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# Strength of Materials

## 2.2 STRESSES IN BEAMS (BENDING):

Introduction:
The beams are subjected to bending moment and shearing forces which vary from
section to section. To resist the bending moment and shearing force, the beam section
develops stresses. The stresses due to bending moment and due to shear force are
determined independently.

## Theory of Simple Bending:

Bending is usually associated with shear. However, for simplicity we neglect effect of
shear and consider moment alone to find the stresses due to bending. Such a theory which
deals with finding stresses at a section due to pure moment is called simple bending theory.
Due to moment, beam sags or hogs, as shown in figure below.

## Hogging Moment case

It is obvious that due to sagging moment fibres at bottom get stretched and hence we
can say at lower side elements are subjected to tension. At upper side the fibres get
compressed and hence an element in upper portion is under compression. Vice versa holds
good in case of hogging moment. Thus due to bending moment tensile stress develops in one
portion of section and compressive stress in the other portion across the depth. In between
these two portions, there is a layer where stresses are zero. Such a layer is called neutral layer.
Its trace on the cross-section is called neutral axis.
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Strength of Materials

## Assumptions in Simple Theory of Bending:

The following assumptions are made in simple theory of bending.
1. The beam is initially straight and every layer of it is free to expand or contract.
2. The material is homogeneous and isotropic.
3. Young's Modulus is same in tension and compression.
4. Stresses are within elastic limit.
5. Plane section remains plane even after bending.
6. The radius of curvature is large compared to depth of beam.

Assumption No. 5 i.e. plane section remains plane even after bending is known as Bernauli's
assumption. This assumption is perfectly valid in case of pure moment. But if shear is also
associated with bending, shear deformations distort the plane. However in beams with
smaller depths (depth < 1/10th span) shear deformations are small and hence this assumption
do not affect much. In case 0/ deep beams, with shearing forces, the theory derived here is
not applicable.
Assumption No.6 i.e. radius of curvature is large compared to depth is valid if deflections are
less than 1/10th to 1/5th of depth of beam. Hence the theory being derived with this
assumption may be called as small deflection theory.

## Relationship between Bending Stresses and Radius of Curvature:

Consider a portion of beam between sections AC and BD before and after bending as shown
in figures below. Let EF be the neutral axis and GH an element at a distance y from neutral
axis.

Before Bending

After Bending
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Strength of Materials

Let R be the radius of curvature and φ be the angle subtended by C'A' and D'B' at centre of
radius of curvature. Sine EF is a neutral axis, there is no change in its length.
EF E ' F ' RI
G ' H ' GH
Strain in the layer GH =
GH
GH EF RI
G ' H ' ( R  y)I
( R  y )I  RI y
Strain in the layer GH=
RI R
V
If σ is the bending stress and E is the Young’s Modulus, then strain =
E
y V
?
R E
V E
y R
E
V y
R
Thus bending stress varies linearly across the depth. The typical variation of bending for various
sections are shown in figure below.

## Variation of Bending Stress

Relationship between Moment and Radius of Curvature:
Consider an elemental area δa at distance y from neutral axis in the beam, the cross-section of
which is shown in figure below.

## Department of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, MIT, Manipal

Strength of Materials

E
Now stress on this element is given by: V y
R
E
Force on this element = VG a = yG a
R
E E 2
Moment of this resisting force about neutral axis yG a. yy Ga
R R
E 2
Total Moment of resistance of the cross=sectional area M ' ¦ y Ga
R
E
M' ¦ y 2G a
R
From the definition of moment of inertia, which is second moment of area about centroid,
we can write: I ¦ y 2G a where I is centroidal moment of inertia.
E
M' I
R
For equilibrium moment of resistance should be equal to applied moment.
M' M
E
?M I
R
M E
I R
By relating the bending stress to radius of curvature,
M V E
is called as bending equation.
I y R
Where,
M- Bending moment
I- Moment of inertia about centroidal axis
V- Bending stress
y- Distance of the fibre from neutral axis
E- Young's modulus

## Moment carrying capacity of a section:

From bending equation, we have
M V
I y
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Strength of Materials

M
V y
I
It shows bending stress is maximum on the extreme fibre where y is maximum. In any design
this extreme fibre stress should not exceed maximum permissible stress. If σper is the
permissible stress, then in a design

V max
dV per

M
ymax d V per
I
If M is taken as maximum moment carrying capacity of the section,
M
ymax V per
I
I
M V per
ymax
The moment of inertia I and extreme fibre distance Ymax are the properties of cross-section.
Hence I/ymax is the property of cross-sectional area and is termed as section modulus and is
denoted by Z. Thus the moment carrying capacity of a section is given by:
M ZV per
Numericals:
1) A simply supported beam of span 5 m has a cross-section 150 mm x 250 mm. If the
permissible stress is 10 MPa, find:
(a) Maximum intensity of uniformly distributed load it can carry. (Ans 5kN/m)
(b) Maximum concentrated load P applied at 2 m from one end it can carry. (Ans 13.02kN)

2) A symmetric I-section has flanges of size 180 mm x 10 mm and its overall depth is 500 mm.
Thickness of web is 8 mm. It is strengthened with a plate of size 240 mm x 12 mm on
compression side. Find the moment of resistance of the section, if permissible stress is 150
MPa. How much uniformly distributed load it can carry if it is used as a cantilever beam of
span 3 m? (Ans 44.17 kN/m)

3) A cast iron beam has an I-section with top flange 80mm x 40 mm, web 120 mm x 20 mm
and bottom flange 160 mm x 40 mm. If tensile stress is not exceed 30Mpa and compressive
stress 90MPa, what is the maximum uniformly distributed load the beam can carry over a
simply supported span of 6 m if the large flange is in tension? (Ans 5.1 kN/m)

4) The cross-section of beam with top and bottom flanges measuring 200 mm X 10 mm, web
thickness of 8 mm and overall depth of 400 mm. If permissible stress is 150MPa, find its

## Department of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, MIT, Manipal

Strength of Materials

moment of resistance. Compare it with equivalent section of same area but (a) Square section
(b) rectangular section with depth twice the width and (c) a circular section.
(Ans: Moment of resistance of I section 1.42 X 108 Nmm, Square section 1.476 X 107 Nmm,
Rectangular section 2.09 X 107 Nmm, 1.25 X 107 Nmm)

5) A cantilever of square section 200 mm x 200 mm, 2 m long, just fails in flexure when a load
of 12 kN is placed at its free end. A beam of the same material and having a rectangular cross-
section 150 mm wide and 300 mm deep is simply supported over a span of 3m. Calculate the
minimum central concentrated load required to break the beam. (Ans 54 kN)

## Department of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, MIT, Manipal

Strength of Materials

## 2.3 STRESSES IN BEAMS (SHEARING):

Introduction:
In the previous units we have seen that beams are usually subjected to varying
bending moment and shearing forces which causes direct bending stress acting longitudinally
and its intensity is directly proportional to its distance from neutral axis. In this unit we will
find the stresses induced by shearing force.

## Shearing Stresses in Beams:

Consider an elemental length of beam between the sections A-A and B-B separated by a
distance dx as shown in figure below. Let the moments acting at section A-A and B-B be M
and M+ dM. Let CD be a fibre at a distance y-from neutral axis.

M
Then bending stress at left side of the element = y
I

## Department of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, MIT, Manipal

Strength of Materials

M
The force on the element on the left side = y.b.dy
I
M  dM
The force on the element on the right side= y.b.dy
I
M  dM M
The unbalanced force towards the right in the element y.b.dy  y.b.dy
I I
dM
y.b.dy
I
There are a number of such elements above section CD. Hence unbalance horizontal force
yt
dM
above section CD ³y
y.b.dy
I
This horizontal force is resisted by shearing stresses acting horizontally on plane at CD. Let
intensity of shearing stress be τ. Then equating shearing force to unbalanced horizontal force
we get,
yt
dM
W .b.dx ³
y I
y.b.dy

yt
dM 1
W
dx bI ³ y.a
y

## Where a b.dy is area of the element.

On further simplification:
yt yt

³ y.a ¦ y.a
y y
ay

Where a y is the moment of area above the section under consideration about neutral axis.
From the first principles:
dM
F
dx
F
?W ay
bI

Numericals:
1) The below shows the cross-section of a beam which is subjected to a shear force of 20 kN.
Draw shear stress distribution across the depth marking values at salient points.
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Strength of Materials

Solution:

2) The unsymmetrical I-section shown in figure below is subjected to a shear force of 40 kN.
Draw the shear stress variation diagram across the depth.

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Strength of Materials

Solution:

3) A simply supported beam has a span of 4m and a rectangular cross-section 100 mm x 200
mm. Find the uniformly distributed load it can carry, if the maximum bending stress and the
maximum shear stress are not to exceed 10 MPa and 0.7 MPa respectively.