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TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF THE PHILIPPINES

QUEZON CITY

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PROGRAM

In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirement for the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering
Program and for the Completion of the course Electrical Circuits 1 / EE 002 through the Design
Experiment entitled: “Design an Experiment to Determine the Effects of Temperature to the Voltage
Drop.”

Submitted by:

Marcelina, James Michael G.


Medina, Mark Bryan O.
Mendoza, Patricia Mae T.
Nery, Marivel D.
Ongpauco, Fatima Rose P.

Submitted to:

Engr. Christian Ver Sensano


Instructor

Engr. Ferdinand D. Milan


Program Chair

March 15,2018

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title of the Design Experiment……………………………………………………………………………………2


Background of the Design of Experiment………………………………………………………………………2
Statement of the Purpose………………………………………………………………………………………….3
Discussion of Methodology/Strategy……………………………………………………………………………4
Circuit Diagram……………………………………………………...………………………………………5
Discuss how the group obtained the test results………………………………………….………………….6
Needed Laboratory Materials……………………………………………………………………...………6
Step by Step Procedure…................................................................................................................8
Presentation of Data and Test Results (with Picture Evidences)……………………………….………..9
Data and Results…………………………………………………………………………………………..10
Observation and Explanation of Data and Test Results……………………………………………....11
Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………………………….…12
Synthesis…………………………………………………………………………………………………………....12
Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………………………………..14
Information/Vitae…………………………………………………………………………………………….…….15
Rubrics:……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

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TITLE OF THE DESIGN EXPERIMENT

“Design an Experiment to Determine the Effects of Temperature to the Voltage Drop.”

BACKGROUND OF THE DESIGN EXPERIMENT

In theoretical terms, temperature is what determines the direction of heat flow in which with higher

temperature, it would be flowing outward and the lower temperature be flowing inward. In other words, it is

the measure of heat energy. Temperature is commonly measured using a thermometer,a word derived

from the Greek word thermos, which means “hot”, and metron which means “measure”. Temperature has a

unit of either Celsius, Fahrenheit, Kelvin, or Rankine.

On the other hand, a conductor is a substance in which electrical charge carries, usually

electrons, move easily from atom to atom with the application of voltage. Conductivity, in general, is the

capacity to transmit something, such as electricity or heat.

Wires carrying current always have inherent resistance, or impedance, to current flow. Voltage

Drop is defined as amount of voltage loss that occurs through all or part of a circuit due to impedance.

Excessive voltage drop in a circuit can cause lights to flicker or burn dimly, heaters to heat poorly, and

motors to run hotter than normal and burn out. This condition causes the load to work harder with less

voltage pushing the current. It also described how the energy supplied by a voltage source is reduced as

electric current moves through the passive element of an electric circuit.

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This experiment aims to identify if temperature has an effect to the voltage drop of a conductor,

using materials such as power supply, a resistor, 20-turn coil or copper wire, LED, a soldering iron to warm

and heat up the coil, and a Voltmeter to measure the voltage drop.

STATEMENT OF THE PURPOSE

The design experiment entitled to evaluate the operating characteristic of a conductor/wirethat are

connected from a 5Vpower supply to resistor and LED and will be measured by measuring materials such

as DMM,Voltmeter, and Thermal Gun to determine how the heated coil or copper wire reacts with the

voltage drop. In this design experiment, the proponents are going to accomplish in the following statement

or tasks below:

Main Objective:

To determine on how the temperature effects on the voltage drop by measuring the temperature on

the conductor.

Following Objective:

 To create a Circuit Diagram to evaluate how the temperature effects on the voltage drop in getting

the temperature on the copper wire.

 To know the effects or what will happen if the temperature arises or drop.

 To measure the different values of voltage drop according to the temperature.

 Make an explanation of data gathered from the experiment.

 To state a conclusion after the experiment.

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DISCUSSION OF METHODOLOGY/STRATEGY

Setting Data Gathering


Identifying the Limitations •Parameters Designing
Topic •Voltage effect like voltages, Circuit
•Topic related on different voltage drop, Diagram
to the course measures of temperature, •From power
temperature etc. supply to
measuring
material

Analysis of Actual Set-up


Data Experiment
•Voltage drop •Preparation of
value depends materials
Finalization on the
temperature
of the
conductor to
be used.

Figure 1: Flow of the Design Experiment

This design experiment aims to evaluate the effects of temperature to the voltage drop. According

to the statement of purpose, the proponents should perform an actual experiment applying the knowledge

learned from the course of Electrical Circuits 1, EE 002.

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Common processes are needed to complete the said design experiment; identify the design

experiment title, setting limitations in line with the statement of the purpose or design experiment,

identifying the design experiment, gathering information through actual experiment, internet sites within line

of the design experiment, and asking information from the Electrical Engineering field are the elements

used to strengthen and put the design experiment into reality.

To discuss the methodology/strategy, schematic diagram will be shown below for the explanation

on how the voltage react when it will be insert before and after in conductor end side and what will be the

effect of it.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

Figure 2: Circuit Diagram

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DISCUSS HOW THE DE TEAM OBTAINED THE TEST RESULTS

NEEDED LABORATORY MATERIALS

MATERIALS/COMPONENTS PICTURES REMARKS

Name: Soldering Iron To provide the heat

Specification: required to change the

ABS,rubber,metal,110V/220V temperature of the

50HZ, 60 Watts conductor

Name: Thermal Gun Infrared Thermometerused

Specification:Infrared, to measure temperature

Measuring distance: Within 5-

15cm, Battery Operated

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Name: DC Power Supply To supply a specific

Specification:Adjustable +15 voltage on the circuit

V to -15V, constant 5V and -

5V DC .

Name:LED Light To emit monochromatic

Specification: Red, light with a given voltage

Wavelength ranges 610 –

760, AlGaAs Material

Name:Resistor To reduce current flow,

Specification: Gray Coating, adjust signal levels, to

270 Ohms 5% Tolerance, ½ divide voltages, bias active

Watt elements, and terminate

transmission lines, among

other uses

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Name: Coil To produce a magnetic

Specification:20 turns field or to provide electrical

resistance or inductance

Name: Digital Multimeter It is a instrument that

Specification: True RMS combines several

value AC voltage and current measurement functions in

one unit. It can measure

voltage, current, and

resistance.

STEP BY STEP PROCEDURE

1. Connect the Connecting Wires to Power Supply. Use 5V.

2. From the Positive Power Supply, connect it into the 270 Ohms 5% Tolerance Resistor.

3. From the 270 ohms resistor, connect it into the coil.

4. Multimeter is parallel to the coil.

5. From the Coil, connect it into the Positive of the LED diode.

6. From the Negative of the LED diode., connect it into the Negative or Ground of the Power Supply.

7. Turn on the power supply

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8. Use the Soldering Iron on the coil to make the temperature rise.

9. Gather the data using Multimeter.

10. Repeat step 8

11. Repeat step 9

12. Disconnect all the equipment.

13. Turn off the power supply.

14. Perform data and results.

PRESENTATION OF DATA AND TEST RESULTS (WITH PICTURE EVIDENCES)

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Figure 3: Providing heat to the conductor while measuring it using the thermal gun

Figure 4: Applying the step by step procedure

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Figure 4: Analyzing the data and completing documents

DATA AND RESULTS

Voltage Drop (mV) Temperature (°C)

Trial 1 174 59.5

Trial 2 171 72

Trial 3 169 79.2

OBSERVATION AND EXPLANATION OF DATA AND RESULTS

From the data we have gathered, it is observed that as the temperature of the conductor increases,

there is an equivalent decrease in the voltage drop of the said conductor. As we increase the temperature

to 59.1°C to 72°C and up to 79.2°C, the voltage drop of the copper wire decreases from 179 mV to 171 mV

and finally, to 169 mV.

The effect of temperature on voltage depends on two factors: a) Temperature variation; b) Material

that acts as resistance. Generally, it is seen that the voltage decreases by increasing the temperature and

this is not a direct effect on voltage. The effect of temperature on voltage is an indirect effect which is

associated with other properties of the material (conductor or semiconductor) which changes accordingly

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with the temperature. The temperature affects the resistance of the conductor. The resistance increases by

increasing the temperature which is given by the relation:

R (T) = R0 [1 + α(T – T0)]

where α is the temperature coefficient of resistance, R0 is the internal resistance of the conductor and T0 is

the room temperature. Thus, resistance increases with temperature implies the voltage decreases.Hence,

we can say as temperature increases the voltage decreases and vice versa.

CONCLUSION

After the design of experiment, the group thereby conclude that the temperature of the conductor is

inversely proportional to its voltage drop. As the temperature increases, a decrease in the voltage drop will

occur.

Heat increases the resistivity of wires and it is known that resistivity is inversely proportional to

resistance. In Ohm’s Law, voltage and resistance are directly proportional to one another. If heat is directly

proportional to resistivity, it will be inversely proportional to resistance which is directly proportional to

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voltage as stated. Applying all the relations, the result is that temperature is inversely proportional to

voltage.

SYNTHESIS

The Design of Experiment in determining the effects of temperature to the voltage drop observed that

resistivity is inversely proportional to the resistance. Temperature plays an important role in determining of

what happens in the voltage when temperature increases and decreases. A conductor is a material or

object that allows the flow of an electric current. Conductivity pertains to the capacity in transmitting

electricity or heat. On our design of experiment we saw and understand from the supply going to the

resistor which reduces the current flow on the conductor, to the coil and lastly to its load (LED) at first the

led doesn’t flicked on but as we placed soldering iron and the temperature rises from time to time the led

turned on. The voltage drop that results in led to turn on because of the voltage loss that occurs through all

part of the circuit. The function of the temperature as it is arises is producing heat, the heat’s purpose is to

increase the resistivity of the wire, means the resisting power of a specified material to continue the flow of

an electric current through the circuit and to the load.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

B.L. Theraja, S. T. (1995). A Text Book of Electrical Technology. Chand.

Siskind, C. S. (1965). Electrical Circuits. McGraw-Hill Education.

Effect of Temperature on Voltage: “https://www.tutorvista.com/physics/effect-of-temperature-on-voltage”

Temperature:“https://physics.info/temperature/”

Conductor:“http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/conductor”

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INFORMATION/VITAE

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