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WASTEWATER ENGINEERING:

DESIGN OF PHYSICAL
TREATMENT STRUCTURES

Engr. JERICK P. PECASO


SANITARY ENGINEER 2536
POLLUTION CONTROL OFFICER 3886
Outline
 General
 Wastewater Engineering Structures
Physical Treatment Structures
Biological Treatment Structures
 Conceptual Design and Calculations
Wastewater Engineering
 Branch of Environmental
Engineering applying the basic
science and engineering
principles to solve the issues
associated with the treatment
and reuse of wastewater.
Ultimate Goal of WW Eng’g
 Protection of public health in a
manner commensurate with
environmental, economic,
social and political concerns.
Physical Unit Operations
 Generally, design of
wastewater treatment plant
components.
 Structures as to:
1. Physical Unit Operations
2. Biological Unit Operations
Structures for Physical Unit Operations

 Screening
 Fine Screens
 Coarse Screens
 Comminution
 Comminutors
 Grit Removal
 Grit Chamber
Cont…
 Flocculation basin
 Flow Equalization Basin
 Sedimentation
 Sedimentation tank
 Clarifier
Structures for Biological Unit Operations

 Activated Sludge Process


 Aeration tank
 Trickling Filter
 Rotating Biological Contactor
Wastewater Engineering:
Design of Structures for
Physical Unit Operation
Design of Screen
Screening
 The first unit operation at
wastewater treatment plants.
 The screening units include:
1. racks,
2. coarse screens, and
3. fine screens
Function of Screening
 The racks and screens are used to
remove large objects such as:
1. Rags,
2. plastics,
3. paper,
4. metal,
5. dead animals,
6. and the like
Elements of Screenings
 Consists of:
1. Parallel bars
2. Rods or wires
3. Grating
4. Wire mesh
5. Perforated plate
Shape of Screen Opening

 Generally:
a. Circular slots
b. Rectangular slots
 Manual Cleaning of Screens
 Mechanically Raked Screens
Purpose of Screening

 Protect pumps and


prevent solids from
fouling subsequent
treatment facilities.
Classification of Screens
 Coarse Screens
 Clear Opening: 6-150mm
 Fine Screens
 Less than 6 mm
 Micro screen
 Less than 0.5 micronmeter
Sketch for types of screens used
in wastewater treatment
Coarse Screen
 Used to:
a. Protect pumps
b. Valves
c. Pipelines
d. Other appurtenances
 From damage or clogging by rags and
large objects.
Coarse Screen

 Used to:
a. Protect pumps
b. Valves
c. Pipelines
d. Other appurtenances
Cleaning Mechanism

 Designated as either:
a. Hand-cleaned
b. Mechanically cleaned
Mechanically-cleaned CS

 Chain-driven
 Reciprocating rake
 Catenary and
 Continuous belt
Chain-driven
Reciprocating rake
Catenary
Continuous belt
Design Consideration of Installation

 Consideration includes:
1. Location
2. Approach velocity
3. Clear openings
4. Headloss through the screens
5. Screenings handling,
processing and disposal
6. controls.
Design Concept
 Hydraulic losses through
bar racks are a function of
approach (upstream)
velocity, and the velocity
through the bars
(downstream), with a
discharge coefficient.
Headloss through bar rack:
Bernoulli’s Equation
Design Equation: Headloss
Headloss
 The maximum allowable Headloss for a rack
is about 0.60 m to0.70 m. Racks should be
cleaned when headloss is more than the
allowable values.
Calculation of Velocity
 Compute the velocity
through a rack when the
approach velocity is 0.60
m/s and the measured
headloss is 38 mm.
 Expressed in m/s and ft/s
Calculation of Headloss

 Determine the buildup of


headloss through a bar
screen when 50 percent of
the flow area is blocked off
due to the accumulation of
coarse solids.
 Assume the following
conditions:

 Answer: HL=0.24 m
Design Parameters
Screening Device Classification
Screening Removal Quantities
Design and Calculation
Design of Coarse Screen
 Design a coarse screen and calculate the
headloss through the rack, using the
following information:
Your Turn!
 Design a coarse screen and calculate the
headloss through the rack, using the
following information:
THANK YOU FOR LISTENING!
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