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1. Social Group - A social group consists of two or more persons who are in a social
interaction, who are guided by social norms, values, and expectations, and who
maintain a stable pattern of relations over a period
2. Aggregates - human clusters which do not form social groups but may be transferred
into one.
3. Social Category - groups whose members may never have met and do not interact
socially, but possess common identifying status characteristics
4. Collectivity - composed of clusters of people who share some kind of belief which
prepare them for action, spontaneously form a temporary or short-lived group.
5. Group cohesion - refers to the degree to which members of a group are able to function
and interact towards the pursuit of their goals.
6. Social structure - is an abstraction; it cannot be seen directly, but it can be inferred from
observing human behavior.
7. Social function- is a component of social structure
8. Primary group - the initial groups that a person joins; they provide him or her with
experiences in social relations
9. Secondary Group - impersonal, business-like, contractual and casual.
10. Gemeinschaft -a community of intimate, private and exclusive living and familism
11. Gesellschaft - public life’ or the world itself
12. In-Group -the group with which the individual identifies, and which gives him or her a
sense of belonging, solidarity, camaraderie.
13. Out-Group - a group which an individual is in sufficient contact with as to be aware of its
existence, but which he or she is prone to criticize or ridicule.
14. Formal Organizations - social structures which are deliberately organized for the
attainment of specific goals which meet their most fundamental needs
15. Informal Groups - dyads and triads, friendship groups or circles which are formed
spontaneously without any conscious effort of the participants
16. Reference Groups - the group to which the individual relates or aspires to relate
17. Social Institutions - is an abstraction which an organized system of social norms, beliefs,
values, and material objects formed around the social needs of people


1. Social interaction - is the way in which people respond or communicate with one
another within social contexts
2. Exchange - It is the process by which one transfers social goods, services, and items to
3. Competition - is form of struggle to secure a reward or a goal such as a prize, material
object, position, leadership, prestige, or power.
4. Personal competition - involves direct, face to face contact and is sometimes referred to
as rivalry.
5. Impersonal competition - involves struggles between person and groups not directly
aware of each other.
6. Conflict - When the rules of competition are broken and the opponents become openly
antagonistic, conflict may develop.
7. War - The most violent and intense form of conflict
8. Cooperation - is present in varying degrees in every group. It is the central feature of
social life. Cooperation ranges from the unity among members of a family or among
9. Informal cooperation is spontaneous and involves mutual give and take
10. Formal cooperation is of deliberate contractual nature prescribing the reciprocal rights
and obligations of members.
11. Symbolic cooperation is a situation when two or more members of society, living
together harmoniously, are supportive and interdependent.
12. Accommodation - the fact of equilibrium between individuals and groups and the rules
of the game which have to be followed
13. Domination is characteristic of the superordinate subordinate type of relationship
where the stronger party imposes its will to make the order yield
14. Truce - is an agreement to cease hostilities or fighting for a certain period of time.
15. Compromise - refers to the mutual giving of concessions and withdrawal of some
16. Toleration - is a form of accommodation without formal agreement.
17. Reciprocity is a kind of social exchange, which is universal form of behaviour. Utang na
18. Acculturation - When one group blends in and takes on the characteristics of another
19. Amalgamation - When different ethnic groups intermarry, amalgamation results.


1. Collective Behavior - These types of behavior that are not guided by the group norms
2. Convergence Perspective - This explanation is premised on the idea that human
behavior is determined by forces within the individual.
3. Emergent Norm Perspective - It states that collective behavior is not characterized by
unanimity but by differences in expressions and emotions.
4. Structural conduciveness - Means that there exist certain social conditions for collective
behavior to be possible.
5. Structural strain - It is brought about by a gap between expectations and reality,
resulting in conflict or problems.
6. Generalized belief - It is brought about by the inability of participants to define and
analyze the problem.
7. Precipitating factors - Precipitating factors in the form of dramatic events, which may
trigger collective response.
8. Mobilization of participants - Mobilization of participants to join the action after the
9. Crowd - is said to be a transitory group of persons in an ambiguous
10. Types of Crowd - Casual crowd, Conventionalized crowd, Acting crowd, Expressive
11. Audience - Institutionalized crowd, spectators or audience are usually passive and
controlled by certain cultural rules.
12. The Mass - Unlike the crowd, it is diffused collectivity. It is made up of a number of
desperate individuals, each responding independently to the same stimulus.
13. Rumors is unverified or substantial information about events or people. Climate of
uncertainty, unstable, and difficult to stop (Maciones 1997). While gossip is formal and
idle talks but centers on personal affairs, usually celebrities.
14. Fashion - reflects the prevailing interest of a society and centered upon the spread of
change in taste and lifestyle.
15. Fads - are passing fancies or novelties.
16. Crazes - are new activities which excites persons who become subsequently
preoccupied with these.
17. Newspaper - A channel for disseminating information to the public. It relays news,
comments and opinions through its reports, editorials and opinion pages.
18. Radio - A powerful medium because it reaches a wide audience. Its effectiveness lies in
making listeners feel the speaker’s personality.
19. Television - It uses both sight and sound in conveying ideas to people. Televisions
advantage over the radio is its visual projection for events which makes this appear
more real and stimulating.
20. Motion Pictures - Like television, motion pictures are primarily for entertainment, but
can also be informative and instructional. Concerns have been raised on the movies’
reflection of people’s values and effects they on the viewers.
21. Social Movements - A social movement is a type of collectivity composed of people who
share sentiments or grievances who unite to promote or resist change.
22. Expressive Movement - A form of dissent against the existing power structures.
23. Resistance and Protest Movement - It aims to change existing social values and
institutions which members consider decadent.
24. Reform Movements - Directed at a changing certain aspect if the social class structure or
a segment of the power relations in social system.
25. Rebellion and Revolutionary Movements - Aim to change the whole social order and
replace the leadership.

Chapter 10: THE FAMILY

1. Marriage is the foundation of the family, an inviolable social institution.

2. Monogamy - permits a man to take only one spouse at a time. Polygyny - is the
marriage of one man to two or more women at the same time. It is example of Muslims
that status symbol for the man. Polyandry - is the marriage of a woman to two or
more men at the same time. Practiced by the Kaingang of Brazil.
3. Endogamy – refers to the norms which dictates that one should marry within one’s clan
or ethnic group Exogamy - prescribes that one marries outside one’s clan or ethnic
4. Levirate norm - prescribes that a widow marries the brother or nearest kin of the
deceased husband. Sororate norm - prescribes that a widower marries the sister
or nearest kin of the deceased wife.
5. Nuclear family - is the smallest unit responsible for the preservation of the value system
of society.
6. Extended family - is composed of two or more nuclear families, economically and
socially related to each other.
7. Consanguineal family - which considers the nucleus of blood relatives as more important
than the spouses.
8. Patrilineal descent - affiliates a person with a group of relatives through his or her
9. Matrilineal descent - affiliates a person with a group of relatives related through, his or
her mother.
10. Bilateral descent - affiliates a person with a group of relatives related both to his and her
11. Patrilocal - residence requires that the newly married couple live with or near the
domicile of the parents of the groom.
12. Matrilocal - residence requires that the newly married couple live with or near the
domicile of the parents of the bride.
13. Bilocal - residence gives the couple a choice of staying with either the groom’s parents
or the bride’s parents, depending on factors like the relative wealth of the families or
their status
14. Neolocal - residence permits the newly married couple to reside independently of the
parents of either groom or bride.
15. Avuncolocal - residence prescribes that the newly married couple reside with or near
the maternal uncle of the groom.
16. Patriarchal family - is one which the authority is vested on the oldest male in the family,
often the father.
17. Matriarchal family- is one in which the authority is vested on the mother’s kin.
18. Courtship - is the stage preparatory to marriage and may include all the forms of
behavior by which an individual seeks to win the consent of another to a marriage
19. Secular familism - is characterized by members of the family who still aim success of the
family as their goal


1. Economy - refers to the structuring and functioning of the development and utilization
of human and natural resources in the production processing distribution and
consumption of material goods and services.
2. Property - refers to the network of rights and duties of one person as against all other
persons and groups with respect to some scare goods
3. Private property - is relatively free from direct state controls and is generally transferred
from the owner to their duly designated heirs.
4. Public property - is subject to governmental restrains and is controlled by the respective
subsystem of government.
5. Technology - consist of the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to convert
available resources into object people need or want.
6. Division of labor - represent the differentiation of function performed by the individuals
members and small groups of the society (Durkheim 1949).
7. Organization of work - is concerned with the application of sociological principles to the
study of economic structure changes
8. Socialism - is based on a set of political theories that espouses the collective ownership
of the means of production and distribution of goods.
9. Communism - is a social political and economic system whereby property publicly
owned Karl Marx
10. Globalization - is a process by which the money, goods, information and people move
across nations at a pace and on a magnitude made possible by the rapid advance in
communication and travel

Chapter 12: RELIGION

1. Religion - is a universal and pervasive phenomenon, a part of the cultural system.

Religion is central to practically every society. Religion is a matter of faith and some turn
to it to meet their problems and challenges and as a way of looking toward the future.
2. Religion - comes from the Latin word religare, which means to “to bind together”
3. Beliefs - Religion involves a set of institutionalized beliefs and practices dealing with the
ultimate meaning of life; it provides a blueprint for social behavior based on a divine,
transcendental order
4. Sacred - is related to the supernatural, and beliefs about the sacred entities develop a
supernatural quality which evokes reverence, awe, happiness, joy, sorrow, fear, or
5. Profane - refers to the irreverence for sacred things as manifested in greed, selfishness,
and adultery.
6. Rituals - may be in the form of prayers, songs, chants, dances, and food offerings.
7. The separation of the church and state - was enshrined in the Malolos Constitution of
8. Split-level Christianity as the situations where two or more thought-and-behavior
systems which are inconsistent with each other coexist within the same person.
9. Occult - is derived from the Latin word occultus which means mysterious things and
practices related to supernatural forces beyond the five senses
10. Magic - is still commonly practiced in some barrios in the country. This involves
mechanically manipulating the supernatural forces for good and evil.
Chapter 13: GOVERNMENT and LAW

1. Politics - is the “theory, art, and practice of government.”

2. Political institutions - are the social arrangements for legislating and enforcing laws, and
providing social services like education, public health and welfare, distributing public
funds, collecting taxes, conducting foreign affairs, and deciding on issues of war and
3. Ideology - is a system of values, ideas, beliefs, and attitudes that a society or groups
within it share and accept as fact
4. Autocracy - is the direct opposite of democracy.
5. Oligarchy - is a form of government in which the power or authority resides in the few
persons who govern for their own interests
6. Democracy - is form of government where there is a rule by the people, either directly
or through representatives
7. Fascism - a derivative from the Italian Fascist Party, is a political economic system in
which all major aspects of society’s life
8. modern totalitarianism - absolute power is not attained or maintained easily. It evolves
from a one party system and develops entirely new political institutions
9. Social democracy - is advocated by ‘bourgeois revisionists
10. State - are the maintenance of peace and order and the regulation and control of the
lives of the people
11. Nationalism - is a complex social phenomenon, made up of a set of beliefs about the
capabilities and uniqueness of one’s own nation, and a defense of its interests, above all
12. Terrorism - may be defined as acts of violence or the threat of violence or threat of
violence employed employed by an individual or group as a political strategy.
Chapter 14: EDUCATION

1. Education - is defined as a preparation for effective participation in social relations

2. Informal education - is learning through interaction with others in the group.
3. Non-formal education - consists of sets of definite learning goals and objectives,
generally making use of a more flexible curriculum, less rigid admission procedures, and
more participative teaching methods.

1. Community - is a place where one lives, works, and plays. The word is also used to refer to some
2. Community - is a social organization that is “territorially localized and through which its members
satisfy most of their daily needs and deal with most of their common problems
3. Rural communities - are usually small, and people are engaged in agriculture, fishing, forestry,
mining, food gathering, and peasants.
4. Peasants - are rural folks who produced their own food for subsistence and sell their surplus in the
towns and cities.
5. Barangay, or balangay - as it was originally called, has its roots in pre-Spanish times. The
barangay, later called barrio, was the basic political unit during the Spanish colonial period