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LG-MEMFAB0072A PERFORM ADVANCED WELDING USING OXYACETYLENE

WELDING PROCESS (OAW)

LEARNER GUIDE
PERFORM ADVANCED WELDING USING OXYACETYLENE
WELDING PROCESS (OAW)

Published by

HEART TRUST/NATIONAL TRAINING AGENCY

Produced by

Learning Management Services Department


Gordon Town Road
Kingston 7
Jamaica W.I.

This material is protected by copyright. Copying this material or any part of it by any means,
including digital or in any form is prohibited unless prior written permission is obtained from
the HEART Trust/NTA.

*** 2006 ***

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LG-MEMFAB0072A PERFORM ADVANCED WELDING USING OXYACETYLENE
WELDING PROCESS (OAW)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

Introduction................................................................................................................................... 1

Welcome ............................................................................................................................. 1
This Competency Unit ........................................................................................................ 1
Before You Start ................................................................................................................. 2
Planning Your Learning Programme .................................................................................. 2
Self-Assessment Checklist.................................................................................................. 3
How To Use This Learner Guide........................................................................................ 5
Using The Computer And Other Resources ....................................................................... 6
Method Of Assessment ....................................................................................................... 6
Quality Assurance............................................................................................................... 7

Element 1: Select Welding Equipment and Consumables................................................ 8

Self Assessment Checklist ................................................................................................ 11

Element 2: Assemble Welding Equipment....................................................................... 12

Self Assessment Checklist ................................................................................................ 15

Element 3: Weld Joint to Standards or Equivalent ........................................................ 16

Self Assessment Checklist ................................................................................................ 28

Element 4: Inspect Welds .................................................................................................. 29

Self Assessment Checklist ................................................................................................ 32

Element 5: Correct Defects................................................................................................ 33

Self Assessment Checklist ................................................................................................ 35

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Element 6: Maintain Weld Records.................................................................................. 36

Self Assessment Checklist ................................................................................................ 37

Element 7: Clean Up .......................................................................................................... 38

Self Assessment Checklist ................................................................................................ 41

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LG-MEMFAB0072A:
PERFORM ADVANCED WELDING
USING OXYACETYLENE WELDING
PROCESS (OAW)

INTRODUCTION

Welcome

Welcome to the Learner Guide for Unit of Competency “Perform Advanced Welding Using
Oxyacetylene Welding Process (OAW)”. This is just one of a number of Learner Guides
produced for the maintenance stream of the Metal, Engineering and Maintenance Industry, and it
is designed to guide you, the learner, through a series of learning processes and activities that
will enable you to achieve the specified learning outcomes for the competency unit.

The content of this guide was developed from the Competency Standard LG-MEMFAB0072A,
which is one of the basic building blocks for the National Vocational Qualification of Jamaica
(NVQ-J) certification within the industry. Please refer to your Learner’s Handbook for a
thorough explanation of standards and competencies, and how these relate to the NVQ-J
certification.

You are also advised to consult the Competency Standard and assessment instrument for a better
understanding of what is required to master the competency.

This Competency Unit

“Perform Advanced Welding Using Oxyacetylene Welding Process” addresses the


knowledge and skills requirements to effectively perform advanced welding using oxyacetylene
welding process. There are seven main areas or elements:

Element 1: Select welding equipment and consumables

Element 2: Assemble welding equipment

Element 3: Weld joints to standards or equivalent

Element 4: Inspect welds

Element 5: Correct faults

Element 6: Maintain weld records

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Element 7: Clean up

As you go through each element, you will find critical information relating to each one. You are
advised to study them carefully so that you will be able to develop the necessary knowledge,
skills and attitudes for performing advanced welding using oxyacetylene welding process.

Before you start

Before you start this Learner Guide, you need to:

a. Obtain a Learner’s Logbook. You will use it to record evidence of your new
skills/competence. As you demonstrate your new skills, record your activities and have your
learning facilitator sign off on them. This will allow you to provide evidence of your
competence when you are being assessed against the competency standard.

b. Ensure that you have access to the facilities and equipment necessary for learning.

c. Ensure that your learning resources are available.

d. Ensure that you are wearing suitable clothing, that tools and equipment are safe, and that the
correct safety equipment is used.

e. Plan your learning programme (see below)

f. Understand how to use this Learner Guide (see below)

Planning your learning programme

The self-assessment checklist on the following pages will assist you in planning your training
programme and it will help you to think about the knowledge and skills needed to demonstrate
competency in this unit. As you go through each one you will be able to find out which aspects
of the elements you have already mastered and which ones you already have and which you will
need to pay more attention to as you go through the learning process.

To complete the self-assessment checklist, simply read the statements and tick the ‘Yes’ or ‘No’
box. You should do this exercise now.

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Self-Assessment Checklist
Perform Advanced Welding Using Oxyacetylene Welding
Process (OAW)

Element 1 Select welding equipment and consumables Yes No

1. I can select correct welding equipment and consumables


from weld procedure specifications ( ) ( )

Element 2 Assemble welding equipment Yes No

1. I can assemble and set up welding equipment, including


cylinders, regulators, hoses, torches and tips safely in
accordance with standard operating procedures ( ) ( )

Element 3 Weld joints to standards or equivalent Yes No

1. I can weld material to standards or equivalent specifications


in the overhead position ( ) ( )

2. I can interpret instruction, symbols, specifications including


bead size, bead placement, reinforcement etc correctly and
in accordance with weld procedure ( ) ( )

Element 4 Inspect welds Yes No

1. I can inspect weld joints visually against specifications ( ) ( )

2. I can identify weld defects ( ) ( )

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Element 5 Correct faults Yes No

1. I can remove defects with minimum loss of sound metal


using correct application and appropriate techniques ( ) ( )

Element 6. Maintain weld records Yes No

1. I can maintain weld records in accordance with specifications


and standard operating procedures ( ) ( )

Element 7 Clean up Yes No

1. I can clean area around work activity ( ) ( )

2. I can safely dispose of waste and unwanted materials ( ) ( )

3. I can clean, maintain and store tools and equipment ( ) ( )

How did you do?

If you ticked all or most of the ‘Yes’ boxes, then you might not need to go through the entire
guide. Ask your learning facilitator to assist you in determining the most appropriate action you
should take.

If you ticked a few of the ‘Yes’ boxes or none at all then you should work through all of the
guide, even though some of the material may be familiar to you.

Plan your learning based on your answers. Be sure to involve your learning facilitator in the
planning process.

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How to use this Learner Guide

This Learner Guide is designed to assist you to work and learn at your own pace.

We suggest that you:

• Go through the sections/elements as they are presented (starting at Section 1)

• Check your progress at each checkpoint to ensure that you have understood the material

• Observe the icons and special graphics used throughout this guide to remind you of what you
have to do and to enhance your learning. The icons and their meanings are as follows:

Complete Assessment Exercise


This exercise requires you to think about the knowledge and skills
that you have or will develop in this competency unit.

Definition Box
Words/phrases are defined or explained in this box. The
words/phrases being explained are in bold print.

Checkpoint
This denotes a brain teaser and is used to check your
understanding of the materials presented. No answers are
provided for the questions asked.

Activity
This denotes something for you to do either alone or with
the assistance of your trainer/supervisor.

Reference
Points you to the reference materials and other support
documents or resources used in compiling the unit content.

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• Ask your learning facilitator for help if you have any problems with the interpretation of the
contents, the procedures, or the availability of resources.

• Complete each activity as you come to it. If the activity requires you perform an actual task,
be sure to tell your learning facilitator when you get to that activity so that he/she can make
any arrangements, if necessary.

• Get your learning facilitator to sign and date the Learner Logbook when you have completed
an activity.

• Complete the self-assessment checklist at the end of each section or element.

When you have worked through all elements of the guide, and when you can tick every ‘Yes’
box, you are ready for assessment and should ask your learning facilitator to assist you in making
the arrangements to have your performance assessed.

Using the Computer and Other Resources

Where your activities refer you to the library, computer and Internet resources, ask your learning
facilitator to assist you with locating these resources. If you are getting your training in an
institution, there may be a library and a computer laboratory. If this is not the case, visit the local
library and find out what resources are available.

If you are new to the computer and the Internet, someone in the computer room should be able to
show you how to use these resources.

Please note that in many of your activities you have been referred to information on the Internet.
This is because the Internet has a vast amount of information that can help you in acquiring the
particular competencies. We would like to advise you, however, that we cannot guarantee that
all the sites will be available when you need them. If this happens, ask your learning facilitator
to assist you with locating other sites that have the information you require.

Method of Assessment

Competency will be assessed while you are actually performing the tasks related to this
competency. This may be in a real workplace or a simulated situation that accurately relates to
the work situation. You are advised to consult the associated competency standard for further
details relating to the assessment strategies.

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Quality Assurance

A feedback form is included at the back of each learner guide, so all users are afforded the
opportunity to document their concerns pertinent to the various aspects of the guide. Such
concerns will assist in the review process of the learner guides. Users are encouraged to cut out
the form, complete and submit same to the address provided.

You may now start your learning. Have fun while you work!

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ELEMENT 1: SELECT WELDING EQUIPMENT AND CONSUMABLES

LEARNING OUTCOMES

As you go through this element, you will acquire the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to
select welding equipment and consumables. Your learning facilitator is there to assist you with
the various activities, so that on completion you should be able to:

1. Select correct welding equipment and consumables from weld procedure specifications.

SELECT CORRECT WELDING EQUIPMENT AND CONSUMABLES

Any job that is done in an established industry such as welding must conform to established
practices to ensure uniformity of quality. National and international codes and regulations must
be adhered to in order to ensure that welding practices are of the highest quality and standard.

Whenever you engage in any type of project, there are some key factors which should be noted:

• The quality of work produced should be in accordance with engineering drawings,


specifications and standards
• Proper inventory management of material and spare parts should be done
• Follow guidelines while working
• Adhere to guidelines for completing job
• Preparation of steel
• Welding machine selection
• Set up welding plant
• Proper welding process should be carried out
• The welds should be inspected

Acetylene and Oxygen Cylinders

Acetylene is a fuel gas and should be referred to by its proper name and not by the word gas.
Always use a regulator with the cylinder. Use cylinder upright and store in dry places. Always
test for leaks.

Oxygen should be referred to by its proper name, “oxygen”, and not by the word “air”. Care
should be taken when using an oxygen cylinder. Oxygen by itself cannot burn; it supports
burning. Never use oxygen as a substitute for air. The care for valves required on the oxygen
cylinder is almost the same as for acetylene cylinders.

It is very important to have the correct hose for the required gas. The colours are red for the
acetylene and other fuel-gases, green for oxygen, and black for inert gas and air. Hoses must be
in good condition to prevent fires and explosions. Keep all hoses away from hot objects, and

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avoid oil and grease, which will cause the rubber to deteriorate and increase the risk of fire. Do
not repair hose with tape. Hose connections should conform to regulations and standards of the
International Acetylene Association.

Pressure reducing regulators must be used for the gas and pressure intended for.

General Safety Precautions

When toxic gases, fumes, and dust are generated, proper protection are required. Welding fumes
can originate from fluxes, the coating or the flux and material being welded. The space in which
the welder operates is very important, such as height of the ceiling. When welding in a confined
space such as a tank, boiler or small compartment, good ventilation is necessary. When welding
on high-rise building, special precautions are required such as railings, safety belts, lifelines or
other safeguards.

Faulty storage can be dangerous especially when storing materials such as steel pipes, sheet steel,
and plates. Proper slacking is of great importance. Faulty or electrical wiring can cause fire and
electric shock. Trained electricians should be used to service electrical equipment. Good
housekeeping is important on welding job. Tools or other objects should be safely stocked away
to prevent hazards.

Handling cylinders

The mixture of flammable gases and air, which is highly explosive, is used in the application of
oxyacetylene welding and cutting. The following precautions are required when using cylinders:

• When lifting cylinders with a crane use a cradle on platform. Never use a sling to lift
cylinder. Never drop cylinders or allow them to strike each other violently
• To move cylinders tilt and roll them on their bottom edges. Never drag or slide them. If
transferred in a carrier, they should be fastened securely
• Cylinders should be fastened securely while in use
• Never move unattached cylinders with the regulators on. Cylinder valves must be closed
and capped before being moved. Close valve of empty cylinders, and replace the valve
protection caps, and mark MT (empty) on them
• Close cylinder valves when work is completed
• Keep cylinders away from welding and cutting operations so that hot slag, sparks, and
flame cannot reach them
• Never tamper with the number stamped on the cylinders; this is illegal. Never tamper
with the valves on safety devices or valves on cylinders
• Never attempt to refill a cylinder

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Tools and Equipment

You should observe and familiarize yourself with the types of tools and equipment used in the
welding trade. It is important to thoroughly check all tools for any faults and report to your
immediate supervisor. Defective tools should not be used because this will cause injury to
yourself and others. Various types of tools and equipment are used in welding process. Proper
care must be taken in maintaining and using these tools and equipment. Tools and equipment
used in the welding industry include:

• Ball peen hammer


• Hacksaw
• Weld gauges
• Combination- square
• Marking out tools
• Weld – cleaning hammer
• Measuring tape
• Scriber and center punch
• Chisel
• Pliers
• Files of all cross-sectional shape and types
• Screw drivers
• Arc welding equipment
• Safety equipment
• Chipping hammer
• Wire brush
• Oxyacetylene welding and cutting equipment
• Work benches
• Vices
• Spirit level
• Letter stamp

Power Tools

• Hand and drill press


• Angle grinders, pedestal- grinders, surface grinders, rotary
• Wire brush
• Shear and nibbler
• Beveling-machine

It is very important to select the right tools for the particular job. Using the wrong tools for the
job can cause injury to yourself and others. When using tools make sure the tools and your hands
are free of oil and grease; this will help to prevent the hand from slipping and causing any injury
to yourself.

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Refer to: Learners Guide LG- MEMCOR0141A – Apply Principles of


Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) in work
Welding Electrodes available at :
www.metalwebnews.com/howto/weldrod.html Accessed 22/07/06. This
website will show you a wide range of arc welding electrodes from which
you can make your selection

CHECKPOINT

What factors should you bear in mind when you are


selecting a welding machine? What are the types to choose
from and what are the attachments?

ACTIVITY

Visit the nearest welding shop with permission from the


owner and examine the equipment. Compare the different
types of equipment to the institution’s. Share your
information with your colleagues and learning facilitator.

ARE YOU READY TO PROVE YOUR COMPETENCE?

Now that you have completed this element, see if you have fully grasped all the components by
doing the following Self-Assessment:

Checklist 1 Yes No

1. I know how to select correct welding equipment and


consumables from weld procedure specifications ( ) ( )

Checklist 2 Yes No

1. Correct welding equipment and consumables are selected


from weld procedure specifications ( ) ( )

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ELEMENT 2: ASSEMBLE WELDING EQUIPMENT

LEARNING OUTCOMES

As you go through this element, you will acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitude required to
assemble welding equipment. Your learning facilitator is there to assist you with the various
activities, so that on completion you should be able to:

1. Assemble and set up welding equipment, including cylinders, regulators, hoses, torches
and tips safely in accordance with standard operating procedures

Assembling and setting up your oxy-acetylene equipment is important for a successful operation.
The oxy-acetylene welding equipment should include:

• Acetylene cylinder
• Oxygen cylinder
• A means of securing the cylinders in an upright position.
• Acetylene and oxygen regulators and gauges
• Acetylene and oxygen hoses
• Welding torch
• Spark lighter
• Safety equipment

Before you use the welding equipment you should:

• Check to see if the cylinders are in good condition.


• Fasten cylinders to hand truck to prevent them from falling.
• Blow out the cylinder opening by opening the valve slightly to blow away any dirt
particles that might be there before attaching regulator to cylinder.
• Inspect sealing surfaces and fittings. Avoid using worn or damaged parts.
• Attach regulator to cylinder. Be sure that the regulator nut fits the cylinder valve fittings
properly.
• Connect hoses to regulators. Hoses should not be twisted, around each other.
• Allow high-pressure oxygen or acetylene to pass through the respective hoses, connect
hoses to torch before connecting the torch to hoses
• Check for leaks. Use soapy solution on outside joints where leaks are suspected; bubbles
will indicate if any leak exists.

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ACTIVITY

With the help of your learning facilitator, assemble and set


up oxy-acetylene welding equipment. Ensure that when you
do a test run, your facilitator is present to address all safety
concerns.

Quality Assurance Requirements

Any job that is done in an established industry such as welding must conform to established
practices to ensure uniformity of quality. National and international codes and regulations must
be adhered to in order to ensure that welding and practices are of the highest quality and
standards.

Whenever you engage in any type of project, there are some key factors, which should be noted:

• The quality of work produced should be in accordance with engineering drawings,


specifications and standards
• Proper inventory management of material and spare parts
• Follow guidelines while working
• Adhering to guidelines for completing job
• Preparation of steel
• Welding machine selection Quality Assurance charges
• Set up welding plant the maker of the product or
• Proper welding process the supplier of a service with
• Weld inspection the responsibility for assuring
the customer that the
Quality Assurance requirements may include: appropriate quality has been
achieved.
• Workplace operations and procedures
• Quality of materials
• Control of handling procedures
• Use and maintenance of equipment
• Attention to specification of work

In order for you to maintain a high level of quality you should practise the following:

• Listen carefully to instructions if given verbally by the learning facilitator.


• Always have a notebook on hand to write instructions.
• Check materials, tools and other required equipment. If there is any doubt about any
piece of equipment, report to the supervisor immediately.

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CHECKPOINT

What are some of the activities you can do to ensure quality


assurance?

ACTIVITY

• Discuss with your learning facilitator about producing quality


work and how it motivates others to aim at the highest level.
• Research types of quality systems and how you would
implement the one that is most appropriate in a welding shop
environment which also addresses occupational health and
safety issues.

Refer to: William A. Bowditch and Kevin E. Bowditch, (1997), Welding


Technology Fundamentals, The Goodyear/Willcox Company
Incorporation Page 36.

HEART Trust/ NTA (2000), Welding, (3rd Ed) Level 1

MEMFAB0111A – Weld using manual metal arc welding process

Walker, John R. (1986), Arc Welding, Basic Fundamentals, The


Goodheart-Willcox Co. Inc.

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CHECKPOINT

Why is it important for you to be familiar with the different parts


of the welding equipment?

ACTIVITY

Visit a welding workshop nearest to you with permission from the


owner and observe the assembling procedures. If welding equipment
is at your location, ask your learning facilitator to assist you with
assembling the parts. Assess your colleagues and vise versa in the
assembling process.

ARE YOU READY TO PROVE YOUR COMPETENCE?

Now that you have completed this element, see if you have fully grasped all the components by
doing the following Self-Assessment:

Checklist 1 Yes No

1. I know how to select correct welding equipment and


consumables from weld procedure specifications ( ) ( )

Checklist 2 Yes No

1. Correct welding equipment and consumables are selected


from weld procedure specifications ( ) ( )

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ELEMENT 3: WELD JOINT TO STANDARDS OR EQUIVALENT

LEARNING OUT COMES

As you go through this element, you will acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitudes to weld
joint to standards or equivalent. Your learning facilitator is there to assist you with the various
activities, so that on completion you should be able to:

1. Weld materials to standards or equivalent specifications in the overhead position


2. Interpret correctly symbols, bead size, bead placement and reinforcement.

INTERPRET SYMBOLS CORRECTLY

You should be familiar with the symbols used in welding as these will guide you to the type of
welding required for a specific job. The interpretation from the drawing/blueprint of these
symbols is important to the reduction of defects.

When there are symbols on a drawing you should note the location of the arrow with regard to
the joint. When the weld is to be made on the arrow side of the joint the weld symbol is placed
on the reference line.

When the weld is on the other side of the joint this is specified by placing the weld symbol on the
reference line away from the joint as shown on the illustration below:

Fig. 1

Weld symbol on a reference line

Groove Weld Symbols available at : www.unified-eng.com/scitech/weld/groove.html Accessed


22/07/06

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Look at the figures below on the left and the right to help you read the eight elements of a weld:

Fig. 2

Elements of a welding symbol

Integrated Publishing available at :www.tpub.com/.../14040/css/14040_111.htm Accessed


22/07/06

Each element is numbered and illustrated separately and explained in the following:

• (1) This shows the reference line, or base, for the other symbols
• (2) This shows the arrow. The arrow points to the location of the weld
• (3) This shows the basic weld symbols. In this case it should be a fillet weld located on
the arrow side of the object to be welded
• (4) This shows the dimensions and other data. The 1/2 means the weld should be 1.27 cm
(1/2 inch) thick
• (5) The 2-4 means the weld should be 5.08cm (2 inches) long (L) with a center spacing or
pitch (P) of 4 inches
• (6) This shows the supplementary symbols. This supplementary symbol means the weld
should be convex
• (7) This shows the finish symbol, G, which means the weld should be finished by
grinding. Note that the finish markings that show the degree of finish are different.
This also shows the tail. It is used to set off symbols that order the machinist to use a
certain process or to follow certain specifications or other references; in this case,
specification A-1. The tail will be omitted if it is not needed for this purpose
• (8) This shows the specifications, process, or other reference explained in item 7. In this
example, the tail of the symbol indicates the abbreviation of a process-oxyacetylene
welding (OAW)

Once you have a full understanding of the different symbols your interpretation of the different
welds, such as bead, groove, fillet and plug should be easier.
Use the diagram above to guide you with the different bead welds.

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Fig.3

Standard location of elements and types of welding symbols.

Integrated Publishing available at : www.tpub.com/.../14250/css/14250_67.htm Accessed


22/07/06

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Fig. 4

Integrated Publishing available at :www.infodotinc.com/blueprintreading/38.htm Accessed


22/07/06

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CHECKPOINT

Why are welding symbols important?

ACTIVITY

Examine the weldings in your workshop in groups of twos and


make drawings to interpret six different welding symbols and
present to your peers as well as your learning facilitator.

WELD MATERIALS TO STANDARDS

Bead Weld is composed of a narrow layer or layers of metal


deposit in an unbroken string on the surface of the metal.

Plug Weld is a weld made through one piece of metal to join it


to another metal surface.

Fillet Weld is triangular in shape and used for joining two


surfaces at an angle.

Groove Weld is a weld made between the two pieces of metal to


the joint.

You should follow the sequence below to make any of the above welds:

• Make sure that all personal protective equipment (PPE) is being used
• Remove all flammable materials and solvents from the welding area
• Position the metal, using clamps if needed

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Joint Weld

Joint Weld is an area Joints are classified into four welds:


where two or more pieces • Lap joint
of metals are assembled • Vee joint
together. • Butt joint
• Tee joint

Fig. 5

Five basic types of Joints

Fortune City available at :www.fortunecity.com/.../247/weld_book/ILLUS.htm Accessed


22/07/06

You should interpret the type of joint from the symbols on the drawing.
You should follow the following procedures to achieve the specific joint weld.

• Make your usual preparations to weld


• Position the plates on worktable with two edges in close contact
• Tack weld the plates together. (Tack weld is a short weld)
• Move the electrode along the surface of the plate
• Allow to dry and remove slag

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This procedure should be used for all joints with emphasis on the location of the joint.

Fig. 6

Tee joint- single pass fillet weld, Lap Joints and Butt joints in heavy sections

Fortune City available at : www.fortunecity.com/.../247/weld_book/ILLUS.htm Accessed


22/07/06

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LG-MEMFAB0072A PERFORM ADVANCED WELDING USING OXYACETYLENE
WELDING PROCESS (OAW)

Weld positions

You should weld in a flat or down hand position as much as possible. This position is standard
and the simplest way to do a weld.

You may be required to weld in different positions according to the job.

The other positions are:

• Vertical
• Horizontal
• Overhead

Vertical position is welding in an You should use this technique on thin metal because
upward or downward position on a penetration is shallow and reduces the possibility of
surface burn through.

The axis of the weld is approximately vertical in vertical position welding.

The molten metal has a tendency to run downward and pile up when welding is done on a
vertical surface. A joint with excessive reinforcement at the lower end will result and some
undercutting on the surface of the plates if a weld that is not carefully made.

The manipulation of the torch and the filler rod keeps the metal from sagging or falling and
ensures good penetration and fusion at the joint. The flew of metal can be controlled by pointing
the flame upward at a 45 degree angle to the plate, and holding the rod between the flame and the
molten puddle . Both the torch and the welding rod should be moved back and forth to deposit a
uniform bead. The welding rod should be held slightly above the center line of the joint, and the
welding flame should sweep the molten metal across.

Refer to: Fortune City available at :


www.fortunecity.com/.../247/weld_book/Ch11.htm
Accessed 22/07/06

Version 1 LRDU – JUN. 06 23


LG-MEMFAB0072A PERFORM ADVANCED WELDING USING OXYACETYLENE
WELDING PROCESS (OAW)

Horizontal position is
welding metal in straight-
line direction.

Welding at times must be done in the position in which the part will be used hence welding
cannot always be done in the most desirable position.. Often that may be on the ceiling, in the
corner, or on the floor. Proper description and definition is necessary since welding procedures
must indicate the welding position to be performed, and welding process selection is necessary
since some have all-position capabilities whereas others may be used in only one or two
positions.

Refer to: Fortune City available at :


www.fortunecity.com/.../247/weld_book/Ch11.htm
Accessed 22/07/06

Fig. 7

Horizontal welding

Fortune City available at :www.fortunecity.com/.../247/weld_book/Ch11.htm Accessed


22/07/06

You can use this technique to weld v-groove butt.

Refer to: Machinist www.machinist.org/army_welding/fig11-10.gif Accessed 06/07/06

Version 1 LRDU – JUN. 06 24


LG-MEMFAB0072A PERFORM ADVANCED WELDING USING OXYACETYLENE
WELDING PROCESS (OAW)

Overhead position is welding From the underside of a joint overhead welding is


surface above your head against performed.
gravity
The metal deposited tends to drop or sag on the plate in
overhead welding, causing the bead to have a high
crown. The molten puddle should be kept small and enough filler metal should be added to
obtain good fusion with some reinforcement at the bead to overcome this difficulty. The flame
should be removed for an instant to permit the weld metal to freeze if the puddle becomes too
large. When welding light sheets, the puddle size can be controlled by applying the heat equally
to the base metal and filler rod.

You should be aware of the torch and welding rod position for welding overhead butt joints. The
flame should be directed so as to melt both edges of the joint. To maintain an adequate puddle
with enough reinforcement, sufficient filler metal should be added. To avoid burning the
welding flame should support the molten metal and small welding. Only a small puddle is
required, so a rod should be used. Care should be taken to control the heat through the plates.
This is particularly important when welding is side only

Refer to: Fortune City available at :


www.fortunecity.com/.../247/weld_book/Ch11.htm
Accessed 22/07/06

Fig. 9

Welding a butt joint in the overhead position

Fortune City available at :www.fortunecity.com/.../weld_book/fig11-15.gif Accessed 22/07/06

Version 1 LRDU – JUN. 06 25


LG-MEMFAB0072A PERFORM ADVANCED WELDING USING OXYACETYLENE
WELDING PROCESS (OAW)

CHECKPOINT

Why is the angle important when welding in a vertical position?

ACTIVITY

Work in groups of twos and practise these welding positions. Ask


your learning facilitator to assist you as you perform the different
techniques to ensure that the element of safety is practised and
upheld throughout the activity. However if you are unsure of your
self, discontinue and request assistance!

Welding different types of material

You may be required to work on different types of metal using your arc welding skills. The
different metals require different approaches. You can use the following procedures:

High Carbon steel

You should have some knowledge of the kind of work the metal will perform as this will assist in
your selection of electrodes. Once you have selected your electrodes using the procedures
explained in element 1, you then need to prepare the surface for welding:

• Remove all rust with a wire brush, grease and other foreign matter by grinding
• Deposit string beads parallel (with flow of abrasive material that is used on heavy rocks
and perpendicular on material that are used on sand and soil).

Aluminium

You should remember that aluminum is a nonferrous metal that has no iron and as such has high
heat conducting properties. Aluminum alloys have an approximate melting range from 482 to
660°C (900 to 1220°F).

• Prepare the surface for welding


• Keep the rod in a vertical position
• Move in a straight line
• On completion remove slag

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LG-MEMFAB0072A PERFORM ADVANCED WELDING USING OXYACETYLENE
WELDING PROCESS (OAW)

Galvanised

You should note the thickness of the galvanized metal as the incorrect temperature may result in
burn through. If you select the incorrect rod fusion will be incomplete.

• Heat the end of a 3.2 mm (1/8 in.) low carbon welding rod until approximately 12.7 mm
(1/2 in.) of the rod is molten.
• Hold the rod so that the molten end is above the joint to be welded

Pipe

You will require using all the techniques that were outlined above as pipes are made from high
carbon, aluminum, and galvanised steel.
The most common welding that you will require to do is to weld the circumference.

• Prepare the surface for welding


• Select your rod in accordance with the material
• Mark the circumference with chalk
• Run the bead around the pipe until a satisfactory weld is produced

Refer to: Fortune City available at:


www.fortunecity.com/.../247/weld_book/Ch11.htm
Accessed 22/07/06

CHECKPOINT

Why is it important to choose the correct electrode and what should


you do before you start welding?

ACTIVITY

Select two pieces of pipe metals of the same diameter and


circumference and perform a joint weld. Choose the type of rod that
you would use depending of course on the type of metals that you
have to weld. Ensure that you take into consideration occupational
health and safety precautions. Ask your learning facilitator to assist
you if necessary.

Version 1 LRDU – JUN. 06 27


LG-MEMFAB0072A PERFORM ADVANCED WELDING USING OXYACETYLENE
WELDING PROCESS (OAW)

ARE YOU READY TO PROVE YOUR COMPETENCE?

Now that you have completed this element check if you have fully grasped all the components by
doing the following self-assessment.

Checklist 1 Yes No

1. I know how to weld materials to standards or equivalent


specifications in the overhead position ( ) ( )

2. I can explain how to interpret instructions, symbols,


specifications correctly including bead size, bead placement,
reinforcement etc. and in accordance with weld procedure ( ) ( )

Checklist 2 Yes No

1. Materials are welded to standards or equivalent specifications


in the overhead position ( ) ( )

2. Instructions, symbols, specifications are interpreted correctly


including bead size, bead placement, reinforcement etc. and
in accordance with weld procedure ( ) ( )

Version 1 LRDU – JUN. 06 28


LG-MEMFAB0072A PERFORM ADVANCED WELDING USING OXYACETYLENE
WELDING PROCESS (OAW)

ELEMENT 4: INSPECT WELDS

LEARNING OUTCOMES

As you go through this element, you will acquire the knowledge, skills and attitude required to
inspect welds. Your Learning Facilitator is there to assist you with the various activities, so that
on completion you should be able to:

1. Visually inspect weld against specification


2. Identify weld defects

Weld inspection can be classified as destructive or nondestructive. The former method is very
costly so therefore you should do a nondestructive inspection.

You should use the drawings to assist you on your inspection, as the symbols will guide you to
identify the correct specifications. You should also look for faulty welding. Here are some of the
things to look for in your inspection:

• Oversized and undersized welds


• Poor fusion
• Cracked weld
• Distortion

Oversized and undersized welds

• Weld has excessive or insufficient reinforcement

Poor fusion

• Faulty preparation
• Improper welding techniques
• Wrong speed
• Improper choice of rod size
• Wrong temperature

It may be corrected when you:

• Clean materials before welding


• Keep pressure and fanning motion constant
• Take more time by welding at lower temperatures
• Use small rod at root and large rods at top-practice proper sequence
• Preheat materials when necessary
• Clamp parts securely
Fig. 10

Version 1 LRDU – JUN. 06 29


LG-MEMFAB0072A PERFORM ADVANCED WELDING USING OXYACETYLENE
WELDING PROCESS (OAW)

Poor Fusion

Fig. 11

Crack weld

Fig. 12

Distortion

ATIA available at :www.adtdl.army.mil/cgi-bin/adtdl.dll/tc/9-273/figC-7.gif


Accessed 15/06/06

Version 1 LRDU – JUN. 06 30


LG-MEMFAB0072A PERFORM ADVANCED WELDING USING OXYACETYLENE
WELDING PROCESS (OAW)

IDENTIFY WELD DEFECTS

Your should look for the following defects on your inspection:

• Excessive spatter- weld deposit placed all over the joint and away from the joint
• Poor fusion- the connection between the two surfaces is weak and in some cases burn
• through.
• Cracked weld- the bead is not smooth, there are lines running through the weld deposit.
• Distortion- one side of the metal is out of shape or bent (angular or longitudinal)

You should inspect the entire joint for any of these defects with the use of a wire brush or
chipping hammer. These tools will help you to remove any material that may prevent you from
seeing the weld properly.

Once you have seen the weld, you can use Weld Fillet Gauge to check and measure the undercut,
mismatch and groove weld height. This you can do by placing the gauge on the weld. When the
pointer is placed on the edge of the weld leg the height of the arrow will indicate weld leg size.

Refer to: The Five Essential Variables of Smaw (Stick) Welding available at
:http://deltaschooloftrades.com/stick%20essentials.htm Accessed
15/06/06

CHECKPOINT

• What are some of the signs of excessive spatter and poor fusion?
• Why do they occur and how can they be prevented?

ACTIVITY

• Examine all the welds that you have done and four other welds in
the workshop and do a visual inspection for defects.
• Develop a checklist to determine all the areas to consider when
carrying out an inspection and submit to your learning facilitator.
• List the defects and share them with colleagues and your learning
facilitator.

Version 1 LRDU – JUN. 06 31


LG-MEMFAB0072A PERFORM ADVANCED WELDING USING OXYACETYLENE
WELDING PROCESS (OAW)

ARE YOU READY TO PROVE YOUR COMPETENCE?

Now that you have completed this element check if you have fully grasped all the components by
doing the following self-assessment.

Checklist 1 Yes No

1. I know how to inspect weld joints visually against specifications ( ) ( )

2. I can explain how to identify weld defects ( ) ( )

Checklist 2 Yes No

1. Welded joints are visually inspected against specifications ( ) ( )

2. Weld defects are identified ( ) ( )

Version 1 LRDU – JUN. 06 32


LG-MEMFAB0072A PERFORM ADVANCED WELDING USING OXYACETYLENE
WELDING PROCESS (OAW)

ELEMENT 5: CORRECT DEFECTS

LEARNING OUTCOMES

As you go through this element, you will acquire the knowledge, skills and attitude required to
correct defects. Your learning facilitator is there to assist you through the various activities, so
that on completion you should be able to:

1. Remove and correct defect with minimal loss of sound metal, applying correct and
appropriate techniques.

You may reduce the defects of your weld by ensuring that you follow the proper techniques and
procedures. You should however remember that not all defects are based on the skill of the
welder but also the machine that you work with. The machine controls the amperage.

You should know how to correct and remove these defects:

• Excessive spatter is corrected by using the wire brush to rub off the excessive weld. To
remove the heavier deposit you should use a small chisel and hammer and gently chip the
deposit off the surface. To prevent this from happening again, change your angle of the
arc when welding
• Poor fusion is corrected by chiseling off the weld at the joint and doing over the weld.
Change your angle and reduce your pass over speed
• Cracks are corrected by using a wiring with a lower tensile strength or a different
chemistry. Increase the joint by preheating to slow weld cooling rate, allowing the joint to
expand and contract during heat or increase the size of the weld
• Distortion is your most difficult defect to correct with minimal loss of sound metal. You
will reheat the metal and use a hammer to reshape the metal so that its shape will change
when the metal cools

You should be able to prevent some of these defects when welding joints again. You can
prevent:

Poor fusion by:

• Correcting weld temperature


• Adjusingt weld speed to ensure melting of both sides of joint
• Using proper rod
• Holding at correct angle
• Making sure joint is clean. (“V” or groove joint if necessary)

Crack Weld by:

• Use proper rod. Cool work slowly

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LG-MEMFAB0072A PERFORM ADVANCED WELDING USING OXYACETYLENE
WELDING PROCESS (OAW)

• Design work to eliminate rigid joints


• Heat parts before welding and cool after welding

Distortion by:

• Clamping parts properly


• Allow for cooling between welds.
• Adjust pieces so that they wrap into position
• Use proper bead placement and welding sequence. Keep weld deposit to a minimal.

Remember: You should be able to inspect, identify and correct defects and reduce the loss of
metal by doing the correct procedures.

Refer to: Minnick, William H. (1996), Gas Metal Arc Welding Handbook,
The Goodheart- Willcox Co., Inc.

CHECKPOINT

What are five different ways that you can prevent defects caused
by excessive spatter?

ACTIVITY

Using the joint that you have been working with in the previous
elements, classify the defects. Use the technique learnt to correct
the defects under the supervision of your learning facilitator. You
should take into consideration occupational health and safety
issues.

Version 1 LRDU – JUN. 06 34


LG-MEMFAB0072A PERFORM ADVANCED WELDING USING OXYACETYLENE
WELDING PROCESS (OAW)

ARE YOU READY TO PROVE YOUR COMPETENCE?

Now that you have completed this element check if you have fully grasped all the components by
doing the following self-assessment.

Checklist 1 Yes No

1. I know how to remove defects with minimum loss of sound


metal applying correct and appropriate techniques ( ) ( )

Checklist 2 Yes No

1. Defects are removed with minimum loss of sound metal


applying correct and appropriate techniques ( ) ( )

Version 1 LRDU – JUN. 06 35


LG-MEMFAB0072A PERFORM ADVANCED WELDING USING OXYACETYLENE
WELDING PROCESS (OAW)

ELEMENT 6: MAINTAIN WELD RECORDS

LEARNING OUTCOMES

As you go through this element, you will acquire the knowledge, skills and attitude required to
maintain weld records. Your learning facilitator is there to assist you with the various activities,
so that on completion you should be able to:

1. Maintain weld records according to specification and standard procedure

You should record the entire details specific to your welding job. This is required so that anyone
checking your work will be able to determine the following:

• Machine
• Amps
• Position
• Shop/site
• Joint location
• Metal electrodes
• Date

You should complete the standard form available and should also include tests done to meet
quality assurance. Your test should be either non-destructive or destructive. On the following
page there is a standard form used by welders.

CHECKPOINT

• Why is it recommended that you record welds?


• What are the benefits?

ACTIVITY

Check all the welds that you have done from the start of the
learner guide and record all the information on the form above
and discuss with your learning facilitator.
Do a comparison with your peers regarding how well you
followed the process of completing the form and allow your
facilitator to evaluate and correct if necessary.

Version 1 LRDU – JUN. 06 36


LG-MEMFAB0072A PERFORM ADVANCED WELDING USING OXYACETYLENE
WELDING PROCESS (OAW)

ARE YOU READY TO PROVE YOUR COMPETENCE?

Now that you have completed this element, see if you have fully grasped all the components by
doing the following Self-Assessment:

Checklist 1 Yes No

1. I know how to maintain weld records in accordance with


specifications and standard operating procedures ( ) ( )

Checklist 2 Yes No

1. Weld records are maintained in accordance with specifications


and standard operating procedures ( ) ( )

Version 1 LRDU – JUN. 06 37


LG-MEMFAB0072A PERFORM ADVANCED WELDING USING OXYACETYLENE
WELDING PROCESS (OAW)

ELEMENT 7: CLEAN UP

LEARNING OUTCOMES

As you go through this element, you will acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitude required to
clean up after completion of work. Your learning facilitator is there to assist you with the
various activities, so that on completion you should be able to:

1. Clean work area


2. Dispose of waste and unwanted material safely
3. Clean, maintain and store tools and equipment

CLEAN WORK AREA

Cleaning up the worksite is very important. You should pay attention to this part of the job. As
you complete the task of cleaning up, there are a few things to bear in mind.

If you do not practise cleanliness you could end up doing the job again or causing additional
expense. By removing debris and other waste you can decrease the potential for danger on a site.
In the event that you will be leaving the work area for a short time, take nothing for granted, try
to leave it as safe as possible especially if an authorized personnel will not be present.

Weld residue should be placed in a wheelbarrow and removed from work area. Chisel off the dry
weld deposit and used electrodes.

DISPOSE OF WASTE AND UNWANTED MATERIAL SAFELY

You should remove the electrodes and metal from the work area. The excess material should be
placed in an area away from the work so that it can be disposed of properly.

All other material should be placed in an area that is easily accessible to the workmen. The area
for the unwanted material should be dry and properly ventilated.

CLEAN EQUIPMENT

Since your equipment plays a very important role in your efficiency, it is definitely a good idea
to properly secure the equipment to prevent theft or injury to persons who are ignorant as to
their operating procedures. Some of these pieces of equipment include:

• Wrench
• Chipping hammer
• Wire brush

Version 1 LRDU – JUN. 06 38


LG-MEMFAB0072A PERFORM ADVANCED WELDING USING OXYACETYLENE
WELDING PROCESS (OAW)

Wash the area with a power machine to remove grease and dust.

The Occupational Health & Safety requirements should also be adhered to upon completion of
the job. You should protect your equipment, clear and replace parking area and lock properly
when they are not needed.

There are steps to take before you clean the tools and equipment you have been using. Make
sure of the following:

• Unplug electrical equipment


• You should read instructions or manufacturer’s guide for immobilizing, cleaning and
storing the tools and equipment you use
• Immobilize all moving parts on equipment and tools

NB: Follow the manufacturer’s instructions with regard to the respective equipment, or seek
advice on how to make this equipment safe. Secure the best liquid for cleaning them.

When storing, edges should be covered to ensure protection of cutting edge and your safety. If
any defects whatsoever are detected, the equipment must be immediately repaired, removed from
the site for repairs or if irreparable, disposed of. Equipment that is not in use should be stacked
and stored neatly out of the weather or working environment.

CHECKPOINT

Why is it necessary to maintain and store equipment in a safe place?


Give at least three reasons.

ACTIVITY

Ask your learning facilitator to take you to a welding site after


obtaining permission. Observe the cleaning up procedure among
other things such as the site requirements, location of the welding
activity and how this would impact on occupational health and safety
issues. What recommendations would you make? Write a report and
submit to your learning facilitator

Version 1 LRDU – JUN. 06 39


LG-MEMFAB0072A PERFORM ADVANCED WELDING USING OXYACETYLENE
WELDING PROCESS (OAW)

A Safe and Secure Job Site

Make sure that you and your colleagues agree on safety issues, on the job conduct (no alcohol,
for example), storage, cleanup of construction materials, and disposal of hazardous substances.
Know the rules and abide by them for your own safety.

A Clean Finish

A safe working condition can quickly deteriorate when you, your colleagues or a contractor does
not clean up post-welding mess. Spattering in work areas should be picked up daily and cleaned
when the project is finished. You may want to include a provision for professional janitorial
services.

You can refer to the website:


Detail Dynamics available at:http://www.detaildynamicsinc.com/construction.htm
Accessed 13/07/06

ACTIVITY

You and your colleagues have been given a welding job. You notice
that your colleagues have not been giving special attention to the
cleaning up process. There are consequences for not cleaning your
worksite after completion of a job. What advice would you give your
colleagues about cleaning up?

Version 1 LRDU – JUN. 06 40


LG-MEMFAB0072A PERFORM ADVANCED WELDING USING OXYACETYLENE
WELDING PROCESS (OAW)

ARE YOU READY TO PROVE YOUR COMPETENCE?

Now that you have completed this element check if you have fully grasped all the components by
doing the following self-assessment.

Checklist 1 Yes No

1. I know how to clean area around work activity ( ) ( )

2. I know how to dispose of waste and unwanted materials of


safely ( ) ( )

3. I know how to clean, maintain and store tools and


equipment ( ) ( )

Checklist 2 Yes No

1. Area around work activity is cleaned ( ) ( )

2. Waste and unwanted materials are disposed of safely ( ) ( )

3. Tools and equipment are cleaned, maintained and stored ( ) ( )

Version 1 LRDU – JUN. 06 41


Learning Management Services Department
Learning Resources Development Unit
Learner Guide Feedback Form

Your feedback on the Learner Guides is important to us. Please complete the
form below to indicate areas for review as you see necessary. For each
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