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# Problem 2.

9
A steel bar with diameter 75mm length 5m is subjected to an axial force F = 1000N, Torsional momen
Bending moment M = 5000N m. Find the state of strain at a critical point on the outer surface and hen
Given E = 200GPa, n = 0.3.

Input
E
n
M
T
F
d
r
L

Theoretical Calculation

Area A = p*r2
Deflection da = (F*L)/(A*E)
Applied Stress in X sax = F/A
Applied Stress in Y say = 0
Applied Stress in Z saz = 0
Applied Strain ea = sax/E
Max. Principal Stress s1 = ea*E
Min. Principal Stress s2 = 0
Max. Principal Strain e1 = s1/E
Min. Principal Strain e2 = 0

## Moment of Inertia I = (p*r4)/4

Deflection db = (M*L2)/(2EI)
Applied Stress in X sbx = (M*r)/I
Applied Stress in Y sby = 0
Applied Stress in Z sbz = 0
Applied Strain eb = sbx/E
Max. Principal Stress s1 = eb*E
Min. Principal Stress s2 = 0
Max. Principal Strain e1 = s1/E
Min. Principal Strain e2 = 0

## Modulus of Rigidity G = E/(2*(1+n))

Polar moment of Inertia J = p*d4/32
Shear Stress t = T*r/J
Shear Strain g = t/G
Max. Principal Stress s1 = t
Min. Principal Stress s2 = -t
Max. Principal Strain e1 = (s1 - (n*s2))/E
Min. Principal Strain e2 = (s2 - (n*s1))/E

## Deflection dab = da+db

Applied Stress in X sabx = sax + sbx
Applied Stress in Y saby = 0
Applied Stress in Z sabz = 0
Applied Strain eab = ea + eb
Max. Principal Stress s1 = eab*E
Min. Principal Stress s2 = 0
Max. Principal Strain e1 = s1/E
Min. Principal Strain e2 = 0

## Combined Axial and Torsion

Deflection dat = da
Applied Stress in X satx = sa
Applied Stress in Y saty = 0
Applied Stress in Z satz = 0
Max. Principal Stress s1 = ((sx + sy)/2) + Ö(((sx - sy)/2)2+t2)
Min. Principal Stress s2 = ((sx + sy)/2) - Ö(((sx - sy)/2)2+t2)
Max. Principal Strain e1 = (s1 - (n*s2))/E
Min. Principal Strain e2 = (s2 - (n*s1))/E

## Combined Bending and Torsion

Deflection dbt = db
Applied Stress in X sbtx = sbx
Applied Stress in Y sbty = 0
Applied Stress in Z sbtz = 0
Applied Strain ebtx = sbx/E
Max. Principal Stress s1 = (16/p*D3)*(M+Ö(M2+T2))
Min. Principal Stress s2 = (16/p*D3)*(M-Ö(M2+T2))
Max. Principal Strain e1 = ((ex + ey)/2) + Ö(((ex - ey)/2)2+(g/2)2)
Min. Principal Strain e2 = ((ex + ey)/2) - Ö(((ex - ey)/2)2+(g/2)2)

## Axial, Bending and Torsion combined

Deflection d = da+db
Applied Stress in X sx = sax + sbx
Applied Stress in Y sy = 0
Applied Stress in Z sz = 0
Applied Strain ex = sx/E
Max. Principal Stress s1 = ((sx + sy)/2) + Ö(((sx - sy)/2)2+t2)
Min. Principal Stress s2 = ((sx + sy)/2) - Ö(((sx - sy)/2)2+t2)
Max. Principal Strain e1 = ((ex + ey)/2) + Ö(((ex - ey)/2)2+(g/2)2)
Min. Principal Strain e2 = ((ex + ey)/2) - Ö(((ex - ey)/2)2+(g/2)2)
000N, Torsional moment T = 5000N m and
e outer surface and hence the principal strains.

2E+11 Pa
0.3
5000 Nm
5000 Nm
1000 N
0.075 m
0.0375 m
5 m

Abaqus Result

0.0044179 m2
5.6588E-06 m Deflection 5.66E-06 m
226353.7 N/m2 Applied Stress in X 2.26E+05 N/m2
0 N/m2 Applied Stress in Y 0.00E+00 N/m2
0 N/m2 Applied Stress in Z 0.00E+00 N/m2
1.1318E-06 Applied Strain 1.13E-06
226353.7 N/m2 Max. Principal Stress 2.26E+05 N/m2
0 N/m2 Min. Principal Stress 0.00E+00 N/m2
1.1318E-06 Max. Principal Strain 1.13E-06
0 Min. Principal Strain 0.00E+00

1.5532E-06 m4
0.2012033 m Deflection 2.01E-01 m
120721972 N/m2 Applied Stress in X 1.21E+08 N/m2
0 N/m2 Applied Stress in Y 0.00E+00 N/m2
0 N/m2 Applied Stress in Z 0.00E+00 N/m2
0.0006036 Applied Strain 6.04E-04
120721972 N/m 2
Max. Principal Stress 1.21E+08 N/m2
0 N/m2 Min. Principal Stress 0.00E+00 N/m2
0.0006036 Max. Principal Strain 6.04E-04
0 Min. Principal Strain 0.00E+00

7.692E+10 N/m2
3.1063E-06 m4
60360986 N/m2 Shear Stress 6.04E+07 N/m2
0.0007847 Shear Strain 7.85E-04
60360986 N/m2 Max. Principal Stress 6.04E+07 N/m2
-60360986 N/m2 Min. Principal Stress -6.04E+07 N/m2
0.0003923 Max. Principal Strain 3.92E-04
-0.0003923 Min. Principal Strain -3.92E-04

## 0.2012089 m Deflection 2.01E-01 m

120948325 N/m 1.21E+08 N/m
2 2
Applied Stress in X
0 N/m 0.00E+00 N/m
2 2
Applied Stress in Y
0 N/m 0.00E+00 N/m
2 2
Applied Stress in Z
0.0006047 Applied Strain 6.05E-04
120948325 N/m 1.21E+08 N/m
2 2
Max. Principal Stress
0 N/m 0.00E+00 N/m
2 2
Min. Principal Stress
0.0006047 Max. Principal Strain 6.05E-04
0 Min. Principal Strain 0.00E+00

## 5.6588E-06 m Deflection 5.66E-06 m

226353.7 N/m 2.26E+05 N/m
2 2
Applied Stress in X
0 N/m 0.00E+00 N/m
2 2
Applied Stress in Y
0 N/m 0.00E+00 N/m
2 2
Applied Stress in Z
60474269 N/m 6.05E+07 N/m
2 2
Max. Principal Stress
-60247915 N/m -6.03E+07 N/m
2 2
Min. Principal Stress
0.0003927 Max. Principal Strain 3.93E-04
-0.000392 Min. Principal Strain -3.92E-04

## Combined Bending and Torsion

0.2012033 m Deflection 2.01E-01 m
120721972 N/m 1.21E+08 N/m
2 2
Applied Stress in X
0 N/m 0.00E+00 N/m
2 2
Applied Stress in Y
0 N/m 0.00E+00 N/m
2 2
Applied Stress in Z
0.0006036 Applied Strain 6.04E-04
145724311 N/m 1.46E+08 N/m
2 2
Max. Principal Stress
N/m2 N/m2
-25002339 Min. Principal Stress -2.50E+07
0.0007968 Max. Principal Strain 7.97E-04
-0.0001932 Min. Principal Strain -1.93E-04

## 0.2012089 m Deflection 2.01E-01 m

120948325 N/m 1.21E+08 N/m
2 2
Applied Stress in X
0 N/m 0 N/m
2 2
Applied Stress in Y
0 N/m 0 N/m
2 2
Applied Stress in Z
0.0006047 Applied Strain 6.05E-04
145917553 N/m 1.46E+08 N/m
2 2
Max. Principal Stress
-24969228 N/m -2.50E+07 N/m
2 2
Min. Principal Stress
0.0007977 Max. Principal Strain 7.98E-04
-0.000193 Min. Principal Strain -1.93E-04