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Consumer psychology

Assignment 0

1) ____ are those individuals who complete the exchange transaction, acquiring the goods or
services for money or credit or “frequent buyer points/miles.”

2) When the gas tank reads almost empty, the driver stops at the next gas station to fill up.
When the computer runs out of paper, it’s time to buy more. If the car seems to be in the
repair shop more frequently lately, maybe it’s time to replace it. These kind of situations can
be termed as ____
Product influences
Usage influences
Situational influences
Quantity influences

3) Lashika looks in the refrigerator and sees that she is out of Diet Coke. The next time she is
at the grocery store, she picks up another six-pack of the product. In this case, there is no
____. Lashika relies simply on memory. She liked the product in the past and buys it again
Goal setting
Alternative solution
Alternative evaluation

4) ____ is a response to an uncontrollable drive or desire to obtain, use, or experience a

feeling, substance, or activity that leads the individual to repetitively engage in behavior that
will ultimately cause harm to the individual and/or others
Ritual consumption
Consumption sets
Consumption situation
Compulsive consumption

5) Our memory of past experiences with products is the single most influential factor in our
future responses to marketing information about those products and makes each of us ____ as
6) ____ processing refers to storing information as is, without analyzing its meaning

7) One needs food, water, warmth, and shelter in order to survive. These motives can be
considered ____
Complex motives
Functional motives
Simple motives
Desired motives

8) Shonda sees a wonderful dress at the department store and is very tempted to buy it. Her
budget, however, will not allow it. While buying the dress would satisfy her need to look and
feel good, it frustrates her need to be financially responsible and avoid getting into debt.
Pulled in two directions, she experiences ____ and seeks ways in which to resolve it

9) A consumer feels that the likely quality of X is extremely high. This is an example of ____
Brand loyalty
Brand awareness
Brand association
Perceived quality

10) The individual delivering the communications message is referred to as the ____
Assignment 1

1) What is the simple premise that is central to understanding all shopper, buyer, and
consumer behavior
People buy products, services, and benefits
People do not buy products or services, they buy benefits
People ignore the services but buy the products and their benefits
People buy products and services irrespective of the benefits

2) ____ are those individuals who complete the exchange transaction, acquiring the goods or
services for money or credit or “frequent buyer pointsmiles.”

3) Ron bought a pair of running shoes, which he ordered and paid for through the Internet.
He subsequently wore them for a morning jog. What kind of role is Ron playing in this case
The role of shopper, buyer, and consumer
The role of a buyer and consumer
The role of a shopper and buyer
The role of a shopper and consumer

4) Which of the following statements describe the core of consumer behavior

People buy products, services, and benefits
People do not buy products or services, they buy benefits
People ignore the services but buy the products and their benefits
People buy products and services irrespective of the benefits

5) What type of individuals get into the marketplace through various means, such as visiting
stores at a mall, thumbing through catalogs, or getting on the Internet
6) Mary, a senior citizen in the market for a new car, is looking for much more than a means
of getting from point A to point B. She’s buying safety, reliability, and, perhaps, a “look” that
makes her feel younger than her years. In each of these cases, what does the customer buy
The functions performed and the services provided
The benefits delivered and not the functions performed
The product brand and the services provided
The services, product brand, and the benefits delivered

7) ____ can be as practical as needing a key to open a door or as unusual as owning a Monet
painting in order to achieve a sense of tranquility
Consumer services
Consumer products
Consumer benefits
Consumer etiquette

8) Which of the following benefits are in some sense measurable

Product benefits
Intangible benefits
Consumer benefits
Tangible benefits

9) ____ are more often associated with the feelings one experiences when owning and/or
using a product or service
Brand concepts

10) An individual derives a sense of belonging from wearing the same brand of running
shoes as his her friends or driving an economical car that makes her/him feel thrifty. These
are examples of benefits that make up the ____
Psychological ring
Segment bounding
Total product concept
Assignment 2

1) If a product or service is perceived as ____ by consumers, they typically go directly from

problem recognition to choice because they do not wish to spend time and energy in search
and alternative evaluation.
Low involvement
High involvement
No involvement
Total involvement

2) What does need recognition depend upon?

Perception of the marketer
Locus of control theory
Internal information search
Perception of the individual consumer

3) ____ is the sense of drive to action (motivation) a consumer experiences once a problem
or need has been recognized
Motivation arousal
Motivation bias
Motivational behavior

4)____, or need recognition, is the first of the five steps consumers take when moving
through the decision process
Problem recognition
Consumer recognition
Goal recognition

5) A variation of problem recognition is ____

Motivational factor
Internal information search
Opportunity recognition
External information search
6) ____ also leads consumers to realize new needs, as one purchase leads to another
Product information
Product brand
Product acquisition
Product realization

7) Information provided by marketers may ____, leading the consumer to reevaluate his or
her actual and desired states
Resolve conflict
Trigger problem recognition
Provide problem solution
Minimize conflicts

8)____ is the key component of internal search


9) Problem recognition is a psychological process through which an individual evaluates the

difference between his or her ____ and ____
Ongoing search, final goal
Actual state, desired state
Initial capital, actual capital
Intended goal, actual goal

10) ____ has the ability both to better store relevant information in memory and to access it
An expert
A retailer
A consumer
A purchaser
Assignment 3

1) Alternative evaluation is not always a part of the ____

Goal setting
Decision process
Information process
Information search

2) Alternative evaluation involves two other types of consumer sets. Identify these sets
Universal set and subset
Universal set and retrieval set
Variable set and compose set
Universal set and variable set

3) To assess benefits offered by goods and services, consumers use a range of ____
Evaluative products
Retrieval sets
Evaluative solutions
Evaluative criteria

4) A ____ allows for trade-offs among strengths and weaknesses

Consumer decision process
Noncompensatory consumer decision rule
Compensatory consumer decision rule
Decision heuristic decision process

5) ____ involves reducing the number of alternatives that the consumer will actually compare
in the marketplace to a manageable size and retaining alternatives that will be easy to
compare when making a final choice
Alternative evaluation
Consideration set construction
Determinant attributes
Personal motives

6) A(n) ____ is the subset that consumers can bring up from memory
Universal set
Memory set
Recall set
Retrieval set

7) Consumers evaluate goods and services based on the ____

Reputation of the seller
Marketing used on them
Benefits offered to them
All of the above

8) Consumers use ____, either consciously or subconsciously, to help them quickly and
efficiently select from among several purchase alternatives
Decision process
Decision heuristics
Decision rules

9) The ____ is made up of all product, service, outlet, or brand alternatives in the
marketplace to which the consumer has reasonable access, whether she or he is aware of them
Brand set
Product set
Universal set
Alternative set

10) As a general rule, the more important the consumer considers the purchase and the more
experience he or she has with the product category, the greater the number of ____ used
Evaluative brands
Evaluative criteria
Evaluative measures
Universal sets
Assignment 4

1) A useful way of classifying certain types of consumption is through the ____ associated
with them

2) As cultures and other social groups change over time, the processes of ____ (losing sacred
status) or ____ (gaining sacred status) occur
Ritual, sacred consumption
Profane, consumption behavior
Desacralization, sacralization
Contrast effect, asymmetric effect

3) The level of ____ or ____ experienced depends upon how well the product’s performance
meets one’s expectations
Satisfaction, dissatisfaction
Consumption, situation
Satisfaction, consumption
Consumption, dissatisfaction

4) It has been found that if there is a wide negative disparity between expectations and actual
performance, customers tend to magnify this poor performance. This reaction is known as the
Simple effect
Positive effect
Negative effect
Contrast effect

5) The ____ is simply the time and place of consumption

Mental context
Physical action
Public action
Physical context
6) Another way of classifying ____ is by considering the extent to which it is typical of the
consumer’s everyday lifestyle
Consumption situation
Consumption episode
Consumption sets
Consumption behavior

7) ____ is a response to an uncontrollable drive or desire to obtain, use, or experience a

feeling, substance, or activity that leads the individual to repetitively engage in behavior that
will ultimately cause harm to the individual and/or others
Ritual consumption
Consumption sets
Consumption situation
Compulsive consumption

8) A finite time period of possession and/or use is necessary to ____

Determine consumption
Determine desired state
Determine satisfaction
Determine reliability

9) ____ is primarily an emotional, though sometimes cognitive, response

Consumption system
Consumer satisfaction
Level of satisfaction
Consumption episode

10) In its broadest and simplest sense, ____ is the possession and/or use of goods and
services and the benefits they deliver
Alternative evaluation
Alternative criterion
Asymmetric effect
Assignment 5

1) ____learning occurs when the consumer does not actively participate in information

2) A ____ measure rests on the idea that a buyer’s previous (and particularly most recent)
purchasing behavior will determine future behavior

3)____ focuses on how learning can be modified through incentives and offers, counteroffers,
and other forms of rewards and punishments
Contingency theory
Probability theory
Behavior analysis
Cognitive theory

4)____ conditioning occurs when the unconditioned stimulus is presented first, followed by
the conditioned stimulus

5) ____ strengthens the consumer’s beliefs regarding incoming information

Competing information
6)____ focuses on specific attributes of a product or service and how these attributes are
understood and ultimately evaluated by consumers
A sensory cue
An individual response factor
A stimulus factor
Sensory perception

7) Understanding perception and the factors determining how consumers ____ and services
is central to effective marketing
Display brand loyalty
Are influenced by quality
View products
All of the above

8)____ is defined as the way in which an individual gathers, processes, and interprets
information from the environment
Directional approach
Consumer information

9) The processes through which we organize sensations and that demand a higher level of
perception are known as the ____
Probability theory
Cognitive theory
Gestalt principle
Behavior analysis

10) A(n) ____ is the use of a particular brand that represents most other brands
Nonanalytical categorization
Analytical categorization
Assignment 6.1

1) Marketing information is not processed in a vacuum but in the context of previous

knowledge and experience stored in ____
All of the above

2)When information first enters the brain, it is captured by ____ memory, where it may
register as little more than a sensation and may last for only fractions of a second

3) People tend to forget information over time, due to a process psychologists call ____
Retroactive inhibition
Temporary inhibition
Short memory
Retractile memory

4) Recent evidence suggests that a ____ mood enhances the encoding of information in

5) Psychologists believe that information is organized in memory in terms of an ____

network in which each concept in memory, a node, is connected to other concepts by links
System network
Associative network
Group network
Memory network

6) Memory is selective, and ____ varies according to a number of factors


7) The Zeigarnik effect states that if a message is ____, people will attempt to retain it for the
purpose of future completion
Lengthy and complex
Not repeated frequently
Not complete

8) Information ____ is determined mostly by the particular retrieval cues available at the

9) In making purchase decisions, we use two sources of product information, one of them is
the ____, and the other is what memory provides us
External forces
External influences
External environment
External information

10) Information is first analyzed and assigned meaning in ____ memory

Assignment 6.2

1) One needs food, water, warmth, and shelter in order to survive. These motives can be
considered ____
Complex motives
Functional motives
Simple motives
Desired motives

2) ____ is the result of social motives

Choice of product
Choice of manufacturer
Choice of brand
Choice of outlet

3) In an ____, the individual faces a dilemma of choosing between or among alternatives or

approaches that seem equally attractive
Approach-avoidance conflict
Avoidance-avoidance conflict
Approach-approach conflict
Alternative conflict
4) Marketers can trigger consumer motives by ____
Inducing need recognition
Triggering need-benefit segmentation
Triggering subconscious motivation
All of the above

5) In an ____, the same goal has both positive and negative characteristics
Approach-approach conflict
Approach-avoidance conflict
Avoidance-avoidance conflict
Alternative-avoidance conflict

6) To activate consumer motives and thus guide marketplace behavior, the marketer must
steer the consumer from an actual state to a ____
Functional state
Desired state
Recognition state
Incidental state

7) People purchase and use products and services in order to experience certain emotional
states or to achieve ____
Emotional needs
Emotional wants
Emotional goals
Emotional desires

8) Dissatisfaction is a(n) “____” emotion that occurs when an event is perceived to be

unpleasant or obstructive to achieving one’s goals

9) Cognitions of negative disconfirmation, underfulfillment of needs, and inequity are

associated with ____

10) In making product and service decisions, consumers move through a(n) ____
Approach-avoidance conflict
Sequence of choices
Implementing process
Functional process
Assignment 7

1) Positioning by too many product attributes may backfire because of ____

Information overload
Lack of focus
Low recall
Consumer suspicion

2) Marketers attempt to influence consumer beliefs about brands by associating them with
important ____
Market preferences
Consumer benefits
Product features

3) Which of the following particularly influences the way we retrieve brand information from
Technical specifications
Promotional campaign
Ease of use
Price relative to that of competitors

4) Identify the theory which recommends that marketers seek to influence affective responses
by creating messages that appeal to consumers on the basis of one or more of the four types
of responses
Fishbein model
Belief-importance model
Functional theory of attitude
Cognitive dissonance theory

5) Which of the following is a correct observation

Beliefs are affective
Beliefs are based on feelings
Beliefs are based on intuition
Beliefs are cognitive

6) Recognition of product X among other competing brands and recall of its symbol or logo
are examples of ____
Perceived quality
Brand awareness
Brand loyalty
Selective perception

7) What is the simplest and most common way of positioning products

Through advertising
Using celebrity promotional campaigns
Through association of specific attributes with a brand
Make sure the brand more than delivers on its promises

8) When consumers were exposed to a range of possible financial consequences associated

with purchasing a solar water heater, they were less likely to change their previously held
beliefs. What could possibly cause this kind of behavior
Information overload
Positioning strategy

9) It is in terms of brand associations that brands are organized in the consumer’s memory.
What is a measure of the strength of those associations in the marketplace
Brand identity
Brand image
Brand equity
Brand awareness

10) ____ is a psychological association between a product or brand and an attribute or feature
of that product or brand
A consumer behavior
A consumer belief
Brand consciousness
A consumer response