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According to Stephen Lucas (2011),

author of The Art of Public Speaking, a

good delivery means that you are capable and able to present your

message in a clear, coherent, and

interesting way.

Bear in mind that not all speaking situations happen in the classroom. Some may

happen in unfamiliar

environments.

As a public speaker you need

to be ready to deal with the

most common challenges in different speaking environments.

Different Speaking Environments.

Different Speaking

Different Speaking Environments.

Environments.

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Speaking to a specific audience size

1 Speaking to a specific audience size
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Speaking in an open-air venue or outside a building

2 Speaking in an open-air venue or outside a building
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Speaking in different venues

3 Speaking in different venues
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Speaking with a microphone

4 Speaking with a microphone
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Speaking with a podium or lectern

5 Speaking with a podium or lectern
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“

Whatever speaking situation you are in, the most

important thing is you

master your speech. You can

only do this by constantly carrying out the right

practices.

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Types of audience to deal with when delivering a speech 17

Types of audience to deal with when delivering a speech

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Expert audience

Expert audience ○ This is rare set of audience one that is well- versed or familiar

This is rare set of audience one that is well-

versed or familiar with topic being dicussed by

the speaker so giving background of the topic

may not be a good idea.

The speaker can tread a more cautious path by

giving them information they don’t know about.

The speaker could zero in on his/her personal experience and draw a message or lesson from

it.

Uninformed audience ○ This set of audience has no knowledge of what the speaker will

Uninformed audience

This set of audience has no knowledge of what the speaker will talk about so the latter has

figure out the amount of information he/she will

be giving to the listeners.

He/ She has to make sure that there will be no

information overload in the process.

Key points must also be wrapped up or

summarized before ending the speech.

Apathetic audience

Apathetic audience  This set of audience is tired and uncomfortable.  The speaker must convince

This set of audience is tired and uncomfortable.

The speaker must convince the audience

that the talk or the speech matters to them.

Startling the statements and vivid

illustration might help to get their attention.

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Hostile audience

If apathetic audience needs drama and

○

convincing illustration, this set of audience

needs overwhelming evidence and

reasoning for them to listen to the speaker.

Worst case scenario, they may boo or

heckle the speaker personally, or the ideal

he/she advocates or the group he/ she

represents. Even then, the speaker must not

lose his/her temper or get angry.

then, the speaker must not lose his/her temper or get angry. ○ Respect of their viewpoint

Respect of their viewpoint or belief must still

be excercised and maximum tolerance

must be displayed.

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Physical Aspect of Speech Delivery 22

Physical Aspect of

Speech Delivery

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SHOULDER

○ ○

The movements of shoulders convey

various behavior of the speaker .

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Shrugging them may connote doubt,

drawing them together may express

them may connote doubt, drawing them together may express struggle and rotating them may signal impatience.

struggle and rotating them may

signal impatience.

Thus, shoulders must be relaxed and

must not express tension.

ARMS AND HANDS



The movement of the arm

and hand signals grace and

purpose. If not used to

express something, they

must rest at the side.

They must not be put inside

the pocket while speaking.

not used to express something, they must rest at the side.  They must not be
not used to express something, they must rest at the side.  They must not be
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EYES

The eyes are used to have

mental contact with the audience

for they establish effective

thought communication.

Thus, the speaker must have eye

contact with the audience all

throughout the delivery.

eye contact with the audience all throughout the delivery.   He/ She must not roll

He/ She must not roll them for

this may signal disregard for the

audience and he/she must not allow them to wander for this

maysignal lack of confidence.

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POSTURE

Experts believe that good posture

POSTURE • Experts believe that good posture signals vitality, physical control, courage, authority and belief in

signals vitality, physical control,

courage, authority and belief in a

physical control, courage, authority and belief in a worthy purpose. • Good posture includes standing up

worthy purpose.

Good posture includes standing up

straight with feet apart and

shoulders squared facing the

audience.

The speaker should make sure that

he/she does not slouch or lean for

this may convey anxiety and the

audience may get distracted.

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

WALKING

In delivering a speech,

movements may attract attention and may excite visual senses.

Once in a while, a speaker must

get out of the lectern to be visibly

available for the audience.

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FACIAL EXPRESSIONS

Body language plays a big role in speech delivery.

 Body language plays a big role in speech delivery.  This determines the speaker’s sincerity,

This determines the speaker’s sincerity, honesty and

concerns.

Body language includes gestures, stance and facial expression.

language includes gestures, stance and facial expression.  The speaker’s face may express joy, sadness,

The speaker’s face may express joy, sadness,

disappointment, fear, doubt, etc.

Whatever the expression may be, these facial

expressions help establish the speaker’s sincerity and

the audience’s acceptability of the message being

conveyed.

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Vocal Aspect of Speech Delivery 29

Vocal Aspect of Speech

Delivery

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Rate or speed

The rate or speed of speech delivery may

○ Rate or speed The rate or speed of speech delivery may vary in accordance to

vary in accordance to the speaker’s mood

or the thoughts he/she is conveying.

On one hand, he/she is fast because

he/she is excited and animated, on the

other hand, he/ she may be slow because he/she is in a reflective mood is deeply serious about what he/she is saying.

At any rate, the speaker must determine

when he/she needs to be fast and when

is saying. At any rate, the speaker must determine when he/she needs to be fast and

he/she needs to be slow.

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PAUSE

Speech experts affirms that having pauses in the process of speech delivery may give

having pauses in the process of speech delivery may give listeners time to digest the major
having pauses in the process of speech delivery may give listeners time to digest the major

listeners time to digest the

major points of the speech, help in expressing the feelings

the speaker wants to show, kill

boredom or may build climatic

order of the speech.

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DURATION

The duration of the speech depends upon the type of the

 The duration of the speech depends upon the type of the speech, occasion, audience and

speech, occasion, audience and the

context in which the speaker

speaks.

audience and the context in which the speaker speaks.  But usually, a fast speaker may

But usually, a fast speaker may

consume 160 words per minute while a slow one may consume 100

words per minute.

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○ 

RHYTHM

Technically, speech rhythm is

the arrangement of spoken words alternating stressed and

unstressed element.

This is also the rising and falling of the speaker’s voice that adds

cadence and regularity.

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Pitch is “the relative highness or lowness of a tone as

perceived by the ear” It contributes to the emotional tone of a

speech.



Volume or loudness is a perception of energy used in voice

production. He/ She makes aure that his/her voice is heard by

the last person in the back.

Enunciation is the right pronunciation or articulation of words in

speech delivery. Specifically, pronunciation centers on

observing the stress, rhythm, and the intonation of each

syllable. While articulation refers to the individual sound.

Fluency is one of the most important essentials of speech delivery especially when a speaker engages in impromptu

delivery especially when a speaker engages in impromptu speaking. This assets enables him/her to express

speaking. This assets enables him/her to express

himself/herself and speak his/her mind smoothly.

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