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2 visualizzazioni7 pagineSheet Metal Forming

Oct 08, 2019

Sheet Metal Forming

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Sheet Metal Forming

© All Rights Reserved

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Sheet Metal Forming

Sheet Metal Forming

© All Rights Reserved

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metal forming

Strain measurement in formability processes is of extreme importance, allowing quantification of the

deformation and knowing where are the most critical points stress-wise Another very important aspect of

strain measurement is the ability to plot a forming limit curve (FLC) and/or forming limit diagram

(FLD), which is used to characterize the formability of sheet metal that allows to determine the maximum

principal strains that can be sustained by the material before localized necking .FLD shows the graphical

relation between the values major strain ϵ and all the values of minor strain

SPECIMEN PREPARATION AND EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES

The material used in this research work was an Aluminum Alloy 1050 with a

thickness of 1,20 mm. AA1050 material is composed mostly by aluminum,

around 99,5% and can be considered almost pure aluminum. The specimens

were obtained from an aluminum sheet cut into circular specimens with an

approximate diameter of 110 mm in order to fit the die used in the forming

processes. The specimens were also tempered by heating at 480 ºC for 2

hours and cooled at room temperature

directions were tested (7,9,11.13)

To perform a strain measurement a pattern on the surface of the sheet metal must be printed or

transferred to work as a reference to measure the strain, the transfer or printing of these patterns is known

as grid marking.

Those Grids can be printed or transferred depending on the type of process or technique and all of them

have their particular advantages and disadvantages

Many different technologies for measurement of grid markings are used that can be both manual and

automated methods

. The patterns on the specimens tend to deform to some extent

depending on the

location where the deformation experienced by the sheet of metal took

place .Such deformations will implicate that the circles will

turn into an ellipse if the deformation is not

purely biaxial when fully stretched. The largest

dimension in the ellipse relates to the major

axis and its perpendicular direction to the minor axis.

be determined by the measurement of the axes and

the measurement of diameter of the circles. As the

forming progresses, at some region neck may

occur. The ratio of strains is determined at that

region. This is a point on finite limit diagram or

curve which separates the safe and the unsafe

regions. The region above the lines is the failure

zone and below is safe. The state of strain in

forming must be such that it falls below the curve

for a particular material.

Material properties, strain hardening and strain rate

exponent.

Thickness of sheet, finite limit diagram for thicker sheet is placed higher than for a thinner sheet with

little or no change in diagram.

The forming limit curve of softened sheet of same alloy and same thickness is positioned higher to that

of hard sheet.

Anisotropy in the sheet.

Type of coating on the sheet.

Type of pre-straining prior to testing.

The finite limit diagram

may be modified by

altering strain path. It can

be positioned higher by

selecting proper strain

path.

The orientation of test

specimen with respect to

rolling direction

Plastic Strain Ratio

Plastic strain ratio r is a measure of the ability of a sheet metal to resist thinning or

thickening when subjected to a tensile or compressive force. It is typically advantageous if

the material reduces in area a minimal amount when subject to this force, meaning a good

drawing material has a high r value. Once the material is taken beyond its elastic limit, it

has deformed. If this flows easily in the plane of the sheet it will result in a high r-value.

Alternatively, if it flows from the materials thickness it will thin during drawing, which

may result in weakness. To determine this ratio, assuming constant volume, both the axial

and transverse strain needs to be obtained during a uni-axial tensile test

Because rolled sheet metals develop planar anisotropy (characteristics that are

directional), sample orientation can be significant to the measurement of the plastic strain

ratio. Therefore, you must cut test specimens 0 degrees, 45 degrees, and 90 degrees

respective to the rolling direction, and you must report the cut direction with each result

Plastic Strain Ratio

The plastic strain ratio, r, is considered a direct measure of sheet metal's

drawability and is useful for evaluating materials intended for forming shapes by

deep drawing (see lead photo). The r value

is the ratio of the true strain in the width

direction to the true strain in the thickness

direction when a sheet material is pulled in

uniaxial tension beyond its elastic limit

Figure 1

In this typical test specimen used for measuring the plastic strain ratio, r, the "45"

denotes 45 degrees, which is the angle relative to the rolled direction from which

the specimen was cut. The gauge marks are 2 inches apart from each other before

the test. They are required only for manual calculation of the r value.

(see Figure 1).

Determining the plastic strain ratio is governed by ASTM E517 Standard Test

Method for Plastic Strain Ratio r for Sheet Metal. The plastic strain ratio is

calculated as shown in Equation 1:

r = ew/et Where:

True thickness strain et = ln (tf / to)

wf = Final width

wo = Original width

tf = Final thickness

to = Original thickness

Equation 1 shows that the r value is dependent on the ratio of width and thickness

changes as the sample is pulled in tension. The word plasticin the phrase plastic

strain ratioimplies that you have exceeded the specimen's elastic limit and that only

the strain that induces plastic flow is considered in the calculation. Because it is

difficult to measure thickness changes accurately, it is assumed the volume of the

specimen remains constant and the thickness strain is expressed as et =

ln(Lowo/Lfwf). After substituting et into Equation 1 and inverting it to eliminate

negative values, the plastic strain ratio is

given by Equation 2.

r = ln(wo/wf)/ln(Lfwf/Lowo)

Where:

Lf = Final length

Lo = Original length

plastic strain ratio either manually with a set

of calipers or automatically with the use of Figure 2

two extensometers—one to measure the This axial and averaging transverse

change in axial gauge length and the other extensometer attached to a flat metal

to measure the change in width (see Figure test specimen is a typical

2). If you use the manual approach, it is arrangement for determining the

necessary to measure with calipers the plastic strain ratio. (Photo courtesy of

specimen width and the distance between Epsilon Technology Inc.).

gauge marks before testing. You pull the specimen to a strain less than maximum

force (point D in Figure 3), unload it, and measure the final width and gauge

length.

Stress, plotted on the Y axis, is the force divided

by the original cross-sectional area of the

specimen; strain, plotted on the X axis, is how the

metal deforms under the applied stress. A small

amount of stress induces elastic deformation (the

region from O to A). As the phrase elastic

deformation implies, the deformation is not

permanent; removing the stress allows the

material to return to its original shape. Between

points A and F, the material undergoes plastic

deformation. The material actually flows, and

when the stress is removed, the material may

spring back but will not return to its original shape. F is the point of fracture.

Engineering strain

The Cauchy strain or engineering strain is expressed as the ratio of total deformation to the

initial dimension of the material body in which the forces are being applied. The engineering normal

strain or engineering extensional strain or nominal strain e of a material line element or fiber axially

loaded is expressed as the change in length ΔL per unit of the original length L of the line element

or fibers. The normal strain is positive if the material fibers are stretched and negative if they are

compressed. Thus, we have

where e is the engineering normal strain, L is the original length of the fiber and l is the final

length of the fiber. Measures of strain are often expressed in parts per million or microstrains.

The true shear strain is defined as the change in the angle (in radians) between two material

line elements initially perpendicular to each other in the undeformed or initial configuration.

The engineering shear strain is defined as the tangent of that angle, and is equal to the length

of deformation at its maximum divided by the perpendicular length in the plane of force

application which sometimes makes it easier to

calculate.

exponent methods for

determining the tensile strain hardening

exponent, commonly called the “n-value”, of

flat metallic materials, typically sheet and

strip. The strain hardening exponent (n) of sheet metal is the material’s

response to cold working (a measure of the increase in strength due to plastic

deformation).

To calculate the n-value, a test is performed to ISO 6892 and using the axial

extensometer, a stress strain curve is produced. The n-value is calculated over

the whole uniform plastic strain range. This is typically from the beginning of

uniform strain hardening region (after any yield point phenomena) until just

before the point at which tensile strength is calculated, R . These calculations

m

An ISO 10275, ASTM E646, or JIS Z 2253 test is typically performed at the same

times as ISO 10113, ASTM E517, or JIS Z 2254, the plastic strain ratio (r-value).

Sheet metal testing applications require calculations such as yield strength,

yield point elongation, ultimate tensile strength, plastic strain ratio ('r' value)

and the strain hardening exponent ('n' value). These calculations place a high

physical demand on traditional contacting extensometers for measuring axial

and transverse strain to allow for enough travel to test the specimens through

break, but small enough gauge lengths to ensure high accuracy in

measurements. Additionally, relevant ASTM and ISO testing standards have

accuracy requirements that must be achieved.

The Japanese Standards Association promotes JIS test standards for sheet

metal testing applications which require calculations such as yield strength,

yield point elongation, ultimate tensile strength, plastic strain ratio ('r' value)

and the strain hardening exponent ('n' value). These calculations place a high

physical demand on traditional contacting extensometers for measuring axial

and transverse strain to allow for enough travel to test the specimens through

break, but small enough gauge lengths to ensure high accuracy in

measurements. Additionally, relevant JIS, ASTM and ISO testing standards have

accuracy requirements that must be achieved.

The strain rate sensitivity index,

m-value, is being applied as a common tool to evaluate the impact of the strain rate on the viscoplastic

behaviour of materials. The m-value, as a constant number, has been frequently taken into consideration for

modeling material behaviour in the numerical simulation of superplastic forming processes. However, the

impact of the testing variables on the measured m-values has not been investigated comprehensively. In this

study, the m-value for a superplastic grade of an aluminum alloy (i.e., AA5083) has been investigated. The

conditions and the parameters that influence the strain rate sensitivity for the material are compared with three

different testing methods, i.e., monotonic uniaxial tension test, strain rate jump test and stress relaxation test.

All tests were conducted at elevated temperature (470°C) and at strain rates up to 0.1 s⁻¹. The results show

that the m-value is not constant and is highly dependent on the applied strain rate, strain level and testing

method.

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