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Regeneration & Common Fault Codes Cheat Sheet

Passive regeneration requires no operator interaction:

Requires a minimum DOC inlet temperature of 250°C or 480°F Machine performs as normal (No Dosing) Issues: None

Active regeneration, fully automatic requires no operator interaction:

Requires 3 to 4 bars of restriction and ¼ tank of fuel Prompts operator with option to cancel incase flammables are present Machine performs as normal (Requires Fuel Dosing) Issues: Must remain in a running condition Operator should not perform any action or park machine

Desorb request after accumulating 90 minutes of idle time:

Requires operator to idle machine and lower lock lever or set parking brake. Requires 0 to 7 bars of restriction and ¼ tank of fuel. Requires 7 to 10 minutes to perform. Action Code L01, Request for Desorb, machine has accumulated 90 minutes of idle time. Action Code L03, Request for Desorb, after machine accumulates 120 minutes of idle time. Any Active or Manual Stationary regeneration will reset idle time back to zero minutes. Issues: Machine must be in a parked condition Request operator to perform a Manual Stationary Regeneration causing confusion. 120 minutes of idle time results in Action Level L03 which De-rates engine 15% When denied produces Fault code A1UON3 after 90 minutes When denied produces Fault code A1UON4 after 120 minutes

Manual Stationary Regeneration:

Preformed by operator. Requires 4 to 7 bars of restriction and ¼ tank of fuel. Issues: Machine must be in a parked position Cannot be performed when specific DPF fault codes are active.

Manual Stationary Regeneration for Service:

Preformed by service personnel. Requires 1 to 7 bars of restriction and ¼ tank of fuel. Required to clear some active fault codes Issues: Machine must be in a parked position Cannot be performed when specific DPF fault codes are active May require Insite to perform

Insite Manual Stationary Regeneration:

Preformed by service personal. Requires 0 to 7 bars of restriction. Cannot be performed if certain DPF fault codes are active Cannot be performed if monitor shows 8 bars of restriction Must be used to clear specific active DPF fault codes Issues: Machine cannot be operated Cannot perform with 8 bars of restriction, Action Level L04, Must stall machine for up to 10 continuous minutes to reduce to 7 bars of restriction

Causes for Excessive Regenerations:

1.

Dirty or faulty Mass Air Flow sensor.

2. Faulty turbo or low boost

3.

Faulty Boost Pressure sensor or intake temperature sensor

4. Plugged air filter

5.

Air to Air Cooler is dirty, plugged, or lacks air flow

6. Cracked Air to Air Cooler

7.

Damaged or leaking boost hoses.

8. Slow Fan Speed

9.

Faulty injectors, causes dirt, water and injector overheat.

10. Faulty ECM

11. Leaking doser valve, on 125 and 140 engines only.

Note: If the level or restriction shown in the monitor panel and the level call out in the failure code do not match you have one of three issues.

1. Differential pressure sensor tube is plugged and this usually occurs on the DPF inlet side.

2. The differential pressure sensor is faulty

3. The Engine Controller is faulty.

Common Fault Codes on Tier 4i Engines / Action Level L04 is Machine Down

Fault

Description and causes

 

Operator

Action

   

Repairable

Code

De-rate

Bars

A1U0N3

Request for Desorb, 90m of idle time, 7 ~10 min. to complete

Yes

L01

NO

0

~ 3

A1U0N4

Request for Desorb, 120m of idle time, 7~10 min. to complete

Yes

L03

Yes 15%

0

~ 3

CA1117

Perform regeneration for service"

Controller cannot store data

NO

L04

Yes 15%

 

NA

CA1691

Efficiency (catalytic action) of KDOC is degraded. Low DOC Temps

Yes

L01

Yes 15%

 

NA

CA2637

KDOC face plugging / Requires Insite plus Manual Regeneration

Yes

L01

Yes 15%

 

NA

CA2639

Request for Manual Regeneration, takes 40 minutes / 3 Hr for fault to auto-reset

Yes

L01

NO

4

~ 5

CA1921

KDPF Soot Load High Error 1 Regeneration, 40~60m, may take 2 times

Yes

L03

Yes 15%

6

~ 7

CA1921

CA2777 Automatic Regeneration Disabled (View in Insite only)

     

4

~7

+

2777

Go to diagnostic test / 02 / Select Enable

No

L03

Yes 15%

 

CA1922

KDPF Soot Load High Error 2-Regeneration disabled-select DPF service & regenerate

No

L04

Yes 75%

 

8

CA1922

CA2777 Automatic Regeneration Disabled (View in Insite only)

       

8

+

2777

Go to diagnostic test screen 02 / Select Enable

No

L04

Yes 75%

 

CA131

Throttle sensor high error / Cause by turning throttle dial past Hi-idle stop

Yes

L03

Yes 15%

 

NA

CA132

Throttle sensor low error / Cause by turning throttle dial past Idle stop

Yes

L03

Yes 15%

 

NA

CA428

Water in Fuel Sensor / High error (Filters?)

Yes

L01

No

 

NA

CA452

Rail pressure sensor low error (Usually Filters?)

Yes

L03

Yes 15%

 

NA

CA555

Crankcase Press High Error (Usually CCV Filter?)

Yes

L01

No

 

NA

CA559

Rail pressure low / Supply pump pressure low (Usually Filters?)

Yes

L01

No

 

NA

CA3741

Rail press valve Trip Error, Insite needed to run pressure test, (Usually Filters?)

Yes

L03

Yes 15%

 

NA

CA2311

IMV solenoid error, Resistance Ώ of actuator circuit is high or low. (Usually Filters?)

Yes

L03

Yes 15%

 

NA

CA2249

RAIL PRESS VERY LOW ERROR (Usually Filters?)

Yes

L03

Yes 15%

 

NA

Understanding Engine Management CPUs and Adaptive Memory Logic

Four Basic Computer Functions:

1. Input

2. Processing

3. Storage

4. Outputs

Computers have two types of Storage:

A. Permanent (ROM) Read only Memory

Examples of Different Names for Controllers:

1. ISO Name: CPU or Central Processing Unit 2. PCM or Power train Control module 3. ECM or Engine Control module 4. Komatsu PCM or Pump Controller Module

1. ROM or Read Only Memory, where permanent programming is stored

2. PROM Programmable Read Only Memory, Firmware, Machine faults, and calibrations

3. EEPROM or Electrical Erasable & Programmable, Firmware, calibrations, and adaptive memory

B. Temporary Memory:

There are two types of RAM or Random Access Memory used in engine CPU management

1. Volatile RAM, loses memory as soon as battery power is lost, Switched Power, Fault codes

2. Nonvolatile or KAM or Keep Alive Memory, Un-switched power, Fault codes

Note vital information stored in KAM can stored in back-up files in multiple controllers

CPUs are continuously supplied information from RAM & KAM:

Continuous Monitors information held in KAM Example: Stores memory of total idle time and last Active or Manual regenerations This allows the controller to know when to request a Desorb or Mandatory 96 Hr regeneration

Non-continuous Monitors information held in RAM:

Examples: Current DPF temperatures, MAS readings, Ambient Air Pressure, Boost Pressure

Some CPU processing functions:

A. Rationality Testing

Example operator shifts machine from 4 th speed to 2 nd speed but Firmware logic has a conflict between

maximum 2

nd

gear speed and actual ground speed so action is disallowed

B. Functionality Testing

Example: At key on a114 engine the CPU receives 3 atmospheric pressures sensor readings. The firmware logic mandates these readings be the same plus or minus a percentage. If the differential pressure is out of the maximum range it will produce a fault code. (Non-functional)

C. Adaptive Memory stored in KAM Emission controllers using Smart Sensors and Tamper Proof logic have Adaptive Memory. Adaptive Memory will have back-up files stored in the Parent controller.

Example from B Functionality Testing:

1. If all sensors are in range "Functional" the CPU will average the three sensor readings. Sensor 1, reads 100.5 kpa, Sensor 2, 99.0 kpa, Sensor 3, 99.8 kpa Average is 99.76 kpa The CPU will adjust adaptsensor 1 by -.74% and does this for all three sensors and stores this information in Adaptive memory. The CPU averages the next 40 or 50 cycles to make the readings more accurate. Adaptive Memory will keeps adjusting the sensors readings based on CPU adjusted values. Note when monitoring these readings you will see actual readings, “Before adjustment” even though the fueling rates are being adjusted based on the percentage of change.

Example from B Functionality Testing:

2. If one sensor is out of range limits, firmware logic through the CPU performs at least 2 functions. 1. Generates a fault code, 2. Ignores readings from the faulty sensors and calculates sensor readings based on other engine parameters and firmware logic. When a fault code is active monitoring a faulty or replacement sensor you will not read actual sensor readings.

Service Steps Before Diagnosing Excessive Regenerations on 107 & 114 Tier 4i Engines

Take Engine Oil Sample every when troubleshooting DPF Regeneration issues

Take Fuel Sample every when troubleshooting DPF Regeneration issues

Reference and fill out FL12061A when troubleshooting DPF Regeneration issues

Monitor MAF sensor readings at idle and high idle and compare readings to FN12061A

Clean the Mass Air Flow sensor with MAF sensor cleaner, monitor and record readings

Test for proper Air flow across the Charge Air Cooler and radiator and clean if needed

Pressure test Charge Air Cooler and tubing for leaks

Inspect exhaust tubing for both exhaust and fluid leaks

Remove KCCV tubing at the intake for signs of engine oil entering the intake

Check KCCV filter for being plugged with soot or damage

Use compressed air and Brake Parts Cleaner to clean out CCV filter oil drain back hose

Remove EGR Orifice Temp sensor and clean

Inspect EGR supply tube for excessive soot build up

Remove Exhaust Back Pressure Sensor and clean

Blow compressed air into exhaust back pressure sensor manifold to test for obstruction

4.5 mm bore Scopes will fit through the temperature sensors mounting holes

Use 4.5 mm bore Scope to inspect the DOC and DPF face for color and deposits

Use Cummins Service Bulletin 4021600-03 to diagnose DOC and DPF deposits

Use Cummins Service Bulletin 4021600-03 to diagnose face plugging

Hook up Insite, start data logger, then start manual stationary Regeneration

Perform Stationary Regen for Service after every DPF Cleaning or Replacement

Record Dosing starting temperature for DOC in.

Record all 3 maximum temperatures for DOC IN, DPF IN, and DPF OUT.

Reference Insite KDPF Troubleshooting Cheat Sheet for 107 & 114 Tier 4i Engines

Insite KDPF Troubleshooting Cheat Sheet for 107 & 114 Tier 4i Engines

1. Normal Dosing starts at DOC Inlet temps of 250°C ± 20°C or 482°F ± 36ºF

2. Minimal DOC Inlet temps before Dosing starts, 230°C or 446°F

3. If Dosing starts before 446°F when viewing Insite the ECM is Faulty, period.

4. Maximum (Normal) DOC Inlet temps during Regeneration 385°C or 725°F.

5. Maximum (Normal) DPF Inlet and outlet temps during Regeneration, 565°C or 1050°F.

6. DPF Inlet and outlet regen temps higher than 1100°F is an over fueling condition.

a.

Over-fueling can be either diesel fuel or oil

b.

Dosing during manual regenerations uses all 6 injectors (Cummins Logic)

c.

Dosing during Active regenerations uses injectors 4, 5, and 6.

d.

Dosing fueling rates are controlled by the ECM based on KDPF temperatures

c.

To date over-fueling (Diesel fuel) has always come from the injectors. We have also experienced rebuilt injectors failing in a week’s time.

d.

Engine oil over-fueling most of the time is caused by the KCC Filter overfilling

7. Usual causes for excessive oil entering the exhaust stream causing over-fueling:

a. Excessive blow by coming from turbo

b. Plugged or restricted check valve or drain back hoses for KCC filter housing.

c. Engines with high hours that plug the KCC filter prematurely could have high blow-by cause by excessive compression rings or valve guide wear.

8. When DPF inlet and outlet temperatures are below 490°C or 914°F:

a. DOC cannot produce enough oxygen because of excessive soot or damaged.

b. The replacement DOC is faulty

c. ECM Firmware is damaged

d. Or b & c

Service Steps Before Diagnosing Excessive Regenerations on 125 & 140 Tier 4i Engines

Take Engine Oil Sample every when troubleshooting DPF Regeneration issues

Take Fuel Sample every when troubleshooting DPF Regeneration issues

Reference and fill out FL12061A when troubleshooting DPF Regeneration issues

Monitor MAF sensor readings at idle and high idle and compare readings to FN12061A

Clean the Mass Air Flow sensor with MAF sensor cleaner, monitor and record readings

Test for proper Air flow across the Charge Air Cooler and radiator and clean if needed

Pressure test Charge Air Cooler and tubing for leaks

Inspect exhaust tubing for both exhaust and fluid leaks

Remove KCCV tubing at the intake for signs of engine oil entering the intake

Check KCCV filter for being plugged with soot or damage

Use compressed air and Brake Parts Cleaner to clean out CCV filter oil drain back hose

Clean and inspect Dosing valve as this can easily raise DPF inlet temps substantially

Use Cummins Insite to test Dosing valve and inspect for uniform spray pattern.

4.5 mm bore Scopes will fit through the temperature sensors mounting holes

Use 4.5 mm bore Scope to inspect the DOC and DPF face for color and deposits

Use Cummins Service Bulletin 4021600-03 to diagnose DOC and DPF deposits

Use Cummins Service Bulletin 4021600-03 to diagnose face plugging

Hook up Insite, start data logger, then start manual stationary Regeneration

Perform Stationary Regen for Service after every DPF Cleaning or Replacement

Record Dosing starting temperature for DOC in.

Record all 3 maximum temperatures for DOC IN, DPF IN, and DPF OUT.

Reference Insite KDPF Troubleshooting Cheat Sheet for 125 & 140 Tier 4i Engines

Insite KDPF Troubleshooting Cheat Sheet for 125 & 140 Tier 4i Engines

1. Normal Dosing starts at DOC Inlet temps of 290°C ± 20°C or 554°F ± 36ºF

2. Minimal DOC Inlet temps before Dosing starts, 250°C or 480°F

3. If Dosing starts before 480°F when viewing Insite the ECM is Faulty, period. The Doser could be leaking but haven’t experienced a severe enough leak to be noticeable or detectable viewing temperatures during regenerations.

4. Maximum (Normal) DOC Inlet temps during Regeneration 440°C or 824°F.

5. Maximum (Normal) DPF Inlet and outlet temps during Regeneration, 555°C or 1032°F.

6. DPF Inlet and outlet regen temps higher than 1100°F is an over fueling condition.

a. Over-fueling can be either diesel fuel or oil

b. I have not experienced over fueling (Diesel Fuel) caused by the Doser. If doser is over-fueling I would suspect corrupted ECM Firmware but not a damaged doser. A leaking Doser generally cause excessive regens and a heavy buildup of deposits over the Doser not elevated temperatures during dosing.

c. Doser fueling rates are controlled by the ECM based on KDPF temperatures

d. To date Over fueling (Diesel fuel) has always come from the injectors. We have also experienced rebuilt injectors failing in a week’s time.

e. Engine oil over fueling most of the time is caused by the KCC Filter overfilling

7. Usual causes for excessive oil entering the exhaust stream causing over-fueling:

a. Excessive blow by coming from turbo

b. Plugged or restricted check valve or drain back hoses for KCC filter housing.

c. Engines with high hours that plug the KCC filter prematurely could have high blow-by cause by excessive compression ring or valve guide wear.

8. When DPF inlet and outlet temperatures are below 487°C or 910°F

a. DOC cannot produce enough oxygen because of excessive soot or damaged.

b. The Doser is covered over with deposits or malfunctioning for various reasons

c. ECM Firmware is damaged

d. The replacement DOC is faulty

e. Or c & d

 

Diagnose or Prevent

ECM Firmware Damage

Over-fuel /DOC Damage

Over-fuel /DOC Damage

Over-fuel /DOC Damage

Inefficient long Regens

Over-fuel /DOC Damage

Over-fuel /DOC Damage

Over-fuel /DOC Damage

Over-fuel /DOC Damage

Over-fuel /DOC Damage

Over-fuel /DOC Damage

Excessive Regens

Excessive Regens

Excessive Regens

Excessive Regens

Over-fuel /DOC Damage

Over-fuel /DOC Damage

Inefficient long Regens

Proper Diagnoses of KDPF

Proper Diagnoses of KDPF

Proper Diagnoses of KDPF

Proper Diagnoses of KDPF

Over-fuel /DOC Damage

ECM Firmware Damage

Proper Diagnoses of KDPF

Proper Regen Diagnoses

 

Suggested Preventative Maintenance for Tier 4i Engines

Estimated Time, 5.5 hoursMinutes

Suggested Preventive 1,000 Hour Tier 4i Engine Maintenance

Complete Battery/Starter/Charging Analization to prevent Fault Code CA1117, (Midtronics EXP-1000 HD)

Clean Mass Air Flow sensor and laminar flow screen

Blow compressed air through the Charge Air Cooler and radiator to test for obstructions and clean as needed

Visually inspect and torque on all hose clamps for Charge air Cooler and intake hoses

Visually inspect complete exhaust, EGR, & Turbo piping system for exhaust and fluid leaks

Remove KCCV rubber tubing connector at intake for signs of engine oil entering the intake

If there are signs of engine oil entering the intake perform steps A, B, and C

A: Remove KCCV intake tube assembly and clean out with brake parts cleaner

B: Use compressed air and Brake Parts Cleaner to flush out the CCV filter oil drain back hose

C: Perform engine Blow by test

Test EGR & KVGT boost oil pressure

Remove EGR Orifice Temp sensor and clean 107 & 114 Engines only

Inspect EGR supply tube for excessive soot build up 107 & 114 Engines only

Remove Exhaust Back Pressure Sensor and clean 107 & 114 Engines only

Blow compressed air into exhaust back pressure sensor manifold to test for obstruction 107 & 114 Engines only

Remove Doser clean, do not disconnect water or fuel lines. Dosers are installed 125/140 engines only

Dosers with excessive carbon build-up, leave unbolted from manifold and run engine at idle for 1 minute to test for leaks

Dosers with excessive carbon build-up, leave unbolted from manifold and run Insite Doser test to check spray pattern

4.5 mm Bore Scopes will fit through the temperature sensors mounting holes

Use 4.5 mm bore Scope to inspect the DOC and DPF face for color and deposits

Use Cummins Service Bulletin 4021600-03 to diagnose DOC and DPF deposits

Use Cummins Service Bulletin 4021600-03 to diagnose face plugging

Hook up Insite, start data logger, then start manual stationary regeneration for 30 minutes minimum

Record Dosing starting temperature for DOC in.

Record all 3 maximum temperatures for DOC IN, DPF IN, and DPF OUT.

Reference Insite KDPF Troubleshooting Cheat Sheet for 107/114 Tier 4i Engines

 

Time

 

15

15

20

15

10

10

85

20

10

30

20

10

10

10

10

20

10

10

160

10

5

5

40

0

5

5

70