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Earthquakes

Earthquakes are the vibrational events of the earth due to the release of
energy inside the earth suddenly which is characterized by broken rock
layers in the earth's crust. Energy accumulation that causes earthquakes
results from tectonic plate movements. The energy produced is emitted in all
directions in the form of wavesearthquake so that the effect can be felt to the
surface of the earth (BMKG). Earthquakes can also be caused by volcanic
activity, landslides and meteors who pounded the earth. According to the
theory of tectonic plates, the earth's crust is fragmented into several parts
called plates. The plates move with different directions and speeds. The
movement of the plate is caused by currents convection. The upper layer of
the earth consists of the lithosphere and asthenosphere. Lithosphere has
greater density, easily broken, and rigid. Asthenosphere has smaller density
than the lithosphere, high temperature and thick. Consequence the continual
movement of the earth's rotation causes currents in the asthenosphere high
temperature. This current is called a convection current, which moves from
high pressure to low pressure place. The asthenosphere movement will
move the lithosphere floats on it, consequently the lithosphere in the form of
plates will move.
There are three possible movements of one tectonic plate relative to the
plate others, namely when the two plates are away from each other
(spreading), mutually close (collision) and slide each other (transform).

If two plates collide, the boundary area between the two plates will stress
occurs. The voltage occurs continuously and solarge so that it exceeds the
power of the earth's crust. This resulted in the occurrencefracture on the
earth's crust in the weakest area. The broken skin of the earth willreleasing
energy to return to its original state. This energy release event called
earthquake.
Earthquakes which are destructive and natural phenomena causing
disaster can be classified into four types, namely

a. Volcanic Earthquake (Volcano)

This earthquake occurs due to magma activity, which is common before the
volcano erupted. If the activity gets higher then it will causing an explosion
that will also cause it to occur earthquake. The earthquake was only felt
around the volcano.

b. Earthquake Tectonics
This earthquake is caused by tectonic activity, namely shifting plates
sudden tectonic plates that have the power from very small to the very
large. This earthquake caused a lot of damage or natural disasters on
earth, the vibration of a strong earthquake can spread throughout part of
the earth.

c. Earthquake Collapse
This earthquake usually occurs in the limestone area or in the area mining,
these earthquakes are rare and local

Artificial earthquake
Artificial earthquakes are earthquakes caused by activities from humans,
such as blasting dynamite, nuclear or hammer that is struck on the surface
of the earth.

Based on its strength or magnitude (M), earthquakes can be divided into:


A. The earthquake is very large with a magnitude greater than 8 SR.
b. Earthquakes are large between 7 and 8 SR.
c. Earthquakes damage the size between 5 and 6 SR.
d. Earthquakes are between 4 and 5 SR in size.
e. Small earthquakes with magnitudes between 3 and 4 SR.
f. Micro earthquakes that are between 1 and 3 SR.
g. Ultra micro earthquakes with quantities smaller than 1 S
Earthquake Source

As a result of the movement of the plate then around the plate boundary will
accumulates energy, and if the rock layer has not been able to withstand it
then energywill be released which causes a break or deformation in the layer
Earth's crust and tectonic earthquakes. Besides that due to movement the
plate was broken (fault) in the upper layer of the earth's crust which is second
generation of tectonic earthquakes. So the sources of the earthquake its
existence is on the border of the plate plate tectonics and faults active.

Indonesia is one area that is very active towards earthquakes, because it is


located at the confluence of the three main tectonic plates and one tectonic
plate small. The three tectonic plates are Indo-Australian tectonic plates,
plates Eurasia and the Pacific plate and small plates of the Philippines. Indo-
Australian Plate moves to infiltrate under the Eurasian plate, so does the
Pacific plate move to the west. The meeting of the Indo-Australian and
Eurasian tectonic plates is at sea is a source of shallow earthquakes and
infiltrates northward so that on land to the north around Java - Nusa
Tenggara is the source of the earthquake medium and deep.

Shallow earthquakes in the eastern part of Indonesia besides being


associated with the meeting plate (trench) is also caused by active faults,
such as fractures Palu Koro, Sorong fault, Seram fault, and others. Some
places in Sumatra,
Java, Nusa Tenggara, Maluku, Sulawesi and Irian are vulnerable to
earthquake disasters both direct and indirect, such as tsunamis and
landslides.