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THE EFFECT OF CONTEMPORARY TEACHING METHODS

A Research Paper Presented to the faculty of University of Cebu

Maritime Education and Training Center

Cebu City, Philippines

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

For the Subject English 4

By:

Earl Japhet P. Dela Peña

Christian Lethner C. Panal

Cris Mario II C. Suyman

Fritz ArnelPanong
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The researchers greatly acknowledge the following whose continuous

support and valuable efforts have contributed a lot in the realization of this study:

The Almighty God for the gift of life, wisdom, good health, and the

guidance that He gave to the researchers from the start up to finish of this study;

The Faculty of UC-METC, for making it possible for us to study here. To

our beautiful instructor Ms.


CHAPTER 1
THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE
INTRODUCTION

Rationale

Teaching is one of the main components in educational planning which is a

key factor in conducting educational plans. Despite the importance of good

teaching, the outcomes are far from ideal. The present qualitative study aimed to

investigate effective teaching in higher education in Iran based on the experiences

of best professors in the country and the best local professors of Isfahan University

of Technology.

The purpose of this paper is to determine the effects of usage of sequential

teaching method on the academic achievement and retention level of students.

Three student groups of biology students in University "Goce Delcev", Faculty of

Natural and Technical Sciences, Institute of Biology, -Stip, R. Macedonia were

offered a topic on general characteristics of Proteins: Their Biological Functions

and Primary Structure with different sequences of 3 teaching methods. The

teaching methods were Laboratory method (student experiment), slide

demonstration and lecture method. The first group started to course with

experiments in the laboratory, then the relevant theory of proteins was given
lecture method, and then the slides was shown (Group I). The sequence of these

three teaching methods used in the first group was changed in both second and

third group as follow: The lecture methods, slide show and experiment in Group II,

and slide show, experiment and lecture method in Group III, respectively.

Laboratory method used in the study was focused on the topic of this diversity and

abundance reflect the central role of proteins in virtually all aspects of cell

structure and function. Achievement test contained 20 questions, testing the

knowledge of facts as well as the ability to transfer the knowledge and problem

solving ability. This test was used as pre-test before methods' application, post-test

after the methods' application and retention test after 30 days from methods'

applied.

Rapid changes of modern world have caused the Higher Education System

to face a great variety of challenges. Therefore, training more eager, thoughtful

individuals in interdisciplinary fields is required. Thus, research and exploration to

figure out useful and effective teaching and learning methods are one of the most

important necessities of educational systems; Professors have a determining role in

training such people in the mentioned field. A university is a place where new

ideas germinate; roots strike and grow tall and sturdy. It is a unique space, which

covers the entire universe of knowledge. It is a place where creative minds

converge, interact with each other and construct visions of new realities.
Established notions of truth are challenged in the pursuit of knowledge. To be able

to do all this, getting help from experienced teachers can be very useful and

effective.

Given the education quality, attention to students’ education as a main

product that is expected from education quality system is of much greater demand

in comparison to the past. There has always been emphasis on equal attention to

research and teaching quality and establishing a bond between these two before

making any decision; however, studies show that the already given attention to

research in universities does not meet the educational quality requirements.

Attention to this task in higher education is considered as a major one, so in

their instruction, educators must pay attention to learners and learning approach;

along with these two factors, the educators should move forward to attain new

teaching approaches. In the traditional system, instruction was teacher-centered

and the students’ needs and interests were not considered. This is when students’

instruction must change into a method in which their needs are considered and as a

result of the mentioned method active behavior change occurs in them. Moreover,

a large number of graduated students especially bachelor holders do not feel ready

enough to work in their related fields. Being dissatisfied with the status quo at any

academic institution and then making decision to improve it require much research

and assistance from the experts and pioneers of that institute. Giving the
aforementioned are necessary, especially in present community of Iran; it seems

that no qualitative study has ever been carried out in this area drawing on in-depth

reports of recognized university faculties; therefore, in the present study the new

global student-centered methods are firstly studied and to explore the ideas of

experienced university faculties, some class observations and interviews were

done. Then, efficient teaching method and its barriers and requirements were

investigated because the faculty ideas about teaching method could be itemized

just through a qualitative study.

In this research, we intend to find if there is really an impact of different

teaching methods on student’s satisfaction or not. Institutions now a days are

focusing more on using variety of teaching methods to enhance the interest of

students in class which ultimately results in increased student satisfaction. Our

research would try to find out what methods if any, exist, that may result in

enhancing the satisfaction level of students. Several factors affect this satisfaction.

This research holds great important since we all know the fact that as a satisfied

customer is highly important for any organization. Similarly, a satisfied student

deems to have a great worth for an educational institution.

We will first define Teaching methods(Palmer, Parker,(n.d)) itself as:


A mechanism that comprises of different principles and techniques used for

instruction. Commonly used teaching methods may include class participation,

demonstration, recitation, memorization, or a combination of the above. The

choice of an appropriate teaching method depends largely on the information being

taught plus the skills of the perspective teacher who has the responsibility of

guiding students in that particular area. It may also be influenced by the aptitude

and enthusiasm of the student.So, we can infer from the definition of variety of

teaching methods (Brandt, R.S., & Meek, A. (Eds.,1990):

Discovery of new ideas and concepts of teaching in accordance to the

methods and techniques of the changing world rather than just relying on only one

source of information(e.g. Textbooks only); and to improve the learning of the

students by creating interest in the subject and the curiosity to learn; and

developing the creativity in the students within themselves. And most importantly

to make the student understand that how the knowledge being taught in the class

stand up in the real world.

Theoretical Background

A study of Wiliam Purkey (1992) put forward invitational theory as an

educational framework of learning and teaching relationships based on human

value, responsibility and capabilities. Invitational learning is observed in social


context, where learners should be invited by the teacher to develop their potentials.

The four pillars of invitational theory are respect, trust, optimism and intentionality

(Purkey, 1992). The invitational instructor invites learners in, welcomes them,

creates warm and welcoming educational environments, intentionally provides

learners with optimum learning opportunities, and bids learners a warm farewell at

the conclusion of the learning experience.

In 1983 Parker Palmer introduced the term invitational classroom. In

particular Palmer emphasizes that “an air of hospitality” facilitates the inviting

environment (1983, 1993, p. 71). Hospitality in Palmer’s words means “receiving

each other, our struggles, our newborn ideas, with openness and care” (1983, 1993,

p. 74). Palmer concludes that both teachers and learners experience positive

consequence when the classroom is invitational (Palmer, 1983, 1993, 1998, 2007).

Educators often approach their craft from one or several overarching

theoretical frameworks, also sometimes referred to as pedagogies/instructional

epistemologies. Why is it important to consider theoretical framework? Depending

on your outcomes, you may find specific teaching methods/strategies fit better with

your framework. You may also find certain frameworks mesh better with your
content discipline. Additionally, awareness of a range of frameworks can promote

productive experimentation and diversity of skill set.

No framework is necessarily more effective than another because frameworks

only serve to provide a conceptual overview, separate from methodologies or

implementation. Though there are thousands of theoretical frameworks leveraged

in teaching, some of the more popular frameworks are:

 Andragogy/Adult Learning Theory – Theorists like Knowles (1980)

believed adults are problem-oriented participants that want to incorporate

experience and self-direction into subjects or projects that are relevant to

their lives. Andragogic education tends to incorporate methods like

constructivism and connectivism, leveraging task-oriented processes and

projects, also stressing application.

 Behaviorism – Theorists like Skinner (1953) often focused on observable

behavior, believing learning was supported through drill & practice and

related reinforcement. Behaviorist instruction tends to be directive,

incorporating lectures and practice problems, often leveraging objective

assessments including multiple choice questions or other rote approaches.


 Cognitivism – Theorists like Gagné (Gagne, Wager, Golas, & Keller, 2004)

focused more on thought processes and structures. For instance, Gagné

developed nine events of instruction to describe optimal conditions for

learning. Cognitivist instruction often incorporates lecture along with

methods like visual tools or organizers to promote retention. It may leverage

objective assessments with multiple choice, though also including; response

or essay activities for learners to demonstrate thought processes.

 Connectivism – Theorists like Siemens & Downes (2009) saw learners as

part of many nodes or connections, driving their personal learning by

leveraging the knowledge of that network, and contributing to the

knowledge infrastructure. Connectivist instruction tends to be self-directed,

including a variety of information sources/references, and is often used in

online education. It could also be considered a constructivist approach.

 Constructivism – Theorists like Piaget (1950) & Brunner (1961) proposed

individuals construct knowledge from within, contributing to the process by

incorporating personal experience. Constructivist instruction tends to be

social and exploratory, sometimes without clearly-defined outcomes, often

leveraging critical thinking activities, peer review, and/or collaborative

projects.
 Objectivism – Theorists or writers like Rand (1943) believed knowledge

exists outside the individual as opposed to constructivist perspectives

valuing knowledge from within. Objectivist frameworks can describe both

behaviorist and cognitivist perspectives. Objectivist instruction tends to be

directive and linear, valuing inductive logic, often leveraging objective

assessments.

Review of Related Literature

As the teacher-researcher and the classroom teacher, of great importance

was the connection between my case study and the related literature. My search of

the related literature highlighted three groups of individuals: (a) the teacher with

his or her roles in the classroom, (b) the students and their roles as learners, and (c)

the community of scholars who conducted research on learning contracts. In this

chapter, I connect my case study with each of the three groups. The Teacher’s

Roles in the Learning Process The classroom teacher has a variety of roles and

responsibilities that change according to the students he or she instructs.

In this next section, the teacher’s roles include individualizing and

differentiating instruction, selecting age-appropriate teaching strategies, and acting

as the facilitator of learning. Individualized Instruction According to Dunn and

Dunn (1972), a student contract “should be a part of every dynamic educational


program,” and as a powerful teaching tool it should stimulate individualized

learning.

They also stated that “individualized instruction is the one-onone

relationship between a student and what he learns” (Dunn & Dunn, 1975,). One of

my reasons for selecting the Dunn and Dunn model for the learning contract used

in my case study was their idea of individualized instruction. This instructional tool

gave the students more opportunities to be actively involved in the educational

process, and it enabled the teacher to offer a variety of learning opportunities for

the mixed-ability students. The learning opportunities changed with the types of

assignments, the availability of resources for hands-on activities, enrichment

activities, and review activities for reinforcing curriculum concepts. Differentiating

Instruction The challenge for the middle school teacher is to differentiate or to

adapt instruction to respond to the diverse student needs found in inclusive, mixed-

ability classrooms (Tomlinson, 1995c).

After I read the different articles by Dr. Carol Tomlinson, I went back to the

lessons that had already occurred to check and see if I had utilized variety in my

daily instruction. As the classroom teacher, I did use several different instructional

strategies in the learning contract to promote learning and an understanding of the

material being taught in the seventh-grade life science classroom. Students had a
variety of options to demonstrate what they had learned through class discussions,

tests, lab exercises, projects, and additional activities. Because of the mixed-ability

students in my classroom and their need to understand the science concepts being

taught, differentiating instruction became important to me.

The teacher uses four strategies to shape teaching and learning in an effective,

differentiated classroom (Tomlinson, 1995a): (1) “Instruction is concept focused

and principle driven.” All students come to understand the key principles. Such

instruction enables struggling learners to grasp and use powerful ideas and at the

same time, encourages advanced learners to expand their understanding and

application of the key concepts and principles.

The learning contract used for my case study contained activities that

promoted flexible grouping for daily seating and lab activities. Students

participated in self-evaluation at the end of each grading period, and they were

actively engaged as they searched through the reference materials in the life

science classroom or in the computer lab. The students assumed responsibility for

their learning by completing assignments listed in the learning contract.

According to Tomlinson (1995b), there must be a reason to differentiate

instruction. To be successful, the teacher must draw on classroom management and

routines, prepare both students and parents for a differentiated approach to


learning, and work with other faculty members to coordinate a team approach to

learning. These considerations move the students toward student-centered learning,

or self-directed learning, and help prepare them as they start their journey as life-

long learners.

According to Tomlinson (1995b), there must be a reason to differentiate

instruction. To be successful, the teacher must draw on classroom management and

routines, prepare both students and parents for a differentiated approach to

learning, and work with other faculty members to coordinate a team approach to

learning. These considerations move the students toward student-centered learning,

or self-directed learning, and help prepare them as they start their journey as life-

long learners.

At the University of Connecticut, Joe Renzulli developed curriculum compacting

as a strategy to help advanced learners maximize their time for learning. The

process contains three stages. According to Tomlinson (1995a) “advanced learners

gain little by continuing to relearn the known, but they gain much from the

expectation that they will continually engage in challenging and productive

learning in school. Compacting helps eliminate the former and facilitate the latter”.

Tiered lessons are a way of “taking the same concepts and essential

understanding of a lesson and adapting them to the various ability levels, interests,
and learning profiles of students” (C. A. Tomlinson, personal communication,

September 8, 2000). Both of these strategies, compacting and tiered-sense-making

activities, while new to me as the teacher-researcher, could be used within the

guidelines of a learning contract in the future.

Thompson and Poppen (1972) stated that learning contracts allow the teacher to

initiate a number of learning strategies. These learning strategies focus on the

students as the individuals responsible for: “(a) making choices about meeting

learning objectives; (b) making commitments to complete personal learning goals;

(c) learning through independent learning activities; (d) using learning styles to

develop alternatives to learning; (e) working cooperatively with peers; (f) sensing a

freedom from threat of failure; (g) identifying the area where the task is

challenging; (h) finding the opportunity for stimulating learning experiences; (i)

completing course objectives; and (k) connecting the learning process to real-life

encounters”

Thompson and Poppen’s strategy list helped in planning activities for curriculum

development and concept mastery using a learning contract. These strategies added

more variety to instructional methods, and they allowed students to use what they

learned in the classroom and then apply it to real-life situations. Students made

choices about which additional activities they wanted to complete, and they
worked cooperatively with their classmates. There was a sense of freedom from the

threat of failure because the students worked cooperatively within their teams as

they completed course objectives.

The traditional instructor accepts the responsibility for what and how

students learn. To achieve the goal of teaching students how to learn, instructors

should become facilitators of learning (Cristiano, 1993). “Knowing how to learn is

the most basic of all skills because it is the key that unlocks future success.

Individuals who know how to learn can more easily acquire other skills. Without

this essential skill however, one’s learning is not as rapid or as comprehensive and

long lasting” (Carnevale, Gainer, & Meltzer, 1990.

When I began to teach in January 1997, I discovered big differences between

the high school students I had recently instructed and the seventh-grade middle

school students I now called my students. Diversity, not uniformity, is the norm for

the students in the seventh-grade. This diversity manifests itself in physical, social,

emotional, and intellectual stages of development. Each of these stages can have a

direct influence on the students’ learning ability.

In grades 7 and 8, there can be great disparity with respect to physical

growth. Girls may be taller than boys in the 10-to-15-year-old age group, and the

uneven development of bone and muscle structure results in a lack of coordination


(McKay, 1995). Students’ development ranges from a strong dependence on the

home and family to peers as a source of standards and models of behavior. “Group

membership is a strong social need, and the student will go to great lengths to

acquire it and respond readily to what they see as peer pressure” (McKay, 1995).

The world is being rapidly transformed by science and technology in ways

that have profound significance for our economic well being and for a democratic

society. Work will require much more technical competence and a great deal of

flexibility. In the years immediately ahead, the national cohort of young people

will be smaller than in recent decades. Fewer college-age students will enter the

work force. We need to The world is being rapidly transformed by science and

technology in ways that have profound significance for our economic well being

and for a democratic society. We need to develop the talent of all our people if this

nation is to be economically competitive and socially cohesive in the different

world of the next century.

Johnston and Markle (1983) reported that although a majority of teachers

believe that ability grouping improves effectiveness, the practice has a deleterious

effect on teacher expectations and instructional practices, especially for low-ability

students. This affects students in the areas of perceptions of self, of others, and of

academic performance. It may perpetuate the notions of superior and inferior


classes of persons” (McKay, 1995, p. 19). It is further believed that tracking has a

negative impact on low achieving students’ aspirations and self-esteem, while

denying them access to the advanced courses that they need to get into college and

find rewarding careers (Oakes, 1985; Wheelock, 1992).

According to Knowles (1986) a learning contract typically specifies five

major themes: (a) how the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values are to be

acquired by the learner (learning objectives); (b) how the learning objectives are to

be accomplished, (learning resources and strategies); (c) how to assign a target date

for their accomplishment; (d) how the evidence to be presented will demonstrate

that the objectives have been accomplished; and (e) how the evidence will be

judged, or validated, or how much credit will be awarded to the learner, or what

grade.

With a learning contract, students use a variety of assignments to achieve a

final grade. However, in the situation where a class uses a midterm and a final

examination to arrive at a grade, a student’s grade is based on a very narrow

sampling of his performance capability (Newcomb & Warmbrod, 1974). “But

sampling behavior by testing in education is like standing by a river with a cup,

dipping into the stream as it moves by. In assessing learning, like dipping the cup

into the river, one seldom gets an adequate sample” (Frymier, 1965).
Allowing students to decide which grades they wish to strive for, which

activities they will engage in, and how they will demonstrate that they have

satisfactorily completed their studies permits a teacher to seize upon powerful

motivating forces within individual students. These student-centered choices

“shifts responsibility for learning from the teacher to the student, but at the same

time offers an incentive by insuring success under known conditions. Students are

challenged without being threatened. Students are almost never dissatisfied with

grades, whatever they may be” (Frymier, 1965).

Students identified problems or issues imperative to them and also relevant

to the course at hand. They then identified the learning objectives and learning

resources. Course objectives may address attaining knowledge or developing a

skill. “The result of the learning contract is some kind of evidence of the

achievement of the learning objectives” (Cristiano, 1993).

Carl Rogers (1983) stated his purpose for learning contracts as follows: We

are, in my view, faced with an entirely new situation in education where the goal of

education, if we are to survive, is the facilitation of change and learning. The only

man who is educated is the man who has learned how to learn; the man who has

learned how to adapt and change; the man who has realized that no knowledge is

secure, that only the process of seeking knowledge gives a basis for security.
Changingness, reliance on process rather than upon static knowledge, is the only

thing that makes any sense as a goal for education in the modern world.

Using the learning contract as a means to accomplish the curriculum goals as

well as to set the foundation for future learning experiences enables the students to

keep abreast of a changing environment.

Student motivation is quite important to student learning and satisfaction.

This motivation can be intrinsic (from within) or extrinsic. Highly motivated

students tend to try harder and achieve better educational results (Brewer &

Burgess, 2005). Highly motivated students also tend to be more satisfied with their

education (Jones, 2008; Roebkin, 2007). Student satisfaction is important because

it serves as a common measure of the performance of instructors and universities

and to some extent, as a measure of student adjustment or success (Jones, 2008). It

may also contribute to student retention (Suhre, Jansen, &Harskamp,2007).

Furthermore, psychologists have found that students will feel satisfied when

they would aquire knowledge; develop useful skills which would result in their

enhanced self confidence. According to Bandura [1977] and Schunk [1991],

learners use self-regulatory attributes to control their personal learning processes

and self-efficacy influences choice, efforts, and volition. Successful students seem

to have an ability to motivate themselves to complete a task, while the less


successful ones have difficulty in developing self-motivational skills (Dembo &

Eaton, 2000)

Methods and Procedure

This chapter depicts the pertinent aspects of the study, specifically on the

method and procedures that we used. Subject involved and the technique used in

gathering the desired data, processing as well as the use of appropriate statistical

tools employed in the data analysis.

Research Design

The study utilized the descriptive survey method of research. The objective

of the study is to determine the significant relation of the teaching strategies to

teaching-learning process.

INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT


 Profile of the  Descriptive

Respondent Correlation Method

 Factors  Data Gathering  Propose

contributing  Data Analysis Action

the  Data Interpretation Plan

Preparedness  Conclusion

Research Locale

The study was conducted at University of Cebu – Maritime Education and

Training Center (UC-METC) located at Mambaling, Cebu City


Research Respondents

The first year maritime students of the University of Cebu – METC are the

respondent in the study. A total of 819 first year maritime students enrolled on
academic year 2019-2020, 515 students in marine transportation and 304 students

in marine engineering.

Sampling Procedure

The researcher used the simple random sampling where the odd/even

scheme was used in getting the number of respondents of the study.

Research Instrument

The main instrument used in gathering the data was the questionnaire-

checklist to supplement and determine the certain aspects of the survey

Data Gathering procedure

After the permit was granted, the researchers conducted a survey by sending

out questionnaire-checklist where questions really congruent to the desired

responses.
SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE

Please read this questionnaire and answer to the best of your knowledge.

Rate the effectives of the following methods by checking on the column you

choose.

Name:

Course:

Year & Section:

Age:

Legend:

5- Most effective 3- Effective 1- Not effective

4- More effective 2- Less effective

Teaching Strategies 5 4 3 2 1
1. Giving learners opportunities to participate in classroom activities
2. Using multi-sensory Aids
3. Make our learner’s fell they belong to a community of learners with a
shared goal or purpose to reach their potentials.
4. Using exposit method when discussing.
5. Start explaining from specific to general; simple to complex.
6. Explain the lesson starting from generalization to specific; from whole to
abstract.
7. Let the learners do the activities in their own and let them “learn by doing”.
8. Using the imitative method or demonstration method; Demonstrate to the
learns the job be accomplish with the execute what have been demonstrated.
9. Applying the cooperative learning. Group them heterogeneously.
10. Teachers will let the older, smarter and more responsible member of the
class to tutor, coach, and instructor and teach his/her other classmate.