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# Prediction

Prediction
THERMODYNAMICS
Try to understand:

• Chemical thermodynamics
• Energy
Thermo -
• Temperature
• Heat
-dynamics
• Movement
• Work
Thermodynamics
• The study of temperature and heat and how it
relates to energy and work.

## • How one form of energy can be transformed

from one form to another.
Chemical Thermodynamics
• The study of energy transfers in physical and
chemical changes.

System Surroundings
System

Surroundings
Energy
• Capacity to do work.
• The ability to move or change something.
• It manifest as work or heat.
Internal Energy (E/U)
• Sum of the potential and kinetic energy of the
system.
• CANNOT BE MEASURED!
• Change in the internal energy of the system.
• Sum of Work and Heat
Heat (q)
• The transfer of energy between two bodies
that are different temperatures.
• The energy transferred between a system and
its surroundings as a result of a difference in
their temperatures.
Exothermic Process (-q)
• Heat transferred from the system to the
surroundings.
• FEEL WARM!

## Endothermic Process (+q)

• Heat absorbed by the system from the
surroundings
• FEEL COLD!
Exothermic or Endothermic?
• Evaporation
• Condensation
• Cooking
• Photosynthesis
Work
• Force multiplied by distance.
• The energy transferred when an object is
moved by force.
• Directed energy change resulting from a
process.
• The ability to move or change matter
Negative work (-w)
• Work done by the System

## Positive work (+w)

• Work done to the System
INTERNAL ENERGY

ΔU = q + w
Problem 1

## Calculate the change in the internal

energy for a process in which a system
absorbs 140 J of heat from the
surroundings and does 85 J of work on
the surroundings.
“When the system, gains energy
the surroundings lose it, and
when the a system loses energy,
the surroundings gain it.”
1st Law of Thermodynamics
“Law of Conservation of Energy”

## “The total Energy of the Universe is Constant”

“Energy Cannot be Created nor Destroyed”
What you reap is
what you sow.
State Functions
• Properties that are determined by the state of
the system, regardless of that condition was
achieved.
• Depends only on the initial and final states
and not how the change is accomplished.

## - “The end doesn’t justify the means”

Application or
Consequences of
st
1 Law of
Thermodynamics
Relax
Inhale….
Exhale….
Inhale….
Exhale….
Relax
How are they related to the 1st
exercise?
INTERNAL ENERGY

ΔU = q + w
WORK
• In chemical system focuses mostly on
expansion or compression.

w = -PΔV
• Expansion Δ>0, w is negative
• Compression Δ<0, w is positive
Problem 2

## A certain gas expands in volume from 2.0L to

6.0L at constant temperature. Calculate the
work done by the gas if it expands (a) against a
vacuum and (b) against a constant pressure of
1.2 atm.
Problem 3

## A gas expands from 264 mL to 971 mL at

constant temperature. Calculate the work done
(in joules) by the gas if it expands (a) against a
vacuum and (b) against a constant pressure of
4.00 atm.
INTERNAL ENERGY

ΔU = q - PΔV
Heat at constant Volume
(Isochoric Process)
Since it is at constant volume, ΔV = 0; no P-V
work.

ΔU = qv
Heat at constant Pressure
(Isobaric Process)
• Pressure exerted usually is atmospheric pressure.
• If the reaction results in a net increase in the
number of molecules of a gas. (expansion work)
• if the reaction consumes more gas molecules
than the initial (compression work)
• If the reaction produces the same amount of
molecules in the product and the reactant (no
work)
Heat at constant Pressure
(Isobaric Process)

ΔU = q - PΔV
Or
qp = ΔU + PΔV
Enthalpy
• The change in enthalpy equals the heat gained
or lost at constant pressure.

qp = ΔH
ΔH= ΔU + PΔV
Enthalpy

H = U + PV
ΔH= ΔU + Δ(PV )
Problem 4
Calculate the change in internal energy when a
gas at constant pressure of 1.23 atm reacts to
change the volume of a movable piston from
298mL to 479mL while releasing a heat of 456 J.
Problem 5

## Calculate the change in internal energy when

carbon monoxide reacts with oxygen to produce
carbon dioxide. If the reaction gives of -566.0kJ
of heat. Assuming that the gases behave ideally
at constant temperature.
Conditions where Enthalpy equals
Internal Energy
1.) Reaction that does not involve gases.
• Liquids and solids undergo very small volume
changes ΔV≈0, therefore ΔH≈ΔU.
2.) Reactions in which the amount (mol) gas
does not change.
• When the total amount of gaseous reactant
equals the total amount of product. Meaning
ΔV=0; PΔV = 0; ΔH= ΔU
Conditions where Enthalpy equals
Internal Energy
3.) Reactions in which the amount (mol) of gas
does change but the heat produced during the
reaction is much greater than the volume
change.
ΔV≠0; PΔV≠0; since qp is very large compared to
PΔV; ΔH≈ΔU;
Stoichiometry of
Thermochemical Equations
Theoretically determining the
Heats of Reaction
Thermochemical Equations
• Chemical equations that show the enthalpy
change and the stoichiometric relationship of
the products and reactants.
Problem 6

## The major source of aluminum in the world is

bauxite (aluminum oxide). When bauxite
undergoes decomposition it needs to absorb
1676 kJ of heat to produces 2 mol of aluminum.
How many grams of aluminum can form when
1000 kJ of heat was used?
Standard Enthalpy of Formation

ΔH = Hfinal - Hfirst
ΔHrxn = Hproduct - Hreactant
Exothermic Process (heat out)

## Hfinal > Hinitial ; ΔH > 0

Rules and Guides for Thermochemical
Equations
1. Specify the physical states of all reactants
and products.
2. If we multiply both sides by a factor (n), the
enthalpy should also be multiplied by a factor
of (n).
3. Reversing the equation reverses the sign of
the enthalpy.
Given the following Reaction:
Problem 7

## Calculate the standard enthalpy of formation

when graphite reacts with gaseous oxygen to
produce gaseous carbon monoxide.
Hess’s Law of Heat summation
• The enthalpy change of an overall process is
the sum of the enthalpy changes of the
individual steps.
Problem 7

## Calculate the standard enthalpy of formation

when graphite reacts with gaseous oxygen to
produce gaseous carbon monoxide. Using the
series of reaction below.
Problem 8

## Calculate the standard enthalpy of acetylene

(C2H2), given the following series of equations.