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(1)

Class Test Solution (OCF + Hydrology + Irrigation)


3-4-16
Answer key
1. (c) 26. (c) 51. (b)

2. (b) 27. (d) 52. (c)

3. (c) 28. (c) 53. (a)

4. (c) 29. (b) 54. (b)

5. (d) 30. (b) 55. (a)

6. (b) 31. (c) 56. (c)

7. (b) 32. (d) 57. (d)

8. (b) 33. (b) 58. (b)

9. (b) 34. (c) 59. (a)

10. (b) 35. (d) 60. (c)

11. (a) 36. (b) 61. (c)

12. (d) 37. (a) 62. (a)

13. (b) 38. (c) 63. (b)

14. (d) 39. (d) 64. (b)

15. (c) 40. (c) 65. (b)

16. (c) 41. (c) 66. (c)

17. (b) 42. (a) 67. (c)

18. (c) 43. (d) 68. (a)

19. (b) 44. (b) 69. (d)

20. (c) 45. (a) 70 (a)

21. (d) 46. (c) 71 (d)

22. (d) 47. (b) 72. (b)

23. (b) 48. (a) 73. (d)

24. (a) 49. (d) 74. (d)

25. (b) 50. (c) 75. (c)


(2)
1 (c) 90% of initial capacity = 0.9 × 4 × 106 = 36 × 7. (b)
105 m3
Volume of sediment deposited annually till 90% 8. (b)
of initial capacity is filled 9. (b)
= Annual sediment inflow × trap efficiency
10. (b)
= 4× 104 × 0.9 = 36 × 103 m3
 Number of years during which 90% of initial 11. (a) Average thickness of apron, T = 1.9 t
capacity shall be filled is given by t thickness of pitching on the river side
Probable life of reservoir t = 0.06 × (Q)1/3
5
36  10 T = 1.9 × 0.06 × (5000)1/3
= 3
 100 years

R
36  10
T  1.95 m  2m
2. (b)
Average width of apron = 1.5 D
3. (c)

TE
D = .5 R – y (average)
4. (c)
R  0.47 (Q / f )1/3
2
5. (d) Perimeter P = b  2y 1  n
= 0.47 × (5000)1/3 = 8.04 [take, f = 1 ]
P = 22  3.25  2.5 × 2 width =1.5 × (1.5 × 8.04 – 5) = 10.60 m
AS
P = 31.01  10 m
12. (d)
P = 4.75 Q 13. (b)
P2 = (4.75)2 × Q 14. (d) Using the conveyance and slope curves,
M

the discharge at any stage is calculated as


(31.01)2
Q =  42.64 cumecs Q = K Sf
4.752
1
Sol. 6. (b) Given QA = QB; fA > fB where K = AR2/3
n
S

1/6
 Qf 2  n = Manning’s roughness
 V =  
 140  A = Area of cross-section
IE

R = Hydraulic radius
and P = 4.75 Q
 A and R are functions of the stage, the
VA > VB ; PA  PB value of K is also a function of stage.
Since Q is same, AA < AB Q1 Sf1
A
 Q2 = Sf2
Since, R = ; R A  RB
P
Sf2
Hence channel B has more hydraulic radius for  Q2 = Q1 S
f1
the same wetted perimeter, this happens only
when channel B has more depth. Hence option 6000
B is correct. = 142 
3000
= 200.82 m3/s
(3)
2m Catchment area = 144 km2
 Volume of surface runoff
15. (c)
1
d = 0.9 m = × 80 × 3600 × 50
2

1 80  3600  50
 Rainfall excess, ER = 2 
 v 0.2d = 0.6 m/s 144  106

and v 0.8d = 0.4 m/s = 0.05 m

 Average velocity of flow at the section = 5 cm

v 0.2d  v 0.8d 19. (b)


v = = 0.5 m/s
2 Volume of surface runoff

R
 Discharge through the channel, 1
=  144  3600  23 m3
1  2
Q =   2  0.9   0.5 ER = 1 cm
2 

TE
= 0.45 m3/s  Area of catchment
1 144  3600  23  100
= 
2 1
16. (c) Q = K Sf
= 596.16 × 10 m2
6

where K = Conveyance coefficient. = 596.16 km2


AS
Q2 S2 20. (c)
Q1 = S1
1
Volume of surface runoff = T  3600  10
K is the same for the both cases as the 2 b
stage is constant. ER = 1 cm
Q2 6000 Area of catchment = 90 km2
M

= 1 1
173 2000  T  3600  10  90  106 
 Q2 = 300 m3/s. 2 b 100
 Tb = 50 h
17. (b) Rainfall = 2.7 cm 21. (d)
S

Loss @ 0.3 cm/h for 3 h = 0.9 cm ER of 1h UH = 1 cm


 Effective rainfall, ER = 2.7 – 0.9 = 1.8 cm Volume of runoff = Area under 1h UH
IE

 DRH of the storm has peak = 200 – 20 1 1 1 1 1 1 


= 1 3600   3  3  5   5  4  4  2  2  1   1
= 180 m 3/s 2 2 2 2 2 2 

= 54,000 m3
180
 3h UH has peak = = 100 m3/s
1.8  Catchment area represented by this UH

50 m3/s 54,000  100


=
1
18. (c)
= 5.4 × 106 m2
= 5.4 km2
0h 20 h 80 h
DRH
(4)
Time (h) Ordinate Ordinate of Ordinate of col. 2 + Ordinate of  Equilibrium discharge of S-curve
of 1h UH 1h UH lagged 1h UH lagged col. 3 3h UH =
(m3/s) by 1 h by 2 h + col. 4 (col. 5)/3
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) QS = 2.778 A/D m3/s
0 0 — — 0 0
1 3 0 — 3 1 360
2 5 3 0 8 2.67
= 2.778  = 250.02 m3/s
4
3 4 5 3 12 4
4 2 4 5 11 3.67 25. (b)
5 1 2 4 7 2.33
6 0 1 2 3 1 The equivalent runoff coefficient,
7 0 1 1 0.33
8 0 0 0 0.4  0.3  0.6  0.7
Ce =  0.54
22. (d) 1

Total rainfall of 4h storm = 7 cm 26. (c)

R
Loss @ 0.25 cm/h for 4h = 1 cm The equivalent runoff coefficient,

 Effective rainfall of the storm = 7 – 1 = 6 cm 10  0.7  20  0.1  50  0.3  20  0.8


Ce =  0.40
100

TE
 Peak ordinate of 4h UH = 80 m3/s 27. (d)
 Peak ordinate of 4h DRH = 80×6 = 480 m3/s Area of watershed, A = 90 ha = 0.90 km2
Base flow = 20 m3/s Runoff coefficient, C = 0.4
 Peak of the flood discharge due to the storm ict,p = 4.5 cm/h = 45 mm/h
AS
= 480 + 20 = 500 m 3/s Using Rational formula for peak discharge,
23. (b) 1 1 0.4
QP = Cict,p  A   45  0.9  4.5 m3 /s
For total depth of rainfall of 7.0 cm 3.6 3.6
28. (c)
Loss @ 0.25 cm/h for 8h = 2.0 cm
n = 50 years; T = 100 years
M

 Effective rainfall = 7.0 – 2.0 = 5 cm


Peak flow of flood hydrograph = 100 m3/s The required probability = qn
 Peak flow of DRH due to 5 cm excess rainfall 1 1
p=   0.01
= 100 – 20 = 80 m3/s T 100
 q = 0.99
S

 Peak flow of DRh due to 1 cm excess rainfall


 The required probability = 0.9950 = 0.605
= 80/5 = 16 m3/s
For total depth of rainfall of 9.5 cm of 8h 29. (b)
IE

duration, loss @ 0.25 cm/h for 8h = 2.0 cm T = 1000 years


 Effective rainfall = 9.5 – 2.0 = 7.5 cm 1 1
 p=   0.001
 Peak flow of DRH due to 7.5 cm excess rainfall T 1000
= 16 × 7.5 = 120 m3/s 30. (b)
Base flow = 20 m3/s Volume of water lost = 100 × 106 × 0.2 × 0.15
 Peak flow of flood hydrograph due to 9.5 = 3 Mm 3
cm of rainfall = 120 + 20 = 140 m 3/s. here Specific yield = 0.15
140  100
 % of flood peak =  100  40% 31. (c) Porosity, n = 0.35
100
Volume of saturated column aquifer = 1 ×
24. (a) 3 = 3m3
Area of catchment A = 360 km2  Volume of water stored in the saturated
Duration of unit hydrograph = 4h column = 0.35 × 3 = 1.05 m 3
(5)
32. (d)  If the probability of occurrence of drought
at an area is greater than 0.40, such an
When the flow is parallel to the stratification, the
area is called as chronically drought
equivalent permeability Ke
prone area.
n
 K iBi 3  30  2  10  5  20 IMD defines drought in any area when
1
n
 the rainfall deficiency in that area is >
Ke = 325
 Bi 26% of its long term normal. It is further
1 classif ied into moderate and sev ere
 21m/day drought depending upon whether the
deficiency is between 26 to 50% and
 Transmissibility, T = KB = 21 × 10 = 210 m2/
more than 50% respectively. For the
day
country as a whole, the area-weighted
33. (b) rainfall having normal of 88 cm also called

R
Initial capacity of the reservoir = 720 ha m Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR),
is considered when the rainfall deficiency
Sediment inflow = 0.1 × 100 = 10 ha m
exceeds 10% and when the area under
 Trap efficiency, t = 80% drought exceeds 20% of the total area of

=
Loss of capacity annually = 0.8 × 10 = 8 ha m
% Loss of original capacity
8
720
 100  1.11%

34. (c) Initial capacity of the reservoir = 12 Mm 3


TE 36. (b)
the plains in the country, such a situation
is considered as drought for the country
as a whole.
AS
The Probability density function has to satisfy
Final capacity of the reservoir = 6 Mm3 the condition that
Annual sediment yield = 0.1 × 400 = 40 ha m 

= 0.40 Mm3  f (x)dx = 1



Trap efficiency, t = 0.9
6 12
 Annual capacity loss of the reservoir with
M

2 2
 Kx dx   K(12  x) dx = 1
sediment = 0.9 × 0.4 = 0.36 Mm 3
0 6
 No. of years required to fill 6 Mm3 reservoir
capacity 72 k + 72 k = 1
6
= = 16.67 years  17 years
S

1
0.36 k 
144
35. (d) As per Indian meterological department
37. (a)
IE

Decrease from normal precipitation


< 25 Rational formula is
26-50% QP = CiA
> 50%
QP doesnot depend on time and if inten-
Classification
sity, i is same, then QP i.e., peak flow
No drought effect doesn’t change.
Moderate
Severe 38. (c) The Muskingum equation is used for rout-
ing of floods in river channels. This equa-
 If the drought occurs in an area with a tion is written as–
probability of 0.2  P  0.4 the area is
classified as a drought prone area. S = k [Ix  (1  x) Q]
(6)
39. (d) 2. Using field plots

Confining layers overlying or underlaying an 3. Using water budget equation


aquifer are seldom completely impermeable, 4. Using empirical equations-
instead most of them leak to some extent. It  Penman’s equation
is commonly known as leaky aquifer when  Blanney-criddle’s equation
an aquiterd is either on its top, or bottom or Dilution technique is used f or f low
on both sides.
measurement of small and turbulent streams.
40. (c) Snyder gave the synthetic unit hydrograph
theory in which he related v arious
Inflection point on the recession limb of a hydrograph parameters with the basin
hydrograph is the result of a change in the characteristics.

R
controlling physical process of the excess
precipitation flowing to the outlet i.e., it 43. (d) The flow is initially steady and uniform then
represent the end of baseflow. gradually varied flow sets in and flow

TE
becomes steady non-uniform.
41. (c)
Thereafter hydraulic jump starts and flow
Equation of current meter becomes unsteady non uniform.
V =aNs + b ... (i)
44. (b) Lengt h of j u m p = 6. 9 (y 2 –y 1 )
Here, [experimentally]
AS
V = Stream velocity at the instrument  L = 6.9 (2 – 0.2) = 12.42
location in m/s
 12 m
Ns = Revolutions per second of the current
45. (a)
meter
a, b = Constant of current meter
T
M

From (1)
12
0.25 = a × + b ... (ii)
50
30
0.46 = a × + b ... (iii)
50 1 2.8 m
S

From (2) & (3)


2
a = 0.583, b = 0.11
From (i)
IE

1/5
V = 0.583 Ns + 0.11  2Q2 
yc = 2.8m   2 

50  gm 
= 0.583 × + 0.11
1
60 where m = 2
= 0.6 m/s 1/5
 2Q2 
 2.8 =  
42. (a) -index is the average infiltration rate above  9.81  22 
which the total rainfall volume is equal to the Q 2/5 = 5.078
runoff volume. It is the average infiltration Q = 58.109 m 3/sec
rate during the period of rainfall excess. Specific energy,
Following are the methods to measure the (58.109)2
evapotranspiration (consumptive use)- E = 2
 2.8
1 
1. Using lysimeter   2.8 11.2  2  9.81
2 
= (2.8 + 0.7)m = 3.5 m
(7)

46. (c) A 5/3 /p2/3


w = 0.1364
. The most efficient Q1 = 141.6 1.0 / 0.025 141.6 / 29.59 2/3
triangular section has a 90° angle and 1
 0.0010 1/2 = 508.6 m3 / s
: 1 side slopes

1  A2 = 120  2.438    2.438   2.438  /


A =    d 2  d 2  = d ,pw
2

2 2 = 295.5 m2
=  2   d 2  = 2.828d,
 pw  2 = 120 + 2.4382  2.4382 = 123.4 m
5/3 2/3
 d2  /  2.828d = 0.1364,
d = 0.614m Q 2 =  295.5 1.0 / 0.040 295.5 / 123.4 2/3
47. (b)  0.0010 1/2 = 418.1 m3 / s
y1  v12 / 2g = y2  v 22 / 2g Q = Q1+Q2 = 508.6 + 418.1= 926.7 m 3/s

R
Q = y 1 b1 v 1 = y 2 b2 v 2 50. (c)
Solve these equations simultaneously : d 0 = Cc y = (0.85)(1.0) = 0.85 m
v2 = {(2g) (y1 – y2) / [1 – y2b2/ p1 /   v12 / 2g  z1 = p2 /   v 22 / 2g  z2  h2
y1b1)2]}1/2,
Q = y 2 b 2 v 2 = {(2g) (y 1 – y 2 )/

[1 – b22 y22 )]}1/2


= {(2) (9.807) (2 – 1.4)/[1/(32)
TE 2
0  0  6 = 0 + v t /  2   9.807   0.85  0

v t = 10.05 m/s
va = Cvv t = (0.95)(10.05) = 9.548
AS
(1.4)2–1/(4.5)2 (2)2]}1/2 = 16.3 m/s
m 3/s.
Q = Av = [(0.85)(1)](9.548) = 8.12
48. (a) m 3/s per meter of width
A = (3.6)(2.0) + (4.0 – 2.0) [(1.6 51. (b)
+ 3.6)/2] = 12.40 m 2 E1 = E3
v = (1.0/n)(R2/3)(s1/2) = Q/A = 30/
M

2
12.40 = 2.419 m/s y1  v12 / 2g = y3  v 3 / 2g

pw = 3.6 + 2.0 +  4.0  2.0 2   3.6  1.6 2 1  v12 /   2   9.807   = 0.30  v 32 /  2   9.807 
+1.6 = 10.03 m y1v 1 = y3v 3
S

R = A/pw = 12.40/10.03 = 1.236 m v1 = y3v 3/y1 = (0.30)(v 3/1) = 0.3000v 3


2.419 = (1.0/0.013)2/3(s)1/2 1 + (0.3000v 3 ) 2 / [(2) (9.807)] = 0.30 +
s = 0.000746
v32 /   2   9.807  
IE

This slope represents a drop of the channel


bottom of 0.000746 m per meter of length, or v3 = 3.88 m/s
0.746 m per kilometer of length. 52. (c)
49. (d) 2
1/2
2y4/y3 = –1 + 1  8  N F  
Q = (A)(1.0/n)(R2/3)(s1/2)  3

A1 = (12)(5 + 2.438)+ (2)(5 +2.438) (5 + NF = v / gy


2.438)/2– (2.438)(2.438)/ 2 = 141.6 m 2
(NF )3 = 3.88 /  9.807  0.30  = 2.26
(pw )1 ] =  5  2.438 2   5  2.438 2 +
2y4/(0.30) = –1 + [1 + (8) (2.26) 2] 1/2
12 + 52  52 = 29.59 m y4 = 82 cm
(8)
53. (a) v 22 v12
 = 0.15
V1 = q/y1 = 10/1.25 = 8.00 m/s 2g 2g
Fr = V / gy Q2 Q2
– = 0.15
Fr = 8.00 /  9.807 1.25  = 2.285 2g  (1.05  2)2 2g  (1.5  3)2

1/2 Q2 Q2
2y2/y1
2
= – 1 + 1  8  Fr 1   = 0.15
86.52 397.305
2y2/1.25 = – 1 + [1 + (8) (2.285) 2] 1/2 Q 2 = 16.59
y2 = 3.46 m Q = 4.07 m3/sec
V1y1 = V2y2 56. (c)
Considering on element of width dx

R
(8.00) (1.25) = (V2) (3.46)
V2 = 2.89 m/s From mass conservation equation
54. (b) Q + qdx = Q + dQ

TE
dQ
Fr = 2.89 /  9.807 3.46  = 0.496 q =
dx
Loss, Ej = (y2 – y1)3/4y2y1= (3.46–1.25)3/
[(4) (3.46) (1.25)] = 0.624 m q

E1 = y1 + v12 / 2g = 1.25 + 8.002 /


AS
[(2) (9.807)] = 4.51 m
Q Q+dQ
Percentage dissipation = Ej/E1 = 0.624/4.51
= 0.138 or 13.8 percent
55. (a)
Given,
M

dx
B = 3 m; y = 1.5 m; B´ = 2 m
dQ
1 2 – q =0
T.EL dx
v12 /2g v 22 /2g
0.15m 57. (d)
S

y = 1.8 m y2
v
Z = 0.3m F0 =
gy
IE

1/3
1 2  q2   q 
y0 =  2   F0 = 
y gy
As there is no loss of energy between section  F0 g   0 0 

1 & 2, writing energy equation 1/3



yc  q 2 /g  = F2/3
= 0
v12 v2 y0  q2 
1/3
 y1 =  Z + y + 2
2g 2 2g  2 
 F0 g 
Here, y1 =  Z + y2 + 0.15 yc
 = F02/3
y2 = y1 –  Z – 0.15 = 1.5 – 0.3 – y0
0.15 = 1.05 m
 yc = 0.6 × 22/3
v12 v 22 58. (b) Normal depth = y 0
Also,  0.15 =
2g 2g 1 5/3 1/2
q = y S
n 0 0
(9)
Case 4
1 5/3
1.5 = y  0.0004 1/2
0.02 0
y0 = 1.275 m
NDL
1/3
Critical depth = yc =  q2 / g 
NDL

1/3
  2 
=  1.5  = 0.612m
 9.81 

Depth of flow, Hence B –4


y = 0.9 m Correct answer is option (a)
Since, y0 > yc  mild slope 60. (c)

R
y0 > y > yc  M2 profile Refer to vertical line which cuts at y 1 and y3
in the specific force curve.
59. (a) Consider cases in list–II 61. (c)

CaseI

NDL
CDL
TE yc
S2

yn
AS
Steep NDL
Steeper
62. (a)
Hence C–1 (1) Specific force is minimum for a given
Case II discharge for critical flow.
M

Q2 T
(2)  1 for critical flow..
yn M2 gA 3

yc 63. (b)For known specific energy, discharge is


S

maximum.
Subcritical Hence (1) is incorrect. Answer is (b)
64. (b)
Hence, A – 2d
IE

Case 3 65. (b)


66 (c)
Uplift pressure head
Thickness   (F.O.S.)
Submerged specific gravity
4.5
M3   1.33 = 3.23
yn 1.85
Subcritical yc
67. (c)
Subcritical
Gs  1
68. (a)  i cr
1 e
(10)
 (G  1)(1  n)  (2.65  1)(1  0.45) 8.64B 8.64  120
 =   0.73 m
= 1.65 × 0.55 = 0.9075 D 1428
icr = 0.9075, 73. (d)
max permissible upward gradient 74. (d) Water application efficiency
i cr 0.9075 Water stored in root zone
=   0.225 =
4 4 Water delivered into the field

Water delivered – runoff losses


y  Q  =
69. (d) T = 2.3 log10   Water delivered to the field
f  Q  f .A 
Water delivered to the field

R
 Q =0.043 ×60×60m3/h = 154.8 m3/h
120 × 60 × 60 × 8
= = 3456 m3
1000
0.0635  154.8 

TE
T = 2.3  log10   Water application efficiency
0.05  154.8  0.05  3030 
3456 – 1000
T  4.88 hour = = 0.71 = 71%
3456
70 (a) 75. (c) Quantity of water applied = 5 × 6 × 3600 m3
AS
= 10.8 ha – m
Na 10
71. (d) S.A.R =  =5 10.8
Mg  Ca 53 Depth of water applied = = 0.36 m
30
2 2
Depth stored = 0.25 m
72. (b) Here D = 1428 hect/cum; B = 120 days 0.25
Efficiency =  100 = 69%
0.36
M
S
IE
(11)

Conventional Solutions

Sol. 1(a)

Sub-area Area (Mm2) Annual precipitation Annual evaporation


mm Mm3 mm Mm3
A 10.7 1030 11.021 530 5.671
B 3.0 830 2.49 438 1.314

R
C 8.2 900 7.38 430 3.526
D 17.0 1300 22.1 600 10.2

TE
Total 38.9 42.991 20.711

(i)  Annual average precipitation over whole catchment = 42.991 Mm3

42.991
= = 1.1052 m
38.9
AS
(ii) Annual average evaporation over whole catchment

20.711
20.711 Mm3 =
38.9
= 0.5324 m
 Average runoff = 1.1052 – 0.5324
M

= 0.57277 m

0.57277
 Annual runoff coefficient= = 0.518
1.1052
S

Sol. 1.(b) Given Q = 35 m3/s ; Silt factor, f = 0.9 ; Side slopes, = 1H : 2V


So, for a regime channel using Lacey’s theory, we have
IE

1/ 6
 Qf 2 
(i) Velocity, V =   = 0.766 m/s
 140 
2
5 V 
(ii) Hydraulic mean depth, R = 
2  f 
 = 2.5 × 0.653 = 1.631 m

Q 35
(iii) Area of the channel, A = = = 45.692 m2
V 0.766
(iv) Wetted perimeter, P = 4.75 Q = 4.75 35 = 28.10 m
f 5/3 (0.9)5/3 1
(v) Bed slope, S = 1/6 = 1/6 = 1.388 × 10–4 =
3340Q 3340  (35) 7200
(12)
 y
Now, for a trapezoidal channel, A = B   y
 2
 45.692 = (B + 0.5y)y ... (i)
P = B + 2.236 y
 28.10 = B + 2.236 y ... (ii)
 28.10 – 2.236y = B ... (iii)
Putting the value of B in to equation No. (i)
45.692 = (28.10 – 2.236y + 0.5 y)y
 45.692 = (28.10 – 1.736 y) y

R
 1.736 y2 – 28.10y + 45.692 = 0
 y = 1.834m, 14.35m
 y = 1.834 m (neglecting higher non feasible value)

TE
Putting value of y = 1.834m in equation (iii)
B = 28.10 – 2.236 × 1.834 = 23.99m ~ 24m
Hence, section should have: Bed width, B = 24m ; depth, y = 1.834m ; Bed slope. S = 1/7200
AS
2
y1 = 1.834
1
M

B = 24m

Sol 2. (a)
t 0.5t
FP = 0 fpdt and fp  0.5  1.e
S

4
0 0.5  1.2e  dt
0.5t
 FP =
IE

4
4 0.5t
= [0.5t]0  1.2 e dt
0

4
 1.2 0.5t 
= 0.5t  e
 0.5  0
= (0.5 × 4 – 2.4e–2 + 2.4)
= 0.5 × 4 – 0.3248 + 2.4
= 4.0752 cm

4.0752
 Average rate of infiltration for the duration of the storm = = 1.0188 cm/hr..
4
(13)
Sol. 2(b) (i) By question,
Q100 = 1200 m3/s
Q50 = 1060 m3/s
For N = 30 years,

reduced mean yn  0.5362

reduced standard deviation sn = 1.1124


As per Gumbel’s method,

QT = Q  K T n 1

yT  yn  T 
KT = and y T   ln ln 
sn  T  1

R
 y100  yn 
 1200 = Q  k100 n1  1200  Q   sn  n 1 …(i)
 

and 1060 = Q  k 50 n1  1060  Q   s

From eqn. (i) and (ii);



TE
 y 50  yn 
n
 n1

…(ii)
AS
 y100  y 50 
1200 – 1060 =  sn  n 1
 

 100 
 y100 =  ln ln    4.6
 99 
M

 50 
and y50 =  ln ln    3.9019
 49 

 4.6  3.9019 
 140 =    n1  223.086
 1.1124  n1
S

 Q  385.03 m3 /s

(ii) For T = 500 years


IE

 500 
y500 =  ln ln    6.2136
 499 

6.2136  0.5362
 k500 =  5.10375
1.1124
 Q500 = 385.03 + 5.10375 × 223.086 = 1523.6 m3/s
1 1 1 1 1 1 
Sol–3 (a) (i) Area of DRH = 1 3600   5  5  8  8  5  5  3  3  1   1 = 79,200 m3
2 2 2 2 2 2 
Effective rainfall, ER = 1 cm
(14)
79,200
 Area of watershed by this UH =  102  7.92  106 m2 = 7.92 km2
1
(ii) & (iii)

Time Ordinate S-curve S-curve S-curve (col. 4- Ordinate of 2h


(h) of 1h UH addition ordinate lagged by col. 5) UH (m3/s)
(m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s) 2h (m3/s) = col. 6/2
col.2+col.3
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
0 0 — 0 0 0
1 5 0 5 5 2.5
2 8 5 13 0 13 6.5

R
3 5 13 18 5 13 6.5
4 3 18 21 13 8 4
5 1 21 22 18 4 2

TE
6 0 22 22 21 1 0.5
7 22 22 22 0 0
AS
Sol. 3.(b) Given, The mean diameter of particle = 6 mm
Angle of repose,  = 40º ; Bed width, B = 5 m;
Side slope = 1.5 H : 1V
 cot  = 1.5
  = 33.69 = 0.588
M

Longitudinal slope of the canal = 1 : 5000, n = 0.025


According to Shield’s equation, the critical tractive stress acting on bottom of the canal is
c
= 0.056 (for d > 6 mm)
 w d(Ss  1)
S

Where,  w = unit wt. of water;


Ss = specific gravity of sediment particles
IE

Considering cohesionless material as sand, Ss = 2.65


6
 c = 0.056  w d (Ss – 1) = 0.056 × 9.81 × (2.65 – 1)
1000
= 5.439 × 10–3 kN/m2 ... (i)
Now, if 0 is the avg. unit tractive force acting on bottom of the canal, then for nearly critical condition
(i.e no sediment movement) at bed.
0 < c
  w RS < 5.439 × 10–3 ( o =  w RS)
1
 9.81 × R × < 5.439 × 10–3
5000
 R < 2.732 m .... (ii)
Now for particle movement as side slopes
(15)

If '0 is the average unit tractive force acting or sides, then for critical condition.
0 < '0
Where, 'o = critical tractive slope acting on sides

So, from the relation between c and '0 , we get

'c sin2 
= 1
c sin2 
'c sin2 33.69
 = 1 = 1  0.745
c sin2 40
 'c = 0.505 × 5.439 × 10–3 = 2.748 × 10–3

R
[From (i)]
'o = 0.75  w RS
 'o  'c


(critical condition)
0.75  w RS < 2.748 × 10–3

0.75 × 9.81 R ×
1
5000
< 2.748 × 10–3

R < 1.868 m
TE ... (iii)
AS
So, for calculating maximum discharge that will not cause any sediment movement we go for the lesser
value of (ii) and (iii)
 R = 1.868
1
 A = [ B + (B + 3y)] × y = (B + 1.5 y) y
2
M

P = B + 2 × 1.8 y = B + 3.6 y
A (B  1.5y)y
 R = = B  3.6y
P
(5  1.5y)y
 1.868 =
S

5  3.6y
 9.34 + 6. 725 y = 5y + 1.5y2
1.5y2 – 1.725 y – 9.34 = 0
IE


 y = 3.136 m
 A = (5 + 1.5 × 3.136) × 3.136 = 30.43 m 2
1 2/3 1/2 1 1
V = R S =  (1.868)2/3  = 0.858 m/s
n 0.025 5000
So, min. discharge, Q = AV = 30.43 × 0.858 = 26.11 m3/s
(16)

Sol 4(a) Uniform recharge = R

Ground surface

Canal
qx
h hm Aquifer
h0 = 5.0 m
permeability = k q1
q0
h1 = 3.0 stream

R
x Horizontal imperious layer
L

Consider unit width of the aquifer


L = 400 m
K = 3.0 m/day
a = 100 m
TE
AS
(i) For water table divide,

2 2
L K  h0  h1 
a=   
2 R  2L 

400 3  52  32 
M

 100 =   
2 R  2  400 

3 16
 100 = 
R 800
S

3  16
 R=  6  10 4 m3 /day/m width
100  800
IE

(ii) For elevation of water table divide


The water table profile

 2 RL2 
2h0  h12  
Rx K  x  h2
h2 =   0
K L

 2 6  10 4  4002 
 5  32 
4 2 
6  10 x 3
 h2 =    x  52
3 400
 h2 = –2 × 10–4x2 + 0.04x + 25
at x = a = 100 m, h = hm = height of water table divide
2
hm  2  104  1002  0.04  100  25  27
(17)
 hm = 5.196 m
(iii) Discharge per unit width of the aquifer

 L K 2
qx = R  x   

h  h12 
2  2L 0

L K 2
at x = 0, q0 = R  h  h12 
2 2L 0

400 3  2
= 6  10 4   5  32 
2 2  400
= –0.12 + 0.06 = –0.06 m3/day per metre width
The negative sign indicates that the discharge is in (–x) direction i.e. into the canal.
At x = L, q1 = qL

R
 qL = RL + q0
 q1 = Discharge into water stream

TE
= 6 × 10–4 × 400 + (–0.06)
= 0.18 m3/day/m width

Sol.4. (b) Given,


Discharge @ high flood level, Q = 1000 m3/s;
AS
Weir length, L = 255m ; Silt factor, f = 1.1
Q
 Discharge per unit weir length, q = = 3.92 m3/s
L
By Lacey equation, the normal depth of scour is
1 1
 2 3  2  3
R = 1.35  q   1.35  3.92  = 3.25 m
M

 f   1.1 
Where, q = discharge intensity;
f = silt factor
Assuming down stream cut off to be 1.5 R below the down stream water level
S

1.5 R = 1.5 × 3.25 = 4.877 m


Now, u/s water level = HFL at u/s = 103 m
IE

H = Maximum static head causing seepage = 2.4 m


 D/s water level = HFL @ u/s – H = 103 – 2.4 = 100.6m
Hence, RL of bottom of d/s cut off = 100.6 – 4.877 = 95.723m
RL of d/s floor = 100m
 Depth of d/s cut off, d = 100 – 95.723 = 4.277m
Exit gradient at d/s end for a vertical cut off depth d and floor length b
H 1
GE = 
d  
1  1  2
 =
2
(18)
b
and  =
d
40
  = =9. 352
4.277
2
1  1  9.352
 = = 5.203
2
2.4 1 1 1
 GE =  = 0.07835 = < OK
4.277 3.14  5.203 12.76 6

R
Sol. 5 (a)

2.73m

30 m
TE 1
2

y2
AS
y1
2
q = Cd 2g H3/2
3
2
=  0.75  2  9.806  2.733/2
3
M

= 9.99 m3/sm

Apply bernoulli’s equation between upstream of spillway and section 1.


q2 5.089
 32.73 = y1  2
 y1 
2gy1 y12
S

Solving this equation by trial -error, y1 = 0.397m


9.99 U1
IE

U1 = 0.397  25.164 m / s and  Fr1  12.754


gy1
y2 1
 1  8  12.754  1
2
y1
=
2

= 17.543
 y2 = 17.543  0.397  6.965 m
 y 2  y1 2
hL =  25.612 m
4y1y 2
(19)
Sol. 5. (b)

Sand
FC = 20% WP = 10% d = 1.5 gm/cm3

Clay
FC = 25% WP = 13% d = 1.2 gm/cm 3

 d .d
Moisture holding capacity of Ist horizon = F.C  WP = 1.5  20 0.2  0.1 = 3 cm
w 1
1.2
Moisture holding capacity of IInd horizon =  30 0.25  0.13 = 4.32 cm
1
Hence, Total max available moisture = 3 + 4.32 = 7.32 cm

R
Consumptive use requirement of crop in a particular season = 0.5 mm/day = 0.05 cm/day
Max. no. of days in which the entire stored moisture will be utilised
= Absolute no. of days for which crop will survive without irrigation

Sol. 6 (a)
=
Maximum available moisture
Consumptive use

A = y2.5
=

TE
7.32
0.05
= 146.4 days
AS
dA
T =  2.5 K1y1.5
dy
Q2 A 3c y7.5
At critical depth = T 
c
1.5
 0.4 y6c
g c 2.5 yc
Q = (0.4g)1/2 y3c  (0.4  9.81)1/2 (0.5)6  0.031m3 /s
M

Q
V =
A
V2 Q2 0.4gy6c
=   0.2 yc
2g A 2 (2g) (y5c )  2  g
S

E = y + 0.2y = 1.2 y = 1.2 × 0.5 = 0.60 m

Sol. 6. (b) Volume of water required by each crop during their rotation period are calculated as follows:
IE

Volume of water required for wheat:


= Area × Intensity
= 2 × 104 × 7.5 × 10–2
= 1500 m3 @ every 12th day in 10 hours.
Volume of water required for cotton:
= 0.4 × 104 × 7.5 × 10–2
= 300 m3 @ every 20th day in 10 hours.
Volume of water required for vegetables:
= 0.4 × 104 × 7.5 × 10–2
= 300 m3 @ every 20th days in 10 hours
(20)
Volume of water required for mustard:
= 2.2 × 104 × 5 × 10–2
= 1100 m3 @ every 40th day in 10 hours
This shows that maximum water is required for wheat, i.e. 1500 m 3 in 10 hours.
 Water to be pumped in /sec
1500
=  1000  /sec
10  60  60
= 41.67 /sec

 Capacity of centrifugal pump to be used by the farmer = 41.67 /sec

R
Sol. 7(a)
P1  M1 = P2  M2

TE
m 3 PQ2 m 3 PQ2
g y 21  =  g y2 
3 my12 3 my 22
2 my
gy32 Q2 gy32 Q2
 2 2 =  2 2
3 m y1 3 m y2
y2 2Q2
AS
Putting  = and 2 5
 F2 and rearranging
y1 gm y
2 3 F12 y
2 1
 F12 =   2
3 3  m
3
2 2 (  1)
On simplifying F12 = 3 
(2  1)
M

Sol. 7(b)
S
IE