASTIC GRAVES. contained : body c? ; four alabaster vases,

viz. pi. xvi. 2, pi. xvi. 6, S 4b, and an
Graves of Class 4.
alabaster saucer; a bone spoon (pi. xii. 5),

Graves of Class 4 were extremely poor. Only and the pot L 33g (pi. xiii.).

one contained any objects of value. Several b 99. Grave of Class 4a. Pit 6 ft. G in. deep,
more, however, are entered in this inventory as width to recess 3 ft. The recess itself set
good examples of the type. back 3 ft. and was 3 ft. 4 in. high ; contained
b 4. Grave of Class 4a (pi. ii. 2). Depth of remains of what was evidently a wooden
pit of the grave 5 ft., length 4 ft., breadth coffin, the wood of which was charred.
to the side of the coffin 1 ft. 10 in. Recess Body c? rather old. At head of coffin,

entirely filled by the oval pottery coffin, inside the recess, were two pots of type
which measured 27 in. X 24. Body ? L 33d (pi. xiii.), and two of type between
Outside the coffin, at the head end, was L 38 and L 33g (pi. xiii.).
one pot, viz. L 33g (pi. xiii.).
b 145. Grave of Class 4b. Depth of pit 6 ft.

b 7. Grave of Class 4a. Depth of pit 6 ft., G in., length 6 ft., width 3 ft. 6 in. Recess,
length 4 ft. 6 in., width 3 ft. 6 in. to recess. including the rough Avail of a single brick
Filling the recess was the oval coffin of thickness, set back 2 ft. 6 in. In the recess
badly-baked clay. The coffin, 33 in. X 21 in. was oblong clay coffin containing body c?

and 14 in. high, was about ^ in. thick, and and an alabaster vase of type S 17d. Out-
had been furnished with a lid, which had side the coffin, at bead end, was Pot L 38.
broken and fallen inside. Body ? No .


b 9. Grave of Class 4a. Depth of pit 8 ft.,

Graves, of Class 5.
length 5 ft. G in., width to recess 3 ft. 9 in.

Oval clay coffin 32 in. X 21 in. and 15 in. Graves of Class 5 were very poor, generally
high and ^ in. thick. Body ? . Beside containing no objects. One or two are given
the coffin at head end were two pots of here as typical examples, showing the stages of
type L 33g (pi. xiii.). transition from the use of a pottery coffin to
that of the true Pot-burial.
b 10. Grave of Class 4b. (See group from it

in pi. vii. 5). The recess set in 2 ft., it was b 148. Oblong clay coffin set 5 ft. beloAv the
bricked off from the pit by a rough wall surface without any brickAvork. Contained
one brick thick, which was 3 ft. 8 in. long X body ? in the invariable contracted
3 ft. 2 in. high. In the recess was an position. Pots L 33d (PI. xiii.), L 53d,
oblong red pottery cist with lid. Cist L bowl of shape R 34a.

b 126. Round clay coffin very similar both in the most extreme cases found in graves of
dimensions and in shape to the pottery Classes 1 —4 ; it was not dismembered.
vessels used for the true Pot-burial. The No pots or objects.
collin was sunk to about 3 ft. below the
surface and covered over with bricks.
Contained body <y, not quite adult, in very Graves of Class 6.

contracted position. No objects.

b 8. The brick construction (pi. ii. 6) was
b 2. An oval clay coffin and a Pot-burial 5 ft. long by 3 ft. broad externally. Con-
together, in what could only be regarded as tained oblong-oval pottery coffin 3 ft. long
a single grave, 3 ft. 6 in. deep, without by 1 ft. 8 in. broad, 10 in. deep and 1 in.
brickwork. The coffin was oval, made of thick. Body Pots L 33g and a
$ (?).
clay, 30 in. long ; it contained the body of rough unbaked saucer.
a S in very contracted position. At its
The brickwork rose to 1 ft. 6 in. from
smith (head) end the coffin was almost the ground, and the top of it was 2 ft. 6 in.
touching the large round pot of well-baked below the surface. Bricks measured 10 in.
red ware, 20 in. diameter (for type cf.
by 5 in. by 3 in.
pi. ii. 3), which was inverted over a
b 33. This brick tomb was lined with wood
youthful body, belonging to a person about
(pi. ii. 5). Interior dimensions (including
three-quarters grown. The body under
thickness of the. wood) were : length
the pot had been huddled up and placed
4 ft. 2 in., breadth 2 ft. 1) in., height from
face down, but not dismembered the bones ;
floor to lower edge of roof 2 ft., height
and head were covered with a substance
from floor to surface of ground 6 ft. 6 in.
which seemed to be bituminous. Possibly
Walls were two " stretchers " thick all
pitch had been poured over the body and
round, i.e. 10 in. to 11 in. Roof of boughs,
been left to set on the bones.
twigs, and mud, about 5 in. thick, and
There were no objects accompanying
placed at some distance below surface.
either the coffin or the pot.
Body S ; bones of small animal; ala-
b 175. The large pot shown in pi. ii. 3, which baster vase S 17a, do. S 40a, broken
is the typical form used in these Pot- alabaster vase, slate bowl S 40c. Pots
burials. Had been broken at top by L 2b, L 36c (two), L 38 (three), L 53g.
plunderers and only two or three bones
b 54. (PI. iii. 3). Interior dimensions of
and pieces of bones remained.
brick grave were : length, 3 feet 4 inches,
b 98. Large pot (type pi. ii. 3) inverted over breadth 2 ft. 7 in., height 1 ft. 10 in.
the body of a S. Body lying in the Height from floor to surface of ground,
regular violently -contracted position and 4 ft. 10 in. Body child, about three-
qoI dismembered. Remains of reed mat quarter grown, and probably ? , in oblong
Lying on and over the bones. No pots or wooden coffin, 2 ft. 6 in. long and 2 ft.

objects with the burial. wide. Four alabaster vases, an alabaster

b 182. Large pot (type pi. ii. 3) sunk two bowl, a slate bracelet, and an ivory brace-
feet, which is about the usual depth below let, both on right wrist (see entire group
the surface. It was inverted over the body in pi. vii. 3). Pots L 38, L 33f.

of a i , which was young but adult. Body b 57. (PI. iv. 5). Interior dimensions of
violently contracted, but not more than in brick work were : length 3 ft. in., breadth

2 ft. (i in., height 2 ft. Height from floor wrapped in cloth and reed mat. Pots
to surface of ground, 4 ft. Roof of boughs L 12b, L 38, L 38 (higher shouldered than
and mud. No coffin, but a tray of two usual and with a sharp collar).
layers of twigs under the body (sex ?), b 94. Tiny grave only 2 ft. long. Plundered
which was covered with a reed mat. Pots out and no bones left, but must have
L 12b, L 38. belonged to a child. Shell bracelet, frag-
b 58. Precisely similar to 57 in dimensions and ments of stone bowl.
character. The body, however, was in this b 96. Interior dimensions, 3 ft. 6 in. by
case placed (without coffin) not on twigs but 2 ft. 3 in. The top was practically level
on a layer of bark. As in the last grave, with surface of ground and was roofed,
the body was covered with reed mat. $ .
not in the usual manner with boughs and
A few small green glaze beads. Pots mud, but with bricks over the aperture.
L 38 (two). Body ? , rather young. No coffin. Neck-
b 59. Interior dimensions were : length 5 ft., lace of shells. Pots L 2, L 33g (two), L of
breadth 2 ft, 10 in., height 2 ft. 6 in. similar type, and a peculiar pot of B class,

Roof of boughs, reeds, and mud, 2 ft. 3 in. but quite thin, which is numbered B 2b
below surface of ground. Grave plundered (pi. xiv.).

out ; no traces of coffin, but remains of b 97. Grave of dimensions similar to those
reed mat on floor. Body ? . Pot L 38 described. Contained oblong clay coffin
and a round unbaked pan, 1 1 in. diameter, fitting close to the sides all round. It was
7 in. high, and 1 in. thick.
roofed with bricks, which were supported
b 69. Interior dimensions were: length 4 ft., on other bricks piled up in the coffin.

breadth 2 ft. 6 in., height 1 ft. 9 in. Body ? , rather young, on top of which
Height from floor to surface of ground, was a small infant. With the adult were
only 3 ft. 2 in. Plundered, and only three tortoise-shell bracelets, a necklace of
head, arms, and half the trunk remained tiny blue glaze beads, and fragments of a
(pi. iii. 1). Sex probably ?. No coffin, pot of Class L 33 (pi. xiii.)

but body wrapped in cloth, and laid on a Interior dimensions, 3 by

b 115. ft. G in.
reed mat. Pot L 33 f.
2 ft. 2 in. and 2 ft. deep. Height from
b 80. Interior dimensions were : length 3 ft. floor to surface of ground, 5 ft. Normal
10 in., breadth 2 ft. 6 in., height 2 ft. to roof of wood and mud. Oblong wooden
under edge of roof. Height from floor to coffin. Body had been disturbed after
surface of ground, 4 ft. Body (g ?) burial. S- Wooden beads. Shallow ala-
wrapped in cloth and reed mat and laid in baster dish. Pots L 19b, L 36b (two).
oblong clay coffin. In the coffin were :
Grave of usual dimensions (which vary
b 131.
copper implement (PI. xii. 9) in
from about 4 ft. X 3 ft. to ft. X 21 ft.), H
the cloven fore-leg of a small animal small
with normal roof of wood and mud at 2 ft.
basket ;
pots L 12b, L 38.
to 3 ft. below surface of ground. Oblong
b 81. Interior dimensions were: length 4 ft., wooden coffin. Body S, disturbed after
breadth 3 ft., height 1 ft. 9 in. to under burial and some of the bones disarranged.
edge of roof. Height from floor to surface Jaw of small animal. Alabaster vase of
of ground, 3 ft. 6 in. Normal roof of new type (pi. xvi. 4). Pots L 37, L 38
wood and mud. No coffin. Body £, and L 44c (pi. xiii.)

b 133. Grave of usual dimensions. Normal bones unossified. Pots R 23 (two), L 12b,
roof of wood and mud. Oblong clay coffin. L 42b and L 53c or 53e.
?. Pots L 17c, L33d, L53b. b 173. Similar grave of usual character and
b 137. A very unusual grave, shown un- dimensions. Normal roof. No coffin, but
opened in PI. iii. 5. Its exterior measure- body (young, unossified) laid on reed mat.
ments were : greatest length 8 ft. 2 in., Stone vase H 35. Pots L 17a, L 19c,
least length ft. 9 in., average outside L 33d (pi. xiii.).

breadth 4 ft. 8 in., greatest outside breadth

b 178. Grave of usual dimensions, but with a
about 6 ft. 6 in., height 4 ft. 3 in. The
roof of bricks on the cantilever principle
photograph shows the irregularity of the
(cf. b 137). Oval-oblong clay coffin with
projecting bricks, which will explain the
lid. Body ? . Pots L 38 (three) outside
variation of these dimensions (cf. full
the coffin at head end.
description, inf. p. 34). Interior measure-
ments were : length 5 ft. 4 in., breadth b 180. Grave of usual dimensions but sunk to

3 ft. 4 in., least height 2 ft. 7 in., greatest an exceptional depth, the top of the roof
height 3 ft. 8 in. The varying height on beinsr 4 ft. below the surface of the ground.
the inside is due to the peculiar construc- Normal roof (i.e. boughs, twigs, and mud).
tion of the roof, which was built on the Oblong clay coffin. Body ? . Inside the

cantilever principle, with courses of bricks coffin were four alabasters, viz. S lc,

overlapping one another until the aperture (pi. xvi., photo 10), S 4c (pi. xvi., photo
was spanned. 13), S 8, S 40c, and pots L 38 (two).

Inside the grave was a wooden coffin, Outside coffin the bowl L 16a.

occupying about two thirds of the space, b 185. Grave of usual character and dimen-
and containing body ? with flat alabaster sions. Normal roof, the top of which was
dish lying on the head. Outside the coffin, 3 ft. below the surface. Remains of
between it and the side of the grave, were wooden coffin. Body <S . Alabaster vase
pots L 12b, c, L 38a (four), and the alabaster II 03b, limestone vase S 46. Pots L 7a
bowl S 4o. (two), L 7b, L 7c, L 12 or 17 (broken),
b 140. Grave of usual character and dimen- L 33c, very small, L 37, L 37b, L 38 (two).
sions of this class. Normal roof of boughs
and mud. Oblong clay coffin, which,
judging from pieces of plank inside it, had
been furnished with a wooden Graves of Class 7.
lid. Sex (?).

With the body inside the coffin were lime- b 14 is the typical example ot graves of
stone vase S 17d, alabaster vase S 47. Class drawn in pi. iv. 6. Plundered out
Pots I. 37 and L 53e. Outside the coffin in recent years and containing no objects.
were Pots L 17a and L 08 (three). Height from
Height of walls, 2 ft. 4 in.

b 146. Grave
like the last. Oblong clay floor to surface of ground, 5 ft. 8 in. Walls
coffin.Normal roof of boughs and mud. one brick thick (i.e. about 6 in. including
Body $. Pots L 37 and L 53e inside, pots the mortaring). No roof left.

(two) outside the coffin.

b 50. Total inside length 4 ft. 8 in. ; length of
b 172. Similar grave. Oblong clay coffin tomb excluding the recess 3 ft. 5 in., width
with clay lid. Normalroof. Body young, 2 ft. 9 in., height from floor to lower edge

of roof 2 ft. 7 in. Height from floor to close against the brickwork of the grave,
surface of ground, 4 ft. 8 in. Normal roof measured 3 ft. 7 in. in length, viz., 2 ft.

(boughs, twigs, and mud). The tomb was 11 in. for receptacle of the body, 1 in. of
lined with wood, so there was no coffin. partition and 7 in. of recess ; it was made
Body ? ; with it were : slate bracelet, of clay. Height of coffin, 18 in. Height
wire-copper anklet, alabaster vase, S 2, from floor to surface of ground, about 4 ft.

Tots L 17b, L 38, L 38a. In the recess 7 in. Body $ , with tortoiseshell bracelet
were Pots 17b, L 38 ; the former containing and slate bracelet. The recess contained
some small seeds, bones of a small bird, Pot L 33d (pi. xiii.) and charcoal and
and pieces of charcoal.

b 55. Grave in which the partition of the

recess was not carried quite across. Total

inside length 4 ft. 6 in. viz., length of grave Graves of Class 8.

to recess 3 ft. 9 in., brick partition 3 in.,

b 15. This is the typical form of graves of
length of recess 6 in. Width of grave 2 ft.
Class 8, which is drawn in pi. iv. 7. Its
5 in., the partition, however, was only 20 in.
height was 2 ft. 3 in., and its top very
long, thus leaving 9 in. width unbarred.
nearly level with the surface of the ground.
Height from floor to roof, 2 ft. Height
It had been opened by excavators or plun-
from floor to surface of ground, 5 ft. 6 in.
derers very lately and nothing remained
Normal roof. No coffin or lining, but
in it.
body lying on sheepskin and reed mat.
Body probably $ rather young with it , ;
b 12. A slight variation from the typical form,

were blue glaze beads (up the arm), three inasmuch as the part which is ordinarily open

alabasters, viz., S 17d — 17e, S 31, S 55, Pot

recess was here solid brick, with only two
small niches, each 8 in. wide, cut back into
L 42b (flat-bottomed). In the recess were
L it. Thickness of all the walls 11 in.
Pots 17a (two), L 38 (two), and the (i.e.

whole recess was one brick's depth, as usual) ; interior length

filled to a depth of about
of the grave proper (beginning from N.W.
3 inches from the floor with ashes.
end wall) 3 ft. 7 in., after which came 1 ft.
b 142. (PL iii. 4.) Total inside length 7 ft.,
4 in. thickness of solid brick before reach-
viz., length of grave 4 ft., brick partition
ing the S.E. end wall. Inside breadth of
6 in., recess 2 ft. 6 in. Width, 2 ft. 11 in.
grave, 2 ft. 3 in. One of the niches opened
Height from floor to underside of roof, 2 ft.
immediately from the eastern side wall, and
Height from floor to surface of ground,
was separated by 4 in. brick partition from
5 ft. 9 in. Normal roof. Oblong wooden
the other, between which again and the
coffin. Body J wrapped in cloth.

, In the
western side wall was solid brickwork 7 in.
grave a slate dish of type S 130, three stone
thick. Height from floor to under side of
vases of type S 31, Pots L 53e (two) and an
roof, 1 ft. 6 in. Height from floor to surface
L bowl. In the recess were Pots L 33d of ground about 4 ft. 6 in. Normal roof.
(two), L53f, L63.
No coffin. Body $ . Small string of carne-
b 177. A good example of the usual form of lian and green glaze beads at neck. Two
roof (see pi. ii. 4). Peculiar in having the small caps or lids 2 in. diameter X 1 in. high,
little recess made not properly in the grave one being of ivory and the other of slate ;

but in the coffin. The coffin, which fitted slate tray 4 in. long ; alabaster vase S 30


Pots L 38, R 4(3, R type of 57e, but Class 9.

flatter. b 91. Grave of the most advanced type which

b 70. A typical grave of this class (pi. iii. 2).
was found at El Amrah. A plan of it is
Oblong clay coffin, perforated with 4 holes given in pi. iv. 8 and a photograph in

at the corners an inch from the top of the pi. iii. 6. It is fully described on p. 39.

coffin. Normal roof. Body <$ . Pots L 38 b 13. A smaller grave of the same class but
(two), and L 14b (pi. xiii.) in the grave without a staircase. Ground plan as in
outside the coffin. In one division of the b 91, with double recess at S end and
recess Pots L 17a and L 38 in the ; single recess at N.E. corner. Total interior
other Pots L 38, L 53k (pi. xiii.) and length 9 ft. 7 in., i.e. 6 ft. 11 in. to the
alabaster vase S 31, as well as bones of the double recess, then 11 in. partition wall
usual small animal. In both divisions of and 1 ft. 9 in. recess. Width 4 ft. 7 in.
the recess was a deposit of several inches of Interior length of northern recess 2 ft. 5 in.
charcoal dust, mixed with the light friable interior width of ditto 1 ft. 5 in. The
matter which is often found in the jars in tomb had been lately rifled, but in it were
these early graves and may have been the found a copper chisel (pi. x. 10) and frag-
dregs of beer. Some grains, probably of ments of stone bowls made of marble, of
corn, among the charcoal. slate, and of alabaster respectively.



Reed Mats. — It has been remarked in string is used. If there is only a single string

Chapter II. that the body in these early tombs then it is passed over each little sheaf, brought
is commonly wrapped first in cloth and then in round underneath it and again carried over the
the skin of an animal, which is apparently a top to catch the next (see pi. v. 4).

goat. Thus enveloped, the body is laid on a Less commonly the reverse knot is used,

reed mat, which is then folded over it, any starting under the sheaf and passing over, to
surplus being made into neat rolls at the side. return again underneath it. When a double

Sometimes the mat is found almost intact but ;

string is used the tie is made by a simple criss-

more often it has broken into innumerable cross or plait (pi. xi. 5). Piercing and tying

pieces, which are found lying on the body, and may be used simultaneously in different parts
often still adhering to the head and bones, or to of the same piece, as appears from Tomb b 144

the earthenware pots. The manufacture of (see below).

these mats is interesting, since every fragment The reed mat is especially characteristic of

of evidence which bears on the arts and in- the pre-dynastic graves, and naturally tends to
dustries of a primitive people has a distinct disappear when the coffin is employed. Still it

value. is found in place of the coffin, and even used

In pi. xi. 5 and 6 are given photographs with it, in some of the proto-dynastic burials
illustrating the character of the fabric. The (cf. p. 27). The kind of reed used in these

material is not straw or grass, but thin stiff later graves seems to be identical with that

reeds. These are fastened together so as to found in the earlier ; Jput it sometimes looks
make a substantial sheet, three or four feet long, more like the natural product. It seemed as if

and generally a little wider, not unlike the husar in the earlier graves the reeds might have been
or grass mats which are in everyday use in deliberately crushed or beaten so as to separate

modern Egypt. The strands are connected in the fibres, but this cannot be affirmed with
either of two ways. The stems of the reeds certainty.

which form the " warp " may be pierced, and Trays made of Twigs or Sticks. — Closely
other reeds inserted transversely through the connected with the use of the reed mat is that

split so as to form a " woof," if it is permissible of the tray or bier of sticks. The manufacture
to apply the terminology of weaving. This of these is very similar in principle to that of
may be well seen in pi. xi. 6. Or, again, several the mats, but twigs are used in place of reeds.
strands may be gathered up into a sheaf, which A typical example is one which is drawn in

is tied with a fibrous string ; the string being- pi. iv. 2 ; though in that case the placing of

then carried on to include the next sheaf. This the body underneath instead of on the top of
is illustrated in pi. xi. 5. The form of the the twig lattice-work is peculiar. Ordinarily
knots depends on whether a single or a double the body is actually laid upon the twig tray,

which was found comparatively complete in crossed at wider intervals by rows of similar
several instances. sticks running W. and E. They were lashed
In a 74, which was a child's grave, the tray together with vegetable fibre, the ends of which
was from 2 ft. to 2 ft. 6 in. long, and made of were bound round the post which appears in

Bticks of about the thickness of an ordinary the photograph (cf. plan, pi. iv. 2, the post
pencil. At the head end, across the width of nearest to the hands). There was a piece of
the tray, was a piece of wood about 2 ft. long wood a little further towards the foot end,
and 3 in. wide ; while another piece, 2 in. wide, which almost certainly represented another post
ran up the middle perpendicular to it. Frag- (drawn in plan ; not in the photo). No posts
ments of similar dimensions found a little higher were found on the west side corresponding to
up in the grave suggested that at the feet there this pair on the east, but, of course, they might
had been a stout cross-piece corresponding to have perished. The total length of this top
that which was found in position at the head. layer was 2 ft. G in., the total breadth 2 ft. 2 in.
There were also fragments of wood, round in (/8) Under this twig lattice, and attached to it,

section, and about 2 in. in diameter, which, as were two thicknesses of mat, lying transversely
they were much stouter than the other sticks to one another, (y) The third stratum was
were probably attached transversely so as to another course of twigs, the longitudinal rows
support them. The whole construction would being above the others, but the diameter of
thus have resembled a stretcher of thin twigs, the twigs identical in each. This stage is

with substantial pieces for supports or for depicted in pi. iv. 2 ; it differed from the
bandies. The reed mat which enveloped the topmost layer. (<t) in having the transverse rows
body was tied over the cross-piece at the head much closer together. (8) Next came two
end of the grave. thicknesses of reed mat lying transversely to
Similar to this was the vise in a proto-dynastic one another, (e) Immediately under the reed
grave (I) 07) of a tray composed of two layers mat was a covering of leather laid all over the
of twigs about £ inch in diameter on which the body in several thicknesses, and tied in places
reed mat was laid and tied down at intervals. with string. Below this, which corresponds
No supporting pieces were found here. In yet to the normal wrapping of leather or skin, was
another case the sticks seem to have been used the body, wrapped in cloth.
rather to strengthen the reed mat than to form In pi. xi. 4 are shown specimens of the twig-

an independent construction ; they were en- work, the mat, and the leather from this grave.
closed between two layers of mat, the whole Fencing and Partitions of Woodwork. —
being 2£ in. thick in section. The wattle fence sometimes used to close the
A peculiar and elaborate arrangement was rock-recess graves of Class 3 is very similar in
that which has been referred to as occurring in character to the twig-constructions which have
tomb b 14-4. Here there were several layers of just been described. The most perfect example
twig-work ; the uppermosl is shown in pi. xi. 1, of it occurred in the grave b 135 (see pi. iv.).

a lower one in pi. iv. 2. The body, which The uprights were sticks, from an inch to two
(judging from the humerus, as skull and pelvis inches in diameter and 12 inches high. The
were broken) was that of a man, lay on the cross-pieces were of the same kind but a little
floor of the tomb beneath a complex disposition thinner. The reed-mat, which Avas very perfect
of various fabrics, consisting of no less than five in parts, was made of strands tied together in
layer-: a) At the top were rows of sticks the manner which has been described, the

. and N., i.e. longitudinally to the grave, intervals between the tyings being about two

inches. It covered the body and was laid instances, however, in which the woodwork
against and partly over the wattle partition. seemed to have been designedly made for the
In b 186 the uprights were placed closer walls. These were b 33 and b 50 the former ;

together, and only two cross-pieces were found of which is shown in pi. ii. 5, where the planks
in place. The cross-pieces in this case were a resting against the left wall can clearly lie

little thicker than the uprights and were 5 in. detected in the picture.
to 6 in. apart. The interior length of b 33 was 4 ft. 2 in. and
In b 204 was a peculiar arrangement of wood the breadth 2 ft. 9 in., including the thickness
and planks, which seems to be due to the same which was f inch. The planks of
of the wood,

idea of protecting the body against rubbish which the lining was formed were 3^ inches
falling in (cf. grave b 221, p. 8). It could not wide, and were laid horizontally, not vertically.
be called a coffin, though perhaps it may be The side planks, at any rate, were bolted

regarded as a stage in the transition towards together with wooden dowels lj inch wide.
the use of a coffin. The grave was of Class 2, (For specimens of such planks, showing the
a plain pit 6 ft. deep. Planks h inch thick and dowel-holes, see pi. xi. 8).

5 feet long were set up vertically from the floor Almost precisely similar in character was b 50,
of the grave on each of the long sides, to a 3 5 in. long by 2 ft. 9 in. broad on the inside,

height of 20 inches from the floor. On the including the planking. In this tomb, however,
inside of these planks were wooden uprights there were four vertical posts placed against the
in. to 2 in. thick, of which four Avere still in eastern long wall and separating it from the
place on one side, while the casts of two others woodwork. They were unbarked boughs, vary-
could be seen. The intervals between these ing from 1 inch to 3 inches in diameter, and
varied from 5 in. to 8 in. The planks, which standing at intervals which varied from 2 \ inches
were between the uprights and the side of the to 4 inches. It is very likely that similar up-
grave, had evidently been leaned back against rights had originally been placed along the
them and formed a barrier. On some of the whole length of the wall ; but the woodwork
uprights there remained pieces of cord, which had broken away too much to allow of this
had probably been used for fastening down the being determined. They would seem to have
reed mat that went right across the grave. The been intended for supports to which the planks
mat passed under some and over others of the might be fastened. In this instance, as in the
pots standing between the planks and the walls last, the planks were laid horizontally their ;

of the grave. width was 3 in. to \\ in., and those which

Wooden Lining of Brick Graves. —The pre- formed part of the floor had a rim about 1 inch

dynastic graves were never lined with planks ;

high where they met the side walls.
the wooden construction described in the last It was impossible to tell from the appearance
paragraph was certainly not a lining to the sides. of wood so old as this whether it had been cut
In the proto-dynastic graves, on the other hand, with a flint or with a copper implement.
it was sometimes a real difficulty to distinguish Copper was of course well-known by this time
between a wooden coffin fitting closely to the (see Catalogue of Tombs, passim), but probably

sides of a small grave, and an actual lining to flint would have been more useful for the

the walls. In such a case as b 142 (pi. iii. 4), purpose.

there could be no doubt that the planks formed For the practice of lining brick tombs with
a coffin, as there was a clear gap all round wood, cf. Boy a Tombs of the First Dynasty,

between them and the sides. There were two pp. 9, 15 (Petrie, 1900).


Wooden Roofs. — The normal method of gravel and sand were first cleared from all

rooting the proto-dynastic brick graves has been round the structure right down to its base ; so
already described. In Tomb b 177 the rough that it could be observed in detail before being
unbarked boughs were actually in position partially destroyed for the sake of its contents.

across the grave when it was opened (see In this condition it is shown in pi. iii. 5.

pi. ii. More frequently they had broken or

4). It can be seen that the tomb is very irregu-
caved in, leaving only fragments of wood above larly built on the outside. On the south wall
the aperture though the ends of the boughs
; (front in picture) the bricks projected in places
could always be seen at the sides of the grave. some 5 in. out of the average vertical plane,
The boughs or boles varied in number and in and on the north side others projected 12 in.
size according to the requirements of the space Thus whereas the greatest outside length was
to be roofed. They averaged 3 in. to 4 in. in 8 ft. 2 in., the least length was 17 in. less.

diameter, and were laid across the width, not Similarly, on the west side, the wall was
the length, of the tomb. On them was placed a strengthened with stepped coui'ses of bricks
layer of reeds of the same kind as those used for projecting about 14 in. beyond the average
manufacturing the reed mats. The whole was plane, and on the east side there were irregular
completed with a stratum of several inches of extra courses projecting 10 in. Excluding
mud beaten down hard. In pi. xi. 7 can be these variations the average outside width was
seen fragments taken from one of these roofs. 4; ft. 8 in. It is evident that the symmetry of
On the right of the picture are sections of the the exterior was a matter of very small interest
unbarked boughs, one of them with the reed to the builder, whose intention was only to bed
work adhering to its upper side ; on the left the brick building firmly into the natural rock
are pieces of the hard mud, with the reed-work and sand around it.

firmly imbedded in it. Considerable care had, however, been ex-

The roofing of the large unbricked tombs of pended on the interior. The interior dimen-
the pre-dynastic period, described as Class 2b sions being 5 ft. 4^ in. by 3 ft. 4 in., it was
(p. 8), is exactly similar. necessary, taking the smallest width, to span a

Brick Roofs. The brick graves were com- space of 3 ft. 4 in. Accordingly, at 2 ft. 7 in.

monly roofed with wood and mud as described from the floor, began the process of bringing
in the last paragraph. Sometimes, however, the walls to approach one another so as to form
they were roofed with bricks. The builder, the roof. This was done by letting each suc-
who was ignorant of the principle of the arch, cessive course overlap that beneath it by a few
bad then to devise some method of supporting inches (viz. half the length of a "header).
the weight. In very small graves this was done After six courses constructed in this way, the
by merely piling up other bricks from the floor side walls had been brought to meet one another
but so clumsy an expedient was not satisfactory, at a height of 3 ft. 8 in. from the floor. The
and could not generally be used when it was side walls being the first to be completed, their
i\ tn span an aperture of some width. roofing courses occupied 2 ft. 2|- in. of the length
It was a very natural idea under these circum- The end walls were then brought
of the tomb.
stances to adopl the cantilever principle, and in to meet the partially completed roof, and
'hi- was done in fcwo instances. The grave spanned the remaining spaceof 1 ft. 7 in. at each
I) L37 (c£ p. 28) affords an admirable example end with only five overlapping courses. When
of tin- process The top of the roof was only the roof had thus been completed, a covering of
just below the surface of the ground. The hard several inches of mud was beaten down on to it.


Walls of the Brick Tombs. — The walls of The same care is not shown as would be if the
the brick tombs were never very substantial. intention were to make a free-standing mastaba.
Sometimes they were only one " stretcher The building in tbe simpler tombs is weak, and
thick, i.e. about 6 in. including the mortar. even when more elaborated it may be quite
Sometimes they were double this thickness, and irregular on the exterior. Nevertheless, with
bond was usually three courses
in that case the increasing complexity in design, more attention
of " stretchers," followed by one of " headers." is given to the details of brick-laying, and the
Bricks average from 9 in. by 4h in. by 2f in. building comes to be regarded more as an end
to 10 in. by 5 in. by 3 in. The walls were in itself. The man who made such a tomb as
plastered with mortar on the inside. b 91 had evidently advanced to the stage at
Nature of the Brick Tombs as Buildings. which his thoughts were directed more to

— If it is asked whether these tombs of Classes the construction of an underground edifice

6 —9 are to be regarded, properly speaking, as than to the mere lining of an oblong space
structures, the answer must be that their with brickwork. Here, then, it is possible

character is essentially transitional. The build- to observe the genesis of the conception
ing, being always beneath the surface of the which was to find its later fulfilment in the

ground, is not at first regarded as independent. mastaba.





< >xi: or two of the tombs which have been specimen of the red pottery ornamented with
epitomized in the Catalogue require a more patterns in white ; the designs were both on the
detailed notice, being of peculiar interest from outside and on the inside, which is unusual
the nature of their contents. (pi. xv. 10). By the left shoulder was a small
a 23 was an exceptionally rich tomb for the block of wood 5 inches long, and on the right
very early period (s.d. not later than -40) at side of the head was a piece of leather the use
which it occurred. In pi. v. 1 is shown a sketch of which could not be determined. Close by
of it when opened, for which I am indebted the head was an oblong box of red pottery.
to the kindness of Mrs. A. A. Quibell. In con- Several similar boxes were found in subsequent
struction it was a plain oval grave, of Class graves, the most remarkable being one which
2a. The man who was buried in it was lying was covered with charcoal drawings (pi. xii.

on his right side wrapped in a reed mat, and 10 — 13); they were generally furnished with
close beside his right hand was the clay staff lids fitting on to an inside rim, and in no
painted with red stripes which is figured in instance contained anything.
pi. xii. 1. The head of this staff was also of The drawing shows two black-topped red jjots,
painted clay ; and from the pattern it seems a small one at the head and a large one half
likely that similar objects in stone found at way down the grave ; another was in position
Xaqada and described in the account of those behind the large pot, and a fourth was in frag-
excavations as spinning tops were really model ments.
maces (see Xaqada and Ballas, p. 35, and ibid., a 88 was a grave of Class 3, interesting for
pi. vii. 3 — 7). Between this and the outside of the remarkable outfit of small objects of personal
the grave lay the leg bones of a small animal. use placed with the woman who was buried in
Similar bones, which frequently occur in these it. These are shown in pi. vii. 2, arranged in
tombs, were identified by an anatomist as being exactly the relative positions which they
those of a goat, not of a gazelle ; the horned occupied in the grave. The woman was lying
head of the same animal is often found. Next on her right side, her two arms were sharply
to the handle of the staff was a clay platter, to bent and the hands brought up almost to the
which were affixed three clay models of cows, face. The two slate objects at the top of the
while a fourth had broken off and was found in picture were just in front of the lower jaw
the rubbish (pi. ix. 1). This was the first the ivories, limestone pegs, and ivory tags which
instance at El Amrah of the occurrence of such follow lay just above the left hand, and along
clay animals, though a considerable number the left arm almost to the elbow. It is very
were brought to light from the graves subse- difficult to suggest any explanation of the
quently opened. meaning of this outfit. Possibly it formed the
At the fool ond of the grave was a fine complete paraphernalia of a witch-doctor.


pottery and stone vases; and taken by them- logically it is the latest development of the
selves the slates in question would place the proto-dynastic brick tomb which occurred at

tomb at far too early a stage in the period. It El Amrah, and is dated by its form a's well as
is probable then that good and bad zoomorphs by its contents to the middle of the 1st Dynasty,
are contemporary with one another, and have or perhaps to the beginning of the Ilnd
the same range in time. It may, of course, lie Dynasty. Unfortunately it had been completely
argued that the examples here cited were heir- plundered within the last few years, though it

looms which had been kept and handed down repaid opening, as from it came the half of an

for many generations. But, on the one hand, inscribed steatite cylinder, the inscription from

it seems unreasonable to suppose that the woman which is reproduced (from an impression) in
who was buried with so rich an equipment pi. vi. The modern plunderers had done their

would not have been provided with a new set of work so carelessly that they had failed to

these easily-manufactured accessories of the discover the staircase 23 ft. G in. long, which
toilet. And, on the other hand, for how long a gave entrance on the western side. The con-
time can it be supposed that heirlooms of so tents of the tomb, however, had been removed,
fragile a character would be preserved ? The with the exception of the half cylinder of
tortoise-palette and the bird-palette are, accord- steatite referred to, a wooden cylinder (inscribed,

ing to the sequence-dating, at least 11 or 1 but in too bad a condition to reproduce), and
units earlier than the rest of the tomb. If such some pots and broken stone vases. The three
units are each equivalent to about one genera- stone vases which were perfect enough to be
tion, as has sometimes been suggested, it would drawn are shown in pi. xvi. 3, 7, 8 fragments ;

be necessaiy to believe that these fragile articles showed that there had been an alabaster
of others
had been treasured up undamaged for over 300 of type S 1, a small breccia bowl, a shallow
years before they were buried ! This reflection alabaster bowl, a deep striped alabaster bowl
suggests the problem, —What was the length with recurved rim, two slate bowls (one with a
of the pre-dynastic — which
period ? will be sti'ongly recurved rim and one without), and a
discussed in Chapter X. limestone vase, the shape of which could not be
Before leaving this subject one more remark judged. The pots, all of which were broken,
will not be out of place. There is nothing in were L 17, L 38 (several), L 53h, and the type
these pages to encourage those who profess given in Royal Tombs of the First Dynasty, pi.
to disbelieve in the principle of sequence-dating. xxxix. 1. Pieces of ivory (from a box ?) and a
The Catalogue of Tombs from El Amrah amply fragment of copper were also found. In the
vindicates the soundness of the general system, recess at the N.E. corner were the bones of a cow.
and the above paragraph is designed only to The dimensions of the tomb, which was 19 ft.
eliminate a trifling error in a single small long x 7 ft. 6 in. wide, and 5 ft. deep, as well as
department of the whole. its elaborate construction, show that it must
b 91 was the largest tomb on the site, sunk have belonged to a person of importance, but
5 ft. below the ground and roofed with boughs the history of it is of course lost, unless, the

and mud. Its plan is given in pi. iv. 8, and a inscription on the cylinder should eventually
photograph of it is shown in pi. iii. 6. Typo- supply a clue.




The Ivory-handled Dagger, figured in pi. vi., form, and may be almost exactly matched from
is a unique arid very interesting weapon, which Cyprus (see Cyprus Mus. Cat., pi. iii. 505);
was found in the plundered grave b 230 (see the midrib of earlier flintwork is represented
p. 23). It had been broken in two, and the by the strong ridge running down the centre of
upper half of the copper blade was encrusted on the blade, and the whole is simply a reproduc-
to the ivory hilt, as it is shown in the photo- tion in metal of such flint weapons as are

graphs. The length of the blade is 0-13 metre, figured in Naqada and Ballas (cf. especially

the broken part of the blade is

128 metre Naqada and Ballas, pi. lxxii. 51).

long, and the whole blade would be about Copper Knife. — The exact purpose for

0*175 metre long. The triangular butt is which another copper implement, figured in

inserted to a depth of about 0*047 metre into pi. xii. 9, was used is doubtful. Possibly, as
the haft, and is secured close to its end with a has been suggested, it may have been a flaying-
single rivet. This weapon is now in the Cairo knife for skinning deer and other animals. It

Museum (Journal, No. 35,158), and may be came from the proto- dynastic grave b 80 (see
compared for style and technique with a gold- p. 27), and was hafted into a cloven piece of

handled Hint dagger lately acquired by the bone, which was apparently the unworked fore-
Museum, which is shaped like the flint lances in leg of a small animal. It was lying in front of

pi. vii. 1. Almost identical with the example the face (i.e. just above the hands) of the
shown in pi. vi. is person with whom it was buried, and was
The Copper Dagger without Handle, covered with cloth, which might, however, have
figured in pi. x. 5. This came from the plun- adhered toit from the wrappings of the body.

dered grave a 131 (see p. 20). The blade is —

Copper Chisel. The chisel from grave b 13
0*15 metre long, with triangular butt like the shown in pi. x. 10 is of very primitive and
other. The same rivet-hole may be noticed simple type, a plain bar bent with use in
close to the end, and the semi-circular mark left levering.
by the ivory claws of the hilt is plainly per- A
Breccia Celt (pi. vii. l,top left) is unique.
ceptible even in the photograph. These two Itcame from the fine grave a 96 (see pp. 19, 37).
daggers are of more primitive type than the one Ground celts of any kind are extremely rare in
which was found at Naqada and is now in the Egypt. Only a single example was found at
A.shmoleaii MuseumNaqada and at Oxford (see Naqada (Naqada, and Ballas, p. 28 and pi.

Ballas, pi. lxv. 3) which has a longer and more

; lxxii. 59), where hundreds of graves were
slender Made. a more rounded butt and two opened. Occasionally specimens come into the
rivet-holes for the attachment. The unhilted hands of dealers through native plundering,

from El Ainiah (cf. De Morgan, and it is very likely that work of this character
- ht .
1896, p. 201) is of very simple was almost confined to certain districts not yet

identified. For illustrations and remarks on perhaps be toads, unless they are tortoises (from
the subject, see De Morgan (Mecherches, 1896, grave b 163). In pi. ix. 4a, 4b are two repre-
pp. 98, 99). The shaping of this axe and the sentatives of a group of six small clay animals,
two perforations for hafting at the butt are very roughlv made, which look like pigs (from
quite peculiar. It is certainly a much more grave b 136). No suggestion can be hazarded as
highly elaborated instrument than the plain to the identity of the creatures represented by
copper axe found at Abadiyeh (Diotjwlis Parra, two mud cones painted with white spots, one of
pi. vii.). which is shown in pi. ix. 7 (from grave b 163).
Model Axe of Ivory. — From grave b 63, Pottery Model of a Boat. In pi. ix. 8 is —
in which it was buried with the body of a shown all that could be recovered of the model
woman, came the curious model axe of ivory of a boat which was found in fragments in grave
figured in pi. xii. 8. It could hardly be sup- a 56 (cf. p. 17). The original dimensions could
posed that so fragile an instrument would be not be ascertained exactly ;
but when perfect
put to any serious use, and yet the edge is the boat would probably have been not less

noticeably worn down. than 18 inches, and might have been as much as

The Clay and Pottery Animals, to which 24 inches long. It was flat-bottomed, measured
pi. ix. is devoted, are a very interesting product about 7 inches in the beam, and was sharp-
of this site. In pi. ix. 1 is figured a charac- prowed. It was made of unbaked clay and of a
teristic group from grave a 23, consisting of buff colour, with a red rim painted round the
four kine moulded in clay and affixed to an outside of the gunwale. Among its fragments
oval clay stand. One of the four is shown on a was the object shown in the plate, shaped like a
larger scale in pi. ix. 3. Similar groups of crescent and painted white. This was probably
animals were found several times (cf. Catalogue a rest for the mast or for steering-oars. In
of Tombs), and ordinarily they were rude another grave (a 15) were found three very
representations of cows, though in one case they rough little clay models of boats about three
more resembled eland. Most of them were of inches long.
unbaked mud, which was so friable that it was Pottery Dolls. — Both male and female dolls

only with the greatest difficulty that they could were found. In pi. ix. 11 are given the two
be removed from the grave. Nearly always finest examples, both of which were found in
they were broken into several pieces by the a 5G. They are made of a red pottery with
sand and stones thrown in when the grave was curly black hair moulded in clay, and they
originally filled ; and sometimes the mud had wear the peculiar covering, of which Von
not been allowed to harden before they were Luschan has discussed the ethnological signifi-

put in, so that their own weight had made them cance in Globus (April 4th, 1901). The same
sag and break apart. After being carried down two characteristics may be seen in the doll
to the house they were thoroughly soaked in which is figured in three aspects in pi. xii. 7.

paraffin-wax and half-baked in the oven, which In this case the figure was in red paste, and the
rendered them strong enough to be packed. A lines depicting the dress were not moulded in

single ox (from grave b 184) which did not the outline itself, but were painted on in black.
form part of a group, is shown in pi. ix. 2. A The other lines of the painting, which are laid

bull, cow and calf, in strong red pottery, were on in black on a white ground, seem to signify
found in grave b 212 (pi. ix. 6, 9, 10). some accessory of dress. The short curly hair
In pi. ix. 5 is figured one of a pair of clay and the "sheath" are two of the essential
animals painted with white spots, which may characteristics of the figures represented on the


proto- dynastic slates (figured in 1'ror. Soc. which were made in charcoal on the sides and
Bibl. Arch., May—June, 1'900), and this fart ends of a red pottery box, !) in. long by 6 in.

tells distinctly in favour of the view that broad. This box was found in grave a 41
the Latter are portraits of natives and not of (p. 16), which is dated by its contents to
P ireigners. between s.d. 36 and s.d. 41. The first repre-
Tin: .Model of a House, shown in 2d. x. 1 sentation (xii. 10) is that of a hippopotamus.
and 1'. gives us the first definite idea of the Next (xii. 11) is a boat with a crocodile under-
domestic life of these prehistoric Egyptians. It neath it. The third (xii. 12) is an unknown
was found in the grave a 4 (see p. 22), which is object. Lastly (xii. 13) there is a picture of
between s.d. 44 and s.d. 64, that is to say it six long-necked animals (probably giraffes)

belongs to the definitely pre-dynastic period. walking in line towards the right of the picture ;

It obviously represents a fairly substantial their bodies, which are drawn diagrammatically,
building, appropriate to people who, as their resemble palings. Below them is a row of
culture testifies, had risen to a grade far above black triangles, perhaps typifying the desert.
savagery. The door and the windows seem to Remarkable Specimens of Pottery. — The
have been made of logs and beams of wood. pot numbered as D 46 in pi. xiv. is an extra-
The form of the house itself, which slopes back ordinarily fine specimen of the " decorated
from the base and is recurved at the top. class. Not only does it exhibit such compara-
suggests that it was built of wattle and mud. tively familiar patterns as the boat, the ostriches,
No roof was found belonging to it, but, if it is the water-plant, and the lattice borrowed from
permissible to judge from the analogy of the wicker-work, but it also shows human figures
graves, it was covered over
is likely that it in action. Figures are very rarely represented
with boughs on which were put layers of twigs on the pottery (though one is diagrammatically
and beaten mud. Some idea of the dimensions treated in D 50b, which is next to D 46 in
of the dwelling may be obtained from the size pi. xiv.). In the present case the persons
of the doorway. The lower beam of the door depicted seem to be dancing and playing the
is from the ground, so that the original
4 in. castanets.
house might perhaps have been 25 ft. long by In addition to the usual horizontally-pierced
1 8 ft. wide. holes for suspension, this pot has finely-made
Baskets were found in many of the pre- wavy handles.
dynastic graves. Nearly spherical baskets, Wa and W/3 in the same plate are interesting.
averaging about three inches in diameter Both have been treated with colour, W/J being
(pi. xi. 2), were used to contain malachite, and splashed over with red in imitation of the
were closed with small lids (pi. xi. 2, bottom markings on stone ; while Wa has merely two
left). They were spirally coiled, and on some or three vertical red streaks running down the
of them could be seen traces of a sort of step front, and the slightest hint of a lattice pattern,
pattern, such as appears on modern Soudanese which was begun at the base but immediately
Kasketwork. discontinued. Wa is a ledge-handled rather
Oval task et work platters, such as that of
1 than a wavy-handled pot, there is no undulation
which fragments are shown in pi. xi. 3, were in the simple sporgenza which appears on each
used t" stand pots upon ;
just as we nowadays side. This makes it a distinctly peculiar pot,
>ut mats under our plates and dishes. and suggests that it is typologically the ancestor
Cox wiiii Chabcoai Drawings. — In pi. of the ordinary wavy-handled examples. Pot-,
xii. 1" I-"* are -hown four curious drawings, tery found on the neolithic site of El Argeh in


Individually all the articles belonging to it are objects belonging to it were found in the filling
well known and frequently occur in other at various depths. The following, however,
graves, but the combination seen in the present lay on the floor of the tomb, clearly at their
case is quite peculiar (s.d. 36 —39). original level, and almost if not quite in their
a 96 is drawn in pi. v. 6 with all the objects original relative positions :

in position as they were found. The contents, (a) On the west side of the grave the
with the exception of the pottery, are shown in skeleton of a woman, the bones of which were
pi. vii. 1, and an inventory of the whole is given disarranged, but not so much as to leave any
in the Catalogue of Tombs (p. 1!)). This, doubt that it had been buried in the usual
which was the richest grave which we found in contracted position. The head was on the
the whole season, had escaped previous diggers north, a haunch-bone south of it at the natural
by a singular piece of good fortune. In some distance ; other bones were heaped between the
one of the recent excavations or plunderings, haunch-bone and the head. The lower jaw was
referred to in the first chapter, the next grave in place, but turned upside down ; a displaced
had been opened and the workers had actually tibia was lying in front of the face.

been within two or three inches of this. It was (/3) North of the skull and within an inch or
indeed doubtful whether the missing tibia had two of it was the slate shown in pi. viii. 2 an ;

not been inadvertently pulled in to the neigh- inch or two north of this again was the slate
bouring grave, although it had not revealed the shown in pi. viii. 3 (bottom), and a little east of
proximity of the burial to which it really this, almost in the N.E. corner of the grave lay
belonged. the slates figured in pi. viii. 1 (top and bottom),
The interment was one of the unusual kind in the smaller one being on the top of the other.
which the body was dismembered before burial. By the side of these last were the two miniature
The position of the bones is shown in the draw- red pots shown in pi. viii. 4 (centre and left

ing. That they had not been seriously disturbed centre).

was proved by the fact that they were still (y) Ranged round the east side of the grave
covered with the fleecy skin of an animal from north to south was the pottery shown in
(sheep ?) which had been laid over them. pi. viii. The pots R 24 and D 67c were on the
Further, it was evident that the objects were other side of the grave with the body itself.

all in their original position. The man who was (8) On the south side of the grave, a little

equipped with this splendid tomb-furniture east of where the feet would have lain, was the
must have been a great chief in his time. We head of a small horned animal.
can only wish that he had seen fit to notch on (e) In the S.AV. corner of the grave was the
one of the weapons of his armoury the number breccia vase shown in pi. viii. 4 (bottom right).
of enemies whom he had killed in war. The slate figured in pi. viii. 2 is without
b 62 is a very important grave, the contents question one of the most important objects
of which are fully illustrated on pi. viii. and found at El Ainrah. It is 11^ inches long, of a
inventoried in the Catalogue of Tombs (p. 20). type well known in the pre-dynastic period (cf.
It was an oval-oblong in shaj)e, of the Class Waqada and Dallas, pi. xlix. 65), and dated to
which has been described as 2a, measuring the middle stages of that period (see Diospolis
6 ft. x 4 to 5 ft. and G ft. deep, oriented N.W. I'arva, pi. iii.) Its peculiar interest consists in
and S.E. The grave had been partially the fact that it bears in well cut relief the
plundered at a date contemporaneous with the compound ?ign which appears in the illustration.
interment, so that a certain number of the The ex? c significance of this carving; is a


matter still sub judice. At the moment that I The contents of this grave are valuable from
found the slate I considered that the sign in another point of view, as bearing on the applica-
relief was of genuinely hieroglyphic character, tion of the " sequence-datings." The system
and proposed to read it as s-r, which is the expressed by these datings (cf. p. 6) has been
ordinary word for "prince" in the Egyptian used throughout this account, and has proved
language. A celebrated Egyptologist, to whom to work out perfectlv harmoniously with the
a drawing of it was shown, immediately and exception of only one particular. The exception
independently suggested the same reading is that the slates which represent animals and
and, after having seen the original, he still fishes do not seem to admit of such precise
maintains his opinion. In that case the slate delimitation as the author of Diospolis Parva
in question would supply the earliest example suggests. The general development of the non-
hitherto known of the use of true hieroglyphs. zoomorphic forms, beginning with the rhomb and
The pottery dates the tomb to within the limits ending with bordered oblongs, is unquestionable,
s.d. 58 — 63 ; and the stone vases, which but the same confidence cannot be reposed in
considered independently would allow it to the succession of the zoomorphic slates. This
range between 60 — 68, fix the point, when they seems, in fact, to be an instance of the facility

are taken in combination with the pottery, to Avith which careless workmanship may be mis-
s.d. 60 — 63. As the 1st Dynasty appears at taken for degeneration of type. Several of the
some point between s.d. 70 and s.d. 80, Menes tombs at El Amrah tended to show that there
being probably about halfway between these Avas no distinguishable difference in period
two figures, it is evident that this inscribed slate between well-formed and ill-formed fish-palettes
belongs to a stage appreciably before Menes. or bird-palettes, and such a view is confirmed
But this interpretation of the sign is not by the contents of b 62.
generally accepted. It was at once questioned The slate which bears the emblem is of a
by Prof. Petrie, who considers that the slate well-defined form, placed in Diospolis Parva
exhibits nothing more than an emblem such as (pi. iii.) between the limits s.d. 53 and s.d. 60.

may lie seen on the standards of the pre-historic The pottery and stone vases, as was remarked
-hips (see Naqada and Ballas, pi. lxvi., &c). above, put the tomb between the limits s.d. 60
Mr. Griffith, too, considers that the sign is not — 63, so that the latest period assigned to this
composed of true hieroglyphs, and suggests that slate agrees perfectly with that of the other
the nearest resemblance to it is to be found in dating objects. The slate of pi. viii. 3 (bottom)
the early forms of the emblem of the God Min is not precisely matched by any of the examples
(cf. Kojitos, pi. iii., Petrie, 1896). Under these shown in Diospolis Parva (pi. iii.), so that too
circumstances it seems best to qualify the con- much stress must not be laid upon it, but
tent ion that the slate constitutes the first certainly the nearest equivalent to it is to be
example of the use of the historical hieroglyphs, found in the double-bird palette put down at s.d.
and to describe it less definitely as bearing a 40 —46. Of the other slates which appear in
sign analogous to the emblem of the god Min. pi. viii. the bird at the bottom of 1 should occur
Even so it is an object of unique interest, for it according to the sequence-date given to it mid-
i- the earliest instance of a slate which is way between s.d. 40 and s.d. 50, while the
ornamented with a carving as distinguished tortoise figured just above it is assigned to
from a mere roughly incised drawing, and so it between s.d. 43 and s.d. 49. But these alloca-
is in a sense the ancestor of the famous proto- tions are quite inconsistent Avith the dating
dynastic paletti assigned to the tomb on the evidence of the

Spain has similar ledge-handles. An example Ballas, pi. xxx.) ; while the spiral, otherwise
from the Sirets' excavations is in the Ashmolean unknown until the appearance of the "decorated"

at < )xford. ware, appears here on a pot of the class which

F 1 and F 2 in pi. xiv. resemble one another disappears about s.l). 'M. It is possible, more-
to some extent. Both are made of black clay over, in the treatment of the triangular pattern,
and are fluted, F 1 horizontally, F 2 vertically. to trace a resemblance between the style of this
They are fantastic pots, the shapes of which are pot and that of the so-called " Aegean " ware of
imitated from the " decorated " Tombs of
types. the 1st Dynasty (see Boi/al the
F 99 is one of four broken pots which were Earliest Dynasties, II., pi. liv., Petrie, 1901).
found among the rubbish outside some of the No. 17 in pi. xv. shows antelopes or similar
graves of Cemetery a, which had been opened animals caught in nooses pegged out on the
in recent years. From the part of the ground ground.
in which they occurred they are almost certainly At the side of pi. v. 7 is shown a specimen of
of pre-dynastic date, but the type is quite new the "black incised " ware above mentioned. It
as such ; they have perforated circular lids, and is the only piece which was found on the site,

bear pot-marks. a fact which sufficiently attests its valuable

In the plate of white ornamented red pottery character as a foreign product. To the list of
(pi. xv.) two specimens should especially be places where it occurs, mentioned in Naqada
noticed, viz. no. 1G and no. 17. The first of and Ballas, viz. Spain, Bosnia, and Hissarlik,
these has two quite peculiar featui'es: firstly, may now be added Crete (Knossos) and Sardinia.
it is decorated with triangles filled with white Fine specimens from a cave in the latter island
spots ; and secondly, it has a spiral in the may be seen in the Museo Kircheriano at Rome.
centre. The triangles with white spots suggest Cf. Journal of Hellenic Studies, vol. xxi., p. 96 ;

a close typological relation with the well-known I'ndldino di Palentologia Italiana, anno xxiv.
" black incised " ware (see e.g. Naqada and 1898, tav. xviii. ; Monmuenti Antichi,vo\. xi., etc.




The existence of a purely Neolithic period is predominating material for the manufacture of
not attested by any finds from Egyptian implements ; and roughly worked specimens
cemeteries. Even at the very beginning of the occur in many graves, while in a few of the
by the pre-dynastic tombs,
period represented richer may be found such fine examples as are
copper was known and used (cf. inf.). Flint shown in pi. viii. and pi. xii. Of such highly
implements, however, were not superseded by finished lances and knives little need here be
the rare metal imported from Cyprus or Sinai, said ; their workmanship has been fully
and to what unique perfection the Egyptians described by Mr. Spurred in Naqada and
of this time had attained in their manufacture Ballas. But ulterior questions of great interest
is shown by the technique of the wonderful flint are involved in the dating of the roughly-
knives and bangles found at Naqada, Hou, and worked implements. Accordingly, we devoted
elsewhere. In respect of the alternative use of especial care to collecting the latter, and to
copper and of flint, the culture of these pre- differentiating carefully between such as were
dynastic Egyptians was analogous to that for found on the ground-level, where they were
which Italian archaeologists have invented the evidently placed with intention beside the body,
term f/ioca eneolitica. As a barbarous compound and such as occurred higher up in the tilling of
of derivatives from two different languages, the the grave. All the specimens shown in pi. vi.

term Eneolithic does not recommend itself; and those in pi. vii. 4 and 6 were found in
while its assonance with the word Neolithic position beside the body. Those in pi. xviii.,

is apt to be misleading. It is certainly pre- on the other hand, were found at various depths
ferable to write, as English authors have in the filling ; while in pi. xix. are figured other
recently done in another connection, of a roughly-worked flints collected from the desert
Chalcolithic period, meaning by this a time in surface. Mr. H. Balfour, who has examined the
which copper or bronze (as the case may be) is entire series, kindly contributes the following
used in conjunction with flint. It may be said note upon them :

that according to this terminology the ancient Worked Flints. — " The flint implements
Egyptians must be described as having lived in " collected at El Amrah have been conveniently
a Chalcolithic age from the beginning to the " separated into three main groups, denoting the
end of their history; but that need not " positions in which they were found, in order
constitute an objection to the nomenclature, "to distinguish those which were intentionally
which is convenienl as well as accurate. " placed in the graves, as an accompaniment to
The Chalcolithic age then begins with our •'
the interment, from those whose association
first knowledge of the people who buried their "with the graves is merely accidental. The
dead in Buch tombs as have been described in " first group consists of those implements which
this and the similar preceding memoirs {Naqada " were found on the grave bottom*, and which
and Ballas, and Dio&polis Parva). Flint is the " have evidently been carefully deposited in

" this position the second group contains those " In addition to the implements of fine work-

" implements and artificial flakes of flint which "manship, a number of rougher, in many
" were found amongst the mass of material " instances very rough, flint implements and
" forming the filUng-'va. of the graves. These " flakes were found in situ with the interments.
" Several of these are shown on pi. vi. Nos.
"have evidently been dug in unintentionally,
"and their presence in the grave-hollows can " 11 —
21 are an associated group of flints from
" only be regarded as accidental, having no " cemetery a, grave 99. Of these, Nos. 1 1, 1 4, 18,
" purposeful with the interment. " 19 and 20 are mere flakes without secondary
" They were probably derived from the soil and " chipping, though No. 20 is very much worn
" top surface in the vicinity of the graves. The " along one edge, apparently from long use.
" third group comprises the worked flints which "Nos. 12 and 1(1 are flakes chipped into form
" were found lying about on the surface in the " to serve as " scrapers," No. 16 being quite well
" vicinity of the burial ground. "and regularly formed. 15 is a flake with a

"To take the First Group first. The very " serrated edge, forming a saw of a type very
" remarkable flint knives, lance-heads and other "prevalent among the pre-dynastic finds. 13
" implements of high-class workmanship, associ- " and 14 are two rough nodules, the latter

" ated with the pre-dynastic burials, need hardly "doubtfully worked. 21 is a well-shaped,
" be referred to here, as they have been treated "pointed instrument made from a flake, one
" of at length elsewhere. That they represent " edge being carefully flaked along.
" the highest phase in the art of working flint " The remaining flints shown in pi. vi. were
" reached by man in any period or region "also found directly associated with various
"cannot be doubted. Fig. 11 in pi. x. shows " interments, and are all of a somewhat rough
" some examples in which the exquisite parallel " character, betraying no particular skill in their

"' ripple '-flaking, which specially characterizes " manufacture. Several are simple flakes, some
" the flint-working of this people, constitutes a " of which show marks of use (e.g. 26, 27, 28,
" triumph of manipulative skill, the flaked "34, 47). 32 is a pointed flake, much worn
" hollows running from the one edge meeting " away into hollows by use. 48 is very much
" those from the other in a mid-rib, as it were, " worn, quite rounded in fact, along one edge,
" along the centre of the blade-surface. Fig. 8 " the other edge remaining sharp, much after
" shows a blade (from cemetery b, grave 27) of " the fashion of No. 20.
" very fine finish, unfortunately broken across. " It is evident that many of the purposely
" It is formed from a fine long flake, slightly " buried flints were of little value, being very
" curved, triangular in section, carefully trimmed "rude tools at the best, and often used-up
" along the edges, worked to a point at one end " implements ; and, unless we consider that the
" and a rounded butt at the other. The surfaces " furnishing of the dead with implements no
" are very well flaked towards the base on the "longer of use to the living was sometimes
" angular surface, and all over the flat surface, " deliberate, and practised on the score of
" in parallel '
ripples.' Knives of this foi*m (e.g. " economy, we may fairly assume that these
" one from b 43) sometimes exhibit along the " rough tools were among the actual belongings
" ridge a distinct zig-zag flaking, similar to the " of the occupant of the grave when alive, and
" ornamental zig-zags worked so beautifully " were buried with the dead as such.
" upon the handles of the finer flint daggers from "PL xviii. is devoted to flints of the Second
" Denmark, and, as in the latter, apparently " Group, viz. those found amongst the mass of
" intended to produce a decorative effect. " rubble, &c, used for filling in the graves, and

"whose presence there is accidental. None of Copper Objects. — Copper is not infrequent
' these present any high degree of finish, the in the pre-dynastic graves. It occurs actually
" bulk being very rough examples of flint at the very beginning of the whole period, viz.,

" working, unworked Hakes and wasters.' No. ' in grave a 58, where the association with white
9 is a flake-knife worked along one edge. 24 ornamented red pots would place it at about
is a fine delicate flake, well chipped into a s.d. 34.

" '
duck-bill ' scraper, whose edges are still per- If the graves are reviewed according to the

fectly keen. The figure, unfortunately, does grouping adopted in the Catalogue (chaps. 3, 4),

"not do it justice. 42 is a flake with semi- the following results will appear :
— Before s.d.

" circular hollow in one edge; this hollow is, 41 copper is found three times (thin sheet,
" however, not artificially formed, but is an needle, rings and chain), and before s.d. 46
" accidental result produced in striking off the twice more (sheet finger-ring, pin). In the
- flake from the core. 45 is a flake worked other graves before s.d. 56 it does not occur.
roughly into a spear-head form with a tang. Between s.d. 56 and s.d. 64 it appears in six
" 64 looks like a similar attempt at a tanged graves, and now not merely in small pieces, but
" spear-head, but the shape is almost undoubtedly worked up into articles of some size (e.g. the

"accidental. 51 is worked to a definite point, dagger of a 131, and the anklets and bracelets
" perhaps for boring. 53 is a saw-edged flake, of b 62 and b 210). The ivory -handled dagger
" rather well made. The remainder do not call of b 230 comes at some point between s.d. 48
" for special remark. and s.d. 61. The spoon with copper stem and
"The Third Group of flints, viz. those picked silver bowl (b 233) is between s.d. 60 and s.d.
" up upon the surface of the ground in the 66. In proto-dynastic times, copper was in
" vicinity of the graves, is illustrated in pi. xix. common' use (see Royal Tombs, Part I. and
" These also are for the most part very rough Part II.), although in the comparatively poor
" implements, flakes and 'wasters,' but in several graves of that period at El Amrah it is only
"the working is more or less careful. No. 15 found three times (anklet in b 50, flaying-knife
" is well worked on both sides to a good, rounded in b 80, fragment in b 91).
" cutting edge. Many of the larger implements Slate. —Articles made of slate were of very
" resemble closely typical haches of the River- frequent occurrence in the pre-dynastic tombs ;

drift finds in Western Europe, being distinctly but in those of the proto-dynastic period this
" of palaeolithic type. This is especially notice- material was only used for bowls and dishes,
" able in the case of numbers 46, 62, 63, 64, the and in two instances for a bracelet. Forty-two
" last of which is a fine ovate blade of good and pre-dynastic graves in cemetery a, and forty-six
" regular shape of a very familiar palaeolithic in cemetery b, contained slates of one kind or
" form. 63 is made from a large flake roughly another. Most usually they were the familiar
" worked. 49 is a smaller ovate implement of palettes, which are supposed to have been used
" the fine orange-coloured flint, so characteristic for face-paint ; the green stain of the malachite
" in Egypt, worked round the edges on both was still visible on many of them, and the
faces, leaving much of the original weathered smooth pebbles used for grinding it were
"outside surface of the nodule from which it generally found in the grave. The commonest
u;i- made. 63 is a heavy worked block of form of palette was that in the form of a fish,
" flint, probably unfinished. 70 is a roughly- sometimes made admirably life-like, and some-
" shaped ovate implement, worked in large times almost shapeless this occurred thirty-one

flaking on both sidee times. Almost equally frequent was the plain
— ;


rhomb, which was found twenty-seven times it only in consequence of the different
tortoises and birds were much rarer. Two process observed in the burning, the
peculiar types are shown in pi. x#., where No. 7 air in this case not being cut off from
is an elaborate slate ornament studded with two any part of the surface.

rows of shell beads, while No. 10 is a variant

3. Cross-lined Pottery (C), which is also
with four heads of the not uncommon double-
haematitic red ware, but is decorated
headed bird.
with patterns painted in white gypsum
Besides the palettes, other slate objects were
in a style similar to that still pi*eserved
found, but much more rarely. Ornaments of in the modern pottery of the Kabyles
the kind numbered in Naqada and I In I Ins
of Algeria.
(plates of slates) as 28—33 occurred four times.
Small pendants shaped like double-headed birds 4. Black Incised Pottery ; wholly different
from any of the other classes. It is
were also found four times, and would seem to
of foreign importation and very rare
have been attached to the wrists (cf. pi. vii. 2).
(cf. p. 43).
The use of slates in general seems to have
been almost confined to the women and children. 5. Wavy-handled Pottery (W). This is

Of the eighty- eight graves in which they were a drab ware characterized by ledge
found only three (a 96, a 102, b 43) belonged handles (cf. p. 42), and is similar
to men,- and even in one of these (a 102) the to that which is found on pre-
sex is not absolutely certain. Allowing that Jewish sites in Palestine. The earlier
one or two of those graves, in which the condition examples have strongly undulated
of the bones did not allow of determining the handles ; a peculiarity which is lost
sex, may have belonged to men, it is clear, in the later forms, which become mere
nevertheless, that palettes and other slates must cylinders. These latest representatives
have been regarded as essentially feminine of the wavy-handled pots did not
property. occur at El Amrah.
With regard to the material itself, it could be
6. Decorated Pottery (D), the material of
obtained near at hand, for it seems that there is
which resembles that of Class 5. The
a fairly extensive ridge of slate east of Esneh.
characteristic which distinguishes
Pottery. —The pottery found included repre- the ornamentation with designs and
it is

sentatives of all the eight classes which are

figures painted in a reddish colour.
figured and described in Naqada and BaJlas
and in Diospolis Parva. These are : 7. Rough l'ottery (R), including many
forms of coarse pots.
1. The Black-topped Pottery (B) with the
haematitic facing, which owes its
8. Late Pottery (L), which replaces the

peculiar appearance to the process of Rough Pottery in the later tombs.

burying the pot mouth downwards in It is smoother faced, and in some

the ashes while it was being baked, cases exhibits forms evolved from
so that the haematite was chemically the Rough Ware.
reduced to black magnetic oxide
Such types of pottery belonging to these
(Diosjjolis Parva, p. 13).
various classes as have not yet been noted

2. The Polished Red Pottery (P), haema- from other sites are figured in our plates
titic like the last, and differing from xiii., xiv. and xv. From the Catalogue of
: ;


Tombs it can be seen how the putter's the top and incised with diagonal lines,

art lias degenerated by the time of the 1st suggestive of a leather or string whipping,
Dynasty, when only a few clumsy forms were found several times — always with women.
survive, which make a poor substitute for the A single ornament of the type Naq. pi. lxii. 37
rich repertoire of the pre-dynastic period. was found in ivory, and a pair of similar form
Stone Vases. — Vases carved out of hard stone in limestone. These may have been earrings
are among the most characteristic and beautiful they lay on the throat. In several graves
objects found in these graves. Alabaster is the occurred a pair of tusks such as those shown in
most common material, but basalt is frequent, pi. vii. 2. One or both of these may be
especially in the earlier stages of the period hollowed out, and they are perforated at the
limestone, slate, breccia, and marble are also butt for suspension. They may have formed
used. The characteristic types are shown in part of a sorcerer's outfit, or they may have
the photographs of pi. xvi., and the new kinds been used in the dance like the ivory wands
are given in the line-drawings of the same known in the historical periods.
plate. Among the latter may be remarked Two bone harpoons were found and two
No. 2, which is a marvel of fine stone-cutting, ivory spoons. A curious spoon with curved
the upper part being detached and fitted to the handle, perhaps imitated from the fore-leg of
base with the most perfect accuracy. Of the an animal, is shown in pi. vii. 5. The ivory
photographs No. 4 is interesting as showing axe of pi. xii 8. is unique. The haft of the
the method adopted for repairing a broken dagger in pi. vi. is of ivory, and that of the
vessel, by boring holes in the two pieces and flaying-knife in pi. xii. 9 is of natural bone.
then tying the edges together; while No. 9 In the large proto-dynastic tomb b 91 were
represents a very beautiful specimen, oval in found fragments of ivory, which had probably
section and of unusual form. It is very formed part of a box.
noticeable how in the transition to the proto- It is evident that ivory was easily to be
dynastic period the graceful types of twy-eared obtained in Egypt at this time ; and the
hanging vases are replaced by heavier models elephant, whether native or not, was well
without handles. known to the people. Slate palettes were made
Ivobt and Boxe, especially the former, were in the form of the elephant (Naqada and Ballas,
favourite materials for the manufacture of pp. 26, 43), and there is an admirable incised
ornaments. Hair-pins, combs, and bracelets of drawing of him on the palette figured in
ivory were often worn by the women (cf. pi. Diospolis Parra, pi. xii. 43. Rude drawings of
vii. 4, pi. xii. 2, 3). The hair-pins were the animal occur on the rougher pots, and he is

generally ornamented at the top with a lattice represented among the ensigns of the ships on
pattern incised in black line, and were some- the " Decorated " Pottery.
time surmounted by a carving of a bird. The Beads (cf. Naqada and Bit lias, p. 10, and
combs were either plain, with teeth on one or Diospolls Parva, p. 27) are fairly frequent in
both sides, or they also were finished off in the graves of both periods. Camelian is just twice
form of a bird. The finer examples carved as common as any other material used. Green
into the shape of deer and other animals or blue glaze, steatite, and calcite (quartzite ?)
(Naqada and Hallos, pi. lxiii.) did not occur. occur, the one as often as the other. Glazed
The bracelets were quite plain and un- stone, shell, and clay are rarer ; haematite,
ornamented. Tags, such as those that arc limestone, amethyst, garnet, and lapis-lazuli
shown in pi. vii. 2, notched and grooved near occur. < »f these last it is worth noting that


lapis-lazuli is known to be native to Egypt, but not to the Mediterranean but to the Red Sea.
garnet is not, though it is found in Abyssinia. Their names are as follows :

Of various specimens examined, a pendant was 1. Cypraea erosa, Linn. \

2. „ moneta, Linn.
chrysoprase, a bead possibly anorthite (of the
3. Strombus fasciatus, Born.
felspar group), others perhaps diopside. 4. Clanculus pharaonis, Linn.
The occurrence of gold-covered beads in 5. Conns ceylonensis, Hwass.
several graves is interesting ; the gold is laid G. Natica maroceana, Chemnitz. ) All Bed Sea forms.
7. Bolinices mamilla, Linn.
in the form of thin foil over a core of baked
8. Mamilla melanostoma, Lamk.
clay. 9. Nerita crassilabrum, Smith.
Beads, which are essentially the ornaments of 10. ,, polita, Linn.
11. Cerithium sp.
women and children, were very rarely found /
Cardium ~) Identification uncer-
12. edule, Linn. ?
with men, and when they occurred in a man's tain. Both are Medi-
13. Columbella rustica, Lamk.
grave they were always of the most valuable \ terranean species.
14. Cleopatra bulimoides, Olivier.
materials (cf. grave a 96). Often they were
15. Aecheria sp. Nilotic forms.
worn as necklaces or bracelets, but sometimes 16. Unio niloticus, Caillaud.

they were merely laid in the grave as strings, 17. Conus 2 sp.?
f Probably Bed Sea.
and not actually passed round the neck or the 18. Mitrasp.?

wrist. Skull Types. —At the foot of pi. xix. are

Minerals. — Reference has already been made inserted the vault and the full-face views of two
to the occurrence of gold, silver, and copper in male skulls, both of the pre-dynastic period.
these graves. A lump which was found in one These are intended to show the strong contrasts
of them, and provisionally classed as galena, of racial types which may occur even so early.
has been identified by an expert as iron oxide. The skull numbered b 1066 is a typical pre-
Malachite and haematite occur frequently. In dynastic, though an extreme example ; it has a
one grave was found a piece of emery. cephalic index of 631 and a height index of
Shells. — The shells found in the graves, 713. That which is numbered as b 2 1 1 is an
generally strung into necklaces, were kindly exceptional specimen, with a cephalic index of
identified by Mr. E. A. Smith, the South 785 and a height index of 675. The discussion
Kensington expert. Except for one or two of these, as of all the other cranial and skeletal
which belong to the Nile mud, they are all remains from El Amrah, is reserved for a special
marine vai'ieties, and are practically all native publication.



As our information with regard to the pre- plete parallel to it can be found either in the

dynastic culture becomes year by year more Nile Valley or elsewhere. The difficulty, how-
complete, a few of the problems connected with ever, has been to find any satisfactory substitute

it are actually solved, and others are brought for the argument which has been criticized. In
within the held of reasonable conjecture and this chapter I propose to offer a new one, based

discussion. Amongst the latter may be placed on calculations of the number of burials con-
the question of the length of time occupied tained in various cemeteries which have been

by the development of this civilization. How exhausted to the very last grave.

many years, or how many generations or cen- The Cemetery a at El Amrah had been
turies, were needed for the early Chalcolithic excavated to a considerable extent before this
culture to evolve, before the institution or the year (p. 2). We fully noted 223 graves from
introduction of the earliest dynasties? it, including many which had been opened by
Data on which to found any suggestions have the previous diggers, but insufficiently cleared.
hitherto been almost non-existent. The variety It may be estimated that another 200 would
of artistic products, the rise and degeneration more than suffice to account for all the re-
of which can be traced in minute, detail, has led mainder, viz. such as had been so depleted by
Professor Petrie to suggest that the pre-dynastic the previous diggers as not to be worth recording
culture befoi'e Menes extended over a period by us. Another point, however, must be taken
which was not less than 1000, and might be as into consideration, viz. that burials of the time
much as 2000 years in length (Diospolis Parva, of the XVIIIth Dynasty had encroached on the
p. 28). But of course an argument of this eastern side of the cemetery so as to destroy a
kind, as its author would readily admit, is a certain number of graves of its latest period.

pis oiler, legitimate only when no direct evi- The latter could hardly have numbered 200,
dence is available. It must always be open to but for the sake of argument let it be conceded
two obvious objections. The first of these is that there may have been as many as this. The
that it would be almost impossible, reviewing entire extent of the original cemetery would
the history of culture in various parts of the then be fixed at 600 graves, which would in
world, to fix even approximately the length of that case have included almost every stage of
time necessary for the evolution of any sort of the pre-dynastic culture.
civilization. The second is that, even if a Cemetery b affords a more satisfactory basis

canon could be established for certain peoples for calculations, as it had been comparatively
or nation . there is no reason to suppose that it little damaged in ancient or modern times.
would be applicable in a civilization so unique The total number of graves here was about 400.
;i that of pre-dynastic Ivjypt. There is nothing, Another 100 (probably less) would make up the
o far as presenl knowledge goes, with which tale of all that had been destroyed by plunderers
n in it- entirety be compared; no com- in modern times, or by trespassers in times more

remote. Five hundred graves, then, would he From a comparison of these figures it will

the full size of Cemetery a, which began with appear that the entire pre-dynastic period from
the very opening of the pre-dynastic period the dawn of the Chalcolithic age down to the

and continued far into the 1st Dynasty. Surely beginning of the 1st Dynasty is normally
so small a number cannot represent a very long represented by something like 500 interments.
period. Nor can it be urged that the practice The large cemeteries b at El Amrah and U at
of occasionally interring two or even three Hou, which are the best evidence on the subject,
bodies in the same grave appreciably affects the give an even lower figure, if allowance is made
figures ; for, if the two cemeteries a and b are for the inclusion in each of them of a certain
considered together, the total excess of the number of burials which properly belong to the
burials over the graves themselves is only forty- 1st Dynasty. Cemetery a at El Amrah, which
one, of which seventeen belong to Cemetery a, is indifferent evidence, would give at best a
and the remainder to Cemetery b. slightly higher figure. The other three, viz.
The evidence of El Amrah may be supple- <f)
and x a * Abydos, and R at Hou, though
mented by that derived from four other ceme- representing only a part of the period, yield
teries worked in the two preceding years. results which harmonize well with those ob-
At Abydos (1899-1900) I excavated two small tained from the cemeteries of more compre-
pre-historic cemeteries, which were noted under hensive character.
the letters <j> an d x respectively (see next chap.). Admitting that the population was probably
Both had been partially rifled a short time sparse and the villages small, yet it is difficult to

before, but fully half the graves remained suppose that in a period of from 1000 to 2000
unopened in each. The new graves which I years there should not have been more than 500
worked in <£ amounted to 85, and those in % to persons, including children, to be buried.
83, making 90 interments in the former case As regards the size of the villages, there is

and 88 in the latter. The original number of little direct evidence ; but it is noteworthy that
burials in each of these two cemeteries can the remains of the pre-historic dwellings, on
hardly, therefore, have exceeded 180. As (f>
e\ery site where they have been observed,
ranges from s.d. 30 to s.D. 50, and x from s.d. extend over a not inconsiderable area. More-
60 to s.d. 80, each embraces a, little less than over, certain inferences may legitimately be
half of the entire period. drawn from the state of civilization revealed by
The Cemeteries R and U at Hou (cf. Diospolis the arts and industries of the time. The great
Parva) had never been touched in modern days, variety of artistic products suggests considerable
nor had they been interfered with in historical sub-division of labour, while the demand for
times. The range of R was from s.d. 50 to s.d. what can only be described as articles of luxury
80, and it contained a little over 200 burials. indicates the possession of an amount of wealth
The graves in U, on the other hand, covered the not likely to be found among mere nomads living
entire period from the very earliest beginnings by isolated families like the Bedouins of to-day.
of the pre-dynastic culture down to the stages Nomads, indeed, these people cannot have been,
which merge in the 1st Dynasty, if not actually or they would not have continued to bury in the
down to the 1st Dynasty itself. I recorded just same places throughout their whole existence.
400 graves from U, and allowing for the fact that And that they dwelt in something more than
some of the poorest graves were not registered, isolated family houses may be inferred from the
yet the total number cannot have exceeded 500, complexity of their industrial life, as well as
and might we'll have been less. from the visible remains of their settlements.

to have lived in within the 1st Dynasty, and .night even be

But if we suppose them
however small these com- attributed to the beginning of the Ilnd
communities, then,
might be, only natural to conclude Dynasty. There was an unbioken line of
munities it is

burials in b leading through the late pre-

that at least one or two persons, infants if not
adults, would die every year. At the present dynastic down to the time which b 91 represented.

for a small Egyptian village If, therefore, a section of these could be classed
day the death rate
as definitely belonging to the 1st Dynasty,
certainly exceeds the figure of one in four years,
would amount to if 2000 and the p >int at which b 91 occurs could be
which is all that it

the duration of the fixed, there would be all the factors required
year? were assigned as

period in question. for deciding how many burials correspond to a

given length of time. That always supposing

good many children died for in the El ;

Manetho to have been correct in his statement

Amrah cemeteries the infants and young persons
numbered almost one-fifth of the whole. Many of the duration of the dynasty.

aeain died when only just adult; this was Now it is possible to define with some degree
especially the case with the women, who, in all of exactness the number of burials in b which
six of the cemeteries except <j>, considerably are attributable to the 1st Dynasty. They
outnumbered the men. The figure of 500 may be any or all of those which are associated

would soon be reached, including as it does with tombs of classes 4 —8 ; but can hardly be

infants, children and young mothers. The any of the others, which are dated some units
annual death-rate of modern Egypt, as shown earlier by their contents. The number of

by the official returns for the ten years 1891- interments in those classes was 78, viz. 23 men,

1900, attains the figure of 37 '2 per 1000. 34 women, 11 children, and 10 which, owing to
There is only one way in which this argument their damaged condition, could not be accurately

in favour of considerably reducing the supposed sexed. A few graves had been opened by the
length of the pre-dynastic period can satis- previous diggers, and with due allowance for
factorily be met. by demonstrating that
That is these the total might rise to 100, but hardly

in other periods, the duration of which is well- higher. That is to say, if b 91 is to be assigned

established, the number of burials is no less to the end of the 1st Dynasty, or the beginning
unexpectedly low. Can this be shown ? At of the Ilnd, it* would follow that there were

the present moment no quite satisfactory at most 100 interments in a period of 260 years.
evidence on the point exists, nor can it ever be On the same scale, then, the length of the pre-
very easy to obtain. dynastic period would exceed 1000 years. But
It is quite possible to exhaust a pre-historic ifon the other hand b 91 belongs, as it well may,
cemetery, because the graves are all close to the middle rather than to the end of the

together within a small plot of ground ; but it 1st Dynasty, there will be no reason for

would be very difficult to be sure of having saying that the pre-dynastic period was longer
exhausted the larger area necessary to contain than 500 years.
several cemeteries of the well-defined historical At present nothing more precise can be stated

periods. On a small scale, however, El Amrah on the subject. It is sufficient in this place to

itself comes very near to supplying such an have suggested that the problem is capable of
exam pi • •
as is needed ;
for in cemetery b there solution by arguments based on direct observa-
were burials of the 1st Dynasty, which, according tion; and that the evidence at present available
to Manetho, reigned for 263 years. The latest tends to show the pre-dynastic period to have
tomb at El Amrah, b 91, falls certainly well been shorter than lias generally been supposed.



From the excavations at El Amrah we pass to piece of good fortune the exact material was
those conducted at and near Abydos. The supplied which was needed for differentiating

present chapter contains notes on various small the skulls of the later from those of the earlier
work done in the season 1899-1900,
pieces of period. The anthropological results of this

which do not require a detailed description work I have published in a special craniological
and the following chapter is devoted to the study (The Earliest Inhabitants of Abydos,
account of a unique Xllth Dynasty temple, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1901). Here a brief
the clearing of which occupied me during the note on the archaeological aspect of some of the
greater part of the season 1899-1900. tombs will suffice.
Prehistoric Cemeteries (j> and x-
—1° * ne In both cemeteries the graves were oriented
last chapter incidental allusion has been made approximately north and south, and the bodies
to <f>
and x> two small prehistoric cemeteries at were laid on their left side with the heads at

Abydos, which lie about half a mile to the the south end. The position of the body was
south of the valley leading from the " Temple contracted as usual, and there were only two
of Osiris " to the Royal Tombs at Umm-el- possible instances of dismemberment before

Qaab. These had been partially worked before burial, both occurring in the early cemetery.
our arrival at Abydos ; but some experimental
digging showed that about half the tombs had
Cemetery <£.
not been opened, and that enough still remained
to be valuable for certain special purposes. <f>
3. Ivory rings on right hand. An amulet
From the archaeologist's standpoint the tombs of greenish stone. An egg about the size

contained little that was new or interesting. of a swan's egg. Pots P la, B 22c (three).
They yielded a small quantity of objects, typical
6. Body ? . Ivory comb of double-headed
of the period, which have supplemented the (f>

bird type. Slate of type 98. Pots F 15,

collections of several museums ; but the graves
were of so poor a character that a
in general
brief inventory of the contents of about a score
7. Two bodies, viz. an adult ? and an
of them will fulfil all the requirements of Small
infant. Several ivory bracelets.
publication. ivory tags. Slate of type 98. Well-
For the anthropologist, however, and x <f>
shaped fish slate. Alabaster vase of type
possess a unique value. Each of them was S 4c. Pots P la (with pointed end),
limited to a well-defined part of the prehistoric
B 25c, B 26b, B 54b, B 57b.
period, (f>
containing only graves of the first

half and ^ only graves of the second half of <f>

8. Body of an infant. One large and two

that entire period. The middle stages were small calcite beads. A large shell. Slate

quite unrepresented, so that by a remarkable of type 98. Pots F 15, B 25e.



22. Body i. Two diminutive red pots, one pebble. Pots P of type L 17a (coarse),
of which contained malachite and the other P 23c and P 46b (both coarse), W 53,
a leafy substance. Bones of small animal. R 23a (two).
Pots P 11a, P lib, B 22b, 13 25f.
8. Large round pot (cf. pp. 10, 11, 25, 2(i)
(/) 23. Tomb oriented E and W. Body <?, inverted over ? body, and over the pot
lying on its left side with head at W end. W 85. Outside the round pot but inside
Clay figure of an animal (hippopotamus?) the grave were three pots, viz. L 36a (two)
at foot of grave. Tots 1* la, P 1 Id, 1* 61, and L 38.
B 18b.
Body 3 young. Long
X 22. flint flake.

29. Double burial, both S . With one body Ivory harpoon. No pots.
was tiny pottery head of an animal and Body head absent. A
X 23. ? , slab of white
little cones of red pottery. Bones of a stone, 5 in. long and bored for suspension,
small animal. Pots B 18b, B 25f, B 27b. took the place of the usual slate palette
31. Body <$ . Two small figures of animals its rubber-pebble was with it. One large

in red pottery, by the hands. Pot B 27f. shell. A serrated flint implement 2 in.

long. Pots P 23c (coarse), P 40c, D 4e,

(ft 44. Body of a young person, lying as usual
ornamented with figures of ostriches, R 23c
in contracted position, hands with the head
(two), R 76.
at S. Necklace of green and blue and
yellow glass beads. Pot B 18b. This X 31. Child. Necklace of agate pebbles with
was a shallow round grave of typical early carnelian pendant ; two bull's-head amulets
prehistoric kind. There was no suspicion (type in Diospolis Parva, pi. iw, Amulets,

of any mixture with a later period, nor top left).

were there any graves of other date in the X 41. Large round pot (cf. grave x 8) inverted
immediate vicinity. over body ? . Necklace of carnelian and

i/j 60. Body child. Necklace of small shell

a few green glaze beads. No other

with carnelian pendant. Slate of
type 98. Diminutive polished red pot. X 45. Similar large round pot inverted over
Pots P 63, B 22c, and a new type of C, the body of a child and over the pot D 21.

viz. a shallow tray 5 in. long with a tree- Oblong coffin of unbaked clay, measur-
X 50.
pattern. ing 40 in. X 20 in., with remains of a lid.

<ft 74. Plundered anciently. Body <$. Pots It was simply sunk in the ground 30 in.

C 75b, C 79a, and a broken B (type like

below the surface. Contained body ? and
22b or 25f). pots W 71a, L 36b (two).
X 51. Oblong clay coffin, similar to that de-
l METEEY X- scribed in last grave, but perforated with
X 3. Double burial, $ and chdd. With the round holes at the bottom corners. Sunk
bitter were a large number of green glaze 40 in. below surface. Contained body
beads wound in several strings round the of child, with eight ivory and eight shell
head. Also, on the wrist a, bracelet of bracelets on the arms and a copper ring-
ivory amulets (of the iish-tail shape seen in on one finger. A string of beads, viz.
Diospolis Parva, pi. iw. at period s.d. 60 green glaze, black glaze, carnelian and a
and after), with a perforated carnelian single garnet. Between the le<rs were four


large tubular carnelian beads and a bull's a small quadrangular chapel 7 ft. wide (N to S)

head amulet in carnelian. Oval slate by 6 ft. 3 in. long (E to W), contained by brick
palette. Pots W 71a, W 85, L 12d, L walls 35 iu. to 40 in. thick. On its western
17e, L 36b. side, facing the entrance, a small stone offering-

Similar oblong clay table, 26 in. long, was inserted in the wall.
X 57. coffin, perforated
with round holes at side. Contained body The entrance itself was on the eastern side,

S and pots W 71a (two), L 36b. 23 in. wide, and in it were found fragments of
three limestone statuettes, while outside it were
X 60. The typical large round basin of the
several mure. The entire collection from pit
pot-burials, but broken and the bones (
and chapel no doubt formed a single deposit,
young) scattered outside. Was accompanied
and perhaps represented the cast-away work of
by pots W 61, W 62, L 69.
some sculptor's school. The figures vary
y 72. Similar large pot, also broken, and the
greatly in fineness of execution, some being
bones left outside it. With it were an
remarkably well carved and still partially
oblong slate palette and the put L 33c.
covered with gold-leaf, while others are of very
X 74. An oblong bricked grave (of kind rough workmanship. The most interesting
called Class 6 at El Amrah). Plundered. examples are shoAvn in the illustration.
Some bones in contracted position. Pots Another pit, 20 ft. deep, 3 ft. 3 in. wide, and
L 30, L 36b, W 71a. 6 ft. 6 in. long, opened into four chambers, two
For the above list the coffins and pot-burials on the north and two on the south side. Each
have been especially selected, as these examples of these contained some small objects of the
have an important bearing on the dating of Xllth or of the Xllth to XVth Dynasties.
such styles (cf. pp. 10 and 11). The deposit in the lower northern chamber was
At the close of the season 1899-1900, having of some value, consisting of a blue marble kohl
finished the excavation uf cemeteries <f>
and ^', pot with steatite top, a small bowl of blue
and of the Xllth Dynasty temple, Avhich is to marble, a copper mirror with cloth covering
be described in the next chapter, I opened a and plain ivory handle, two amethyst and two
few pit-tombs and others of the later Dynasties green glaze scarabs, a small round silver plaque
close to the Shunet-ez-Zebib, in a part of the and pendant, several small silver models of
ground slightly to the north of Mr. Mace's hawks, two thin silver bangles, and strings of
work. The greater number dated originally tubular and very small discoid green glaze
from the Middle Empire, but had been subse- beads. With them were the bones and head of
quently plundered and re-used. From one of a woman.
these came the broken limestone figures shown From a pit tomb of the XVIIIth Dynasty
in pi. xxii. (1-10, 13-18). The pit was 19 ft. came a double-spouted wooden kohl pot about
deep, 8 ft. 4 in. long, and 3 ft. 4 in. wide, 8 in. high. It was carved on one side with an
giving entrance to four burial chambers, viz. ape climbing up a lotus plant, on the other
two on the north and two on the south side. side with an offering figure, whose head was
In the upper southern chamber were found six surmounted by lotus flowers.

heads and various fragments of statuettes, and Some tombs of the late New Empire were of
in the filling of the grave were a number of different construction. They were shallow,
others, all broken Nothing else occurred by with brick sides and barrel-vaulting of brick.
which to date them. A foot or two away from From them came some very degraded canopic
this pit and possibly in connection with it was jars in painted ware and some painted pottery


ushabti-figures. It was iD a grave of this class limestone, 6f in. high from the base of the

also that the three bronzes shown in pi. xxii. pedestal to the top of the head. One (No. 1

22, 23, 24 were found. The double-pronged and 19) is inscribed with the name Karen,

spear is not of a recognizable Egyptian type. the other is nameless. There were no objects
.Hid may be considered to be a foreign importa- by which to date them, but the position of the
tion. The curved and ornamented pieces of grave in relation to others of the Xllth to XVth
bronze which accompany it (Nos. 22 and 24) Dynasties, which had similarly encroached on

are not fibulae : they may be hasps of some the prehistoric cemetery (ante, p. 3), makes it

kind. probable that they belong to the Middle Empire

The sphinx figured in pi. xxii. 21 was found rather than to the XVIIIth Dynasty. This

in the course of making some trial diggings in attribution is further confirmed by the style of

the "Temple of Osiris," at Abydos. It is a the workmanship.

tine piece of .Middle Empire work. From another interpolated grave of the same
The two statuettes of seated figures in pi. period at ElAmrah came a headless limestone
xxii. (1 1 and 19, 12 and 20) come from a grave statuette of a standing figure l-\ in. high. It

at El Amrah, which was interpolated among was inscribed with the name of one Aba, a
those of the pre-dynastic period. They are of doctor.



About a mile and a half to the south-east of aspect would thus be east if the desert edge ran
the Royal Tombs of Abydos, and half a mile to as usual parallel to the river, but is actually
the north-west of the great sand-piled pyramid N.N.E. On this side was the main entrance,
which forms so prominent a landmark close to which led by a sloping brick causeway to the
the cultivation, stands the temple of Usertesen stone fore-court marked as E, continuing by a
(Senwosret) III. shown in pi. xx. It was slightly narrower stone gangway across the
completely buried under the sand, and the only pavement.
evidence of its existence was a limestone slab The colonnaded court E (see view on pi.
protruding a few inches from the level surface xxi. 3)was comparatively perfect. It had been
of the ground at the point marked in the plan enclosed by a single portico of fourteen proto-
as Q. Here in January, 1900, I set a few men Doric columns, making a front of eight columns,
to work, expecting to uncover a small chapel with a depth of four. The bases of all seven
built in connection with some Middle Empire on the right-hand side of the entrance were
tombs, which are situated close to the desert intact ; but on the left-hand side only two
cliffs a few hundred yards to the south-west. remained, and the places of the missing five
A little digging revealed a stone doorway at are shown by the white unhatched circles in the
Q, with brick walls extending out from it on plan. The columns were sixteen-sided and
either side. The men were set to trench, in fluted ; the average diameter of the shafts was
order to find the furthest limits of these walls : and that of the circular bases supporting
28|- in.,
and it soon appeared that the supposed chapel them was 49 inches. The depth of the fluting
was a large building, contained by substantial varied considerably even on sides of the same
brick walls, and occupying a very considerable column, but the average was about 4-th inch.
area. Piece by piece was cleared and
all this Each of the columns of the front faced precisely
planned. It proved to be a temple built by true towards its neighbour, but the three which
Usertesen III., which was still standing in the formed the depth of the court were placed less

reign of his successor Amenemhat III., but was symmetrically on their pedestals. The intervals
apparently destroyed during, if not before, the between them all, however, were carefully
XVIIIth Dynasty. The brick walls Avere intact judged and varied only to one inch. In pi.

to a height varying from three to six feet from xxi. 5 is shown a typical example of one of
their foundations ; and though it was evident these columns.
that the monarchs of the New Empire had used On the right of the colonnaded court, at the
this temple as a quarry for their own buildings, point marked as Q, was a stone doorway, only
yet much of the stone paving of the main central wide enough to admit one person, and probably
area remained. intended for the use of some temple-servant.
The principal front, 212 feet long, faces On the left of the court, at the points marked
towards the cultivation and the Nile. Its with asterisks, were found two mutilated


statues of red sandstone, which afford the chief sanctuary end, it was supported on a shelf built

evidence for the dating of the temple. They in the wall G (see section), and elsewhere it

were inscribed (pi. xxi. 1) with the name and rested on a plain brick substructure. On the
titles of Usertesen (Senwosret) III.. Kha-kau-ra, right side of the stone platform short branch
and with the figures of Nile-gods apparently drains, 20 in. wide, with channels 5 in. wide,
drawing tight the cords attached to the symbol led down to it with a fall of about 3 in. from
of union. Above the heads of the latter were the pavement. This detail is illustrated by the
the conventional formula 1
" I have given to photograph pi. xxi. 6, as well as by the plan
" "I have given to thee all which can be seen a branch-drain running
thee all provisions ; (in

offerings," " I have given to thee all life and down from F, and another a little further to
wealth, " I have given to thee all health." the south). Part of the water which flowed
These statues, as being too heavy to remove, and through this principal conduit was led off by a
too damaged to he of great value, were covered continuation of it passing through the wall C to

up again and left in situ. In pi. xxi. I is the exterior front wall A. At this point a
shown a photograph of one of them, the channelled stone (outside width 10 in., inside
measuring stick beside it is (i ft. 8 ins. long. width 4 in.), inserted vertically into the wall A
The name of king Kha-kau-ra was found again on the left of the entrance, conducted the out-
on a fragment of stone in another part of the flow to the ground with a fall of about two feet.

temple. A similar outlet on the right of the entrance

Beyond this court the central area was much was fed, not by the main conduit, but by
destroyed. At the point F, however, was the the flow from a small groove cut in the pave-
round base of a column, and near it was a vacant ment at the side of one of the columns forming
socket which had probably contained an Osiris- the front of the court. Another groove in the

pillar. The stone pavement on this side of the pavement behind the furthest right-hand pillar

second hall was preserved at its original level, emptied itself into that part of the conduit
but in the centre and on the south-Avestern side which was supplied by the short branch drains ;

all the upper layers had been removed. Of the this appears in the plan (halfway between F and
sanctuary and other structures behind the Q). Between the walls S and T on the right-
second hall nothing remained, though a con- hand side of the plan, and between the walls L
siderable amount of the original pavement was and K on the left-hand side of it, may be seen
visible on the right of the temple axis. The drains which conducted water in a similar
various levels of the stone pavement as at manner through the exterior side-walls. These
present existing are shown by different kinds appeared to be independent ; but it is probable
of hatching in the plan, and can be readily that they were originally connected with a
understoood if the plan be compared with the conduit system, of which a few stones still

section beside it. remained between the brick wall of the central
The elaborate system of conduits or drains area and the rows of brick chambers on the
formed a peculiar feature in the arrangements right and left (see plan to south of letter Q and
of the temple. The principal of these ran round to north of letter P).
almost the whole of the central area between the On either side of the central stone area were
stone platform and the interior brick Avails the series of small brick chambers, M M M,
which enclosed it. It was constructed of slabs N N N, R R R. The purpose of these is some-
of stone 27 ins. wide, in which was cut a what obscure ; but, as they do not all connect
channel 7 in. wide and 1} in. deep. At the with one another or with any corridor, it is to

be supposed that some of them at least were steps was used to support a brick floor one
store-rooms which were built up and closed course thick, which was laid at that height
on the completion of the temple. Their side between the walls D and C, as also between L
walls rose to a height of 70 in. from the founda- and K.
tions, which brought them practically to the Finally the entire temple was surrounded by
same level as that of the central stone pave- four enclosing walls, K, H, T, B, to which A was
ment ; but at 50 in. to 55 in. from the founda- added in order to give extra depth to the front.

tion most of them were floored with brick. Of Of these, H was a strong rear-wall with a con-
those on the southern side three in the series siderable batter inside and out, and T, which
lettered N were distinguished by having a resembled it, was breached to admit a small
square stone base in the centre, at the founda- door with wooden threshold (Z). The wall K
tion-level, in which was cut a square socket, was originally much weaker than either of
evidently intended for the reception of a these, but was afterwards strengthened, when
wooden column. In these there were also the brick floor of the corridor had been put in,

found fragments of a blue plaster ceiling by the addition of numerous buttresses ; a thin
painted with yellow stars. It is possible that wall was then built covering the buttresses,

the most southern of these pillared chambers and the intervening space filled in so as to form
had an entrance like the other two ; the point a solid mass equal in thickness to the other
could not be determined. In two of the corres- boundary walls. C is a thin retaining-wall,
ponding narrow chambers on the north side terraced back in seven steps (see photo in
there were also stone blocks, but they were pi. xxi. 2). B and A were thin and weakly
not socketed for the insertion of wooden posts. built ; they had a heavy batter on the outside
On the northern side also was a narrow and were supported on the inside by numerous
corridor between the main front wall and the brick buttresses (pi. xxi. 4).
chambers. It was about two feet below the All the walls were plastered on the outside,
brick flooring of the chambers, ran parallel to thus supplying the necessary indication of the
the main wall, and was protected by four stone oi'iginal ground-level, which rose slightly the

jambs at W. It was presumably connected whole way from the entrance to the back of the
with the small entrance-gate at Z. Analogous temple (cf. in the section the line joining A-B
to this is the curious construction outside the with that joining G-H).
southern chambers at P, where an entrance A search for foundation-deposits
seems to have been made from the corridor nothing to and very few objects of any

between H and G after the wall G had been kind were found. Except for the two statues
completed. referred to above, and two stone cartouches,
The parts of the building which have one of Kha-kau-ra and the other of Maat-en-
now been described constituted the whole of Ra (Amenemhat III.), there was nothing of
the temple properly so called. They were more importance than fragments of one or
enclosed within four strong brick walls, L, G, two painted hieroglyphs and sherds of pottery
S, D, of which the latter, which was the main of well-known Xllth Dynasty forms, amongst
front wall, was enormously thick. This wall, D, which should be noted bowls of the "pan- tomb"
was 75 in. high (from its foundations), built class such as were found at Hou (Diospolis Parva,
without any perceptible batter, but stepped pi. xl.).

back (cf. point D in the section) at 35 in. and at Some semicircular pieces of pottery, five

57 in. from its base. The upper of these two inches long, perforated and grooved, were found

in the narrow corridor opening at W, and of a private stele of Xllth Dynasty style

were perhaps blocks for reeving curtain belonged to another set of intrusive burials.
strings. These have no connection with the temple, but
On the top of the pavement in the central their presence suggests that the building may
area were two sherds of XVIIIth
one or have been destroyed very shortly after it was
Dynasty painted ware, the occurrence of which erected. The period of the temple is limited
is connected with the fact that an XVIIIth by the statues and the stone cartouches to

or XlXth Dynasty cemetery had encroached the reigns of Usertesen (Senwosret) III. and
within the rear wall of the temple, no doubt Amenemhat III., and there is no evidence of any
after its demolition. Similarly a blue marble earlier or later use.

kohl-pot, two small bronze knives, a scarab

with continuous scroll-pattern and a fragment D. R. M.


Cairo. Ivory-handled copper dagger (pi. vi. 1,2). Com- pi. xii. 10 — 13. Basket (pi. xi. 2). Inscribed cylinder

plete contents of tomb a 96, except three of the flint (pi. v,.).

lances. Pottery animals (pi. ix. 6, 9, 10). Pottery Pitt-Sirers, Oxford. Set of ornaments in pi. vii. 2. Two
doll (pi. ix. 11). fine flint knives (viz. pi. x. 8 and one from b 43).
British Museum. Model of house (pi. x. 1). Inscribed Model axe in ivory (pi. xii. 8). Pot C 96b.

slate (pi. viii. 2). Decorated pot (pi. xiv. D 46). Clay Ethnological, Cambridge. Flint knives from b 113 and
cows (pi. ix. 1). Clay wand (pi. xii. 1). b 227. Copper chisel from b 54 (pi. x. 10). Clay
Aslimolean, Oxford. Copper dagger (pi. x. 5). Contents cow (pi. ix. 2) ; and another clay animal. Model adze
of tomb b 62, with exception of the inscribed slate (pi. x. 3). Clay mace from b 143.
and of the common pottery. Two clay animals, Bristol. A large collection of stone vases. Flint lance

perhaps eland. Clay animals shown in pi. ix. 4, 5. from a 96. Diorite mace. Copper spoon with silver

Pottery doll (pi. ix. 11). Pots F 1 ; F 2 ; C 39 ;

and bowl. Copper bracelet. Clay animals.

Abydos ....








Introductory. —The excavations described in Position or Cemetery. — Lying westward

the following chapters were mainly carried out in from the Shunet-ez-Zebib, and north of the great
the season of 1899-1900, but were supplemented watercourse which, dividing the necropolis of
by some additional work in the following year. Abydos into two parts, forms a natural road
The majority of the objects figured in the from the Osiris temple enclosure to the royal
plates come from cemetery D, but a few late tombs at Umm-el-Qaab, cemetery D marks
objects from Professor Petrie's work have been the furthest point from the cultivation reached
added, as they belong more naturally to this by the Egyptians in historic times. The dis-
volume than to those on the work of the 1st tance from the Shuneh to the edge of the
Dynasty. The inscriptions are dealt with by cemetery is about five hundred yards, and
Mr. Griffith in Chapter XVII. of this district the first half was worked by
My thanks are due in the first instance to Mr. Garstang for the Egyptian Research Ac-
Professor Petrie for much help, both on the site count, and was called cemetery E ; the further
and in England. Mr. Percy Newberry very portion, with which we are now concerned, was
kindly gave up a good deal of his valuable time differentiated by the letter D.
to the unattractive work of sorting and identi- Date of Cemetery. From the earliest—
fying several thousands of ushabtis ; he also times Abydos was a favourite place of burial.
copied the inscription on the statue of- Sa-dep Egyptians from other parts of the country, as
ahu. Among other kind friends who assisted well as the actual inhabitants of the place, had
in the preparation of the plates, particular their tombs constructed there, and naturally
mention should be made of Mrs. Petrie, Miss each tried to secure a place as near the Osiris
Murray, Mrs. Quibell, and Miss Lawes. enclosure as possible. About the Xlth Dynasty,
A valuable note by Mr. J. L. Myres on a in all probability, the old burial ground began
class of foreign pottery found in the XVIIIth to be inconveniently crowded, and it was found
Dynasty tombs has been included in Chapter necessary to extend its boundaries. It was
XIV. with this in view that a boundary stela (pi.

\.\i.\.) was set up at the extreme edge of what The Tombs.—The mastabas of the XVIIIth
we have railed cemetery D. This stela, which Dynasty, as w e have noted above, were exceed-

was prohably one of four, was erected at the ingly elaborate. In some cases they were
order of an unknown king, possibly of the regular miniature temples, consisting of a
Xlth or early Xllth Dynasty, whose cartouches more outer courts, an
pillared forecourt, one or

were defaced and usurped by Neferhotep of the inner court containing the pit, and a narrow
XHIth Dynasty. It seems to have later come arched passage connecting with the inner court
to '"' regarded as an object of veneration. by means of three doors (xxiv. 2 and xxv. 4).

Immediatelv in front of it, on the ground level, This last was the place of offerings, and in it

there stood a small sandstone table of offerings ;

was deposited the statue. A simpler form of
afterwards, when this had been covered by the mastaba was also in use at this time, which had
drifting sand, a limestone shrine (xxxvii.) con- but one court, one corner of which w as walled r

taining the figures of Maat-men-ra-m-heb and his off to form an inner chamber (xxv. G). In the
wife Urt-nefert was deposited against the face of mastabas of the XlXth and XXth Dynasties
the stela, and a second table of offerings added. the forecourt either drops out of use or gives
At the side and behind the stela were found a place to a walled-in enclosure, while the passage
granite ushabti of Amen-m-ant (xxxix.), two at the back of the inner court is converted into
unbaked pottery ushabtis, and two small stelae, three chambers, each with its separate door : in

one giving the name Hor-mes. some cases we have a further innovation in the
The history then of this part of the cemetery shape of a mass of brickwork built on to the
was as follows: — It first came into use towards end of the mastaba, either solid as in Nos. 1
the close of the Middle Kingdom, between and 4 of pi. xxvi., or enclosing a small isolated
which time and the XVIIIth Dynasty it was chamber as in No. 5.

appropriated by the poorer class, whose pits In the tomb of Pisebkhanu, of the XX 1st
are scattered about over the whole extent. In Dynast}', there is but slight variation from the
the XVIIIth Dynasty some of the important XXth Dynasty plan, but in the XXVth we
officials of the district, seizing the more imposing meet with some striking developments. If we
positions '>n the ridge at the far end of the examine the tomb of Ast-n-kheb on pi. xxvii.
cemetery, proceeded to construct most elaborate w e may
see at once what a complete change
tombs for themselves there, the position nearest had taken place. In the earlier tombs it was
to the Neferhotep stela being most in favour. the custom to sink a pit to the required depth,
In the XlXth and XXth Dynasties further and then to quarry out one or more chambers
large tombs were added. From the XXth from the bed-rock here the size of the chamber

Dynasty to the XXVth there were but two or was calculated before the work began, a hole
three tombs of importance, the majority of the sufficiently large for the pit and chamber was
inhabitants finding it cheaper to make use of excavated, and then the complete tomb was
old graves than to construct new ones for them- built up inside the hole. The pit was arched
selves. We have, however, the fine tnastabas over half its length, and a dummy chamber was
of Pisebkhanu (XXIsI Dynasty) and of Ast-n- added over the real one. Round the whole
kheb(XXVth Dynasty). Subsequent to the was erected a low retaining wall. The custom
XXVth Dynasty the people of the district of half-arching the pits seems to have been
again began to vie with one another in the universal at this time, while we get another
grandeur of their tombs, and we meet with instance of a dummy chamber in D 57 (pi.

some verj elaborate structures. xxviii.).


The most interesting of the new ideas of at all events, was in the passage behind the pit

construction is found in the introduction of the chamber. The seated statue of Sa-dep-ahu
dome tomb, of which an example is given in (xxxii.) was found in position opposite the
pi. xxviii. (D we have two arched
47). Hei*e central doorway. Of the other stonework none
underground chambers, each with its own pit, was found in position ; the stela of Pisebkhanu
surmounted by a square building which con- indeed being half way down the pit. In the
tained a dummy chamber, rectangular at the XlXth — XXIst Dynasty mastabas, however,
bottom, but rising gradually to a dome. The the position of the stelae is indicated pretty
sides of the square are built at a slight angle, clearly by the niches in the walls of the offering-

and may very likely have been extended to chambers.

form a pyramid over the dome. This style of The Bricks. — But very little dating evidence
building, which was probably7 brought into could be by brick measurements.
Egypt by the Ethiopians, has, with slight Taking an average measurement from the
modifications, remained in use ever since. bricks of several tombs of one date, the figures
Tomb D 47, before the pyramidal casing was work out as follows :

added, must have presented very much the Length. Width. Thickness.

appearance of an Arab Weli. XVIIIth Dyn. 14 6 4

Occasionally we meet with very complex XlXth— XXth Dyn. 12£ 5J 3

structures, in which the dome building, still the XXIst Dyn. 1G 7| 3f

important part of the tomb, is placed in the XXVth— XXXth Dyn. m 6| 3

innermost of two or more courts, and is further the reckoning being in inches. There is thus
complicated by the addition of extra chambers no regular increase or decrease in size during
and of stairways (xxviii., D 57). In D 15 this period, and bricks from tombs of precisely
(xxvii.) Ave have a very elaborate roofed-in the same date frequently varied by more than
stairway running round the outside of the two an inch. In the Upper Egypt of to-day there
pits, and connecting with pit A at the bottom is no fixed standard of size, each man making
by means of an arched doorway. his mould to suit his own convenience, and
With regard to orientation the mastabas we know from the photograph at the top of
follow no rule, but face in the direction which pi.xxxix. that the mould of the Egyptian of
was most suitable and easy of approach. The the XVIIIth Dynasty was precisely similar to
depth of the pit, of whatever period, was deter- that used to-day by the fellah.. The custom
mined in a large measure by the nature of the of mixing pebbles and fragments of pottery
ground. For about fifteen to eighteen feet it with the mud was in use right through this
was necessary to cut through the hard marl, and period.
then a soft sand stratum was reached. The Plundering of Tombs. — Throughout the
chambers were in almost all cases constructed whole of cemetery D not a single burial was
in this sand stratum, at the level of which the found intact; several of the pits had been re-
bricking of the pits usually came to an end. used twice, and plundered each time. Where
This made the work in several cases extremely the pits were close together, as on the ridge
dangerous, the sand drifting out when the pits overlooking the valley, the chambers were
were cleared, and leaving nothing to support plundered one from another to such an extent
the brickwork. that it was possible to go through the chambers
Stonework in Tombs. —As we have stated, of four or five pits without coming to the
the place of the statue, in the XVIIIth Dynasty surface. That the plundei'ers sometimes worked

111 ignorance is evident from the presence of the ushabtis, which were scattered all over the

aimless passages, cut out for a length of six or chambers, and thrown from one chamber to

seven feet and then abandoned. Owing to this another.

wholesale plundering it was sometimes a little A certain amount of work had also been

difficult to settle which tomb an object belonged done in this cemetery in modern times, both
to. This was especially the case with regard to by Mariette and by Amelineau.



The "Pan-grave " People. The excavations — served their own customs and manner of living
of the Egypt Exploration Fund at Hu in the right down to theXllth Dynasty. On further
season of 1898-9 brought to light a cemetery examination, however, this view is found to be
of shallow graves, which proved clearly the quite untenable. The very nature of the
presence in Egypt, at a time shortly subsequent country itself, the necessarily close connection
to the Xllth Dynasty, of a number of people of in which the inhabitants of a narrow strip of
the same race-stock as the pre-historic Egyptians. land like the Nile valley must live, make such a
The burials were in contracted position, and the condition of things, if not impossible, at any
gi'aves furnished a class of objects quite foreign rate extremely unlikely. Apart from this,
to the ordinaryEgyptian grave-deposits of the which is merely negative evidence, recent work
period, the most noticeable being the cross- on the early dynasties at Abydos and elsewhere
hatched black-topped pottery. From the shape has shown that the fusion of the dynastic
of the graves this type of burial came to lie Egyptians with the earlier inhabitants was very
known by the name of " Pan-grave." In the complete ; even if it does not point, as some
course of the same season another cemetery was hold, to the conclusion that the proto-dynastic
found, intermediate in date between the Xllth Egyptians were in no sense a different race, but
and XVIIIth Dynasties, which, though Egyptian rather a natural development from the pre-
in general character, yet contained pottery and historic. We can now trace a complete series
other objects of the " Pan-grave " people. The of tomb plans, from the shallow holes of the
graves in this cemetery were shallow but early pre-historic, through the staircase pits of
rectangular in shape. Again, at Abydos, in the 1st Dynasty, the more elaborate construc-
the course of the last two seasons, a number of tions of the royal tombs at Abydos and the
pit-tombs of the same period have been cleared mastabas of the Illrd Dynasty at Mehesna, right
which also contain specimens of this " Pan- through to the pyramids of the IVth Dynasty.
" black-topped
grave pottery. In these three The majority of the pottery forms of the Old
cemeteries we seem to have the history of the Kingdom can also be traced by natural develop-
invasion, ormore probably the immigration, of ment from the later forms of pre-historic
a foreign people, and of their gradual fusion pottery.
with the original inhabitants. The two most marked characteristics of both
How then are we to account for this re- the pre-historic and " Pan-grave " peoples,
appearance of the pre-historic Egyptian after black-topped pottery and contracted burials,
so long a gap ? The most natural supposition are in the former case, so far as we know, non-
at first sight would be that the pre-historic existent, and in the latter extremely rare in
people had in certain parts of the country kept the period between the 1st and Xllth Dynasties.
quite aloof from the invaders, and had pre- In Professor Petrie's " sequence dating " black-

topped pottery practically drops out at aboul Egypt rather than to immigration into it. We
sixty, one of the later pre-historic cemeteries at know from the presence of foreign pottery in
lliiimt furnishing a single example; while the Egypt in the earliest times (e.g. black incised
contracted burial, though not unknown even in pre-historic graves, and the so-called Aegean
in the Villi Dynasty, yet is then always found pottery from the royal tombs at Umm-el-Qa'ab)
in the poorer graves, and is clearly the excep- that a good deal of trade with other countries
tion rather than the rule. That the " Pan- went on, and so we may infer that partly in
grave" manner of burial and style of burial- pursuit of this trade, and partly perhaps owing
deposh are a reintroduction rather than a to the incoming of the dynastic Egyptians, a
survival of old customs is farther evident from considerable number of the early inhabitants
the fad thai they conform much more nearly f<> separated themselves from their country and
i he early than to the later pre-historic graves. scattered, some going east and some west.
An- we to see then in this invasion a further It is not impossible then that the " Pan-
outbreak of restlessness on the part of the people grave " people, so far from being invaders, were
who si une three thousand years before had but returning as settlers to a native land which
dispossessed the palaeolithic inhabitants of the had forgotten them, and which they too had
Nile valley, or a return to their native country forgotten. Coming as they did towards the
on the part of the descendants of pre-historic close of the Middle Kingdom, they may be
Egyptians, who
one reason or another had
for the first waves of the eastern flood which
lift Egypt some time previous to the union of was, under the Hyksos, to inundate the entire
the country under one supreme head ? In other country.
words, wire the people whom we know as pre- This much w e know for certain, that at the

historic indigenous to Egypt or not ? External close of the Middle Kingdom a considerable
evidence does not help us much. We have foreign element closely akin to the pre-historic
striking pottery connections on the one side people was introduced into Egypt, and it is

with tin- modern Kabyles, and on the other only reasonable to suppose that in a greater or
with Palestine, hut it is quite as likely that less degree it left its mark on the life and
shapes and patterns of the pots in question had customs of the original inhabitants. Of this
ilnir origin in Egypt as that they originated in influence we may detect traces in the pottery of
some other country, either east or west, and the period. Peculiarities both of construction
were brought in. The evidence gained from and of ornamentation which were common in
cavations of the two or three years,
last pre-historic times, but hitherto unknown in
however, seems to point more and more to the dynastic Egypt, now again come into use. We
conclusion that it was in the; Nile valley itself can see a few examples of this in pi. liv.
thai the pise and development of the pre-historic (a) No. 27. Cf. Naqada xxvi. 51a and h ;

tians took place. I,, the earliest ceme- Cp. also Diosjpolis xxxiv. 52, witli Naqada
teries of all (thirty in
"sequence dating") there xxvi. 51a.
were none of the finer objects which are usually (A) No. 22. The use of a perforated lid, cp.
associated with pre-historic burials. The graves 07, xix. 59a and
l>ii>sj>olis xiv. t>, and
w^re p and simple, and contained asualh Naqada xxxv. r
7- ).
Imt a single specimen of black-topped pottery (c) No. 33. Op. AT in/i(iJ,i xxvi. 45 and
Parva 51). It would seem then Viospolis xiv. 46,
"""''' probable that the pottery co sctions we all of which peculiarities are fairly common in
mentioned are due to emigration from pre-historic times.

Another connection which may be noted is the entire cemetery all the pits had been
the reappearance of black incised pottery plundered anciently, and so nothing was found
(liv. 13). This style of ornamentation is in its original position. Wands, as usually in

comparatively rare in pre-historic graves, and this period, were among the most favourite
belongs to an imported class of pottery which articles of tomb furniture. Three are figured
occurs in many parts of the Mediterranean in the plates, one in ebony in the centre of
coast, but it is significant that, if we except one pi. xliii. bearing the name of a hitherto
or two sporadic examples in the Illrd Dynasty unknown king, Seb-ka-y ; and two broken ones
(see De Morgan, Becherches sur les Origines, in tomb group 7!) of pi. xliv.
pi. xi. ; Dendereh, xxi.), we find no trace of it in Of the Hyksos kings we have the curiously
Egypt in the period which intervened between blundered scarab of Shesha (liii. 2) and we ;

the pre-historic and the " Pan-grave " peoples. may note that in the same tomb there were
The frequent use of lions as a decorative found fragments of black-topped "Pan-grave"
motive may very probably be due to the same pottery.
influence. In pre-historic art the lion is very The pottery we have already noticed to a
common ; it occurs with other animals in certain extent. The majority of the forms
the hunting scenes engraved on the handles (pi. liv.) are of the usual intermediate type, and
of flint knives, and it is used to form the taken apart from the objects with which they
pieces of a game. Of the fondness of the were found might be assigned equally well either
Xllth to XVIIIth Dynasty Egyptian for the to Xllth Dynasty or to early XVIIIth. This
lion, we have two examples in the present similarity of type is very noticeable, far more
publication, one in ivory (pi. xliii.), the other so than that between the pottery before and
in glazed pottery (pi. liii.). Compare also the after any other of the gaps in the history. Very
finely carved ivory lion in Diospolis xxvi., at few, if any, of the j:iots found in the Xllth
the top right-hand corner of the plate. Dynasty graves could with any degree of
Before leaving the question of the " Pan- probability be assigned to the Vlth, while, as
grave " people we may state that the specimens we see here, almost all the earlier XVIIIth
of 'black-topped pottery which are found in Dynasty shapes could without the slightest

Egyptian pits are of a finer and more delicate hesitation be accepted as Xllth. The "scrabble"
variety than those which occurred in the real pattern and the decoration of white spots, which
" Pan-graves " at Hu. until recently were considered hall-marks of the
The Pits.- —The pits of this period in the Xllth Dynasty, are quite common in the

D cemetery at Abydos were from twelve to earlier XVIIIth graves. Too much stress must
fifteen feet deep, with a chamber opening from not be laid on this similarity, but at the same
either end ; occasionally an extra chamber Avas time it does lend some small support to the
cut out at a higher level. They were usually theory that the lapse of time between the
bricked to a depth of two or three feet, in this Xllth and XVIIIth Dynasties was shorter than
point differing from the later pits, which were was originally believed.
bricked almost to their entire depth. The For the rest, the more common objects found
direction of all that were cleared was the same, in these pits were kokl-jjots and vases of
as nearly as possible north and south. The serpentine, alabaster and blue marble ; beads of
chambers were roughly cut, from six to seven glazed pottery, carnelian, amethyst, garnet, and
feet long, and but little wider than the pit. shell ; and in almost every instance strips of
Objects Found. — As was the case throughout ivory from inlay work.



a. XVIIIth Dynasty Tombs.—To the XVIIIth over the doorways we can in several instances
Dynasty belong the finest of the objects found detect traces of the spring of an arch. Allowing
in this cemetery ; finest that is to say from an eighteen inches or two feet for the rise of the
artistic point of view, as some of the later arch, we may estimate that the original height
finds, though less valuable in themselves, have of the building was slightly over six feet, just

a greater historical importance. The tombs high enough to allow visitors to walk without
must originally have been extremely rich, stooping. The doors and inner chambers, as
judging from the number of things which have we have most cases gave evidence
said, in of
survived the repeated plunderings which the having been arched : the outer courts in all

cemetery has undergone. They were evidently probability were roofless. The pillars in the
constructed for the accommodation of several forecourt were of plain brick like the rest of the
people, as in one tomb, No. 9, there occurred tomb, and were clearly built more for ornament
the names of four different people, all of about than to support any heavy weight.
the same date. The pits, which are as a rule skew to the

One striking point in connection with the general direction of the walls, were probably
priestly orders at Abydos is brought out by an the first part of the tomb to be built, the outer
examination of the inscribed objects, and that walls being added afterwards in as nearly
is the favour in which Anhur, the god of the parallel a direction as the nature of the ground
Thirute Nome, continued to be held, right down and the proximity of other tombs allowed.
to the XXXth Dynasty. Not only was his the The majority of the pits have a considerable
favourite priesthood in which to hold office, batter, and are bricked to within four or five
Imt a large proportion of the personal names feet of their depth ; at the bottom of the pit, at

seem to have been formed with some compound either end, a narrow door gives entrance to a
of the gods name. chamber, or series of chambers, which opened
Details of Tombs. —The tombs are of two one from another. This door had in some
classes — (") elaborate mastabas, and (b) plain cases been blocked by a large slab of stone
pits without any construction above ground at which was let down from above, and was kept
all. in position by two grooved stone blocks which
(•I) The general character of the first of these were built in just outside the door (see xxv. 3).
two classes we have already noticed in Chapter Tomb No. 50 contained one of these slabs,

XII. ;
we propose here to discuss some of the forty-eight inches in height, with a rounded
minor details of construction. top and a rope-hole bored for convenience in
The height of the walls as they stand to-day lowering. The chambers are for the most part
from a single brick to between four and regularly cut, with accurate corners, and were
five feet, and in the offering chambers and from four to five feet high. But little attention

was paid to direction, and there was apparently father Min and his mother Ryaa ; and the
no attempt to bring the burial chamber under- exquisitely carved limestone statuette head of
neath the place of offerings. The sarcophagi tomb 8 (xxxvii.).
were placed either directly on the floor of the Alabaster vessels were common, the favourite
chamber, or were sunk below the surface. forms being the " pilgrim bottle," and the
The second class of tombs plain pits
(b) — globular vase with a small foot (for an example,
without auy surface construction differed from — see 116 on plate xlvi.). Serpentine vases also
the mastaba pits in one point only : instead of occur, but were comparatively rare.
opening one from another, the chambers were Among other classes of stone vases which
excavated at different levels, one below another. were introduced in this dynasty we may mention
These tombs were found close together, some- one in particular which became very popular,
what apart from the rest of the cemetery. namely that in which blackened limestone was
Though they had not escaped the original used in combination with a yellow incised
plunderers, they had never been re-used or decoration. This type we find, as a rule, in
plundered a second time, and so still contained kohl-pots and toilette articles, and may repre-
many of their finer objects. sent, as Professor Petrie suggests, an imitation
Objects Found. — Nothing of any historical of ebony with gold inlay. There are several
importance was found belonging to this period, examples of it in the plates, such as the two
the objects being all of the usual type of grave kohl-pots supported by monkeys in tomb 116
furniture. The more interesting are noted (xlvi.), the kohl-pots of tomb 59 (li.), the larger
below, placed under headings according to the vase of tomb 108
(xliv.), and the button of

material of which they were made. tomb 116 (liii.).

(<i) Stone. — Under this head the most striking Of stone ushabtis the most interesting is that
object found was the squatting statue of the of Sen-nefer, at the top of plate xxxix. The
prince Sa-dep-ahu (xxxii.). The statue, which limestone figure of the servant was placed in a
is of sandstone, is inscribed on the front and pottery coffin similar in shape to that in which
right sides. The inscription on the front, in his master was lying, and with him in the
horizontal lines, begins with the usual in- coffin were buried the tools with which he was
vocations, and then proceeds to expatiate on to carry on his work in the next world —two
the virtues of the deceased ; that on the side hoes, a yoke and baskets, and a brick-mould,
sets forth his name and titles, and describes the this last being exactly of the shape which the
pleasures which he is to enjoy in the next fellah uses to-day. To this date also belong
world. The limestone door-jamb, figured in the ushabtis of Hu-ma-y (xxxix. 51) in lime-
plate xxxiv., is dedicated to this same prince. stone, and of Amen-m-ant (xxxix.) in granite.
To this dynasty also belongs the limestone For the inscription on this latter, see xxxiii. 4.

shrine (xxxvii.), which was found immediately (b) Metal. — Of gold and silver there were
in front of the Neferhotep stela. In it were found a number of earrings and finger-rings,
carved the figures of Maat-men-ra-m-heb and of the types shown in plate liii., and in tomb 17
his wife Urt-nefert, and on the two sides, back of plate 1. ; also the pectoral and ring of tomb
and top, were engraved the figures of eighteen 53 in plate xliv.

relations and dependants. In bronze the favourite object was the lotus-
We may also note the limestone lintel of handled vase (xliv. 33, xlvi. 116, and xlvii. 115):
tomb 9 (xxxi.), showing a priest of Anhur, a larger vase with papyrus-shaped handle is

Pepenanhur by name, making offerings to his shown on plate Hi., tomb 35. In tomb 118
— —


i^xlvi.) we have a vase of the tubular shape, wriv thr receptacles for kohl, while the centre

which is so well known in pottery, and in 116 one served as a carrier for the stick. We should

(xlvi.) and 115 (xlvii.) two large flat dishes. note also tomb 108 (xliv.), the
the vases of

Perhaps the finest piece of work in bronze is spoon with handle formed by a lotus flower and

the mirror of tomb 77 (li.), the handle of which bud of 53 (xliv.); the pair of wands of 116
is decorated with a design of plait-work and (xlvi.), of the type which began shortly after

snakes. Smaller objects such as axe and spear- the Xllth Dynasty and lasted into middle

heads, razors, cutting-out knives, tweezers, XVIIIth, and the dish of tomb of 29 (xlviii.).

arrow-heads, and fish-hooks appear in most of (e) Glazed Pottery. — As usually in XVIIIth
the tomb groups. Dynasty tombs a number of fine objects in

(c) Ebony and ]\'oud. — Of the objects which glazed pottery were found, the most artistic

come under this head the finest is the palette of being the lotiform cups of tombs 116 and 115
Anhur-mes, a scribe of the time of Thothmes III. (xlvi. and xlvii), and the kohl-pots of tombs 10
The palette is of the usual type, with holes for and 116 (xxxviii.). In tomb 99 (li.) we have
red and black paint and a hollow for the brushes : a fairly complete draught-board, with eight men
it ha- a line of inscription down either side, and of the tall conical shape, and seven of the squat
a cartouche of the king across the top (xl. 9, reel-shaped type. Of glazed pottery figures we
and xlix. 9). Another interesting piece is the have the finely-modelled statuette of Isis and
triple kohl-pot with climbing monkey of tomb Horus (li. 77), and the elaborately worked
116 (xlvi.) : two of the three bronze kohl-sticks figure of Bes (xlv. 14 E).

shown in the photograph were found in position. (/) Pottery. —The common forms of pottery

Among other objects we may notice the carved from the graves of this period are figured in

chair legs of tomb 48 (1.), the ushabti of Pedu- pi. lv. These are all of the usual type, and we
n-neb-taui (xxxix.), the curious worm-eaten need not discuss them further here.
fragment with alternate ivory and ebony pegs, There occurred, however, in this cemetery a
possibly part of a musical instrument (xlii., group of pottery which stands quite by itself,

bottom of plate), and a small object of unknown and which needs special attention, namely :

use inscribed with the name of the scribe (1) The steatopygous figure vase of tomb 8
Mer-maat (xlvii. 99). (!•).

(</) Ivory. — Several fine objects of ivory were

(2) The broken figure vase of tomb 29
found, the most striking perhaps being the
stained ivory lotus flowers and rosettes of
(3) The calf vase of tomb 20 (xlviii.).
tomb 1 (xlix.). The pieces were probably all

meant to fit together into one scheme of orna- (4) The hedgehog vase of tomb 11 (L).

mentation, but as only a small portion of the These are discussed by Mr. J. L. Myres in

original number remained, it is impossible to the following section :

Bay what the complete object was. There were " No. 1 is in human form, and represents an
marks on the backs of several of the pieces excessively stout and somewhat steatopygous
(xl. 14), and these may have served as guides female. The pose may be compared with that
arrangement of the whole group. of the dwarf Khnem-hotep, figured in Perrot

resting pieces come from tomb Ohipiez, Eistoire Je I'Art i., fig.i453-4, and with
lvii.), in the shape of lotus-column kohl- the female figure from Abydos(1900: E 178 :

pot-. < hi.' consisted of three columns supported Ashmolean), but the arms are set somewhat
on a stand, of which the two outer columns akimbo here, and are detached from the sides.

The face in full view has a negroid look, subsequent exposure have caused it to Hake
but the profile shows a well-formed nose and rather badly. The fabric is that of the better
little prognathism ; and the swollen lips seem preserved lion from Abydos (1900: D 9: Ash-
due rather to superabundant fatness than to molean), and like that of the frog vase (Abydos,
a negro strain in the model. Steatopygia, 1900: E 178: Ashmolean).
moreover, by itself cannot be held to prove " No. 4 is apparently intended to represent
negro origin, unless a negro element is to be a hedgehog. The body is almost globular : the
admitted throughout the early populations of legs minute, and barely long enough to keep
the Mediterranean. Apart from its obesity, in the vase from rolling. The anterior end is

fact, the figure would seem to portray the flattened to form a sort of face, with an acutely
fleshy Egyptian type, which is not uncommon conical muzzle in the centre, and two concave
among representations of slaves and low-caste discs, with central puncture, for ears. The
natives. Cf. Perrot Chipiez, I.e., i., fig. 448, the eyes are modelled on the upper surface of the
Ashmolean figure, and Petrie's Racial Types* muzzle. Eyes, ears, feet, and relief fillets are
" The figure is smoothly modelled, and the enhanced with dense black paint, cf. the Ash-
polished surface is of good quality and well molean figure E 178 (above). This facial area
preserved. Round the neck is a single neck- is bordered by a pair of narrow fillets in relief,

lace, with long club-shaped pendants, rendered which run up, one on each side, from between
in dull white paint. A loose girdle, like that the forelegs, and are continued vertically

worn by Egyptian dancing-girls and waitresses upwards on to the neck, where they end in

(L. D. iii. 42 Erman, I.e. pp. 250, 255, 405

obscure leaf-like forms which embrace the rim.
Ashm., E 178), is drawn, in the same paint, Each of these fillets bears on its outward side

round the greatest circumference of the hips, two scx'olled tendrils, which are recurved over
and descends in front to sustain a sort of pad the surface of the body. At the posterior end
which covers the groin. The breasts also are a similar fillet in relief runs up from a
emphasized by a disc of the white paint on each. cross-hatched painted band between the hind-
" No. 2, of which the upper part only is- legs into the locality of the tail, where it

preserved, is also in human form, and represents divides into two branches, which spread over
a young Egyptian woman, nude and apparently the hind-quarters. These branches, like the
erect. The clay is light coloured. The only anterior fillets, are treated quite phytomor-
traces of paint are a close-fitting double neck- phically, each with a lateral tendril, scrolled
lace, and a slender double collar in lustreless inwards to meet that from the other side, and
black, which falls low in front and terminates a trifoliated terminal which recalls a fleur-de-
in three long ends, which hang down between Ujs, and is recurved outwards and downwards.
the breasts, returning outwards to the armpits. The ground idea of these tendrils may perhaps
"No. 3. Unlike the tails of most Egyptian have been to indicate the shoulder-blades, ears,

representations of cattle, which terminate in a and hindquarters of the animal respectively,

long compact tassel, the tail ends here in two but the rendering is almost wholly plant-like
wisps of hair, which rejoin at the end so as to in its effect.
form a long narrow loop, like the eye of a " The close similarity of fabric between vases
packing-needle. I and 4 makes it necessary to consider them
" The surface of this vase was originally as members of the same ceramic. group and ; in
covered with fine pale slip, with patches of red spite of the difference of material which is

paint, but the stresses of the modelling and exhibited by No. 2, the similarity of its

technique brings it. ;i> an imitation at all No. 1 brings it into relation with a large proto-

events, into the same category of style. Palestinian group (Petrie's 'Amorite' pottery);

The highly burnished red or brown-faced

" and that of No. 3, slightly more cylindrical,

fabric, to which Nos. 1 and 4 belong, is with a thinner and more expanded rim, goes
usually regarded as alien to New Empire far in the direction of the regular neck of the

Egypt ; and is discussed in detail by F. von vases of Mycenaean style from Cyprus and from
Bissing, Jahrb. d'Inst. xiii., p. 28 ft*. Its Ialysos, in Ehodes, i.e. it belongs to a phase
range is limited. It occurs already mature in which there has already been contact with
in Egyptian groups of XVIIIth Dynasty date, Aegean ceramic.
and is fairly common in Cyprus during the. " In the case of No. 3, further indications

period of Mycenaean influences ; but has no are apparent of an influence closely akin to

local antecedents in either area. In the Mycenaean. The rendering of its form is not on
Palestinian area, on the other hand, though Egyptian canons, and the inference to a foreign
its best qualities are uncommon (having been tradition seems inevitable. Now at present
manufactured, in all probability, for export), nothing of the kind is known, either from the
it can be traced in a larger variety of forms Syrian coast, or from Mesopotamia, or from
than elsewhere, and here alone seems to run Cyprus ; while, on the other hand, the attitude

back into indigenous red-faced fabrics of earlier of the animal and certain points of its

date (e.g. Petrie, Tell-el-Hesy, pi. vi., figs. detailed anatomy are closely in accord with
78-96), from which also are descended Avhat Mycenaean practice. For the attitude, compare
I have described elsewhere as the "base-ring" in the first place the ivory calf from Mycenae,
fabrics (= Petrie's 'Phoenician' pottery, I.e. pi. Ephemeris, 1888, pi. ix. 13 (= Perrot Chipiez,
vii., viii.), which extend, like the red-faced Histoire de VArt, vi., fig. 401), which has the
fabric now under review, to Mycenaean Cyprus Egyptian displacement of the hind legs, and,
and XVIIIth Dynasty Egypt. in confirmation of this, the representation, on
" Though not of Egyptian origin, however, a crystal ring from Mycenae in Mr. Evans'
the red-faced fabric became naturalized in Egypt collection, Joicrn. Hill. Stud, xxi., p. 156,
from the XVIIIth Dynasty onward, and survives fig. 34 ; the attitude of the golden stags,

to the present day. (In Cyprus, similarly, a Schliemann, Mycenae, fig. 2G5 (= Perrot Chipiez,
wheel-made red-faced technique had a great vi., fig. 404 : Schuchhardt, Schliemann''s Excava-
vogue in sub-Mycenaean times.) The fabric tions, fig. 184) ; and that of the oxen on
of these vases therefore can only give us a engraved gems, Perrot Chipiez, pi. xvi. and
terminus a quo for the date of their manu- figs. 426, 428.
facture. Of ceramic form, modelled vessels " For the flat, broad muzzle, which is charac-
such as these necessarily show little trace; but teristic of the Mycenaean rendering, see the

the neck- of Nos. 1, -, 3, and 4, and the handle silver ox-head from shaft grave iv. (Mycenae,
of No. I point in the same direction. All fig. 337, 338, Schuchhardt, tig. 248, cf. tig. 249,
are thoroughly non-Egyptian. The neck 184 ( = Perrot, vi., fig. 398, cf. 399; and
of No. 1 comes close to a characteristic neck of ./. II. S. xxi., p. 156, fig. 34, cf. the stags,

the red-faced fabric, described by von Bissing, Perrot, fig. 404.

cf. Birch, Ancient Pottery, 1858, fig. 23-4, and " For the displacement of the nostrils, see

(for the neck) fig. 28 ;

and (especially in regard (in addition to the preceding) the well-known
to the 'set' of the handle) to Petrie Tdl-tl- bull-fresco (Tiryus, pi. xiii.), the bulls on the
pl. vi. 87, 88, 94. The swollen lip of Vaphio cups (Schuchhardt, I.e. p. 350), the stele


from Mycenae (Perrot Chipiez, I.e. vi., fig. 364) belong to the period of the XYIIIth Dynasty,
and the gems (I.e. pi. xvi.), cf. fig. 403. and to have been made, (1) probably in Egypt,
" For the leaf-like treatment of the end of and certainly so in the case of No. 2 ; (2) in a
the tail, see J. H. 8. xxi., p. 182, fig. 55 (goat); fabric recently introduced from the Palestinian
8 - a - 23 B - 16 '
p. 156, fig. 34, Perrot, fig. 426, '
428, area ; (3) under the influence of Aegean models
481, * Myk. Vasen, 423 (= Perrot, fig. 495), and artistic and ceramic conventions."
and perhaps also the forked tail of the (</) Sca/rabs, etc. —Four large stone heart
Tirynthian fresco bull, though this may be due scarabs were found, one of Tetafi, and another
to re-drawing. Compare also the plumed tail with name erased in tomb 120 (xxxviii. and
of late Mycenaean horses, Tiryns, pi. xvi., xix., liii. 14 and 15), one of the scribe Sa-anhur in
fig. 20. tomb 100 (xxxviii. and liii. 16), and one of
" No. 4 has a different history. Askoid Heru-s-mes in tomb 48 (1.).

vases have, of course, a wide range in the Smaller scarabs occurred in great numbers,
Levantine world, e.g. Ilios, fig. 238, 240, asmany as thirty coming from one tomb. Of
and occur in Egypt from pre-dynastic times name scarabs we have a fine specimen in
onward; Abydos 1900: E 178: Ashm. is a carnelian of queen Aahnies (liii. 7), three in
human askoid in the red ware. The present glaze of Thothmes I. (liii. 8, and 2 and 3 of
example presents, however, several peculiarities group 102), one in glaze of Hatshepsut (1 of
which have a more limited range. The skilful group 116), and a great number in glaze of
modelling of the globular body, and of the Thothmes III. (4 and 5 of group 102, 2 and 3
scrolled fillets, is quite remote from Egyptian of group 116, and 1 and 2 of group 119) : also
clay-technique of any period, and equally a bead in blue glass bearing the name of
remote from that of the ungraceful Cypriote Amenhotep I. (1 of group 102). A glazed
askoids. It suggests, rather, some of the pottery ring (liii. 9) gives the name Aat-mert-
askoid types from the Cycladic tombs of pre- mut, possibly that of a queen. Besides the
Mycenaean date, and in these, also, the ordinary scarabs there were commonly found
same abrupt flat-topped rim recurs in several scaraboids, cowroids, and plaques, both plain
varieties. The posterior scroll-work also finds and with duck or other animal backs.
a close parallel in the phytomorph on the vase b. Pyramid, and Temple of Aahmes I.

from Kamaraes, in Crete (Proc. Sac. Antirj., 2nd About a mile and a half south of the temple
series, xv., pi. ii. 13), and on others, unpublished of Seti stand the remains of a pyramid, a
as yet, The hedgehog occurs
from Knossos. mound some thirty feet high. This pyramid
but rarely in Mycenaean art (Perrot Chipiez, was originally cased with stone, the interior
I.e. vi., fig. 491), and is always drawn with being filled up with sand and rubbish, but the
long hog's legs, not with mere stumps as here. stonework has almost entirely disappeared, and
The head, however, as here, is drawn abnor- nothing now remains but a mass of shifting
mally small, and in one instance (' E^rj/iepU sand. A clearance on the east side brought to
'y4p^aio\oyi/<»7, 1896, pi. i.) with the same light thetwo lowest courses of stone, and from
acute muzzle as in No. 4 ; and the long legs of them the angle of the pyramid could be roughly
the Mycenaean hedgehogs may well be due to estimated as about sixty degrees. Fragments
the fact that they are painted, not modelled, of XVIIIth Dynasty pottery were present in
representations. the lowest level of the filling, and so we may
" Taking all indications together, therefore, infer that it was to this dynasty that the
the group of vases under review would seem to pyramid belonged. On the east side a large


semicircular mass of brickwork had been erected, of the building ; this was apparently brick-
presumably built on to the face to conceal the paved, as no traces of stone were found.
entrance; tin's was cur through and the face of Dividing this court from the inner court was a
the mound searched, but without result. We line of roughly-hewn stone foundation blocks,
then determined to sink a pit outside the north presumably to support pillars. The stone pave-
face and excavate a tunnel to the middle, ment, of which traces were found in the inner
hoping to come on a stone-lined chamber. The court, was some fifteen inches above the level
tunnel began in a fairly hard stratum of soil, of the foundation blocks, and between the two
but as the work advanced it became necessary there was a layer of sand and limestone chips.
to build up the sides and roof as we went on Fragments of ceiling found in the inner court
till at last, when we had almost reached the showed a decoration of yellow stars on a blue
middle and found no trace of a chamber, it be- ground. Against the west Avail were four brick
came too dangerous to work, and it was decided granaries. At the north end of the inner court
to leave further attempts to another season. was found a limestone coffer which contained a
Immediately east of the pyramid, and evi- broken stela (xxxii.) representing Akhenaten (?),
dently in connection with it, lay a small brick Aahmes I., and Amenhotep I., and two other
temple of Aahmes I. (xxiv.). Unfortunately fragments of stone on which were the cartouches
but very little detail could be recovered : one of Aahmes I., Aahmes Nefertari, Amenhotep I.,
corner had been taken under cultivation for an and Thothmes III. On either side of the two
Arab garden, the stonework had shared the courts were narrow passages.
fate of the pyramid casing, and the site had. Of the north annex but very little could be
further suffered from a desultory pitting over made out. The south annex had a separate
at the hands of the Mission AmeTineau. en trance and seems to have consisted of a series
The bricks used in the construction were of chambers. The present height of the walls
16£ inches long, 1\ wide, and 5^ thick, and in varies from a single brick to about four feet.
most cases they were stamped with the name This temple had evidently been built on the
of the king (xxxii.). site of a prehistoric encampment, as below the
The principal gateway of the temple was on foundations there was a deposit of from one to
the east, and led into a narrow forecourt. On three feet of sand, containing charcoal, pottery
either side of the entrance there was a large whorls, and several specimens of rough and
pit, unworkable owing to the depth of water; black-topped pots. These last are quite distinct
it is possible that an entrance passage to the from the pre-historic burial pottery : some were
pyramid might he found at the bottom of one evidently cooking-pots, and the finer variety
of these pits. From the forecourt a second had in most cases been broken anciently and
gateway gave entrance into the principal court most carefully mended.
— —




a. XIXth Dynasty Tombs. —Tlrree tombs can was dedicated to a prince named Ptah
be dated pretty certainly to this dynasty (xxxv. 3), a clay boat and statuette stand (lii.),

Nos. 14b, 44, and 51. The former, a mastaba of a dog's head in glaze, and a finely-worked
somewhat curious construction (see xxv. 1, and horse's head in red glass (lii).

for description Chapter XVI.), was the tomb of Tomb 6, which contained a stela representing

the priest of Amen Pa-ab-mer, and contained a the owner of the tomb Kha-in-uas with his sister
number of glazed pottery ushabtis, a line glazed and their ten children (xxx.), three painted
pottery " tat " amulet, and a clay statuette base, glaze plaques from a draught-board (xlix.), and
all inscribed with his name ;
also a pair of model some glaze rings, one bearing the name of Mut-
boats in unbaked clay, on one of which were nejemt, wife of Horemheb.
painted the figures of Thoth, Isis, Khepera, and b. XXth — XXVth Dynasty Tombs.— (a)
Shu (li.). Tiro dated tombs. In this period two important
Tomb 44 had been very much plundered mastabas of definite date were found, and
and re-used, but three objects remained which itwould perhaps be well to give some details

probably belonged to the original burial. These of these before going on to discuss the larger

were a wooden ushabti figure, dedicated to a number of less accurately dated tombs.
scribe Pa-nehem (xl. 5), and two inscribed strips The first was the tomb of a hitherto un-
of wood, possibly from a box, which belonged to known prince of the XXIst Dynasty named
a scribe of the name of Amen-m-apt (xl. 7 and Pisebkhanu, son of Men-kheper-ra. The plan
15). This tomb also contained a tiny ivory of the mastaba (xxvi. 2) differs slightly from
penholder (?), inscribed with the name of the those of the preceding dynasty : it consists of a

Wazir Pa-ser, and dated by a cartouche of large chamber which contained the pit, a
Rameses II. (xl. 12), but it is more likely that smaller chamber connecting with the pit cham-
this belonged to the neighbouring tomb 51, ber by a single entrance, and a tiny place of
which contained a limestone ushabti of the same offerings constructed in the thickness of the
man. wall which divided the two chambers. It is

Tomb 51 contained the limestone ushabti curious that there seems to have been no
figure just mentioned, two painted wooden doorway in the outer wall. The pit, which was
ushabtis of Kha-m-ua and Sep-nefer l'espectively, bricked to within 108 inches from the bottom,
which are probably of the same date, and a was 25 feet deep, the doorway at the bottom
number of glaze i-igs and carnelian and bone being blocked with a slab of stone in the
earrings. manner we have described on page 70. The
Less certainly dated but belonging either to chambers, number, were all on the south
five in

this dynasty or the next are : side of the pit.The two large ones were plain,
Tomb 19, containing a broken stela which but the three narrow chambers which opened


from them wore lined and paved with stone. pi. xxvi. are curious ; at first sight it seemed
Very little of the original tomb furniture re- likely that they concealed the serdab of the
mained : a fine stela (xxxi. and xxxiv. 8) and tomb, but a careful search revealed nothing.
a -tamped brick were found halfway down the That of No. 5 contained a small chamber, but
pit, and in the chambers a number of glazed the others were solid masses of brickwork. The
pottery ushabtis (xxxix.), all inscribed with the pits and burial chambers were very similar to
name Pisebkhanu. The original position of the those of the earlier mastabas, the only difference
stela is indicated pretty clearly by the niche in being that the chambers were as a rule more
tin' -mall offering chamber. numerous and less carefully worked. The
The second dated tomb was that of a new floors of the chambers were covered with bones,
princess named Ast-n-kheb, the daughter of canopic jai's and ushabtis, etc., scattered about
Shabaka, first king of the XXVth Dynasty. in all directions by the plunderers, who
The construction of thistomb has been already frequently threw the last-mentioned from one
referred to (p. 64). The burial chamber was tomb to another.
stone-lined, and had an arched roof, as had The commonest objects in these tombs were
also the dummy chamber which was built above the pottery canopic jars and the ushabtis. The
it. Plunderers bad made their way first into former (lvi.) were all of much the same class,
the dummy chamber, and had then cut a hole of dull reddish pottery, with a band of white
through the stonework into the real chamber. or red paint down one side, on which the
There were found — in the pit four broken inscription was painted in yellow characters
alabaster canopic vases and several fragments some of the pots had an additional coloured
of a wooden one of which gave us the
coffin, pattern round the top. The heads wei-e more
name : in the chamber the upper part of the elaborately treated. They Avere usually painted
mummy of a woman, presumably that of the all over with a groundwork of a single colour,
princess herself, and the bones of several small over which a system of decoration in other
animals : scattered in the pit and chamber were colours was added : the colours employed
thirty-seven small inscribed ushabtis, and three were red, yellow, black, blue and white. A
hundred uninscribed (xxxix.), all in bright few of these jars were filled with ushabtis, and
blue '.daze. that this was not the result of an accident, or
(6) / iiiju/ril tombs and objects-. —The series of the deliberate work of plunderers, is evident
large mastabas which face the valley at the from the fact that the ushabtis in question
south end of the cemetery— 14 E, 38, 24, 28, always bore the same name as the jar in which
32, 35 and :'iT
— probably belong to the beginning they were found, and were moreover much
<>f this XXth to XXVth Dynasty period, but cleaner and fresher than the others which were
they, like the XVIIIth Dynasty pits, had been lying scattered. No stone canopic jars were
much re-used, and there was no accurate dating found in this group of tombs.
evidence for any single object found in them. The ushabtis were of various kinds — large
I at -. are all very similar in character, the main and small glazed pottery, painted pottery,
Lais being a large open court, a pit and unbaked clay and wood — and range from the
three small arched chambers; though of course XXth Dynasty to the XXVth. The painted
slight variations were made and extra details pottery figures were certainly contemporaneous
added to suit the convenience and taste of the with the canopic vases just described. They
various owners of the tombs. The constructions were painted in much the same style, generally
at the back of the chamber- of 1. and 5 in I with a yellow band down the front to contain

the inscription. As a rule they were clumsy, of three wooden statuettes, with inscriptions on
with turned-up pointed ends instead of feet, and the bases which gave the names of the " lady of
very exaggerated kilts, but the heads and wigs the house " Shepses-ta-pert, her father Hor-si-
were occasionally carefully worked. This class ast, and her grandfather Amen-m-ant (xxxv. 5).
probably belongs to the XXth Dynasty. With In the latter were found a Hathor cow amulet,
them we may associate the wooden ushabtis, vulture and " tat " amulets, and two feather
which were long and thin, roughly carved, with amulets in gold, and a number of rosettes in
ink inscriptions. Unbaked clay and glazed silver (lii.) ; also three unbaked clay statuettes
pottery figures occurred in all sizes, from five on stands, which give the name of the owner of
inches down to mere shapeless pieces of clay the tomb Ast-n-kheb (xli. 1 and G). Similar
less The ushabtis of glazed
than an inch long. tablets were found in tombs 13 and 19
pottery found in the tomb of Pisebkhanu have (xl. 8, 10 and 13). They are common in tombs
a curious notch in the back, made before baking of this period, and in some cases at any rate
(xxxix.) ; this may be a common practice in were used as stands for Anubis statuettes.
the XXIst Dynasty, as the other ushabtis found They have usually one of the points of the
with that peculiarity would agree very well compass marked on the end, from which we
with that date. By the XXVth Dynasty the may infer that four were placed in each tomb.
ushabtis, of the poorer burials at any rate, had The stela of Zed-anhur-auf-ankh (xxxi.) and
reached the lowest point of degradation ; those the pyramidion on pi. xxxviii. belong to the
of Ast-n-kheb even (xxxix.) are small and earlier part of this period, the former possibly
poor in workmanship, though covered with a to the XXIInd Dynasty. To a later dynasty,
fine dark blue glaze. In the XXVIth Dynasty, probably the XXVth, we must assign the two
ushabti-making underwent its great change, important stelas on the left side of pi. xxxi.
and from that time to the establishment of They represent the "royal daughter and sister"
the Ptolemies and the disuse of ushabtis, the Pa-apt- ta-mer (good name Mer-s-n-abdu), and
figures all have the same characteristic —the the "chief captain" Hat-pa-gath-serer (good
pillar down the back. In the last figure of name Ar-pa-ankh-qen-qen-f) adoring Ra and
the group at the bottom of pi. xxxix. we Osiris respectively. The foreign nature of the
have a representation of the ushabti at the names, and peculiar details of the dress, notably
very close of its career. the. head-dress, suggest that these two stela?

Heart scarabs both in glaze and stone were may have belonged to the Ethiopian invaders.
very common in this group of tombs, porphyry The spear-heads and wooden genii of tomb 98
and red jasper being the favourite materials for (lii.) are late, belonging possibly to the XXVth
the latter. Of other small objects, the commonest Dynasty. Another set of genii, similar in style

were pectorals, both in wood and glazed potteiy ;

but modelled in wax, were found in tomb 99 A.
pendant Bes figures rings in glaze and stone
The stone canopic jars which we found in
and rounded Hathor amulets of the type shown this period were invariably of limestone, and
in pi. xlv. 28. A small fragment of stone were usually dummies. In one tomb two sets
coming from tomb (28) gave the name
this last were found, in both of which three jars were
Usertesen-senb, and that of his mother the dummies, the human head in each case being

princess Nub-m-an, probably the daughter of the exception. In the tombs subsequent to the
Rameses IT. XXVth Dynasty both limestone and alabaster
Tombs 58 and 63 are probably of the XXIInd occurred ; none were dummies, and the heads
Dynasty. The former contained the remains in most cases were decorated with black paint.

c. XX V in — XXX Tii Dynasty Tombs. — The small pyramid over the dome; but as the angle
tombs of this period were of interesting eon- varies, becoming more acute as the walls get
struction, but contained very little of value; higher, it gives us no satisfactory evidence as to
like the earlier tombs they had without exception the original height of the building. All the
been plundered. walls were mud-plastered, and the floor of the
No. .'.7. the tomb of a Wazir named Nes-p- inner court was covered with a rough mud
mete ('.'). was the most elaborate, and it certainly pavement.
belongs to the earlier part of the period. The This must have been an important burial,
centra] and important part of the tomb (see but unfortunately very little remained. In the
plate xxviii.) was constructed on the " dome- large chamber we found a decayed wooden box
tomb" plan, but with certain modifications and containing a set of alabaster canopic jai's, a
additions. We have two half-arched pits but large lapis-lazuli scarab, two or three pieces of
only one burial chamber under the dome, the gold leaf from the finger-tips of the mummy,
sec< rod and smaller pit having a chamber opening and fragments of cartonnage which gave the
from it to the side. The principal chamber is names of the Wazir himself, and of two of his
arched and has a dummy chamber, also arched, family, Nesi-khonsu and Shepses-ta . . . (xlii.).

above it ; the secondary chamber has a straight From the pit we have the end of a limestone
roof cut from the bed-rock. At the bottom of sarcophagus, on which were represented two
the pits two arched doors from the larger and apes adoring Ra and A turn (xxx.), and the
one from the smaller lead into a rough irregular remains of a large number of wreaths of
passage, left between the pit walls and the syconiore leaves. Scattered in the secondary
ruck. Above, this passage is enclosed by a pit and chamber were found three fragments of
brick wall, but below the wall it contracts, and a limestone stela, dedicated to the Wazir (xxx v.
at the bottom it is but thirty inches wide. At 7), a piece of cartonnage which gave the name
one corner we have the beginning of a brick Aru, several glaze ushabtis with a long hieratic
staircase, which probably led down to the inscription to Ta-kha-au-n-bast, and a fragment
bottom of the passage. On the south side of a wooden coffin, giving the same name. Two
this space between the enclosing wall and pit photographs of this tomb, one taken from the
wall was afterwards taken advantage of for north showing the pits, the other a general view
tin- construction of a small arched chamber from the south, are given in plate xxx.
(xxviii. 8). Round
main building a re- the No. 15, belonging to a Wazir named Nekht,
taining wall was erected, and a second large was also an important tomb, but unluckily the
court Avas added in front. A staircase, of which walls have been denuded down to such an
teps remain, leads up on to the retaining extent that the greater part of the surface
wall <.ii the south side, and apparently was construction has disappeared. The entrance to
continued up to the doorway. The present the tomb (see pi. xxvii.) was on the south-east
height of this staircase is thirty-six inches, so side, and opened on to a large court, A second
that if we carry on the elevation at the same doorway led to a smaller court, which contained
angle we arrive at a height of somewhere about two half-arched pits. Round the outside of
"ii fei t
for the walls. Presumably the doorway these pits there was a covered winding stair-
led. and a passage above it led from the case, which connected with pit A at the bottom
top of the staircase into the dome. The outside by'meansof an arched doorway (see photograph
wall- of the main construction were built at an in pi. xxx.). The roof of this staircase was a
and w. re probably extended to form a rough vault, constructed on a somewhat curious
a —


system, with overlapping side-built bricks Ankh-pef ; the remains of an inscribed wooden
(photograph in pi. xxx.). The pits were box, dedicated to a man whose own name
connected at the bottom by an arched door was missing, but whose father's name was
(bricked up): each gave entrance to a single Auf-aa (xxxiii. (I) ; a set of limestone canopic
chamber, with brick sides, but an ordinary jars ; and a number of small glazed beads
bed-rock roof. Beyond the pits we seem to and amulets.
have the remains of a dome structure, but the From tomb No. 7 we have a stone sarco-
ground was so badly worn that but very lew phagus lid (xxxv. 2), a stela (xxxiii. 3), and
details could be recovered. The small chamber a, limestone statuette (inscription xli. !J, 10, 11,

D, at the far end of the tomb, was certainly 12, 13) which give the genealogy:
older than the rest of the construction; it was Khenty-m-hotep
built below the ground level, and both the
enclosing wall and dome wall were continued
above it. E, C and F were Xllth to XVIIIth Nesy-hor = Mut-hotep
Dynasty pits, which have no connection with
the tomb, and G was a shallow XVIIIth to Khenty-m-hotep.
XlXth Dynasty grave. In the first court a This tomb had been much re-used, as there
small mastaba or platform was built on to the came from it also the base of a granite
inner wail ; it had an approach of three steps, statuette, inscribed with the name Min-mes,
and a small recess Avas left at the top. and a fragment of cartonnage which gave the
The wall between the two pit-chambers had name lluru.
been broken through, and scattered in fchem Other objects in the plates belonging to this

and in the filling of the pits were found :

— period are : the broken stela of a priest named
quantity of cartonnage (xlii.) and a few frag- Rum (xxxv. 4) from tomb 11, a plaster cast

ments of papyrus, which gave the names of the of Isis (xxxviii.) from 1 6 I), and the genii and
Wazir, his mother Ta-kharu, and his brother (?) winged scarab from -17 (Hi.).
— ;



(77m names of the Museums to which the various objects have been sent are given in brackets.)

Pi.. XXIII. — General Plan of mastabas. 14. XVIIIth— XXth Dyn.

The dates of the mastabas represented on the 22. XXIst Dyn.
plan are as follows : 45. XXVth— XXXth Dyn., "dome tomb."

57. XXVth— XXXth Dyn., built over a The ground in the immediate neighbourhood

X 111 tli— XVI 1th Dyn. pit (x.).

of the Nefer-hotep stela had been so much used
I 3. XA r
tilth Dyn., with intrusive XXVth— and re-used that it was impossible to recover

XXXth Dyn. " dome tomb " over pit.

the plans of the original mastabas. The dates
10. XVIIIth Dyn. of the pits and smaller constructions are as

7. XXVth— XXXth Dyn. follows :—

8. XVIIIth Dyn. 17. A and B, XVIIIth Dyn., pits; C,
47. XXVth—XXXth Dyn., " dome tomb." XXVth- -XXXth Dyn., "dome tomb"
19. XIXthDyn. (?)•
6. XlXth XXth — Dyn., with two chambers 16. A, arched chamber, XXVth— XXXth
i >l' another mastaba already excavated Dyn., over B, XVIIIth Dyn., pit;
probably of earlier date. C, XXVth Dyn., "dome tomb";
3. X XVth Dyn. D, E, G, XXVth— XXXth Dyn.,
1 5. XXVth— XXXth Dyn., built over three arched chambers ; F, XVIIIth Dyn.,
XHIth—XVIIth Dyn. pits (E, C, F) pit.
XlXth— XXth
and a shallow Dyn. 44. XlXth Dyn.
grave (G). 51. XlXth Dyn.
4. XVIIIth Dyn. 50. XVIIIth Dyn. (?).
9. XVIIIth Dyn. 33. XlXth Dyn.
is. XVIIIth Dyn. 29. XVIIIth Dyn., mastaba B, XXVth— ;

53. XlXth XXth Dyn. XXXth Dyn., " dome tomb " C, late ;

11. XVIHth Dyn. surface construction ; D, XVIIIth

34. Xlllth -XVIIIth Dyn. (?). Dyn., pit.
37. XlXlh -XXth Dyn.
35. XIXil, XX tli Dyn. Pl. XXIV. — 1. Plan of temple of Aahmes I.

32. XlXii, — XXth Dyn. (see p. 75).

28. XX Hi Dyn. 2. Plan of tomb 10. In this and in the
24. XXth Dyn. following plates underground chambers are
38. XIXili XX I h Dyn. shown by dotted lines. Two brick pillar-bases

were found in position in the forecourt ; these 2. Underground chambers of pit B.

were stuccoed white, presumably to imitate 3. Underground chambers of pit E. The
limestone. The forecourt was brick paved. entrance into the chambers from the pit was
This mastaba, unlike all the others, has an originally blocked by a stone in the manner
entrance at either end, that at the back opening described on page 70. From the second
from a small outer chamber. The detached wall chamber an aimless plunderer's tunnel had been
at the side of this chamber is curious ; it has no excavated. The walls and floor of the third
connection with any other tomb, and seems to chamber were cased with stone.
belong to this construction. XVlIIth Dyn. 4. Plan of tomb 8, consisting of four open

3. Plan of tomb !). The three doors leading courts, a pit, and an arched chamber with three
from the big chamber were arched, and from arched doorways. A, B, and 1) were shallow
the analogy of other tombs the small chamber burials, probably contemporaneous with the
was probably arched XVIIIth Dyn.
also. mastaba. The hatched outline in F represents
4. Underground chambers of tomb 9. The a pavement, one brick higli ;
probably the
lai'ge chamber was divided into two parts by a place of offerings : in this chamber the lime-
couple of square pillars of natural rock. In stone statuette head in pl. xxxvii. was found.
the small side chamber a plain limestone sar- XVIIIth Dyn.
cophagus was let into the floor, the lid being 5. Pit and chambers of tomb S. In this

flush with the ground. tomb, contrary to the usual custom, the wall of
5. Section of underground chambers of the pit; was carried some distance above the
tomb 9. desert level, and a second wall at a lower level
was added round it. Another peculiarity was
Pl. XXV.— 1. Plan of tomb 14. This plan that the chambers at either end of the pit were
really consists of three separate tombs, but connected by a third chamber which ran parallel
they are so closely connected that they are to the pit wall.

represented as one construction. Pit E is the 6. Plan of tomb 11, consisting of a lai'ge

earliest part of the building and belongs to the open court, a pit, and an inner chamber which
XVIIIth Dynasty. Other remains of this, the Avas probably arched. XVIIIth Dyn.
original mastaba, are seen in the long side 7. Underground chambers of tomb 11.

Avails, the broken cross wall at Gr, and the

entrance at H, which was a sloping brick- Pi.. XX VI.— (See pages 64, 77, and 7s.)

paved passage. In the XlXth Dynasty a 1. Plan of tomb 24. In front of the entrance
second mastaba (A, B, and C) was added, there was a brick platform or pavement, seven
which consisted of an outer enclosing wall, and inches high. The three inner chambers were
a low inner construction, comprising a pit arched, and had each a recess cut in the back
chamber and three other small chambers, built wall. XXth Dyn.
on to the outer wall. In A there was a shallow 2 and 3. Plan and underground chambers of
grave of later date, containing the remains of the tomb of Pisebkhanu. XXIst Dyn. (see

wooden coffins and the bones of two small p. 77).

children. In the XXth Dynasty pit E was 4. Plan of tomb 32. The small inner cham-
again made use of, and another mastaba, skew ber had a niche cut in the back wall, and was
to the original direction and partly cutting probably arched : the solid construction behind

away the old mastaba walls, was constructed this chamber was built at a small angle. XXth
round it. Dyn.
. :


5. I 'Ian of tomb 28. XXth Dyn. sarcophagus (tomb 57), showing two apes

6. Plan of tomb 53. XVIIIth- XXtb Dyn. adoring. XXVth XXXth Dyn.
The Long, narrow chamber behind the ]>H was
Pl. XXXI.— On left side

7. Plan of tomb 38. XXth Dyn. 1 Limestone stela of Zed-anhur-auf-ankh

from tomb 7. (Connecticut.) XXIInd Dyn.
Pl. XXVII. II. Plan and sections of 2. Limestone stela of Pisebkhanu from
tomb of Ast-n-Kheb (see pp. 64 and 78). tomb 22 (see p. 65). XXIst Dyn. For in-
:. 7. Plans and sections of tomb 15. scription see xxxiv. 8. (British Museum.)
KXVIth XXXth Dyn. (sec p. 80).
On right side :

Pl. XXVIII. — Plans and sections of tombs 1. Limestone stela of Pa-apt-ta-mer from
and 57: the former being a dome-tomb of
17 tomb 48 (see p. 79). XXVth Dyn.
the ordinary simple type, while the latter shows 2. Limestone stela of Ha-pa-gath-serer from
i lie same style of construction in an elaborated tomb s (see p. 79). XXVth Dyn. (Chicago.)
form (see p. 65, and fur tomb 57 p. 80). The 3. Limestone lintel from tomb 9, showing
pit in the first court of tomb 57 belongs to the Pepen-anhur ottering to his father and mother (?)
XI 1th- -XVIIIth Dyn. period, and has no Min and Ryaa. (Chicago.) XVIIIth Dyn.
connection with the main building.
Pl. XXXII. — On the left side a limestone

Pl. XXIX. — Stela of Neferhotep (see p. 64, stela, bearing the cartouches of Aahmes I.,

and 1'ir translation Chap. xvii.). The stela was Aahmes Nefertari, and Amenhotep I. The
ol I'd granite, with extremely roughly and cartouches of the principal figure, who is re-

Lightly cut inscription. The margin between presented making offerings to Amen Ra, have
the inscription and the edge of the stone was been erased : probably they were those of

3J inches round the curve at the top, 4f inches Akhenaten. (Manchester.)

at the sides, and 19 inches at the bottom. The Below, a brick stamped with the name of
curved edge of the stone came 2h inches lower Aahmes I. (Manchester.)
than the band above the inscription. (Cairo.) On the right two broken limestone slabs, one
showing the king in the crown of Upper Egypt,
Pl. XXX. — At the top two views of tomb 57
the other in the crown of Lower Egypt.
(p. 80). Below two photographs of the stair- (New York and Manchester.)
case in tomb 15. one showing the doorway into These four pieces were all found in the
the pit, the other the construction of the arched
temple of Aahmes I.
roof (p. 81).
Underneath, three views of the squatting
On the righl a limestone stela (tomb 6), statue of Sa-dep-ahu from tomb 9. (New
showing Kha-m-uas seated with his sister Ast.
York.) The statue is of sandstone : the hands
In front of them their two sons and grandson and face are coloured red, and the inscription
are making offerings, while in the register in with blue (see p. 71,
was originally filled
below their seven daughters are represented.
and for inscriptions xxxiii. 1 and 2). XVIIIth
It is worth noting that while the boys are Dyn.
called -In- son," -his grandson," the female
n of the family are known in each case as Pl. XXXIII. — 1 and 2. Inscription from
"her daughter." (Bristol.) XLXth— XXth the squatting statue of Sa-dep-ahu (photographs
Dyn. Below, the lower end of a limestone in pl. xxxii.), see also xxxiv. 1. XVIIIth Dvn.
: —


.">. Inscription on a limestone stela of Khent- and cf. stela xxxiii. 3, find statue xli. !», 10, 1 I.

khety-m-hotep (Khenty-m-hotep?) from tomb 7 12, 13). Tomb 7. (Connecticut.) XXVth—

(p. 81). See also pis. xxxv. 2 and xli. 9, 10, XXXth Dyn.
11, 12, 13. (Connecticut.) XXVth— XXXth 3. Broken stela showing the prince Ptah
Dyn. adoring Ra, from tomb 19. XlXth — XXth
4. From a granite ushabti of Amen-m-ant Dyn. (For other objects from tomb see Hi.)

found close to the Nefer-hotep stela. See also 4. Inscription from a broken stela of Ruru,
pis. xxxix. and xlv. (British Museum.) tomb 11. X XVth— XX Xth Dyn.
XVIIIth Dyn. 5. Inscription on base of a wooden statuette
5. From an alabaster canopic jar of a priest of Shepset-ta-pert, from tomb 58. XXIInd
of Anhur, named Neb. Tomb 0. (Bolton.) Dyn.
XVIIIth Dyn. G. Broken stela from tomb 109. XVIIIth
G. Stuccoed box of , son of Auf-aa, Dyn.
from tomb 15. (Dundee.) XXVth— XXXth 7. Broken limestone stela of the ivazir

Dyn. Nes-p-mete, from tomb 57 (p. SO). Cf. xlii.

7-45. Marks on offering jars from Umm-el- XXVth— XXXth Dyn. .

Qa'ab. XVIIIth— XXIInd Dyn. 8. Piece of a stela from tomb 14, naming
Aahmes I. XVIIIth Dyn.
Pl. XXXIV. — 1 . Inscription from limestone
door-jamb of Sa-dep-ahu, from tomb 9. See Pl. XXXVI. — 1. Inscription on very fine
also xxxiii. 1 and 2. (New York.) XVIIIth limestone coffin of Hun, prophet of the temple
Dyn. of Rameses II. at Abydos. (Cairo.) For
2. Broken limestone stela of Qab, from photograph see pl. xxxvii. XXXth Dyn.
tomb 14. It was found near the surface, and 2. Inscription on limestone coffin of Des-
was probably thrown out from a neighbouring nekht. XXXth Dyn.
tomb. XHIth— XlVth Dyn. 3. Inscription on limestone coffin of Tshemmm.
3. 5, G and 7. Pieces of a long inscription XXXth Dyn.
found by Prof. Petrie in the tomb of Unnefer, The four coffins, xxxv. 1, xxxvi. 1, 2, 3, are
the high priest of Osiris (see double statue on from Prof. Petrie's work, and were all found
pl. xxxvii.). It appears to name the dates of together in the subterranean chambers of a
special offerings being made. The high great square tomb, covered in with a domed
numbers, up to the forty- seventh year, refer to roof. The funeral furniture found with these
the reign of Rameses II. XlXth Dyn. is shown on pl. Hi., fig. 1.
4. Limestone table of offerings of Ai-m-aat-
ab, from tomb 62. XHIth— XVth Dyn. (Cp. Pl. XXXVII. Top voir. Front, back, and
xliv.) two side views of limestone shrine (see p. G4),
8. Inscription from limestone stela of Piseb- found in front of the Nefer-hotep stela.

khanu (see pl. xxxi.). XX 1st Dyn. (Boston.) XVIIIth Dyn.

Second row. View of top of above shrine.
Pl. XXXV. — 1. Inscription on limestone Front and back views of gi'anite statues of

coffin of a prophet of Nekht-hor-heb. XXXth Unnefer and Mery, found by Prof. Petrie.
Dyn. (Cairo.) XVIIIth Dyn.
2. Inscription from limestone coffin of Khent- Marble sarcophagus lid : for inscription see

khety-m-hotep (Khenty-m-hotep V) (see p. SI xxxvi. 1. (Cairo.) XXXth Dyn.


Bottom 7?o?r. Plaster cast from tomb 16 D. number of model tools of the same material
(Boston.) XXVIth—XXXth Dyn. (see p. 71). XVIIIth Dyn. (Cairo.)
Limestone statuette head from tomb 8 (see In the second row :— No. -1, from tomb 51, is

p. 83). XVHIth Dyn. (British Museum.) of limestone, and bears the name Paser (see 77

Head from a broken marble sarcophagus lid. and cp. xl. 12). XlXth Dyn. (Glasgow.)
XXXth Dyn. Both this figure and the com- No. 2, from tomb 16 B, is also of limestone,
plete lid immediately above it are from Prof. and bears the name Hu-ma-y (for inscription

Petrie's work (see p. 8.')). see xli. 8). XVIIIth Dyn. (Manchester.)
No. 5, of granite, bears the name Amen-m-ant,
Pl. XXX VIII. — Limestone pyramidion.
and was found close to the Nefer-hotep stela
(ep. xlv.). (British Museum.) XVIIIth Dyn.
XXth—XXIInd Dyn.
Limestone stela, with cartouche of Amen- In the third row: — No. 2, from tomb 17 B,
is of wood, and was dedicated to Pedu-n-neb-
hotep II. (From Prof. Petrie's work.) XVIIIth
taui. (Connecticut.) XVIIIth Dyn.
Nos. 3-7 are of glaze and are all definitely
Tomb 100. Alabaster vase and saucer and
dated (see p. 79) : the first, that of Pa-ab-mer
Limestone heart-scarab of Si-anhur. (Connec-
from tomb 14 B, belonging to the XlXth Dyn.;
ting) XVIIIth Dyn.
the second and third, from the tomb of Piseb-
Glaze kohl-pot, with animal figures in relief,
khanu (22), to the XXIst Dyn. the fourth,;
from tomb 10. (Boston.) XVIIIth Dyn.
Glaze kohl-pot, with open-work animals, from
from the tomb of Ast-n-kheb (3), to the XXVth
tomb 116. For other objects from this tomb
Dyn. ; and the filth from a tomb of the XXXth
sec xlvi. (Cairo.) XVIIIth Dyn.
Two groups of bronze model tools, found by
I'd ric with the ushabti figures on Heq-
Pl. XL. —-1, 2, 3. Beads, amulets and seals

reshu hill. XVIIIth Dyn.

from cemetery G (Prof. Petrie). Vlth Dyn.
Two 4. Mark from a broken pot of the black-
large stone heart scarabs from tomb 120.
From the larger of the two the name has been
topped " Pan-grave " type. Xlllth — XVth
erased : the other, which is bound with a bronze
name 5. Inscription from a wooden ushabti of Pa-
rim, gives the Tetafi. XVIIIth Dyn.
Ipper part of a limestone stela from
nehem (see p. 77) ; from tomb 44. (Liverpool.)
tomb 31,
giving the names of Hor-senb-ti and his father
XlXth Dyn.
6. Copper model bag, inscribed " Meriten
Ren-senb. Xlllth— XVIIth Dyn.
Khnunm neb ....," found near the ushabtis
in Heq-reshn hill. (British Museum.) XVIIIth
Pl. XXXIX. — Of the ushabti figures in this Dyn.
plate, Nos. 2 (see xli. 7), 3 and 1 in the first 7. 15. Inscriptions on two flat strips of wood,
row, ;'.. 4. and (i in the second row, and 1 (see possibly from a box, giving the name Amen-m-
xli. 8) in the third row, were all found by Prof. apt, from tomb 44 (see p. 77). XlXth Dyn.
Petrie on the Eeq-reshn hill, close to the royal (Liverpool.)
tombs at I Him el Q&'ab (see Royal Tombs,!.), 8. 1 0. Inscriptions on back and front of two
XVI I It I, Dyn. clay tablets of Nes-ka-shuti (see p. 79), from
X"- I in tin- first row, which bears the- name tomb 13. Cp. 13 of this plate, and xli. 1 and 6.
Sen-nefer, is of limestone, and was found lying- (Chicago.) XXth— XXIInd Dyn.
in a |,oii. i, model coffin, together with a 'K I 'alette of the scribe Anhur-mes, from
— — ;


tomb 9 (see p. 72, and for photograph, xlix.). Pl. XLII. — Cartonnage from tomb 15,

XVIIIth Dyn. (Bolton.) giving the names of the wazir Nekht, his mother
11. Inscription from a small broken lime- Ta-kharu, and his brother (?) Ankh-pef (see

stone statuette of Thembu, from tomb 113. page 80). XXVth— XXXth Dyn.
XVIIIth Dyn. Cartonnage from tomb 57, giving names of a
12. Inscription from a small ivory object, wazir Xes-p-mete, Nesi-khonsu and Shepses-
giving the name of the wazir Pa-ser and the ta (see p. 80, and cp. xxxv. 7). XXVth
cartouche of Rameses II., from tomb 44 (see XXXth Dyn.
page 77). XTXth Dyn. (Liverpool.) Part of a musical instrument (?) in wood,
13. Clay tablet or statuette stand, similar to badly worm-eaten, with alternate ivory and
xl. 8, 10, xli. 1 and 6, from tomb 19 (for photo- ebony pegs, from tomb 44. XlXth Dyn.
graph see lii.). XXth — XXIInd Dyn. (Liverpool.)
14. Marks on backs of stained ivory lotuses

shown on pi. xlix., from tomb 4 (see p. 72). Pl. XLIII. —Tomb 78. Small limestone stela,

XVIIIth Dyn. giving the names of Sebek-hotep and his wife

Neferu-ptah. In the centre a large ankh, the
Pl. XLI. — 1 and 6. Clay tablets of Ast-n- circle of which has been hollowed out, and a hole
Khebt, from tomb 63 (see p. 79, and cp. xl. 8, cut right through the stone. Xlllth — XVIIth
10 and 13). XXIInd Dyn. Dyn. (Glasgow.)
2. Inscription on clay statuette base, giving Torn!) 92. Alabaster kohl-pot and vase; base
name Pa-ab-mer, from tomb 14. XlXth Dyn. of a blue marble statuette, giving name Iu-f-

(Chicago.) senb ; broken limestone doll, represented with

3. Glazed pottery " tat " amulet from the a girdle and a double bracelet of beads on the
same tomb (see p. 77, and for photograph, left arm. Xlllth— XVIIth Dyn. (Pittsburg.)

pl. li.). XlXth Dyn. (Chicago.) Small ivory crocodile from a plundered tomb.
4. Fragment of wooden coffin, found lying- Xlllth— XVIIth Dyn.
near the surface, belonging to the daughter Tomb 94. Scribe's palette in wood ; lime-

of an unknown king, Mery-Amen Hor-si-ast. stone figure of girl playing a harp fragment ;

XXIInd Dyn. (V). of black-topped " Pan " pottery blue marble ;

5. Blue glazed ushabti of Huy, priest of kohl-pot ; alabaster kohl- pot lid ;
plaster mask ;

Sekhet. Found on Heq-reshu hill (see pl. carnelian beads with a few glaze amulets.
xxxix.). XVIIIth Dyn. (Boston.) Xlllth -XVIIth Dyn. (Brussels.)
7. Bronze ushabti, cast and chased, with fine Tomb 78. Jackal-headed ebony wand, covered
inscription for the royal scribe Any. Found on with rudely carved hunting scenes, and in-

Heq-reshu hill (see pl. xxxix.). XVIIIth Dyn. scribed with the name of a hitherto unknown
(British Museum.) king, Seb-ka-y (see p. 69). Xlllth— XlVth
8. Blue glazed ushabti of Thay. Found on Dyn. (Cairo.) Below, an enlarged photograph
Heq-reshu hill. XVIIIth Dyn. (Boston.) of the inscription.
9-13. Inscriptions on the base and back of Tomb 84. Ivory lion. Cp. pottery rattle

a small limestone statuette, dedicated to Khenty- liv. 32. Xlllth— XVIIth Dyn. (Greenock.)
m-hotep, or as his name occurs elsewhere, Tomb 81. Copper double bracelet, silver

Khent-Khety-m-hotep, from tomb 7 (see p. 81, disc, two silver bracelets, and five silver clasps

and cp. xxxiii. 3 and xxxv. 2). XXVth carnelian, amethyst, and garnet beads. Xllth
XXX th Dyn. (Connecticut.) Xlllth Dyn. (Liverpool.)


Tomb 88. Two hollow bronze cylinders, second jar is of the usual XXth Dyn. style (see

from axe-handle or stick: small limestone kohl- pl. hi.).

pot : broken limestone statuette: alabaster Tomb 53. Ivory spoon with lotus and bud
kohl-pot and ring-stand, made in one piece. handle ;
gold ring and pectoral, the latter

Xnith—XVIIth Dyn. (New York.) inscribed with an uraeus. XlXth — XXth Dyn.
Pl. XL IV. — Tomb 79. Glaze beads and
amulets : pieces of two ivory wands, both Avith Pl. XLV. —Tomb 37. Ivory disc, engraved
incised animals ; in the middle of the larger with the figure of a crested horse ; ivory comb ;

one a space was left for the name, but this was glaze heart amulet, with figure of Isis (?) in

never added ; broken clay doll : small stone black paint : ivory cap and model column, from
vase (cp. pottery rattle liv. 35). Xlllth a kohl-vase of the type given in xlvii., tomb
XVIIth Dyn. Beads from this tomb, of which 115. (Glasgow.) XXth Dyn.
a great quantity were found, were distributed A group of silver hawks, bracelet, &c. (not
to Liverpool, Manchester, Boston, Brussels, from cemetery D). Xllth Dyn.
Cambridge, Dewsbury, Dublin, Dundee, Edin- Tomb 1. Model axe, hoes and chisels in
burgh. (Ireenock, Pittsburgh, and Sydney. bronze. These were found in a shallow grave,

Tomb 62. Ebony tray, giving the name with a number of glaze ushabti figures.

Aim-aat-ab ;
fragment of ivory inlay from a (Dewsbury.) XXth Dyn.
box: i\ory shell (cp. table of offerings in pl. Tomb 28. Glaze Hathor amulet ; knob of blue,
xxxiv. I). Xlllth—XVIIth Dyn. (Boston.) yellow, white and black glass ;
glaze figure of
Tomb 108. Broken glazed pottery handle, Bes, devouring snakes (on back signs J]|w|);
giving the name Kha-n-res (?) ; blue glaze large glaze plaque bead, giving the name of
bracelet blackened limestone kohl-pot, sup-
"the prophet of; five glaze
ported by cynocephalus, with incised decoration
deity pendants ; glaze scarab. (Pittsburg.)
filled in with yellow: below, large vase of XXth Dyn.
similar ware (see p. 71): two small ivory Granite ushabti of Amen-m-ant (for inscrip-
vases. XVII Ith Dyn. (Cambridge.) tion see xxxiii. 4), and a smaller ushabti in
Tomb 33. Alabaster vase ; two bronze unbaked clay ; found together just behind the
spear-heads; ebony and bronze kohl-sticks: Nefer-hotep stela. (British Museum.) XlXth
"girdle tie" amulet in red jasper; painted Dyn.
glazed pottery dish pottery canopic vase (one
Back and front view of a finely- worked figure
of a set of four) bronze vase with lotus handle.
of Bes, in glaze, with paste inlay on tongue,
XlXth -XXth Dyn. (New York.) navel, and forehead. (New York.) XVIIIth
Tomb 16 B. Alabaster vase and dish. Dyn.
XVIIIth Dyn. (Manchester.)
Group of the late XVIIIth Dyn. foreign type
Below, two pottery canopic jars. The larger
of pottery.
one on the right is from tomb 25, and bears the
name Senb-hena-n-f. The body of the pot was Pl. X LVI. —The two upper photographs show
painted in red and yellow streaks to imitate the the contents of tomb 1 1 6 —two glazed pottery
graining of wood ;
the inscription and wig weie pendants ; two bronze rivets : tortoiseshell
in bine. Two were found in the tor..., and, comb ;
ebony spoon ; bronze fish-hook and
as usually pre-XVIIIth canopies, both had
tweezers ; two ivory wands ; ivory double kohl-
human heads. Xlllth XVIIth Dyn. The tube glaze and carnelian beads and amulets
; :
;; ; ; ;


the outside string, with panther head and Tomb 113. Sandstone hone; two blackened
pendants, is strung in accordance with a similar limestone kohl-pots (one with lid) with yellow
necklace found actually in position by Dr. incised decoration (seep. 71); bronze tweezers
Reisner at El Ahaiwah ;
three alabaster vases and cutting instrument ; small wooden foot
and an alabaster dish ; bronze kohl-stick and alabaster kohl-pot (cp. xl. 11). XVIIIth Dyn.
model adze ; bronze jug with lotus handle (Brussels.)
triple kohl-pot in ebony with climbing monkey; Tomb 76. Blackened limestone kohl-pot with
in the tubes three bronze kohl-sticks, two of yellow incised decoration. XVIIIth Dyn. (New
which were actually found in position ; small York).
blue glaze vase ;
glaze lotus vase ; bronze axe- Tomb 110. Bronze spear-head and green
head ; bronze razor ; two blackened limestone jasper scarab (liii. 3). XHIth— XVIIth Dyn.
cynocephalus kohl-pots (see p. 71); bronze (Ashmolean.)
dish. XVIIIth Dyn. Tomb 111. Glazed pottery dish; three
For scarabs and small objects from this tomb scarabs (two with cartouches of Thothmes III.),

see pi. liii., for glaze kohl-pot pi. xxxviii., and for two plaques (one with duckback, cf. liii. 6), and
pottery pi. lv. (Lotus vase, British Museum one cowroid in glaze ; double wooden kohl-tube,
rest of group, Pittsburgh.) with ivory swivel lid and wooden stick, the
Tomb 102. Bronze cutting-out knife ;
bronze latter fitting into a groove between the tubes,
fish-hooks ; bronze cutting instrument ; ebony and keeping the lid in place. XVIIIth Dyn.
kohl-stick ;
gold rings ; silver ring with scarab (Pittsburgh.)
attached ;
glaze scarabs, plaques and cowroids ;
Tomb 99 (cp. draught-board in pl. li.).

glaze, jasper, carnelian, shell, gold, silver and Object of unknown use in ebony, giving the
glass beads. XVIIIth Dyn. name of "the scribe Mermaat"; pear-shaped
For drawings of scarabs, &c, see pi. liii. ; for glaze ornament (not pierced) plaster mask ; :

pottery see pi. lv. ebony and bronze kohl-stick ; two scarabs, one
Tomb 118. Two glaze scarabs, one set in of them set on a silver ring and bearing the
gold ; bronze hook and model spear-head ;
cartouche of Thothmes III. ; silver pomegranate
bronze vase. XVIIIth Dyn. (Greenock.) ear-ring(V). XVIIIth Dyn. (New York.)

Pl. XLVIL— Tomb 115 (two groups). Tor- Pl. XLVI.IT. — Tomb 29 (two groups).
toiseshell turtle-shaped dish ; ivory vase with Twelve flint arrow-heads : these, with the four

lid ;
double ivory lotus-column kohl-tube, with ivory arrow-heads just below, are practically
bronze stick (see p. 72) ; two semi-circular identical with the specimens found at J 'nun el

bronze frames : as we see from the upper of the Qa'ab in 1st Dynasty tombs possibly they were :

two specimens, these were originally filled with taken from there by the owner of this tomb
wood, the edge of the wood fitting into the ivory turtle-shaped dish haematite model head- ;

hollow of the rim, but for what purpose they rest ; heart amulet in i-ed jasper, and two
were used we are at present unable to say carnelian beads ; ivory lotus column, possibly
small ivory vase, with lid ; bronze jug, with from a kohl-vase of the kind figured in

lotus handle ;
glazed pottery lotus vase ; ala- pl. xlvii. ; gold dummy amulet-holder; upper
baster mortar and limestone pestle ; alabaster part of a human vase, and gazelle vase in
handled vase ; large bronze dish, with rings for pottery (described by Mr. J. L. Myres in Chap.
handle; serpentine handled vase. XVIIIth xiv.) ;
ivory comb ;
fragment of decorated ivory
Dyn. from inlay ; eight glaze draughtsmen ; two


pieces of an ivory object of unknown use ;

ivory Tomb 6 (cp. xxx). Upper part of limestone

mirror handle; glaze seal; glaze Isis and ushabti : two unbaked clay ushabtis ;

Bonis, Bes, and papyrus sceptre amulets; scarab ; red jasper shell and glaze rings ; stone
potterv doll; two glaze sacred eye amulets; scarab, uninscribed ;
glass beads and amulets ;

five alabaster vases. (Ashmolean.) XVIIIth ebony and ivory eye, from a coffin ; fragment
Dyn. of glazed pottery, with paste inlay ; three
Tomb 119. Bronze hveezers ; three alabaster inscribed plaques in glazed pottery from a
vases; clay doll; blackened limestone cyno- draught-board (see p. 77, and cp. stela, plate

cephalus kohl-pot, with yellow incised decora- xxx.). XlXth Dyn. (Bristol.)

tion : two lead net-sinkers. XVIIIth Dyn.

(Pittsburgh.) Pl. L. —Tomb 1 1 (three groups). Three views
Tomb 105. Blackened limestone kohl-pot, of pottery vase in the form of a hedgehog (see

with vellow incised decoration ;

glaze pear- section by Mr. J. L. Myres in Chap, xiv.) ;

shaped pendant; limestone doll; glaze beads; blackened limestone vase, with yellow incised
glaze scarab. XVIIIth Dyn. (Bolton.) decoration ;
pottery doll ; three glaze scarabs ;

small glaze Isis and Horus ; blackened lime-

Pl. XLIX.— Tomb 9. Wooden palette of stone cynocephalus kohl-pot ; ivory kohl-stick,
tbe scribe Anhur-mes (for drawing see xl. 9) ;
with uraeus top; pieces of two glazed pottery
pottery crouchiug lion : this, both from the vases, with ornamentation in black paint ; two
-in lace of the pottery, which is very similar to alabaster vases. XVIIIth Dyn. (Hedgehog
thai of the two figures in the preceding plate, pot, Ashmolean, rest S. Helens.)
and from its general treatment seems to belong Tomb 48 (two groups). Two finely-carved
to the group discussed by Mr. J. L. Myres in wooden legs from a chair ; upper part of a
(.'hap. xiv. ; double Phoenician pot ; wooden limestone ushabti of Hemt-neter ; two bronze
beard from a coffin ; crowned hawk in glaze ; implements ; of these six were found in the
alabaster vase: bronze cutting-out knife and tomb : they are too thin to have been used as
spear-head, the latter possibly belonging to a weapons, and have all, moreover, a slight
later burial; gold and red jasper rings; glaze curve ;
possibly they were used to strengthen
plaque with cartouche of Thothmes III. ; ebony the framework of the chair of which the legs
kohl-stick in the form of a hand; bronze are shown above ;
glaze plaque ; carved lion's
tweezers. (Boston.) XVIIIth Dyn. (Cp. head in wood, probably from the chair above-
xxxiii. 1, 2 and a, xxxiv. 1, xxxi. 1.) mentioned ; stone heart scarab of Heru-s-mes.
Tomb 1. Stained ivory lotus flowers and XVIIIth Dyn. (Dundee.)
buds, and rosettes; scraps of ivory and ebony Tomb 17 (two groups). Three glaze scarabs,
inlay: a number of agate marbles. Of the two giving the name of Thothmes III. two ;

the outside pieces are in red and white, silver pomegranate ear- rings two gold rings ;

the centre bud is in green, and the lower tine bronze ring ; bronze ring with glaze scarab
"Mir<' piece in red; these pieces must all have attached ; carved wooden chair leg ; five-fold
fitted together into one scheme of decoration, wooden kohl tube ; serpentine vase ; bronze
tl"' figures "ii the hack (xl. 1 1) probably tube, from an axe handle ; two pottery vases
showing the order in which they were to be alabaster vase and dish. XVIIIth Dyn. (Con-
placed. In the centre of each of the rosettes necticut.)
there wag a small -old pin. XVIIIth Dyn. Tomb 8. Two views of a female-figure vase,
(Ashmolean.) with finely burnished red surface. Sec section
;; — —


by Mr. J. L. My res in Chap. xiv. XVIIIth III. ; stone pendant : two glaze and one stone
Dyn. (Ashmolean.) amulet. XVIIIth Dyn. (Dundee.)

Pl. LI. — Tomb 99 (cp. group in pi. xlvii.). Pl. LII. — Glazed pottery canopic vase, amu-
Remains of a draughtboard in glazed pottery. lets, &c. Found by Prof. Petrie, together with
The squares were originally inlaid in wood, the four inscribed stone coffins, in a square dome-
width of which shown by the bronze hooks to
is roofedtomb (see p. 85, and cp. xxxv. 1, xxxvi.
have been about half an inch. XVIIIth Dyn. and xxxvii.). XXXth Dyn.
1, 2, 3,
Tomb 77 (two groups). Blue glazed pottery Tomb 19 B. Clay model boat, and inscribed
figure of Isis and Horus ; bronze kohl-stick ;
tablet (see p. 79) : at the bottom of the plate a
alabaster vase ;
model column in ivory ; bronze horse's head in red glass and a dog's head (?) in
mirror, with snake and plait pattern on the glaze (cp. xxxv. 3). XlXth— XXth Dyn.
handle ; hollow wooden sheath (?) for some kind Tomb 63. Hathor cow, vulture, "tat" and
of instrument; bronze knife. XVIIIth Dyn. feather amulets in gold ; silver rosettes and
Tomb 14 (see p. 83, and cp. glaze figure of electrum beads (see p. 79 and cf. xli. 1 and 6).
Bes on pl. xlv.). Two model boats in clay, on XXIInd Dyn. (Berlin.)
one of which are painted the figures of Thoth, Tomb 47. Winged scarab and set of the four

Isis, Khepera and Shu ; clay statuette base, genii of the dead in glaze ; two scarabs and
inscribed with the name of Pa-ab-mer (inscrip- other amulets in stone. XXVIth — XXXth Dyn.
tion xli. 2); glazed pottery "tat" amulet, (New York.)
inscribed with the same name (xli. 3) ;
glazed Tomb 98. Set of wooden genii of the dead ;

pottery ushabti, also giving the name ; model small wooden hawk glaze " tat " amulet
four ;

wooden chair leg upper part of a clay statuette

; bronze spear-heads (see p. 79). XXIInd
of Sekhet (?) ; two glaze sacred eye amulets ;
XXVth Dyn.
glaze cat ; two tiny glaze figures of Bes, and a Tomb 35. Bronze vase. XlXth — XXth
glaze scarab; two alabaster saucers. XlXth Dynasty. (Dewsbury.)
Dyn. (Chicago.)
Tomb 59. Three glaze scarabs, one bearing Pl. LIII. — Group of scarabs and small objects
the name of Thothmes III. ; two blackened from tomb 102. XVIIIth Dyn. For photo-
limestone kohl-pots ; small wooden kohl -pot graph of the objects in this tomb see pl. xlvi.,

alabaster saucer. XVIIIth Dyn. (Ashmolean.) and for pottery lv.

Tomb 8 (cp. statuette head in pl. xxxvii., Group of scarabs, &c, from tomb 116.

and steatopygous figure vase in pl. 1.). Alabas- (Pittsburgh.) XVIIIth Dyn. For pottery

ter vase ; broken pottery uraeus ; upper part from this tomb see pl. lv., and for larger objects

of a grotesque pottery figure glaze frog glaze xlvi.

; ;

button ; stone eye from a wooden coffin glaze Group of scarabs from tomb 119. (Pitts-

hawk's head from inlay ; sacred eye amulet burgh.) XVIIIth Dyn. For larger objects
three glaze scarabs, one with cartouche of from this tomb see pl. xlviii., and for pottery
Amenhotep II. plaque with cartouche of lv. 57, 65, 66.

Thothmes IV. XVIIIth Dyn. (Liverpool.) Scarabs from various tombs, of which the

Tomb 117. Large ivory bracelet; wooden dates are as follows :

kohl-tube ;
two ribbed pieces of black glaze, 1. XHIth— XVIIth Dyn.
originally glued on to blue cartonnage ; five 2. A blundered scarab of Shesha. Xlllth
glaze scarabs, one bearing the name of Thothmes XVIth D V n.

EL Wli: All AND \\;\ in is

.".. XHIth— XVIIth Dyn. Cf. slvii. and continue into the first two or three reigns
I and 5. XHIth— XVIIth Dyn. of the XVIIIth Dyn. Red rims, as in 7 and

G. Plaque with duck back. XV I Ilth Dyn. 28, are found in this period, but black rims,
Cf. xlvii. such as 8 and 51 in pi. 1\\, not until the
7. Carnelian scarab of Queen Aahmes. XVIIIth Dyn.
XV Filth Dyn. No. 13 is a black burnished pot with white
8. Scarab of Thothmes I. XVIIIth Dyn. incised decoration, and is peculiar to this

9. Ring giving name of Aat-mert-mut.. period (cp. Diospolis 1'arca, xxxvi. 186, 187,
XVIIIth Dyn. 1 88). This class of pottery has also been found
In. XVIIIth Dyn. For larger objects see li. by Prof. Petrie at Kahun, and by M. Naville at

I I. XVIIIth Dyn. Cf. 16 and xxxviii. Khataanah, in the Delta.

12. XVIIIth Dyn. The decoration on Nos. 16 and 17 is peculiar ;

13. XVIIIth Dyn. For larger objects see it resembles the prehistoric style of ornamenta-
xlviii. tion rather than that of any later period.

I I. Heart scarab of Tetafi. XVI Ilth Dyn. Nos. 32 and 35 are rattles, and have no
Cf. xxxviii. openings.
15. Heart scarab, with name erased. For the pottery in this plate compare
XVIIIth Dyn. Cf. xxxviii. Diospolis I'lirrn, xxxv. and xxxvi., and the
li;. Heart scarab of Si-anhur. XVIIIth plates of intermediate pottery, published by
X X tli Dyn.
1 Cf. 11 and xxxviii. Mr. Garstang in El Arabah.

I't.. LI V.— Pottery of the intermediate Pl. LV. — Group of pottery found in tomb
Xlllth— XVIIIth period. (See pp. 68-69). 116; dated by scarabs of Hatshepsut and
The first group, from tomb 21, is a typical set Thothmes III. For scarabs from this tomb see
of intermediate pottery, and shows well the liii., and for larger objects see xxxviii. and xlvi.

close connection between Xllth and early Group of pottery found in tomb 102, together
XVIIIth Dyn. pottery. with a bead bearing the name of Amenhotep I.,

With the second group, in tomb 78, were and scarabs of Thothmes I. and III. For other
Found the ebony wand of Seb-ka-y and the objects from this tomb see xlvi. and liii.
"ankh" stela, shown on pi. xliii. Group of pottery from various tombs.
The third group consists of pottery of the With the exception of Nos. 56 and 61, which
same period from various tombs. may be a little later, the pottery on this plate
With regard to form and ornamentation we all belongs to the middle period of the XVIIIth
may note the following : Dyn.
No. 2 is, so far as we know, new shape.

White spot decoration, such as we have in Pi,. LVI. — Canopic vases from tombs of the
6, 35, and 13, and whitened rims, as in I, 10. XXtbDyn. (See p. 78.)

20, 27, 13, are characteristic of this period.

They are found in late Middle Kingdom graves, Pi.. I. VII LX. —Index of private names.



I>v K Li. Gkiffith.

Pl. XXfX. Stele of Nefer-hotep. This king, allowing any man to tread (3) upon this

the 21st of the XHIth Dynasty according to Sacred Land ;

and to set up two tablets on its
the Turin Papyrus, is already known from two south side and two on its north side, engraved
other monuments to have shown particular with the great name of my Majesty, L.P.H.
devotion to the gods of Abydos. In the present (4) The south of the Sacred Land shall be
case we find him protecting a sacred spot from made at those stelae Avhich shall stand in the
intrusion as an act of piety to the jackal-headed southern portion, and the north at those stelae
Ipuat (Ophois). The record is written in the (5) which shall stand in the northern portion.
popular language of the Middle Kingdom, with " Verily, whosoever shall be found within
little archaism. In this and in the poorness of these stelae, of the children of the priests
the engraving it agrees with the great stela of (6) to their full extent '
(?), shall be burnt.
the same king found by Mariette. And any magnate who shall make himself a
At the top we see the symbol of Upuat, a tomb within (7) this sacred place, he shall be
jackal on a standard ^\ ottering ¥ and 1 to accused (?) and the lawful punishment be
inflicted upon him, that belongs to a burial-
the king's hawk, which surmounts his lea name,
place as at this day. But as to all beyond
and is followed by the two solar names in
(8) this sacred place, where men have not made
cartouches. These names and titles have been
themselves tombs, it shall be lawful to be (!))
erased. described as " beloved of
The king is
buried there.
Upuat, lord of the Sacred Land " and Upuat, ;

" " He (the god) maketh unto him (the king)

who is "giving life, stability, and power (?)
life, stability, power (?), health and joy of his
says, " I give to thee all life, all power, all
heart and his lea on the throne of Horus, like
health, all joy, like Ra for ever."
the Sun, for ever."
The inscription continues below
At the base is htm d'iv followed by the deter-
" (1) He made this as his monument to his minative of desert land. Probably it is the
father Upuat, lord of the Sacred Land. name of the site; it may perhaps be rendered
" Year 4 : My Majesty, L.P.H., gave " Extinguisher of breaths "
as it were " suffo-
command to dedicate and protect {inlet) a cating," or perhaps " Suppresser of the breezes."
Sacred Land on the (2) south of Abydos for It seems curious if only " sons of the
his father Upuat lord of the Sacred Land, priests " and " magnates " are debarred from
even as Horus did for his father Osiris 1
Or perhaps 'except a priest in tbe execution of Ins
Onnophris, without the possibility (to wnt) of duty."
94 EL AM RAH A\D AJiYlniS.

trespass, but perhaps the inhabitants of Abydos prophet of Amen of Thiy, the leader, the Osiris

were all priestlv, so that "sons of the priests Pasebkhanu (Psusennes) deceased, son of the
was the proper term lor the 0.111111011 people in chief prophet of Amonrasonther Men-kheper-ra."
A.bydos as opposed to the magnates. The titles of Amen are curious ; one seems to
connect him with Thiy, Queen of Amenhotep
Pl. XXX. Broken stela ; at the top are the III.

feet of a man offering fco Osiris, enthroned, with Osiris, besides the usual titles, is called

l-is standing behind. In the first row below " Lord of Eternity, king of the gods, great
this are "the Osiris Khamuas " and " his sister god, prince of Justice." Horus is " son of Isis,

the lady of a house, Tsis," and three figures in Abydos, heir of Onnophris," also "avenger
offering to them :
" his son Pay, his son Pa-uah," of his father." Isis is " Isis the great, the
ami "the son of his son Amenmes." In the mother of a god, lady of Heaven, mistress of the
lowest row are seven females seated, smelling gods." In the lower lines there are added to
lotus flowers "her daughter Tai-Mennefer, her
: these deities, " Anubis, Lord of the Sacred Land,
daughter Uayt(?), her daughter Ta-nehsi (the Ophois (Upuat) in Abydos, Thoth, leader of the
Negress), her daughter Nefert-ari, her daughter gods, Ptah, the successor of Ra, Heqy in Abydos,
Ta-nebt, her daughter Isis, her daughter the great Neshem (?) boat, lord of eternity, and
Nehay." Many of the names occur in the the gods who are in Hades." XXIst Dyn.
family of Kameses II. Stela, " The sistrum-player of Amen-ra, the
Lower end of a limestone coffin sculptured sister of the king, the daughter of the king, the
with two apes adoring; that on the left, mother of the Adorer of the god Pa-abt-ta-mer,
"Adoring Ra Harmachis, the great god," on deceased, whose good name was Meresenapdu,"
the right " Adoring
Atum, Khepra in his boat, adores " Ra, great god, lord of heaven, he who is
the great god." over all the gods." XXVth Dyn. (?).
The chief captain Hat-pa-gath-terer,

Pl. XXXI. Stela, "The divine father of whose good name is Ai'-pa-ankh qenqen-f (?),"
Anhert Zed-Anhert-auf-ankh, son of the divine adores Osiris. XXVth Dyn. (?).

father of Anhert Bak-Mut" offers to "Osiris Stela. " The third prophet of Anhert
Khentamenti, Lord of Abydos," and Isis. (Onouris) Pepen-anhert offers to the deceased
XXIInd Dyn.(v). Min and the lady of the house Riaa."' XVII I th

Stela (a hand copy of the lower lines in Dyn. (?).

pl. xxxiw). Pisebkhanu who, owing to the

semi-royal position of the Theban priests, styles Pl. XXXIII. Squatting statue of Sa-dep-ahu.
himself "son of the chief prophet of Amenra- "(1) May the king give an offering and
sonther," jus! as prince, is styled "son of the
,-i Anhert, god of gods, king of heaven, ruler of
king," adores Osiris, Horns and Isis. The man the two lands, universal lord, in every place of
1- ••the Osiris, son of the chief prophet of his, great god that (2) came into being of him-
Amonrasonther of A.a-qah(?), prophet of Min, self, creator who formed creators, a leader
and Isis of Coptos Pisebkhanu;" and prepared (P), coming forth from the primaeval
again, probably more correctly, "the son of the waters, giving light (3) to mankind, making
chief prophet of Amonrasonther, divine father brilliant his glory for his cycle of deities, and
of Amonrasonther in Aa-qah (?), propbet of by it they live and see.
Min. Horns mi, isis of Coptos, prophel of Ajnen
1 " (4) (May he grant) attendance to his call
Herenmakhera mi to the storehouse'),
lor food so that (?) he command aud the plan

never fail eternally, divinity in heaven, power 5. Alabaster canopic jar of "the priest, the
on earth, magic triumph in the underworld, superintendent of the oxen of Anhert, Neb."
(-5) renewal of life after burial (?). These things XVIIIth Dyn.
are the pension of one without blame, just (6) 6. Stuccoed box of son of Aufaa.
is he that receiveth it. He shall be honoured Late period.
in presence of the ancestors, his name shall exist 3. Stela of Khent-khety-m[hotep] son ofNesi-
remaining (7) as a monument, what he hath hor, son of Nesi-Min, son of Khentkhetymhotep.
done shall not be wholly undone his soul ; He was priest of Min, and bore many other
joineth (8) the owners of offerings, " welcome " to titles.His mother was named Muthotep (?), and
him is in the mouth of men, (9) and his image was musician of Min. Several curious religious
is among them (?). Pouring libations, there ceremonies are referred to in the inscription.
shall never again be an ending (?) ; (10) bring- See also pi. xxxv. 2, xli. 9, 10, 11, 12, 13.

ing offerings without ceasing. Every man of

knowledge puts (11) forth the book-roll to Pl. XXXIV. 1. Inscription in two columns
him. One kindly of heart was he, of winning of Sa-dep-ahu, whose statue is in pi. xxxiii.
(12) face; he was the heir of one excellent in He is here " praised by the lord of '
the Flourish-
character, he was (13) indeed the son that God ing in Years,' " which is probably an allusion to
giveth, whom he placed deep in his heart : Hatshepsut.
(14) his enlargement is to eternity, his hand is 2. Tablet of Zab, son of the chief of the
unbounded, he praised and there was no lack of goldsmiths Udaqtura, and the king's favourite
his gifts (?). Hepu. End of the Middle Kingdom.
"(15) The Osiris, the prince, superintendent 4. Table of offerings, mentioning " the
of the prophets in This of Ta-ur (the nome of of the prince, Aiemaatab." XHIth Dyn.
This) Sa-dep-ahu deceased. Fragments with dates in the reign
3, 5, 6, 7.
" (16) Behold thy heart, it shall lead thy other of a king not named, perhaps Thothmes III. or
parts, and they shall obey ; thou shalt have Rameses II. Each date is followed by the
water at command (IT) from the stream, and the picture of a royal statue.
north breeze that cometh forth from Natho :

Year xxi. 4th winter month, day 8. Statue.

thou shalt eat thy bread as thou desirest,
Year xxv. (?) 4th winter month, day 25.
(18) even as thou didst while thou wast upon
Statue of bronze.
earth: thou shalt gaze on Ra daily, (19) thy
face shall see Aten when he riseth : there shall
Year xxxviii. 1st summer month, day ....
be given to thee food in Heliopolis, the gifts
Year xxxix. 1st summer month.
(20) of This of Ta-ur : thou shalt reach the hall
Year xl. (?) 4th (?) winter month.
of the two Truths, the (21) Amahet shall open
to thee its gates, and thou shalt adore the god
Year xlvii. 4th winter month, day 2(i. Statue.
upon his throne. Thou shalt not be debarred
from the chariot, (22) thou shalt sail the boat
whither thou wilt, thou shalt plough in the field mentions thirty arums of land and hin-
of (23) Aru : thou shalt walk with those who measures of wine and milk, in similar columns.
accompany (24) the attendants of Horus." Probably these statues and the offerings for
XVIlIthDyn. them were dedicated in the temple at Abydos
4. Granite shabti of the "chief of the palace (?) on the dates named at the head of the columns.
of the king's wife, Amenemant." XVIIIth Dyn. 8. See pi. xxxi.

l'i.. WW. 1. [nscription oi a priest of the Pl. XLI. 1, t>. Amulets for Asteukhebt,
-tatucs of Nekhthorheb, etc. XXXth Dyn. •'
thou that comest to bind, thou shall not
J. [nscription of the priest Khent khemhotcp hind : thou that comest to dismiss, thou shall

already known from tin' stela in pi. xxxiii. not dismiss," etc. 2 is a similar amulet.

.">. Fragment of sculpture showing the "king's 3. " Tat " amulet inscribed for " the divine
son I'tah " aduring Ha. father of Amen, the steward Pa-ab-mer."
•1. Hvmns to the rising and the setting sun, 4. Fragment of coffin of the daughter of a
by a holder of many priesthoods named Ruru, king, otherwise unknown, named Mery-Amen
son of Aufankh (?) and Am. Horsiesi. Late period.
[nscription on wooden statuette of the 5. Shabti of the " priest of Sekhemt Huy,
lady Shepset-ta-pert. daughter of the priest of son of Thun.''

Amen Horsiesi, son of Amenemant. 7. Shabti of "the royal scribe Any," prob-
7. Fragment of inscription of the vizier ably that of the famous papyrus of the " Book of

Nespmete (?) cf. pi. xlii. the Dead," in the British Museum, in which he
S. Fragment naming the king Nebpehtira is entitled " royal scribe, superintendent of the

(Ahmes I.). storehouses of the Lords of This," etc.

8. Shabti of " the chief prophet of Osiris,
Pl. XXXVI. 1. Coffin of Hun. prophet of Thay."
the gods in the temple of the king, and prophet 9-13. Inscription on base and back of lime-
of the temple of Kameses II., etc. : he was son stone statuette of Khent-khety-m-hotep. See
of Hor-kheb and Ta-Ament. Late period. xxxiii. 3 and xxxv. 2.

2. Coffin of a priestess of Khentament named

Desnckht, daughter of the priestess Esoeri> and
ofHor, priest of Bast in AJbydos. Pl. XLII. The fragments of cartonnage
.">. Coffin of Tshemmin, daughter of Nephthys, from D 15 show a number of names and priestly
and of the scribe and priest Tutu. titles ; those from D 57 belong to the person
mentioned in pl. xxxv.. Xo. 7.
Pl. XI.. 5. Shabti of the scribe Panehem.
7, 15. Inscriptions of the " great favourite of
the god of his city Amenra in Karnak, the true Pl. XLIIL The inscribed wand gives the
scribe of the king whom he loves, superintendent personal name of a king of the Middle King-
of the granaries of all the gods, Amenemapt." dom, otherwise unknown. " The good god,
V 1". Amulets to face north and south (like lord of the two lands, lord of doing things,
xli. 1. 6) for the wazir Nes-ka-shuti. son of the Sun Seb-Kay, beloved of lsis the
Palette of Anhert-mes, witb the cartouche goddess (?)
of Thothmes 111., and inscribed with prayers
to Anhert, Thoth and Sesht. The scribe was These inscriptions collectively are an im-
seer of all things in This " and " superin- portant contribution to our knowledge of
tendent of the granaj the history and priestly inhabitants of Abydos,
11. From a statuette of "the scribe Thembu." but they must be collated with a vast amount
1_'. [vory penholder (?) of the wazir Pa-ser : of similar material before the information they
cartow he of Ri is< -II. contain can be made use of.
— ;;




1. XlXth — XXth Dyn. Shallow irregular name Min-mes ; a number of stained ivory
grave, with remains of two skeletons. pegs ; a fragment of stuccoed linen from a
Contained 8 or 9 boxes (wood decayed) of coffin, giving name Rui ; 2 alabaster
glaze ushabtis of Unnefer, Pau, Ankh-s-n- canopic jars and 4 heads.
mut and another ; few bronze model hoes, In the sand above the tomb a rough
axes, and adzes for use of ushabtis (xlv.). stela of Zed-anhur-auf-ankh (xxxi.). In a
3. XXVth Dyn. Tomb of Ast-n-Kheb, supplementary pit a fragment of cartonnage,
daughter of Shabaka, Contained 37 giving the name Bak-n-rui.
inscribed ushabtis (xxxix.) and 300 un- XVIIIth Dyn. In pit steatopygous puttery
inscribed ; set of broken alabaster canopic figure (1.); scarab of Amenhotep 11.:

jars ; fragments of inscribed coffin ;

upper plaque of Thothmes IV. ; upper part of
part of mummy ; skulls and bones of grotesque pottery figure, etc. (li.) ; within
several small animals. a relied chamber limestone statuette head
4. XVIIIth Dyn. Several stained ivory (xxxvii.).
lotuses, rosettes, etc. : 26 agate marbles XVII 1th Dyn. Limestone squatting statue
(xlix.). (xxxii.) and door-jamb (xxxiv. 1), of
6. XlXth — XXth Dyn. Stela of Kha-m-uas, Sa-dep-ahu ; limestone lintel of Min, with
with sister, 2 sons, grandson, and 7 wife Ryaa and son Pepen-anhur (xxxi.) ;

daughters (xxx.) ; upper part of a lime- alabaster canopic jar of Neb (xxxiii. 5)
stone ushabti ; 3 large unbaked clay scribe's palette in ebony of Anhur-ines,
ushabtis ; 3 glaze rings, one of Mut-nezemt, with cartouche of Thothmes III. (xl. 9)
wife of Horemheb (xlix.) ; glaze plaques pottery lion, gold rings, kohl- pots, etc.

from a draught-board (xlix.) ; set of (xlix.).

alabaster canopic jars. Re-used in XXVth Dyn. Broken stele

7. XXVth— XXXth Dyn. A broken lime- of Hat-pa-gath-serer (xxxi.) ; another of

stone stela (xxxiii. 3), marble sarcophagus Tura ; bronze spear-head (xlix.) ; tiny un-
(xxxv. 2), and limestone statuette (xli. 9, inscribed ushabtis.
in, 11, 12, 13), giving genealogy :
L0. XVIIIth Dyn. Fine glaze kohl-pot, with
Khenty-m-hotep animals in relief (xxxviii.).
Re-used in XXth— XXIInd Dyn. Num-
ber of rough pottery ushabtis of Zed-mut-

Nesi-her = Mut-hotep auf-ankh.

I I. XVIIth Dyn. Hedgehog pot ; blackened
Khenty-m-hotep ; limestone kohl-pot with scroll pattern
base of a granite statuette, giving the alabaster vases, etc. (1.).

: —


Re-used in \.\th— XXlInd Dyn. of uninscribed glaze ushabtis, Saitic type;

Number of glaze ushabtis. jasper " girdle tie " amulet ; set of limestone

Re used again inXXVth— X XXth Dyn. canopic jars; inscribed canopic box of X.
Broken stela of Rum (xxxv. !): number son of Auf-aa (xxxiii. 6).

of tiny uninscribed glaze ushabtis. Iu forecourt shallow grave. XI Xth

13. XYlIlth Dyn. In fore-court two sand- XXth Dyn., containing a number of glaze
stone pillars, 35 in. high, hollowed out ;it ushabtis of Unnefer.
one end, and possibly used for offerings; 16 B. XVIIIthDyn. Pit, Limestone ushabti
Hi one of these there was a very worn of Hu-ma-y (xxxix.) ; several alabasters
inscription, giving the name Amen-m- (xliv.).

apt (?) : also a fine alabaster canopic head. C. XXVth Dyn. Dome tomb. Fragments
In the pit two clay tablets of Nes-qa- of wooden coffin, 3 alabaster canopic jars,
shuti (xl. S and 10) : a small green glaze and a quantity of glaze ushabtis, all giving
pot : a bronze ring plated with gold, and a the name Menth-hotep.
few XVIIIth Dyn. pots. D. XXVIth—XXXth Dyn. Low vaulted
In the pit there were also a number of chamber. Plaster cast of a seated figure
tiny glaze ushabtis : and partially over the of Isis (xxxvii.).
pit there was built, probably iu XXVth 17. XVIIIthDyn. A. Bronze ring of Akhen-
Dyn., one of the dome structures described aten ; scarabs of Thothmes III.; five-fold

in Chap. xii. wooden kohl-tube, &c. (1.).

11 B. XlXth Dyn. Large glaze " tat " amulet, B. Broken wooden ushabti of Pedu-n-neb-
unbaked clay statuette base and a quantity tani (xxxix.) ; alabaster kohl-pots, etc. (1.).

of glaze ushabtis, all inscribed with the ILL XlXth Dyn. Broken limestone stela,

name Pa-ab-mer ; clay model boats showing the royal son Ptah .... adoring
alabaster dishes, etc. (li.). Ra (xxxv. 3) ; horse's head in red glass ;

Re-used in XXth—XXIInd Dyn. Glaze dog's head in glaze ; clay model boat ;

ushabtis of Hora, Pau-her, Ankh-s-n-mut. inscribed tablet (Hi.).

In saud above pit, thrown over from a 21. Xlllth— XVIIth Dyn. Group of charac-
neighbouring earlier tomb, part of a lime teristic intermediate Xllth — XVIIIth Dyn.
stone stela of Zab, naming his father. pottery (liv.).

Udaqtura, and his mother, Hepu (xxxiv. 2). 22. Tomb of Pisebkhanu, son of Ra-men-
E. XVIIIthDyn. Fineglaze Bes with inlaid kheper, of the XX 1st Dyn. Contained a
paste (xlv.j: stone heart-amulet, covered fine stela (xxxi.), a stamped brick, and a
with gold foil : scarab with 1 cartouches number of glaze ushabtis (xxxix.), all

of Thothmes 1 1 1. giving his name.

Re-used in XXth Dyn. Quantity of 21. XXth Dyn. Number of glaze ushabtis of
painted pottery canopic vases and potterj Hor-si-ast and llor-iu.
and glaze ushabtis, giving names Ta du-ast, 2.'). XI Uth— XVIIIth Dyn. Fragments of
Nes-ta-maat-ra, Amer-amen,Bak-n-khonsu, wooden coffin and pottery canopic
Thent-amen. jars of Senb-hena-n-f, father Amen-si,
15. XXVth— XX Xth Dyn. Fragments of mother Ab-mu (xliv.).

wooden coffins and cartonnage, giving 28. XXth Dyn. Number of painted pottery
les Nekht, Ankh-pef, and Ta-kharu canopic jars, and glaze and pottery
lii.); scraps ofpainted papyrus ; quantity ushabtis, giving the names Pa-pet-pet,
"; ;;


Hor-heq, Bak-mut, Ta-kharu, Heqt, and giving name Neb-ankh ; alabaster handled
Hati ; large glaze plaque bead giving the vase ;
glaze pectorals and stone heart-
name ... pa-ankh ; knob of banded blue, amulets ; openwork glaze ring ;
yellow, white and black glass ; several scarab with bronze ring ; bronze vase with
glaze rings, etc. (xlv.). Also a fragment papyrus handle (lii.) ; number of painted
of limestone, giving the name Usertesen- pottery canopies and glaze and pottery
senb, son of the royal daughter Nub-m-an. ushabtis, giving names Hora, Pa-heq,
29. Mastaba of XVIIIth Dyn. Ankh-nefer-m-ryaa, Hor-ast-at-f, Ta-rebat,
B. Intrusive dome-tomb of XXVth — Hathor, Meh-hat, Ta-nefer, Unnefer, Thent-
XXXth Dyn. ta-urt, Mer, Si-ast, Mer-su-tef, Meh-kha,
D. XVIIIth Dyn. Pit. Gazelle vase and Tahuti-m-heb, Pa-iuf, Re-iati.
upper part of a female figure vase in 37. XlXtb— XXth Dyn. Re-used XXth—
pottery; 24 flint and 2 ivory arrow-heads ;
XXVth Dyn. Ivory disc with engraved
20 glaze draughtsmen ;
gold dummy horse ;
glaze pectoral and heart-amulet
amulet - holder ; ivory dish and lotus ivory comb (xlv.) ;
painted pottery canopic
column ; alabaster vases, etc. (xlviii.). vases aud glaze and pottery usbabtis, giving
lie-used in XXIInd Dyn. Two open- names Si-ast, Pa-ankh-m-ast, Ast-m-kheb,
work sacred eye-amulets (xlviii.), and Sena, Asar-m-heb, Nes-thy, Pa-unsh, Ba-
sevei'al unbaked pottery usbabtis of Ast-m- saa, Ba, Nefcr-y.
Ivheb. 38. XlXth — XXth Dyn. Stone heart-amulets,
Ml. XHIth— XVIIth Dyn. Fragments of a glaze pectorals, etc.
wooden coffin and of a broken limestone 41 . XHIth— X Vllth Dyn. Fragment of paint-
stela (xxxviii.), give the name Hor-senb-ti, palette gives cartouche of Sebekhotep III.
son of Ren-senb. 44. XlXth Dyn. Ivory pen-holder (?) of the
32. XlXth— XXth Dyn re-used in XXth— : wazir Pa-ser, giving cartouche of Ramses
XXVth Dyn. Number of painted pottery II. (xl. 12) ; 2 slips of wood, inscribed
canopies, and glaze and pottery ushabtis, with the name and titles of Amen-m-apt
giving names Thent-hor, Nu-ast, Hor-iu, (xl. 7 and 15) ; fragment of a musical
Hent-mer, Nesi-ny, Ankh-s-ast, Pa-neter- instrument with alternate ivory and ebony
hon, Pa-nekht, Hor-ankh, Mer-su-tef, Un- pegs (xlii.) ; broken wooden ushabti with
nefer, Hemt-neter, S-ankh-sahti, Hent-yit name and titles of Pa-nehem (xl. 5) ; few
glaze pectorals, rings, scarabs and amulets ;
large painted pottery ushabtis with name
small ivory Hathor figure, two red porphyry Un-nefer (?).

heart-amulets, etc. Re-used XXIInd— XXVth Dyn. Number

33. XlXth Dyn. Fragments of inscribed of tiny glaze ushabtis of Ta-ast.
coffin of Mer ; 4 small pottery canopic 45. Dome tomb, XX Vth-XXXth Dyn. Num-
jars ; bronze vase with lotus handle ; 2 ber of small uninscribed glaze ushabtis
bronze spear-heads ;
jasper " girdle-tie severalmummied hawks and cats 2 ;

amulet, etc. (xliv.). wooden " ba " birds glaze beads from ;

Re-used in XXVIth Dyn. Sealing of mummy wrappings.

Psamtek ;
quantity of small uninscribed 47. Dome tomb, XXVth-XXXth Dyn. Set of
ushabtis. blue glaze genii and scarab (lii.) ; frag-
35. XlXth— XXth Dyn. Re-used XXth— ments of several painted wooden coffins ;

XXVth Dyn. Broken limestone lintel, wooden coffin mask, etc.

— ;

LOO EL A.Mi; Ml AM) Ainnos.

18. Wllltli Dyn. Remains of 3 elaborately kohl-pots, one with spiral pattern ; 2
carved wooden chair-legs ; upper part of a scarabs ofThothmes III. alabaster dish ; ;

limestone ushabti of Hemt-neter ; 6 bronze tiny wooden kohl-pot (li.).

mortices (?) ; stone heart-scarab of Heru-s- 60. —

XXth XXIInd Dyn. Number of ushabtis
mes (1.). of Zed-ast-auf-ankh.
Re-used X \th— XXIInd Dyn. Two 62. XHIth— XVIIth Dyn. Ebony tray of
sets of limestone canopic jars, 3 in each Imaat-ab ; ivory shell (xliv.) ; limestone
set being dummies. table of offerings, giving same name
Also in pit a large stela of Pa-apt-ta-mer, (xxxiv. 4) ; fragments of wooden coffin,

X.Wth Dyn. giving name Beba.

51. XlXth Dyn. Painted limestone ushabti 63. XXth — XXIInd Dyn. Hathor cow amulet,
of Pa-ser (xxxix.) ; fragments of wooden vulture, " tat " and feathers in gold ; silver

coffin of Henut-ta ;
painted wooden rosettes and electrum beads (Hi.) ; 3 clay
ushabtis of Kha-m-ua and Sep-nefer ; 3 statuette bases, inscribed with the name of
wooden chair-legs ;
quantity of glaze rings, Ast-n-khebt (xli. 1 and 6).

one giving the name of Ramses II. 68. XHIth— XVIIth Dyn. Glaze scarab (liii.).

53. XlXth— XXth Dyn. Ivory lotus flower 71. XVth— XVIIIth Dyn. Small glaze sphinx,
and bud spoon ; small gold pectoral partially covered with gold foil (liii. 4)
inscribed with aniens ; tiny gold ring glaze scarab (liii. 5).

(xliv.). 76. Blackened limestone kohl-pot, with animal

Re-used in XXth— XXVth Dyn. figures (xlvii.).
X umber of glaze ushabtis, giving names 77. XVIIIth Dyn. Fine bronze mirror with
Zed-khonsu, Neb-nehi, Zed-bast-s-ankh, decorated handle ; bronze knife with hook
Xesi-ga-shu, Ra-ma-ka, Ast-kheb. handle ; wooden decorated case, use un-
57. XXVth— XXXth Dyn. A broken lime- known ;
glaze figure of Isis and Horus
stone stela (xxxv. 7) ; and pieces of alabaster vase, etc. (li.).

cartonnage which give the names Nes-p- 78. Xlllth— XVth Dyn. Ebony wand of King
mete, Xesi-khonsu, and Shepses-ta- Seb-ka-y (xliii.) ; small limestone stela
(xlii.) ; fragments of wooden coffin and a with large anJeh cut out of the centre,
number of ink-written glaze ushabtis, giving the names Sebek-hotep and Neferu-
giving name Ta-kha-au-n-bast lower part ; ptah (xliii.) ;
group of pottery (liv.).

of a limestone sarcophagus (xxx.) ;

gold 7!). Xlllth— XVIIth Dyn. Three broken
wrist-band with lapis lazuli plaque; lapis ivory wands ;
quantity of glazed beads and
lazuli scarab ; inscribed clay statuette amulets (xliv.); white-spotted pottery
I tases ;
remains of dried sycamore wreaths. rattle with animal head (liv.).

58. XX 1st XXIInd Dyn. Bases and parts 81. Xlllth— XVIIth Dyn. Quantity of car-
of the figures of 3 wooden statuettes of nelian, amethyst, garnet and glaze beads
Shepset-ta-pert, daughter of Hor-si-ast, silver and copper bracelets and clasps
and granddaughter of Amen-m-ant (xxxv. (xliii.) ; small bronze mirror ; serpentine,
5); several broken "ba" birds and uraei alabaster and blue marble kohl-pots.
in w 1. 84. Xlllth—XVIIth Dyn. Ivory lion (xliii.);

Re-used X X hid I — X XVth Dyn. Num- pottery rattle (liv.).

ber of tiny glaze ushabtis of Sit-mes (?). 88. XIII th— XV 1 1 th Dyn. Alabaster kohl-pot
59. .Wllltli Dyn. Two blackened limestone with ring-stand base ; limestone kohl-pot
;; ;;


2 broken limestone statuettes ; bronze uninscribed stone heart-scarabs ; two small

cylinder from axe-handle (?) (xliii.). wooden genii.
90. Xlllth— XVIth Dyn. Blundered scarab 102. XVIIIth Dyn. Blue glass bead of
of Shesha (liii. 2) ; fragments of " Pan- Amenhotep I. glaze scarabs of Thothmes I. ;

grave " pottery. and III. 7 gold and 2 electrum rings


92. Xlllth— XVIIth Dyn. Base of blue 2 electrum " coil " rings ; silver ring with
marble statuette, giving name Iu-f-senb scarab ; two scarabs in gold setting ; 36
limestone doll; tiny eight-fold scarab other scarabs and plaques ; blue paste
(xliii.). dish ; bronze cutting-out knife, fish-hooks,
93. Xlllth— XVIIth Dyn. Two hippopotamus- etc. (xlvi. and liii.) ;
group of pottery
head amulets in carnelian ; amethyst (lv.).

cynocephalus amulet ;
glaze, carnelian, 105. XVIIIth Dyn. Rough limestone doll ;

garnet and haematite beads ; fragments of blackened limestone kohl-pot ;

glaze beads
" Pan-grave " pottery. (xlviii.)two glaze scarabs (liii. 13).

94. Xlllth— XVIIth Dyn. Ebony scribe's L07. XVIIIth Dyn. Fine carnelian scarab of

palette ; blue marble kohl-pot ; limestone Aahmes Nefertari (liii. 7) ; 3 other glaze

figure of girl playing a harp ;

plaster scarabs ; alabaster vase and saucer ; car-

mask ; fragments of " Pan-grave " pottery nelian, glaze, glass and shell beads.

(xliii.). 108. XVIIIth Dyn. Blackened limestone vase

Re-used XlXth— XXth Dyn. Small and kohl-pot ; end of blue glazed meruit
glaze ushabtis of the " royal scribe " Ky- with name Kha-n-res (?) ; two small ivory
nefer ;
glaze and jasper beads and amulets ;
vases (xliv.) ;
plaque of Thothmes III.

glaze pectoral. glaze and jasper beads and amulets.

98. XVIIIth Dyn. Only pottery and beads 109. XVIIIth Dyn. Broken limestone stela

remaining. (xxxv. 6) ; alabaster kohl-pot ;

glaze, glass

Re-used XXIInd— XXVth Dyn. Five and carnelian beads.

bronze spear-heads; set of wooden genii 110. XIII XVIIth Dyn. — Green jasper scarab
(lii.) ; 2 tiny glaze ushabtis. with name (?) and trees ; bronze spear-
99. XVIIIth Dyn. Glaze inlay from the head (xlvii. and liii. 3).

top and sides of a draught-board, with Re-used later (?). Alabaster canopic
conical and reel-shaped men (li.) ; small head.
ebony object of unknown use, giving the 111. XVIIIth Dyn. Double wooden kohl-
name Mer-maat ; scarab of Thothmes III. tube, with ivory lid and ebony stick

on silver ring ;
plaster mask, etc. (xlvii.). broken glaze disli ; o glaze scarabs, one

99 A. XXth— XXIInd Dyn. Shallow grave. with the name of Thothmes III. ; duck
Number of glaze ushabtis of Mut-n-ast inscribed Ba-mery-ankh (liii. 6) ;
plaque of
uninscribed stone heart-scarab ; set of Thothmes III. (xlvii.); model bronze spear-
wooden genii. head ; bi'onze fish-hooks; glaze, carnelian

100. XVIIIth— XI Xth Dyn. Stone heart- and amethyst beads, etc.
scarab of Si-anhur (liii. 1(>) ; alabaster vase 112. XVIIIth Dyn. Limestone head-rest; 4
and dish (xxxviii.) ;
-1 glaze scarabs (liii. 11). glaze scarabs (one gold-plated and one
101. XVIIIth Dyn. Two glaze scarabs, one giving name of Thothmes III.) ;
gold ring ;

giving name of Thothmes I. limestone kohl-pot; carnelian and glaze

Re-used XXIInd— XXVth Dyn. Two beads ; tiny gold Bes amulet.


113. X \' T ritb Dyn. Lower part of squatting Thothmes III.) ; wooden kohl-tube ; large
limestone statuette of Tkernbu (xl. 11): ivory bracelet ; small carnelian scarab
2 blackened limestone kohl-pots; 2 alabaster glaze and carnelian beads and amulets (li.)
kohl-pots 3 glaze scarabs
; glaze " eye ;
wooden mask and hands holding uas and
amulet with cartouche of Thothmes III. ;
cmkh from coffin.

bronze tweezers, etc. (xlvii.). 118. XVIIIth Dyn. Bronze cylindrical vase
111. XVI ILth Dyn. Four gold fish amulets ;
4 glaze scarabs (one mounted in gold)
scarabs of Thothmes III. 2 bronze spear-
; bronze hook and model spear-head (xlvi.)

heads ;
glaze scarab on bronze ring ;
glaze four-fold wooden kohl-tube glaze, ;

and carnelian beads, etc. and carnelian beads and amulets.

115. XVIIIth Dyn. For groups of objects 119. Limestone ushabti of Sen-nefer, in pottery
see pi. xlvii. case with hoes, yoke and baskets, and
Re-used XXth — XXIIndDyn. Number brick-mould (xxxix.) ; 3 alabaster vases ;

ui' small glaze ushabtis. blackened limestone monkey kohl-pot

1 16. XVIIIth Dyn. Groups of larger objects bronze tweezers ; clay doll a number of

on pi. xlvi. : glaze kohl- pot with animals lead net-sinkers (xlviii.) ; one carnelian
carved in open work (xxxviii.) ; several scarab and several glaze scarabs and plaques,
gold and electrum rings ; 3 glaze scarabs two with name of Thothmes III. (liii.).

and a plaque of Thothmes III. ;

glaze 120. XVIIIth Dyn. Two large stone heart-
scarab of Hatshepsut ;
glaze draughtsman scarabs, one bearing the name Tetafi (liii.

with Bes top (liii.) ;

group of pottery 15 and 10 and xxxviii.); several glaze
(lv.). scarabs (2 Thothmes III.) : 3 gold rings
1 1 7. XVIIIth Dyn. Five glaze scarabs (one of small bronze figure of Neit, etc.



Bronze, axe-head of
,, catting out knives of
„ cylinders of
„ fish-hooks of
,, frames of
hook of

,, kohl-sticks of
i u i nor of

„ model tools of

„ mortices of
razor of
ring of

,, rivets of

,, small objects of
,, spear-heads of
„ tweezers of .

,, ushabti of .

,, vases of
Button, glaze .

Calf- vase

Canopic jars of glazed pottery

„ of pottery

,, of stone

Carnelian, amulets of
„ beads of .

,, rings of .

Casing of pyramid .

Clay, doll of

„ statuette of

,, tablets of
Chair legs
Contracted position of burials
Copper, bracelets of
„ model bags of
Crocodile of ivory
Cross-hatched pottery
Cutting-out knives .

Cynocuphalus kohl pots

De Morgan, M.
Dendereh quoted
tepth of pits .

Diospolis Parva quoted
Dog's head in glaze .

1NDKX. 105

LOS EL ami;. Ml ami ai;yih>n.

bfastabas, dates of

,, height of
Men-kheper ra
Mnitli hotep
M. .
(A) .

Mer fB)
Mer-maal .

Metal, objects in
Min, worship of
Min (private name)
Min-mes .

boats of clay
Murray, Miss
Musical instrument
Mut-n-ast .

Myivs, Mr. J. L.

Naqada quoted
Naville, M.
Neb .

Xeb-nehi .

Xefcrhotep 64, 71, 84,
Nefer-y .

Nekht .

Nephthys .

Nes-ka shuti
Nes-ta i'


Nesv-ny .


Net- sinkers
INDEX. 107
I.I, \ \li;.\ll AND ABYDOS.





~j$ ^p


1 20
ji <
; .©

fJrt- tin OQn ^/

1: 20


RtC£.ss uiUk Jnttrmtnr

Tit i. iuj.

17 \\
) PotPfyS

Tomlr &ZS
Tomb- S.IIB

A iUut
U. Stent trust Cyp*. HlJ


RSI Eh *>* Tomlr a ?6

To mir b 132
Janty ftjt

^ja p, 3 d « .

i wu.n«I mariis

* S&/1 puhttX.


-it a a
3<?ch l-S CoocrtJ w<^C
ni</ a*u4 Tuma vuur

1 ( lujkws
ww m 9


cUcmk »i«t
Jn. IM^nJ, 1^0 milt
Unn. firtt SlI'-S'PlJ O-ntl Carn.t/*an. ?\

M sUh. pcJlttH
1 sjiw^ nlfttttty ioxts

a Off** junk
<"Wcry IrmilUt
ST Stutd. tffturmul. i(vnt

QKir 0«y .

F 2.3C . ,?



1 : 2 EL AMRAH. XII.

lb yc

1 :4





R50 R41&




L63 L53*


L33<* L33/ L33<? L44<-

(ef. L 72)
^ /
nB 81c

B 31a B27h

B78d P96*

P11e P26«

P84* P80
B 2b
(of F85)



,>!' '.*'(«+ :


m i

NWMIfir m

/ 1




4 5

QU \l



Brick '":,
Stone , r , l|
Scale 1:200 and Sand


y .*-


I «£9
1 : 1000 ABYDOS.


3-4 INCHES N. OF 57

10 ^^«





G] -

,i|»lt'VTO umm el qaab


d lt«~. /.*nd»t>.


1 :200


By tk«

D. D,



B 8


311 f«»ni£«j
D Ik







J)i-7 S£C flOW a C

T>S7 RA*

D.J? C«»niEH


tA-^mwnmci A*~~
M ^^^ ^^pr

f \/~
\ JSmm ft I If) I

mvm A-* ,. - m 1
II mt
SvWJ V-f^mSvifliiTS^
MvxlI X 25! /C'BX^^SM?^
££/£n/ft ^l k> mtmA^imk
t WTtJLT SE€^lE*»tf ifi^nk/i
ii^HnXi iw ss<.r<L¥k*3U
^.LT "T ^Llllig/f^

«*m?1,ti* n
mW S Rrt«»»»&'l&»*4itoai




7)!) JiiuLi (-J



Z^jLSig,^g^^ETl iiuSia

^ £7m inuw ygiia r/saif


- n

D 22
Etc. XXXV.
1 :4
1 :4

T^g* TJTik- * ***~£yywi r





kk. Jm
s *

%-Ju ^ki^M* • ( ft


~^:«rrrjf MLf
1 :2



,E3lfM Jl

£3 O)

& & «=* ^ K?



U m

No <Q I

M ^ V

m F^

n A




gXclWS&Api £W#i



1 "^U.^



isaas^^ ^^^^««





j J J JjJ,
• ~
I = \
• 1
* * *• A
- .-•• • • •••ll/t}{

o Q o o oiljjrll'
ft: K
1 f
o o o o o Hit !l

I " W-rrr?"";'

D Hi 1:3

1 l>- Vvlf

D8 2:3

1 : 1



W (il m



1 : 6 ABYDOS.

Jctica CL^C(


9~ ^ If "S*

?£=< ^

«- At •= *=>


j: — °j

fTJ~ m.


3P ~-~. A_




DT Egypt Exploration Society

57 Memoirs
no. 23




Plalea (2 coloured).

. . W b Appendix by


[] IIETEP AT 8AQQAREH. Par! I. For 189

Hi. I
BP AT SAQQAREH. Part I!. For 1898-99

I \ Di G Davjes. :;i Plat

I! I
I: \ .i G Davii 3. 27 I

AWI. Pa II. For 1901-02 Uavibs.


I.— I'Mr. for 1883-84. By
• I— 'I '
. M Flinders 1' ruiE. !6Piati eeond Edition. 25a
"I.— '
-• ] w. Mil ii,iK. With Chapters by Cecil Smith,
n 25*.
By EnouAr.D Navillk.
Biblical '• fahpanhes ") and TELL NEBESHEM.
id \. 3 Mi i.ra). "I flatesand 1'laub. S

Bj '..: >-s A. Gardner and F. Ll. Griffith. 24 Plates and

M> 1: '
ViuC* O'. 'h\V. The Antiijuit;, if Toll-el- Yahfidiyeb.
and PJans. 25s.
md Plans. :.' ox.
^TW'O HI] | v. i.l. Griffith and W. M. Flinders Petiue.

V'AL I! \L1 Memoir for 1890-91. By Edouakd Nayille.


- I] • Jvavil... and THE TOMB OF PAHEBI AT

!so separately, THE TOMB OF I'AUKRI. By
hAHAKI Introductory. M ',.r ibJ: ouakii Naville. 15 Plates and Plans. 25*.
lKI l'-"t '' Naville. Plates I.-XXIV.
- ' ftp (3 coloured),
ptiou. Royal f lig 30 .

L BAHARI. Part II. Memoir foi 10° "•. Ry Edouard Navilte. Plates XXV.-LV. (2 coloured),


v and 37 other Plata

'' >' !P06-y/. By F.oo N/ville. Plates LVI.-LXXXVI.

u - is. Special Memoir,


for L898-99. tiy W. M.


II Memoir foi 19UU 1. By W. M.
Bi tte* "•>*.

on. By L Randaj \. C. Mac.


\i:tiu R 8. Hunt.

iid P. Gl fid A.RTHUR 8. Hunt

3. Hi sit, and D. G.

B. .
S Hunt, an,'

i and A ilUKT With

F. 1