CHAPTER ONE BEHAVIOR OF RC AND RC ELEMENTS UNDER LOAD AND BASIC CONCEPTS OF DESIGN
1.1.
Introduction
Concrete is a stone like material obtained artificially by hardening of the mixture of cement, sand, gravel and water in predetermined proportions.
A wide range of strength properties can be obtained by appropriate adjustment of the proportions of its constituents but it is known that it has enough strength in compression, little tensile strength which makes it weak in bending, shear and torsion. Thus, for common structures such as beams, slabs, etc, concrete requires steel bars to be placed at tensile zone of the structure which may be concreted.
Important factors contributing to strength of concrete:
 water cement ratio
 curing of concrete
 temperature
Advantages of concrete
 It is moldable in to any desired shape.
 It does not deteriorate with time.
 It is fire, weather and corrosion resistant.
 It is monolithic
Disadvantage of concrete
 It is difficult to dismantle
 It requires formwork (expensive)
 It is difficult to supervise after pouring.
 Due to crack, large portion of section not efficiently used.
Important features of concrete Compressive strength:
 main measure of the structural quality of concrete.
 test for this property is made either on cylinder specimen (6x12 in 150 x 300 mm) ASTM standard or specimen of 150 mm cube to obtain cylinder
compressive strength
f c’,
or cube compressive strength f _{c}_{u} , respectively.
day of moistured specimen at
70+5 ^{0} F. The later measurement, (cube), is used in the Ethiopian standard where concrete is graded as C5, C10, C15, C20, C25, C30, C40, C50, in which the number indicate strength in MPa.
These tests are generally made on the 28 ^{t}^{h}
1
Stress (f’ _{c} )
f
^{'}
c
2
tan ^{}^{1} E _{s} – secant modulus
Fig. 1.1
Strain
f
c
As there is no fixed ratio of _{}
whenever E is used without further designation, it is usually meant the secant modulus, E _{C}_{,} in MPa.
to define the term modulus of Elasticity,
Creep
Another important factor to be considered in stressstrain of concrete is creepa property where increase in strain under constant load with time is observed. Factors attributing:
o loading at an early stage o highwater cement ratio o exposing the concrete to drying condition Tensile strength (axial)
o 
Important in design to resist shear, torsion and control of crack width. 
o 
Difficult to obtain from test because of handling problems. 
Based on tests for other property, empirical relation are used to obtain the tensile strength. For instance, in Ethiopian standards,
f _{c}_{t}_{k} = 0.21 f _{c}_{k} ^{2}^{/}^{3}
where, f _{c}_{t}_{k} = tensile strength of concrete in MPa f _{c}_{k} = characteristic cylinder compressive strength in MPa.
Reinforcing steel
 high strength & high cost material
 the two materials – concrete and steel  are best used in combination if the concrete is made to resist the compression stresses and the steel the tensile stresses When RC elements are used, sufficient bond between the two materials must be developed to ensure that there is no relative movement between the steel bars and the surrounding concrete.
2
This bond may be developed by:
 chemical adhesion
 natural roughness
 closely spaced ribshaped surface deformation of reinforcement bars.
Reinforcing bars varying 6 to 35 mm in size are available in which all are surface deformed except F6.
Some bar size and areas for design purpose are given below:
Diameter F 

(mm) 
6 
8 
10 
12 
14 
16 
18 
20 
22 
24… 
Area (mm ^{2} ) 
28 
50 
78.5 
113 
154 
200 
254 
314 
380 
450 
Weight(kg/m) 
0.222 
0.395 
0.619 
0.888 
1.210 
1.570 
2.000 
2.470 
3.000 
3.500 
Characteristic properties of reinforcing bars is expressed using its yield strength f _{y} (f _{y}_{k} ) and modulus of elasticity E _{s} .
F _{y} ranges between 220 to 500 MPa, with 300 MPa common is our country. E _{s} ranges between 200 to 210 GPa.
1.2. Behavior under load
In RC structures such as beams, the tension caused by bending moment is chiefly resisted by the steel reinforcement while the concrete alone is usually capable of resisting the corresponding compression. Such joint action of the two materials is assured if the relative slip is prevented which is achieved by using deformed bars with their high bond strength at the steelconcrete interface.
To illustrate the stressstain development for increased loading, consider the
following.
Increased loading
Very low load
Tension Crack
Fig. 1.2
3
CrossSection
a) Very low loading
Fig. 1.3
s
f s
c) Loading nearly failure
 At low loads where tensile stress is less than or equal to f _{c}_{t}_{k} , stress & strain relation shown in fig (a) results.
 At increased load, tensile stress produced larger than f _{c}_{t}_{k} (fig.b) Cracks developed below NA, the steel alone carry all tensile force. If the compressive stress at extreme fiber is less than f _{c} ’/2, stresses and strains continue to be closely proportional (linear stress distribution).
 For further increment of load, the stress distribution is no longer linear as shown in fig (c)
If the structure say the beam has reached its maximum carrying capacity one may conclude the following on the cause of failure.
1. When the amount of steel is small at some value of the load the steel reaches its yield point. In such circumstances:
 the steel stretches a large amount
 tension cracks in the concrete widens visibility and significant deflection of the beam occurs.
 Compression zone of concrete increase resulting in crushing of concrete (secondary compression failure).
Such failure is gradual and is preceded by visible sign, widening and lengthening of cracks, marked increase in deflection.
2. When a large amount of steel used, compressive strength of concrete would be exhausted before the steel starts yielding. Thus concrete fails by crushing. Compression failure through crushing of concrete is sudden and occurs without warning.
Therefore it is a good practice to dimension sections in such away that should they be overloaded, failure would be initiated by yielding of the steel rather than crushing of concrete.
4
1.3.
Basic concept of design and permissible stress
Design of RC member is meant to determine the size of concrete section and the amount of reinforcement satisfying all strength requirements. Based on design load determination and the corresponding design strength of materials different methods of design have been introduced.
The Working Stress Design (WSD) Method.
The Ultimate Strength Design (USD) Method.
The Limit State Design (LSD) Method.
When applying WSD method safety of members for strength requirements due to service load is insured by reducing the allowable stress to a prescribed value. For instance, the allowable compressive stress in extreme fiber of concrete should not exceed 0.425 f _{c}_{k} and that of tensile stress in steel 0.52 f _{y}_{k} , for classI works. These are 0.386 f _{c}_{k} and 0.5 f _{y}_{k} respectively for classII works.
Thus the satisfaction of these strength requirements can be checked by explicit calculation. However, deflection control and durability requirements may be satisfied through several detailings and implicit computation. Deflection limits are assumed to be satisfied when the minimum effective depth for a particular member is
d
0.4
0.6* f yk
l
e
400
a
where f _{y}_{k} is equal to character strength of reinforcement, L _{e} is the effective span (the shorter span in case of two way slab), is constant, a function of restraints given below).
Table – values of
a
Member 
Simple 
End span 
Interior 
cantilever 
span 

Beams 
20 
24 
28 
10 
Slabs: 

Span ratio 2:1 
25 
30 
35 
12 
Span ratio 1:1 
35 
40 
45 
10 
* For intermediate values – interpolation. Durability and control of crack width is related with finishing and provision of adequate cover to reinforcement. Nominal cover for structural elements located in the interior of the building with dry environment and mild condition is 15 mm, example slab; humid environment with moderate exposure is 25 mm, example beam; severe environment is 50 mm, example footing.
5
CHAPTER TWO THE WORKING STRESS DESIGN METHOD
2.1. Design of Sections for flexure
2.1.1 Singly Reinforced Sections
When the concrete compressive stress is smaller than approximately 0.5 f _{c}_{k} and the steel has not reached the yield strength, both materials continue to behave elastically.
At this stage, it is assumed that tension cracks have progressed all the way to the neutral axis and that sections plane before bending is plane in the bent member. This situation of the section, strain and stress distribution is shown in the fig. below.
Stress
……………………
(i)
Knowing
s
f
s
E
s
(i) becomes,
,
c
f
c
E
c
f c
a
f
s
n(d
a)
(Hooke’s Law) and defining modular ratio as n =
which simplifies to:
a
nf
c
d
f
s
nf
c
k
………. (ii)
a = kd is an indicator of the neutral axis.
F 0
H
Defining
bd A s
A _{s} f _{s} = abf _{c} ………. ( iii)
as the tensile steel ratio, (iii) yields
6
E
s
E
c
,
bdf
s
=
kbdf
c
2
from which ,
f s
f
k
c
2
….…
(iv)
But (ii) may be simplified to kf _{s} + nkf _{c} = nf _{c} which reduces to
f
s
n
(1
k
)
f
c
k
………………. (v)
Equating (iv) and (v) imply
2 n – 2nk = k ^{2}
n(1 k )
_{=}
k
k _{2}_{}
, which simplifies to
k
^{} 2 

n 


2 
n 

2 
4 
2 
n 


2 
Considering the practical value
k
n
n
2 2n
……………… (vi)
Note that (vi) satisfies the stress – strain relation as well as the equilibrium of horizontal forces & hence is a useful relation for analysis.
M
T
0
M
abf
c
(
d
a
3
)
2
kbdf d (1
c
k
3
)
2
……
where M is the external bending moment.
k
3 ^{,}
kjf
c
2
Let
useful for evaluation of the effective depth.
1
j
R
(vii) becomes M = Rbd ^{2} from which
(vii)
d =
The area of steel required may be obtained by taking moment about the centroid of compressive stress as:
A f
s
s
(
d
M
a
3
)
=
A
s
f d (1
s
k
3
)
^{A} ^{s} ^{=}
f
s
jd
………………… (viii)
=
A f
s
s
jd
From (ii),
stress ratio.
k
nf
c
n
f
s
nf
c
r
n
, where r =
f
s
f
c
7
= M, from which
defined as the simultaneous
Equation (v)
f
s
f
c
k
^{=} 2
b
= r
n
^{=} 2r(r
n)
2r
=
n which yields
r
n
is defined as the balanced steel ratio which may be used for designing a
member in such away that the steel and concrete will reach the respective allowable stresses for the same applied moment.
where
b
Generally,
i. if
ii. if
<
and
>
A s
bd
is the steel ratio used for design and
b
the steal will reach its allowable stress at a lower load than concrete M = A _{s} f _{s} jd
,
b
, the concrete reaches its allowable stress first, and in such a case,
M = Rbd ^{2} is the max moment which the section may sustain.
2.1.2 Doubly Reinforced Rectangular Crosssection
When the crosssection of an RC member is limited, the concrete may not develop the compressive forcerequired to resist the given bending moment. In such cases reinforcement is added in compression zone resulting in doubly reinforced section. If both concrete & steel are completely elastic the stress in compression steel is n times the concrete stress at the same level, since the unit strains in the steel and adjacent concrete are equal.
However, the stresses and strains in the concrete are proportional only at relatively
A’ _{s}
low strains, and at higher strains the stresses no longer increased proportionately. In the course of time the concrete transfer part of the compressive stress to the steel and the actual stress in the steel becomes higher than that computed on the basis of elastic behavior.
Consider the rectangular section of an RC beam, doubly reinforced with strains and stress distribution shown.
8
Stress in compression steel & partial tensile steel.
Fig. 2.2
M = Total bending moment
M _{1} = Moment developed by crosssection of concrete without compression steel working with partial steel area A _{s}_{1} .
M _{2} = Moment in excess of M1 developed by compressive steel A _{s} ’ & partial tensile steel A _{s}_{2} .
M = M _{1} +M _{2} and A _{s} = A _{s}_{1} +A _{s}_{2}
M
M _{1} = Rbd ^{2} and A _{s}_{1} = f jd
1
s
M _{2} = A _{s}_{2} f _{s} (dd”) = A _{s} ’f _{s} ’ (dd”)
Thus M _{2} is governed by either compressive steel or tensile steel depending on the stresses in each and their relative areas.
From the strain line,
s
d
kd _{}
f
s
s '
kd
d "
f
s
'
f
s '
f
s
(
kd
d
")
d
kd
Because the concrete transfer parts of its compressive stress to the steel, the actual stress in steel becomes higher than the one computed on elastic behavior. Thus some national codes recommend to use:
Fig. 2.3
The Tsections provide a large concrete crosssectional area of the flange to resist the compressive force. Hence, Tsections are very advantageous in simply supported spans to resist large positive bending moment, where as the inverted Tsections have the added advantage in cantilever beam to resist negative moment.
9
As the longitudinal compressive stress varies across the flange width of same level, it is convenient in design to make use of an effective flange width (may be smaller than the actual width) which is considered to be uniformly stressed. Effective flange width (according to EBCS 2, 1995) For interior beams Tsections
b 
e 

For edge beams 

b 
e 

b
l
e
5
w
C
/
C beam spacing
inverted L sections
b
l
e
10
w
b
w
half the cleardis
tan
cetoadjacentbeam
where l _{e} – is the effective span length & b _{w} is the width of the web.
The neutral axis of a Tbeam may be either in the flange or in the web, depending upon the proportion of the crosssection, the amount of tensile steel and the strength of the materials. If the calculated depth to the neutral axis is less or equal to the slabs thickness, h _{f} , the beam can be analyzed as if it were a rectangular beam of width equal to b _{e} .
If the NA is in the web, as shown in the fig. below, a method is developed which account for the actual Tshaped compression zone.
d
s
CrossSection
Strain
Stress
Fig. 2.4
C
A S f s
For simplification of analysis, the compressive force in the web below the flange will be disregarded in comparison with that in the flange.
Compressive force in the flange
C =
f
c
f
c
(
kd
h
f
)
kd
2
b h
e
f
f b h
c
e
f
10
(2
kd
h
f
)
2
kd
F
H
0
A _{s} f _{s} = b _{e} df _{s} =
f b h
c
e
From the relation in (ii)
k
n
n
f
s
f
c
f
(2
kd
h
f
^{)}
2 kd
f
c
f
s
…………. (*)
k
n(1
k)
Upon substitution in (*) and simplifying
k
Center of trapezoid,
n
1 h
2
f
d
2
n
h
f
d
………….(**)
z
(3
kd
h
f
) h
f
(2
kd
h
f
)
d
which yields jd = dz
Substituting for k from (**) in to Z and simplifying
j
6 

6 
h 
f 
h 2 f 
2 

1 
h f 3 

d 
d 

2 
n 
d 


6 
3 
h 
f 

d 
……….(***)
Having k and j as provided by (**) and (***) respectively,
M _{s} = A _{s} f _{s} jd and Mc = f _{c} (1
h f
2kd
)
b _{e} h _{f} jd
However, for making preliminary design one may approximate
jd = (d
h
f
2
)
and
A _{s} =
f s
(
M
d
h
f
)
)
2
, may be used for initialization.
11
RC SLABS
Slabs are flat plates used to provide useful horizontal surfaces mainly for roofs and floors of buildings, parking lots, air fields, roadway etc.
Classification : Beam supported slabs may be classified as:
1. Oneway slabs – main reinforcement in each element runs in one direction only. (Ly/Lx >2). There are two types one way solid slabs and one way ribbed slabs.
2. Two – way slabs – main reinforcement runs in both direction where ratio of long to short span is less than two. (Ly/Lx < 2)
Others include flat slabs, flat plates, two way ribbed or grid slabs etc.
Analysis of oneway solid slabs
They are considered as rectangular beams of comparatively large ratio of width to depth and ratio of longer span to width (short span) is greater than two.
When L _{l} /L _{s} > 2, about 90% or more of the total load is carried by the short span, i.e., bending takes place in the direction of the shorter span.
The analysis is than carried out by assuming a beam of unit width with a depth equal to the thickness of the slab and span equal to the distance between supports (in the short direction). The strip may be analyzed in the same way as singly reinforced rectangular sections.
 Load per unit area on the slab would be the load per unit length on this imaginary beam of unit width.
 As the loads being transmitted to the supporting beams, all reinforcement shall be placed at right angles to these beams. However some additional bars may be placed in the other direction to carry temperature and shrinkage stresses.
Generally the design consists of selecting a slab thickness for deflection requirement and flexural design is carried out by considering the slab as series of rectangular beams side by side.
12
Remark:
Unless condition warrant some change, cover to reinforcement is 15 mm.
Except those used to prevent shrinkage & temp stresses the spacing between bars is:
A
s min
S
max
2
D
,
300 mm
D
min
bd
0.5
f yk
bd
Slabthickness
for main reinforcement in which f _{y}_{k} in MPa
Reinforcement shall be provided in a direction perpendicular to the main reinforcement in oneway slab in such a way that
S max
5 D 400 mm
2.2. Bond, Anchorage and Development Length
Consider the beam element length dx, with change in stresses on the opposite face.
Due to the change in bending moment along the axis of the member, flexural bond stress U _{b} is developed along the embedded reinforcement. From equilibrium of horizontal forces,
dT
dM
jd
From the relation between moment and shear
Vdx = dM
dT
Vdx
jd
The magnitude of U per unit length of bar is given by:
U
dT
dx
V
jd
The resultant bond force is distributed uniformly over contact surface area and hence nominal bond stress due to flexure can be computed as:
U
b
V f
O
bd
jd
(design bond strength)
In which O is the sum of perimeter of all bars.
13
Due to high stress gradient in the bar at the crack location, local bond stress much higher than the one given above does occur. However, the procedure of computing bond stress can be replaced by providing adequate embedment length past the location at which the bar is fully stressed.
In order to ensure that a bar is securely anchored by bond to develop its maximum usable strength, equations for the development length of bars with different spacing is specified by building codes. For instance, the Ethiopian standards (up on conversion to fit WSD) recommends to use a basic anchorage length of
l d
1.55 *
3.11*
D
b
f
s
f
ck
D
b
f
s
f
ck
, for deformedbars
,
for plainbars
.
and the required anchorage length is
l
d net
,
al
^{d}
A
s , cal
A
s , prov
where a = 0.7 for hooked & anchored bars, and 1 for others D _{b} = diameter of bar A _{s}_{,} _{c}_{a}_{l}_{,} A _{s}_{,} _{p}_{r}_{o}_{v} = area of steel calculated and provided, respectively f _{s} and f _{c}_{k} are in MPa.
In the event that the desired tensile stress in a bar can not be developed by bond alone mechanical anchorage at the end of eh bar can be provided by means of 90 ^{0} bent
) which have been standardized by
(
) or 180 ^{0} hook ( building codes.
Bar cut off and bend points
It is a common practice either to cut off bars where they are no longer required to resist stress or in case of continuous beams, to bend up bottom steel so that it provides tensile reinforcement at the top of the beam over the support. To determine bend points, or bar cutting points, the moment diagram resulting from loading for maximum span moment and maximum support moment is shown below.
Recognizing the various uncertainties, for bars with no special end anchorage the full development length l _{d} , [d or 12 D _{b} ] whichever is larger, must be provided beyond the peak stress location. The critical section may be the point of max
14
moment or a point where adjacent terminated reinforcement is no longer needed to resist bending. In the absence of explicit calculation, the sketch shown may serve this purpose. Here about half tensile steel can be bent. The sketch does not include other minimum provisions.
Bar splices
Reinforcing bars are as by fabrication limited in length, say 12 m. Thus it is normal to splice bars in the field. To do this, one has to notice the following regarding splicing.
Splicing of bars must be avoided at points of maxmoment.
Bars which are spliced should be staggered.
Splices are made simply by lapping the bars a sufficient distance to transfer stress by bond from one bar to the other.
The required length of lap for tension is approximately 1.3l _{d} and that for compression is l _{d} .
2.3. Shear and Diagonal Tension
Consider a beam and stress distribution across a section
Element1
Element2
15
Diagonal tension associated
Element3
with pure shear.
Generally, diagonal tension represents the combined effect of shear and bending stresses and the various combinations will produce different type of cracks.
Consider the portion of RC beam shown below:
F
v
0
V
ext
V
c
V
d
V
int
y 1
C
Fig. 2.6
where V _{c} = force in the uncracked portion of concrete. V _{d} = force across the longitudinal steel (dowel action). Because the longitudinal steel is supported by thin concrete cover the shear force V _{d} , is normally neglected V _{e}_{x}_{t} = V _{c}
Before tension crack, shear stress
V ext
bd
V
av
After formation of tension crack,
shear stress as y _{1} <d.
V
av
V ext
by
1
, in which the later shows the increment of
Generally deep beams will show continued and increasing resistance after formation of a critical diagonal tension crack, but relatively shallow beams will fail almost immediately upon formation of tension cracks. However most beams are furnished with at least a minimum of web reinforcement.
Web reinforcement may be consisting of vertical stirrups or inclined bars. The later can be individual stirrups inclined or longitudinal bars bending where no need of moment resistance.
Uses of stirrups: 
To resist shear
16
To restrict the growth of diagonal crack
To tie longitudinal bars
To improve ductility
Design Criteria
Generally sections located less than a distance ‘d’ from the face of support may normally be designed for the same shear as computed at a distance ‘d’.
Only minimum Reinforcement
web
is the allowable shear force W the
section can sustain, f _{c}_{k} in MPa. The min web reinforcement at a spacing ‘S’ may be given by,
If
reinforcement, where V c
V<V _{c}
but
V
>0.5
V _{c} ,
the
section is said to be adequate with minimum
A
^{v}
0.34 b S
w
f
yk
in which, S is spacing of stirrups and A _{v} is area of web reinforcement with in ‘S’. (Pair area when vertical pair legs are used.) Note that due to construction problem, the section of slabs and footings must be adequate to withstand this diagonal tension. Beams Reinforced for Shear
When V>V _{c} , there exist a requirement for web reinforcement to withstand the excess shear. For illustration purpose consider part of a beam shown below.
Fig. 2.6
p
S
Number of stirrups traversing the crack,
When cracks form, the dual action, V _{d}_{,} will be disregarded.
n
17
C
V _{e}_{x}_{t} = V _{c} + nA _{v} f _{s}
The diagonal cracks form about 45 ^{0} from the horizontal, hence, the horizontal
projection of the crack p d
nA f
v
s
S
p
S
A
A f
v
s
v
f d
s
V
s
d
S
A f
v
s
V
ext
V
c
V
s
where V _{s}  the shear sustained by the stirrups (V _{s} = V _{e}_{x}_{t} – V _{c} ) V _{c}  the section capacity for shear.
Analysis and Design of one way Ribbed Slab
In One Way Ribbed slabs, the supporting beams called joists or ribs are closely spaced. The ribbed floor is formed using temporary or permanent shuttering (formwork) while the hollow block floor is generally constructed with blocks made of clay tile or with concrete containing a light weight aggregate. This type of floor is economical for buildings where there are long spans and light or moderate live loads such as in hospitals and apartment buildings.
General Requirements:
Because joists are closely spaced,
thickness of slab (topping),
D
50 mm
1
12
clear dis tan
cebetween joists
Unless calculation requires for rib spacing larger than 1m, toppings or slabs are provided with mesh reinforcement of 0.001 bD in both directions for temperature and shrinkage problem or 0.008 bD at right angle to the joist.
Unless calculation requires, min reinforcement to be provided for joists includes two bars, where one is bent near the support and the other straight.
Rib with b _{w} > 70mm, and overall depth D _{j} < 4 b _{w}_{,} _{j}_{o}_{i}_{s}_{t} + t _{s}_{l}_{a}_{b}
Rib spacing is generally less than 1m.
In case of ribbed spacing larger than 1m, the topping (slab) need to be design as if supported on ribs. (i.e. As one way solid slab between the ribs).
If the span of the ribs exceeds 6m, transverse ribs may be provided, as the thickness of the topping will be larger.
The girder supporting the joist may be rectangular or Tbeam with the flange thickness equal to the floor thickness.
Procedure of Design of a floor system of ribbed Slab
18
1.
Thickness of toppings and ribs assumed based on min requirement.
2. Loads may be computed on the basis of center line of the spacing of joists.
3. The joists are analyzed as regular continuous Tbeams supported by girders.
4. Shear reinforcement shall not be provided in the narrow web of joist thus a check for the section capacity against shear is carried out. The shear capacity may be approximated as:
1.1 V _{c} of regular rectangular sections.
5. Determine flexural reinforcement and consider min provision in the final solution.
6. Provide the topping or slab with reinforcement as per temp and shrinkage requirement.
7. Design the girder as a beam.
19
CHAPTER THREE LIMIT STATE DESIGN METHOD ULTIMATE AND SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATES
3.1 Introduction
The working stress design method (WSD), discussed in chapter two, has some
shortcomings that lead to the development of limit state design methods (LSD). The
LSD method combines the best features of WSD and USD (Ultimate Strength
Design) and has gained acceptance in many countries including Ethiopia. EBCS are
based on the LSD methods.
The LSD method is based on the limit state design philosophy, which considers that
any structure that has exceeded the limit state for which it was designed is unfit for
the intended function or use.
Classification
1. The limit state of collapse (ULS)
 Concerned with load carrying capacity of structures.
2. The serviceability Limit state (SLS).
 Concerned with cracking and deflection of structures.
ULS  Considers collapse of a structure as a whole or its parts associated with: 
 Rupture of one or more critical sections.
 Loss of equilibrium or stability.
 Transformation of the structure to a failure mechanism e.t.c.
To satisfy the design requirements of the ULS:
SLS
 Appropriate safety factors are used.
 The most critical combination of loads are considered.
 Brittle failure is avoided (Ductility is ensured).
 Accuracy of concrete works checked.
 Deals with cracking or spalling of concrete not to impair appearance,
efficiency or durability of the structure. Further, deformations affecting non
20
structural elements such as partition walls opening frames, and/or producing discomfort to occupants are checked. To satisfy these design requirements: 
 Minimum depth for defection requirements is provided
 Adequate cover is provided and
 Necessary detailing of reinforcement are made
Characteristic strengths and loads
A special feature of LSD is that it uses statistics to asses the variations in the values of the various contributions influencing the limit states of the structures (Strength & Loads). The distribution of the material strength and variations in structural loads follow normal distribution. According to EBCS2, 1995: 
Characteristic strengths statistically is defined as
f _{k} = f _{m}  k _{1} , where f _{k}  Characteristic strength f _{m}  Mean strength  Standard deviation k _{1}  A factor that ensures the probability of the characteristic strength is not being exceeded (k _{1} =1.64)
Characteristic Load is given by
F _{k} = F _{m} + K _{2} , where F _{k}  Characteristic Load F _{m}  Mean Load K _{2}  a factor that ensures the probability of the characteristic load being exceeded is small. (K _{2} =1.64) For practical applications these are obtained from codes such as the ones given in the Ethiopian standards.
21
Concrete is graded based on tests of 150mm cubes at the age of 28 days, in terms
of its characteristic compressive strength. (The strength below which 5% of all
possible strength measurements may be expected to fall.)
Class
Permissible concrete grade
I 
C5 
C15 
C20 
C25 
C30 
C40 
C50 
II 
C5 
C15 
C20 
 
 
 
 
Steel:  The Characteristic strength f _{y}_{k} is the 5% fractile of the proof stress, f _{y} , or
the 0.2% offset strength denoted as f _{0}_{.}_{2} .
Partial safety factors
 Used to cover uncertainties and variabilities originating from different causes.
Partial safety factors for material strength.
f
d
f _{d}
f
k
m
 design strength
_{m}  a reduction factor for values of mechanical strength (Partial safety factor)
Partial safety factor for action (loads)
F _{d} = _{f} F _{k}
F _{d}  the design Load _{f}  a magnification factor for loading
Design strength according to EBCS 2 1995
Concrete
Compression
f
c d
0.85* f
ck
c
Tension
f
ct _{d}
f
ctk
0.21*
f
ck
2/3
s
c
22
Steel
f
y
f yk
d
s
Partial safety factors of materials
(Compression and Tension)
Class 
Loading type 
Concrete , _{c} 
Steel _{,} _{s} 
I 
Ordinary 
1.50 
1.15 
Accidental 
1.30 
1.00 

II 
Ordinary 
1.65 
1.20 
Accidental 
1.45 
1.10 
Design load and partial load factors
1) DL + LL 2) DL + LL + WL 

3) DL+LL + EQL 

1.3 G _{k} + 1.6 Q _{k}
0.75 1.3
G
K
1.6
Q
k
EQL
G _{k}  Characteristic dead load (DL) "
Q _{k}
WL & EQL  Wind and earth quake loads, respectively.
live load (LL)

23
3.2 Derivation of design Formula for ULS of flexure 3.2.1 Singly reinforced rectangular sections Consider the stress & strain distribution for a rectangular cross section of singly reinforced concrete beam shown below.
Fig.3.1
In accordance with LSD method, at ULS of collapse:
ε _{c} approaches ε _{c}_{u} = 0.0035
The reinforcing steel shall yield first (
y
f yd
d E
s
)
Ductility is ensured by means of under reinforcement.
At balanced failure simultaneous failure of the two materials (Concrete & Steel) occurs. Let x _{b} be the depth to the NA at balanced failure. From the strain relation,
x
b
cu
d
x
b
yd
x
b
If x < x _{b} Steel yields first
If x > x _{b} Crushing of concrete takes place first.
F _{H} = 0
T _{s} = C _{C}
A _{s} f _{y}_{d} = 0.8 x _{b} b f _{c}_{d}
24
cu
* d
cu
yd
Substituting for x _{b} and simplifying,
b
0.8*
cu
f
cd
*
cu
yd
f
yd
(a steel ratio for balanced case)
However, for ductility purpose the steel ratio ρ may range b/n 0.75 ρ _{b} to 0.9 ρ _{b} , and
in some cases as low as 0.5 ρ _{b} .
Rewriting the force equilibrium
byf _{c}_{d} = A _{s} f _{y}_{d}
b * 0.8x f _{c}_{d}
x
d
* f
yd
0.8* f
cd
m ,
where
M _{c} = 0
M _{d} = A _{s} f _{y}_{d} (d  0.4x)
Substituting the value of x and simplifying
M _{d} = 0.8 bd ^{2} f _{c}_{d} ρm (10.4ρm)
When the above equation is solved for ρ,
where
c
1
^{}
2.5
m
, c _{2} = 0.32m ^{2} f _{c}_{d} ,
m
= ρbd f _{y}_{d}
m
f
yd
0.8* f
cd
0.5
f
yd
c
1
0.8* f
cd
max
The section capacity for single reinforcement case may be computed from M _{t} = 0
M _{u} = 0.8bx f _{c}_{d} (d0.4)
= 0.8bd ^{2} f _{c}_{d} ρ _{m}_{a}_{x} m (1 0.4 ρ _{m}_{a}_{x} m)
For ductility requirements,
max
0.75*
b
25
x = ρ _{m}_{a}_{x} md
0.6*
cu
f
cd
*
cu
yd
f
yd
3.2.2 Doubly Reinforced Rectangular Sections
If the depth of an RC beam is limited due to architectural or other reasons the section may not have sufficient compressive area of concrete to resist the moment induced in it. In such cases the capacity of the section can be increased by placing steel in the compression zone to carry the additional compressive force.
d’’
CrossSection
Fig. 3.2
Assume that A _{s} & A _{s}_{1} are stressed to f _{y}_{d} .
M u = M uc + M usc
Where M _{u}_{c} is the BM carried by the concrete and partial area of tensile steel.
M _{u}_{c} = 0.8bd ^{2} f _{c}_{d} ρ _{1} m (10.4 ρ _{1} m)
In which ρ _{1} = ρ _{m}_{a}_{x} , the maximum steel ratio corresponding to single reinforcement section in case of design and
1
A
s
A
s
1
bd
max
for the case of analysis.
M _{u}_{s}_{c} is the BM carried by compressive steel and the corresponding tensile steel.
M usc = A s1 f yd (dd c’ )
The yielding of the compressive steel may be checked from the strain relation as
sc
x
d
c '
x
*
cu
yd
26
Alternative method using design tables (singly reinforced Sections)
Derivation
M _{d} = 0.8bd ^{2} f _{c}_{d} ρm (10.4 ρm)
M
d
bd
2
Let
0.8
f
cd
m
(1
)
(1
0.4
m
f
cd
m
0.4
m
k
s
)
M
M
d
d
*
d
M
d
*
1
f
yd
(1
0.4
x
d
)
f
yd
(
d
0.4
A
s
x
)
^{1}
Let
k
s
f yd
(1
d
A
s
k
s
*
M
d
d
Steps
1. Evaluate
2. Enter the general design Table No.1a using k _{m} and concrete grade.
3. Read k _{s} from the same Table corresponding to steel grade and k _{m} .
4. Evaluate
Note: 
In all cases
 M _{d} is in KNm
 b 
“ 
“ 
m 
 d 
“ 
“ 
m 
27
3.2.3. T or ┌ (┐) Sections Construction aspect of floor system of cast in place RC results in these types of beam sections.
For design and analysis of Tsections
For ┌ (┐) sections
b
e
b
l
e
b
w
w
10
0.5*
b
e
b
l
e
5
w
c cbeamspacing
/
clear spacing
Crosssection Design and Analysis Design
0.5 c
 Assuming b = b _{e} compute
1
and X = ρmd
28
i)
If y = 0.8x < h _{f} , section is rectangular as assumed.
A _{s} = b _{e} d
ii) If y > h _{f}
T beam analysis is required.
M uf
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