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# CHAP 1.

STRESS–STRAIN ANALYSIS

1. A vertical force F is applied to a two-bar truss as shown in the figure. Let cross-
sectional areas of the members 1 and 2 be A1 and A2, respectively. Determine the
area ratio A1/A2 in order to have the same magnitude of stress in both members.

C 45 B
l
F

Solution:
f1
From force equilibrium at B,
45 B f2
 Fy 
 f1 sin 45  F  0  f1  2F

1
 Fx  f2  f1 cos 45  0  f2  2F 
2
F F

## Since truss is two-force member, f1  A11 and f2  A22 . Thus,

f1 2F A A
  1 1  1 ( 1  2 ) ,
f2 F A22 A2

A1
  2
A2

19
20 Finite Element Analysis and Design

2. The stress at a point P is given below. The direction cosines of the normal n to a
plane that passes through P have the ratio nx:ny:nz = 3:4:12. Determine (a) the
traction vector T(n); (b) the magnitude T of T(n); (c) the normal stress n; (d) the shear
stress n; and (e) the angle between T(n) and n.

## Hint: Use nx2  ny2  nz2  1 .

 13 13 0 

[ ]   13 26 13 
 0 13 39 
 

Solution:
(a) First, we need unit normal vector n:

 3 
 0.2308 

 
 
 

1 
n   4    0.3077 
  
32  42  122 

12 

0.9231 

    

## Then, the traction vector on this plane becomes

 13 13 0   0.2308 
 
 7 
 
 
 
 

T (n )
     n    13 26 13   0.3077    1 
   
 0 13 39  
 0.9231

 40

  
  
  

(b) Since T(n) is a vector, its magnitude can be obtained using the norm as

## T (n )  Tx(n )2  Ty(n )2  Tz(n )2  72  (1)2  (40)2  40.6202

 0.2308 
 

 

(c) n  T (n )
  n    7 1 40   0.3077 
   35.6154

 

 0.9231 

 

2
(d) n  T(n)  n 2  40.62022  (35.6154)2  19.5331

## (e) n  T(n)   n   T(n) cos 

 
1 
 n
  cos  (n )   2.64  151.30
 T 
CHAP 1 Stress-Strain Analysis 21

3. At a point P in a body, Cartesian stress components are given by σxx = 80 MPa, σyy =
−40 MPa, σzz = −40 MPa, and τxy = τyz = τzx = 80 MPa. Determine the traction vector,
its normal component, and its shear component on a plane that is equally inclined to
all three coordinate axes.
Hint: When a plane is equally inclined to all three coordinate axes, the direction
cosines of the normal are equal to each other.
Solution:
The unit normal in this case is:

   0.577 
1 
 

1    
 n   1   0.577 
  
3  

 1  0.577  
    

##  80 80 80   0.577   138.56 

    
T(n )      n    80 40 80   0.577    69.28  MPa
    
 80 80 40   0.577   69.28 
     

## The normal component of the traction vector is

 0.577 
 

 

n  T (n )
  n   138.56 69.28 69.28   0.577 
   160 MPa

 

 0.577 

 

## The shear component of the traction vector is:

2
n  T(n)  n 2  169.712  1602  56.58 MPa
22 Finite Element Analysis and Design

4. If xx = 90 MPa, yy = −45 MPa, xy = 30 MPa, and zz = xz = yz = 0, compute the
surface traction T(n) on the plane shown in the figure, which makes an angle of  =
40 with the vertical axis. What are the normal and shear components of stress on
this plane?

yy
xy
xy
n
xx xx
xy 
xy
yy

Solution:

## Unit normal vector: nT   cos(40) sin(40) 0 

 90 30 0   .776 
 
 88.23 

    
 
 

Traction vector: T(n)  [  ]  n   30 45 0   .643   5.94 
      MPa
0  
 
 
 
 0 0   0  
 0  

    

## Normal stress: n  T(n)  n  63.77MPa

2
Shear stress: n  T(n)  n2  61.27MPa
CHAP 1 Stress-Strain Analysis 23

5. Find the principal stresses and the corresponding principal stress directions for the
following cases of plane stress.
(a) σxx = 40 MPa, σyy = 0 MPa, τxy = 80 MPa
(b) σxx = 140 MPa, σyy = 20 MPa, τxy = −60 MPa
(c) σxx = −120 MPa, σyy = 50 MPa, τxy = 100 MPa
Solution:
(a) The stress matrix becomes

 xx xy   40 80 
  
 yy   80 0  MPa
 xy  
 

To find the principal stresses, the standard eigen value problem can be written as

   I   n   0
 

The above problem will have non-trivial solution when the determinant of the coefficient
matrix becomes zero:

xx   xy 40   80
 0
xy yy   80 0

## The equation of the determinant becomes:

 40         80  80   2  40  6400  0

## 1  102.46 MPa and 2  62.46 MPa .

To determine the orientation of the first principal stresses, substitute 1 in the original
eigen value problem to obtain

 40  102.46 80   nx 
 
 0

     
 80 0  102.46  n   0 
  

  
 y    

## 62.46  nx  80  ny and 80  nx  102.46  ny .

Thus, we can only get the relation between nx and ny. Then using the condition |n| = 1 we
obtain
24 Finite Element Analysis and Design

 (1) 
 nx   0.788 

     

 n
 y 
 
 0.615 

  

To determine the orientation of the second principal stress, substitute 2 in the original
eigen value problem to obtain

 40  62.46 80   nx 
 
 0
  
  
 

 80 0  62.46   n   0 
  
 y     

(2)

 nx 
 
 0.615 

  
  

 n
 y 
 
 0.788 

  

## Note that if n is a principal direction, −n is also a principal direction

(b) Repeat the procedure in (a) to obtain

## 1  164.85 MPa and 2  4.85 MPa .

 (1) 
 nx   0.924 
 (2) 
 nx 
  0.383 

 
    
 and  
    

 n   0.383   n   0.924 
 y  
 
 
 y  
 

## 1  96.24 MPa and 2  166.24 MPa .

(1) (2)

 nx 
 
 0.420 
 
 nx 
 
 0.908 

 
    
 and    
   

 n
 y 
 
 0.908 
  n
 y 
 
 0.420 

     

Note that for the case of plane stress 3=0 is also a principal stress and the corresponding
principal stress direction is given by n(3) =(0,0,1)
CHAP 1 Stress-Strain Analysis 25

6. If the minimum principal stress is −7 MPa, find σxx and the angle that the principal
stress axes make with the x and y axes for the case of plane stress illustrated

21 MN/m2

y
xx
x

56 MN/m2

Solution:
With unknown x-component, the eigen value problem can be written as

 xx   56    nx 
 
 0
  
  
 

 56 21     n   0 
  
 y     

## The principal stresses can be determined by making the determinant zero

xx   56
0  (xx  )(21  )  562  0
56 21  

Since −7 MPa is one of the roots of the above equation, we can find xx by substituting
in the above equation as

## (xx  7)(21  7)  562  0

By solving the above equation, we can get xx  105 MPa . Then, the other principal
stress can be found from the original determinant, as

## 1  133 MPa 2  7 MPa

Principal direction for the first principal stress: From the original eigen value
problem,

## (105  133)nx1  56ny1  0

56nx1  (21  133)ny1  0

The solution of the above equations is not unique. By putting |n1| = 1, we have
n1  {0.8944, 0.4472} , which is principal direction corresponding to 1
Principal direction for the second principal stress: From the original eigen value
problem,
26 Finite Element Analysis and Design

## (105  7)nx2  56ny2  0

56nx2  (21  7)ny2  0

## The solution of above equations is n2  {0.4472, 0.8944} , which is principal

direction corresponding to 2 . Two principal directions are plotted on the following
graph. Note that the two principal directions are perpendicular each other.

y n2

n1'
135.43o
x
-26.57o
n1

n2'
CHAP 1 Stress-Strain Analysis 27

7. Determine the principal stresses and their associated directions, when the stress
matrix at a point is given by

1 1 1 
 
[  ]   1 1 2  MPa
1 2 1 
 

Solution:
Use the Eq. (0.46) of Chapter 0 with the coefficients of I1=3, I2= −3, and I3 = −1,

 3  3 2  3  1  0

By solving the above cubic equation using the method described in Section 0.4,

## (1  3.7321)nx1  ny1  nz1  0

nx1  (1  3.7321)ny1  2nz1  0
nx1  2ny1  (1  3.7321)nz1  0

## (1  0.2679)nx1  ny1  nz1  0

nx2  (1  0.2679)ny2  2nz2  0
nx2  2ny2  (1  0.2679)nz2  0

## (1  1)nx3  ny3  nz3  0

nx3  (1  1)ny3  2nz3  0
nx3  2ny3  (1  1)nz3  0

## Solving the above equations with |n2| = 1 yields

28 Finite Element Analysis and Design

## n3  {0, 0.7071, 0.7071}

CHAP 1 Stress-Strain Analysis 29

8. Let x′y′z′ coordinate system be defined using the three principal directions obtained
from Problem 7. Determine the transformed stress matrix [σ]x′y′z′ in the new
coordinates system.
Solution:
The three principal directions in Problem 6 can be used for the coordinate transformation
matrix:

##  n (1) n (2) n (3)   0.460 0.888 0 

 x x x  
 N    ny(1) ny(2) ny(3)    0.628 0.325 0.707 
  
 (1)   0.628 0.325 0.707 
 nz nz(2) nz(3)   
 

To determine the stress components in the new coordinates we use Eq. (1.30):

 1 0 0 

  N      N    0 .268 0 
T

  x y z 
 0 0 3.732 
 

Note that the transformed stress matrix is a diagonal matrix with the original principal
stresses on the diagonal.
30 Finite Element Analysis and Design

9. For the stress matrix below, the two principal stresses are given as σ3 = −3 and σ1 = 2,
respectively. In addition, the two principal stress directions corresponding to the two
principal stresses are also given below.

 2   1 
1 0 2     
   5  5
   
[  ]   0 1 0  , n1   0  and n 3   0 
 2 0 2     
 1   2 
     
 5   5 

(a) What is the normal and shear stress on a plane whose normal vector is parallel to
(2, 1, 2)?
(b) Calculate the missing principal stress σ2 and the principal direction n2.
(c) Write stress matrix in the new coordinates system that is aligned with n1, n2, and
n3.
Solution:

## (a) Normal vector: nT  13 {2 1 2}

 2

 

Traction vector T(n)    1
  n  3

 

0
 

The normal component of the stress vector on the plane can be calculated

n  T(n)  n  1.4444
2
n  T(n)  n2  1.4229

(b) Using Eq. (0.46) of Chapter 0, the eigen values are governed by

3  I12  I 2  I 3  0

We can find the coefficients of the above cubic equation from Eq. (0.47) by I1 = 0, I2 =
−7, and I3 = −6. Thus, we have

3  7  6  (  1)(2    6)  0

## Thus, the missing principal stress is 2  1 .

Since three principal directions are mutually orthogonal, the third principal direction
can be calculated using the cross product. To establish a defined sign convention for the
principal axes, we require them to form a right-handed triad. If n1 and n3 are unit vectors
that define the directions of the first and third principal axes, then the unit vector n2 for
the second principal axis is determined by the right-hand rule of the vector multiplication.
Thus we have
CHAP 1 Stress-Strain Analysis 31

n2  n 3  n1  {0 1 0}T

(c) Coordinate transformation matrix can be obtained from three principal directions as

 2 1 
 0
 5 5 

 N    n1 n2 3
n  0 1 0 
     
 1 2 
 0 
 5 5 

## The stress matrix at the transformed coordinates becomes

 2 1   2 1 
 0    0 2 0 0 
 1 0 2 
 5 5    5 5   
 N T     N   
     0 1 0   0 1 0   0 1 0    0 1 0 
   
 1 2   2 0 2   1 2   0 0 3 
 0     0   
 5 5   5 5 
32 Finite Element Analysis and Design

10. With respect to the coordinate system xyz, the state of stress at a point P in a solid is

 20 0 0 
 
[  ]   0 50 0  MPa
 0 0 50 
 

m3
m2
P
y
m1
x

(a) m1, m2 and m3 are three mutually perpendicular vectors such that m1 makes 45º
with both x- and y-axes and m3 is aligned with the z-axis. Compute the normal
stresses on planes normal to m1, m2, and m3.
(b) Compute two components of shear stress on the plane normal to m1 in the
directions m2 and m3.
(c) Is the vector n = {0, 1, 1}T a principal direction of stress? Explain. What is the
normal stress in the direction n?
(d) Draw an infinitesimal cube with faces normal to m1, m2 and m3 and display the
stresses on the positive faces of this cube.
(e) Express the state of stress at the point P with respect to the x′y′z′ coordinates
system that is aligned with the vectors m1, m2 and m3?
(f) What are the principal stress and principal directions of stress at the point P with
respect to the x′y′z′ coordinates system? Explain.
(g) Compute the maximum shear stress at the point P. Which plane(s) does this
maximum shear stress act on?
Solution:
(a)

1 1
m1  (1,1, 0)T m2  (1,1, 0)T m3  (0, 0,1)T
2 2

m1m1  m1  [ ]  m1  15 MPa
m2m2  m 2  [ ]  m 2  15 MPa
m 3m 3  m 3  [ ]  m 3  50 MPa

(b)

1 1
T(m )  []  m1  {20 50 0}T
2
CHAP 1 Stress-Strain Analysis 33

1
m1m2  T(m )  m2  35 MPa
1
m1m3  T(m )  m 3  0 MPa

(c) Yes,

1
n (0,1,1)
2

 50 
  1
 
   
1 
  1  
T(n)  [ ]  n   50 
  50  
1  50n
2
 
 2
 

0  
 0

   

(d)

m3

-20

15 m2
35 35
15
m1

(e)

##  0.707 0.707 0   20 0 0 

  
  N      N    -0.707 0.707 0   0 50 0 
T
 
  x y z 
 0 0 1   0 0 50 
  
 0.707 -0.707 0 
 
  0.707 0.707 0 
 0 0 1 
 

 15 35 0 
 
[ ]x y z    35 15 0  MPa
 0 0 50 
 

## (f) Principal stresses = 50, 50, and −20 MPa

1
n3  (1, 1, 0)
2

n1 and n2 are any two perpendicular unit vectors that is on the plane perpendicular to n3.
34 Finite Element Analysis and Design

(g) The maximum shear stress occurs on a plane whose normal is at 45o from the
principal stress direction. Since 1 = 2, all directions that are 45o from x-axis (3 axis)
will have the maximum shear stress whose value is

1  3
 max   35 MPa
2

The maximum shear stress planes are in the shape of a cone whose axis is parallel to x-
axis and has an angle of 45o.
CHAP 1 Stress-Strain Analysis 35

11. A solid shaft of diameter d = 5 cm, as shown in the figure, is subjected to tensile
force P = 13,000 N and a torque T = 6,000 Ncm. At point A on the surface, what is
the state of stress (write in matrix form), the principal stresses, and the maximum
shear stress? Show the coordinate system you are using.

A P

Solution:
Let us establish a coordinate system as shown in the figure. The axial force will cause
normal stress xx, while the torque will cause shear stress xy. Their magnitudes are

P
 6.62 MPa
A

T r
 2.44 MPa y
J

## Then, the stress matrix becomes

A
z
 6.62 2.44 0 
 
[ ]A   2.44 0 0  MPa
 0 0 0 
 

By solving the eigen value problem, the principal stress can be obtained as

## Maximum shear stress is

1  2
 max   4.11 MPa
2
36 Finite Element Analysis and Design

## 12. If the displacement field is given by

 ux  x 2  2y 2

 2
 uy  y  2x (y  z )

 u  z 2  2xy
 z

## (a) Write down 3×3 strain matrix.

(b) What is the normal strain component in the direction of (1,1,1) at point (1,–3,1)?
Solution:
(a) 3×3 symmetric strain matrix can be calculated from its definition as

 2x y z y 

     y  z 2(x  y ) 0 
   
 y 0 2z 
 

1
nT  {1 1 1}
3

## b) Thus, the normal component of strain is

1 2
n      n  (2x  y  z  y  y  z  2x  2y  y  2z )   y
3 3

Thus, the normal component of strain reduces as the y-coordinate of a point increases. At
point (1, −3, 1), y = −3

 n      n y 3  2 .
CHAP 1 Stress-Strain Analysis 37

## u(x, y)  0.04  0.01x  0.006y

v(x, y)  0.06  0.009x  0.012y

(a) Compute the strain components xx, yy, and xy. Is this a state of uniform strain?
(b) Determine the principal strains and their corresponding directions. Express the
principal strain directions in terms of angles the directions make with the x-axis.
(c) What is the normal strain at Point O in a direction 45o to the x-axis?
Solution:
(a) Strain components:

u
xx   0.01
x

v
yy   0.012
y

v u
xy    0.009  0.006  0.015
x y

Yes, this is a state of uniform strain, because the strains are independent of position x,y,z.

1
xy    0.0075
2 xy

##  xy   0.01 0.0075 

   xx  
 xy yy   0.0075 0.012 
 
 

Find the eigen values (principal strains) and eigen vectors (principal direction) by solving
the eigen value problem:

 0.01   0.0075   nx 
 
 0

   
 
 0.0075 
0.012       
  ny   0
  

## The above equation yields two principal strains: 1 = 1 = 0.01231 and 2 = 2 =

0.01431. The principal direction corresponding to the first principal strain is

## n(1)  0.9556 0.2948  ,

The angle the direction makes with the x-axis can be found from the relation
cos   0.9556, sin   0.2948 . Solving   163o
The principal direction corresponding to the second principal strain is
38 Finite Element Analysis and Design

## and the angle is found to be   73o

(c)

 0.01 0.0075 
Strain at point O    ,

0.0075 0.012
 

 1 
 
direction vector n   2 
 1 
 
 2 

## Thus the normal strain in the direction of n becomes

 T
1   1 
 

 
  0.01 0.0075   

   
45o  nn  
 2
    2

 0.0075 0.012   1   0.0085

 1 
    

   

 2

 
 2
 

CHAP 1 Stress-Strain Analysis 39

## 14. The displacement field in a solid is given by

 ux  kx 2

 uy  2kxy
2

 u  k (x  y )z

 z

where k is a constant.
(a) Write down the strain matrix.
(b) What is the normal strain in the direction of n = {1, 1, 1}T?
Solution:
(a) From the definition of strain

## ux uy uz

xx   2kx , yy   4kxy, zz   k (x  y )
x y z
1  ux uy 
  ky 2
xy   
2  y x 
1  uy u  1
yz    z   kz
2  z y  2
1  u u  1
xz   x  z   kz
2  z x  2

## Thus, the strain matrix is

 2kx ky 2 1
kz 
 2 
[]   ky 2 4kxy 1
2
kz 

1 1 
 2 kz kz k (x  y ) 
2 

1
nT  {1 1 1}
3

## Thus, the normal strain in the direction of n is

1
n  [ ]  n   2ky2  4kxy  3kx  ky  2kz 
3
40 Finite Element Analysis and Design

15. Draw a 2×2-inch square OABC on the engineering paper. The coordinates of O are
(0, 0) and B are (2, 2). Using the displacement field in Problem 13, determine the u
and v displacements of the corners of the square. Let the deformed square be denoted
as O'A'B'C'.
(a) Determine the change in lengths of OA and OC. Relate the changes to the strain
components.
(b) Determine the change in AOC . Relate the change to the shear strain.
(c) Determine the change in length in the diagonal OB. How is it related to the
strain(s)?
(d) Show that the relative change in the area of the square (change in area/original
area) is given by A/A = xx + yy = 1 + 2.
Hint: You can use the old-fashioned method of using set-squares (triangles) and
protractor or use Excel to do the calculations. Place the origin somewhere in the
bottom middle of the paper so that you have enough room to the left of the origin.
Solution:

## A'(0.052, 2.084) B'(2.032, 2.102)

A B

C'(2.02, 0.078)
O'(0.04, 0.06)

x
O C

(a) Let O  O ', A  A ', B  B ',C  C ' after deformation, suppose the coordinates
of each point are O(0, 0), A(0, 2), B(2, 2), C(2, 0). From the displacement field, we can
obtain the displacement of each point:

## OA  O ' A ' OA  (0.052  0.04)2  (2.084  0.06)2  2  0.024 ;

CHAP 1 Stress-Strain Analysis 41

## OA 0.024 OC 0.0199

  0.012  yy ;   0.01  xx .
OA 2 OC 2

(b)

AOC   A ' O ' C '
2
0.052  0.04 0.078  0.06
 sin1( )  sin1( )
2.024 1.98
 0.005929  0.00909
 0.015
 xy

(c)

## OB  O ' B ' OB  (2.032  0.04)2  (2.102  0.06)2  2 2  0.0243

OB 0.0243
  0.0086  45o
OB 2 2

(d)

## Area O ' A ' O ' C ' sin A ' O ' C ' 2  2

Orignal _ Area 22
2.024  1.98  sin 1.5558  4 0.00707
   0.00177
4 4

Note that the change is area is close to the sum of two normal strains:

## 1  2  xx  yy  0.012  0.01  0.002

42 Finite Element Analysis and Design

16. Draw a 2×2-inch square OPQR such that OP makes +73o to the x-axis. Repeat
questions (a) through (d) in Problem 15 for OPQR. Give physical interpretations to
Note: The principal strains and the principal strain directions are given by

##  xx  yy   xx  yy 2  xy 2

1,2       
 2 
2  2   
xy
tan 2 
xx  yy

Solution:

P'(0.631,2.001)

P(0.585, 1.913)
Q'(2.520, 1.426)
Q(2.497, 1.328)

O'(0.04, 0.06)
o
73
x
O R'(1.930, -0.515)
R(1.913, -0.585)

(a) Let O  O ', P  P ',Q  Q ', R  R ' after deformation. The coordinates of each
point are O(0, 0), P(0.585, 1.913), Q(2.497, 1.328), R(1.913, -0.585). From the
displacement field, we can obtain the displacement of each point:

## OP  O ' P ' OP  (0.6303  0.04)2  (2.0012  0.06)2  2  0.0291

CHAP 1 Stress-Strain Analysis 43

## OP 0.0291 OR 0.0241

  0.0146  2 ;   0.0121  1
OP 2 OR 2

The change in length of OP and OR equal to the principal strains since 73 o is the
principal direction.

(b)

##  0.6303  0.04 0.5148  0.06

 sin1(
P O R   )  sin1( )
2 2.0291 1.9759
 
  0.2952  0.2952 
2 2

POR  0 .

## On principal direction, there is no shear deformation.

(c) The Point Q is moved to:

## OQ  O ' Q ' OQ  (2.520  0.04)2  (1.4264  0.06)2  2 2  0.003

OQ 0.003
  0.0011
OQ 2 2

28o  xx cos2 (28)  yy sin2 (28)  xy sin(28)cos(28)  0.0011

Thus, the meaning of the length of diagonal change is the same as in (c) in Problem 15.
(d)

## Area O ' P ' O ' R ' sin P ' O ' R ' 2  2

Orignal _ Area 22

2.0291  1.9759  sin( )  4
 2  0.0023
4

1  2  0.0025
44 Finite Element Analysis and Design

17. For steel, the following material data are applicable: Young‟s modulus E = 207 GPa
and shear modulus G = 80 GPa. For the strain matrix at a point shown below,
determine the symmetric 3×3 stress matrix.

 0.003 0 0.006 

[]   0 0.001 0.003 
 0.006 0.003 0.0015 
 

Solution:
From Eq. (1.58) the elasticity matrix becomes

1     0 0 0 
 
  1  0 0 0 
 
   1 0 0 0 
E  
[C]   1 
(1   )(1  2 )  0 0 0 2
 0 0 
 1 
 0 0 0 0  0 
 2 
 0 0 0 0 0 1

 2 

## From the relation G  E / 2(1   ) , we calculate   (E / 2G )  1  0.294 .

 xx  
 0.003  
 0.879 

 
 
 
 
 

 yy  
 0.001   0.239 
  

 
 
 
 
 

 zz   [C] 
 0.0015 
 0.639   GPa
     

  
yz 

 0.003 
 
 0.240 

 
 
 
 
 

     0.006    0.480

xz     

 xy 

 0  

 0  
     

## In the matrix notation

 0.879 0 0.480 

   0 0.239 0.240  GPa
  
 0.480 0.240 0.639 
 
CHAP 1 Stress-Strain Analysis 45

18. Strain at a point is such that xx = yy = 0, zz = 0.001, xy = 0.006, and xz = yz = 0.
Note: You need not solve the eigen value problem for this question.
(a) Show that n1 = i + j and n2 = i + j are principal directions of strain at this point.
(b) What is the third principal direction?
(c) Compute the three principal strains.
Solution:
(a) The strain matrix is

0 6 0 
 
[]   6 0 0   103
 0 0 1 
 

## In order to show a direction n is a principal direction, it is enough to show that []  n  n .

After normalizing n1 and n2,

 0 6 0   1   6 
103    
 103 
  
1
[]  n  6 0 0   1   
6 n
1
  

  
2   0 2  
 0 0 1  
  0
 

 0 6 0   1  6 
3  
 
 3  
10    10   
[]  n 2   
2
 6 0 0  1   6 n
2  
 0   
2   
 0 0 1  
   0 
 

## Thus, n1 and n2 are principal directions.

(b) From the orthogonal property of principal directions, the third principal direction can
be found using the cross product as

n 3  n1  n2  {0 0 1}T

## Note that n3 in the above equation is normalized.

(c) Since the third principal direction is parallel to the z-axis, zz is the third principal
strain; i.e., 3 = zz = 0.001. From Part (a), the principal strain 1 and 2 can be obtained
because []  n  n . Thus, the three principal strains are

## Note that the three principal strains are reordered.

46 Finite Element Analysis and Design

19. Derive the stress–strain relationship in Eq. (1.60) from Eq. (1.55) and the plane stress
conditions.
Solution:
Three-dimensional stress-strain relation is given in Eq. (1.57). From the third equation of
Eq. (1.57),

E      (1   )   0
zz 
(1   )(1  2 )  xx yy zz 

 zz   (  yy )
1   xx

## Then, from the first equation of Eq. (1.57),

E  (1   )     
xx 
(1   )(1  2 )  xx yy zz 

 2 

E  (1   )     (   ) 
(1   )(1  2 )  xx yy
1 xx yy 

E 
 xx  yy 
1  2 

In a similar way,

E     
yy 
1  2 
xx yy 

## Thus, if we combine these equations, we can obtain Eq. (1.60):

 
  1  0   

 xx 
   xx 
 E  1  
 yy   0 
 yy 

 
 1  2   

  
  0 0 1
(1   )  
  

 xy  2  xy 
CHAP 1 Stress-Strain Analysis 47

20. A thin plate of width b, thickness t, and length L is placed between two frictionless
rigid walls a distance b apart and is acted on by an axial force P. The material
properties are Young‟s modulus E and Poisson‟s ratio ν.
(a) Find the stress and strain components in the xyz coordinate system.
(b) Find the displacement field.

y y

P b x P z
t

Solution:
(a) From the given force conditions, we can calculate the stress components, as

P
xx   yy  0 zz  0 xy  yz  zx  0 (1)
bt

We don‟t know 0 yet, but it is clear that there must be a compressive stress in the y-
direction because of the effect of Poisson‟s ratio. Since all shear stresses are zero, all
shear strain s are also zero:

## From the geometry, we can calculate the following strain components:

yy  0 xx   (2)
L

 xx

 0

## Let‟s calculate unknown parameter 0 and  using the stress-strain relation.

48 Finite Element Analysis and Design

1 
xx  (xx  yy )  
E L
1
yy  (yy  xx )  0
E

zz   (xx  yy )
E

By substituting the relations in Eq. (1) in the above second equation, we obtain

1  P  P
 0  0  0 
E bt  bt

And from the first relation, the unknown parameter  can be calculated as

L (1   2 )P PL
  (1   2 )
E bt Ebt

P P
xx   yy  
bt bt

##  P(1   ) P (1   ) (1   )  

zz    
E bt Ebt L(1   2 ) L 1  

## (b) Displacement components can be calculated through integration as

 

 ux   x

 L

 uy  0

  
 uz  z

 1 L
CHAP 1 Stress-Strain Analysis 49

21. A solid with Young‟s modulus E = 70 GPa and Poisson‟s ratio = 0.3 is in a state of
plane strain parallel to the xy-plane. The in-plane strain components are measured
as follows: xx = 0.007, yy = −0.008, and xy = 0.02.
(a) Compute the principal strains and corresponding principal strain directions.
(b) Compute the stresses including zz, corresponding to the above strains.
(c) Determine the principal stresses and corresponding principal stress directions.
Are the principal stress and principal strain directions the same?
(d) Show that the principal stresses could have been obtained from the principal
strains using the stress-strain relations.
(e) Compute the strain energy density using the stress and strain components in xy-
coordinate system.
(f) Compute the strain energy density using the principal stresses and principal
strains.
Solution:
(a) The eigen value problem for the strain matrix is

 0.007   0.01   nx  
 0
   I  {n}    
  
 

   0.01 0.008     n   0 
    y     

The eigen values can be calculated by making the determinant of the coefficient matrix
zero, as

0.007   0.01
0    0.013, 0.012
0.01 0.008  

## Thus, the principal strains are: 1  0.012, 3  0.013 (notice: 2  0 in z-direction)

To find principal directions, substitute the principal strains into the characteristic
equation and solve for {n} with nx2  ny2  1 .

 0.8944 

 n1     0.4472
 for 1  0.012

 

 -0.4472 

 n3     0.8944 
 for 3  0.013

 

## (Notice: {0, 0, 1}T is the principal direction corresponding to 2 = 0)

(b) From the constitutive relation for a plane strain solid in Eq. (1.62),

 xx  
 0.3365 

 
 
 

   
 yy     C      
  0.4712 
 GPa

 
 
 

  
 
 0.5385 

 xy   
50 Finite Element Analysis and Design

## where {}T  {xx yy xy } and

1    0 
 
E  
[C]    1 0 
(1   )(1  2 )  1 
 0 0 
2 

zz component can be calculated from the condition the zero strain condition:

zz v
zz      yy   0  zz  0.0404 GPa
E E xx

## Note that xz  G xz  0 and yz  G yz  0

(c) From Part (b),

 0.3365 0.5385 0 
 
     0.5385 0.4712 0  GPa
   
 0 0 0.0404 
 

##  0.8944  0

 0.4472 

     
 n1     0.4472  ,  n2     0  ,  n3     0.8944 
 0  
  
 

  1
 
 

0 

Thus, the principal strain directions are the same as that of the principal stresses.
(d) If stress-strain relation for plane stress in Eq. (1.57) is applied to the principal strains,

 1  1       1 
 
 0.6059 

 
  
 
 
 

  E      
 2     1           0.0404  GPa

 

 1    1  2     1    

 
2

  0.7404

 
 3  
 
 3    

Note that all shear stresses are zero because it is in the principal directions. Note also that
three-dimensional constitutive relation is used rather than two-dimensional. However,
the same results will be expected if the plane strain relation is used.

1
U0      y y  z z  xy xy  xz xz  yz yz 
(e) 2 x x
 8.45  106 J/m3
CHAP 1 Stress-Strain Analysis 51

1
(f) U0      22  33   8.45  106 J/m 3
2 1 1
52 Finite Element Analysis and Design

22. Assume that the solid in Problem 21 is under a state of plane stress. Repeat (b)
through (f).
Solution:
(b)

 
   0.3538 
 

 xx 
 
 

 yy    C       0.4538 
     GPa

 
 
 

 xy 

 

 0.5385 
 

1  0 
 
E  1 
where [C]   0 
1  2  1 
 0 0 (1   ) 
2 

## Note that for plane stress, zz  xz  yz  0 .

(c)

 0.3538 0.5385 0 
 
     0.5385 0.4538 0 
   
 0 0 0 
 

##  0.8944 

 
 n1     0.4472  for 1  0.6231
 0 
 

0
 

 

 n     0  for 2  0
2 

 
1
 

 0.4472 
 

 

  
n 3
   0.8944 
 for 3  0.7231

 0 

 

(d) Substitute principal stresses into equation (1.60) in the textbook to obtain principal
strains. Notice that zz  2  0.0004  0
CHAP 1 Stress-Strain Analysis 53

1
U0      y y  z z  xy xy  xz xz  yz yz 
(e) 2 x x
 8.4  106 J/m 3

1
(f) U0      22  3 3   8.4  106 J/m 3
2 1 1
54 Finite Element Analysis and Design

23. A strain rosette consisting of three strain gages was used to measure the strains at a
point in a thin-walled plate. The measured strains in the three gages are: A = 0.001,
B = −0.0006, and C = 0.0007. Not that Gage C is at 45o with respect to the x-axis.
(a) Determine the complete state of strains and stresses (all six components) at that
point. Assume E = 70 GPa, and = 0.3.
(b) What are the principal strains and their directions?
(c) What are the principal stresses and their directions?
(d) Show that the principal strains and stresses satisfy the stress-strain relations.

y B C

A
x

Solution:
(a) From figure it is obvious xx = A = 0.001 and yy = B = −0.0006. Shear strain can be
found using the transformation relation in Eq. (1.50). The 2-D version of Eq. (1.50)
becomes

## where nx = cos(45o) and ny = sin(45o). Thus,

C  nn (45 )  xx cos2 45  yy sin2 45  xy sin 45 cos 45  0.0007

By solving the above equation, we obtain xy = 0.003. Since the strain rosette only
measures plane stress state, zz is unknown. But, there is no shear strain in the z-
direction, xz = yz = 0. In order to calculate the unknown stress zz , we use the
constitutive relation for plane stress. Since the plate is in a state of plane stress, zz = xz
= yz = 0. Other stresses can be obtained from stress-strain relations for plane stress
conditions as shown below:

 x 
 E  1     x 
 
 63.1 

   
 
  
 
 MPa
   1   2   1       23.1 
 y
    
 y    

xy  G xy  26.9 MPa

For plane stress condition the through-the-thickness strain is obtained from Eq. (1.59), as


zz   xx  yy   0.000171
E
CHAP 1 Stress-Strain Analysis 55

(b) For a state of plane stress, zz = −0.000171 is a principal stress and the z-axis (0,0,1) is
the corresponding principal strain direction. The other two principal strains can be found
from the eigen value problem in 2D strain state:

   xy    nx 
 
 0

[  I]{n}   xx     
     n   0 
  

 xy yy  
 y    

Two principal strains are calculated from the condition that the determinant of the
2
coefficient matrix is zero: (xx  )(yy  )  xy  0 . The solution of the quadratic
equation becomes 1 = 0.0011 and 2 = −0.0007. Thus, the three principal strains are 1 =
0.0011, 2 = −0.000171, and 3 = −0.0007. Two principal directions can be obtained from
the original eigen value problem. Adding z-axis, the three principal directions are

 0.961 
  0
   0.276 
 

 
 
 
 
 

n   0.276 
1  , n  0
2  , n   0.961
3  

 
 
 
 
 

 0 
 
 
1  
 0 

     

## (c) Principal stresses

For plane stress condition, z = 0 is a principal stress and the z-axis (0,0,1) is the
corresponding principal direction. The other principal stresses and the directions can be
found by solving the following eigen value problem:

   xy    nx 
 
 0

   I  {n}   xx   
 
    
yy       
 xy  ny   0
  

Two principal stresses are calculated from the condition that the determinant of the
2
coefficient matrix is zero: (xx  )(yy  )  xy  0 . The solution of the quadratic
equation becomes 1 = 70.8 and 2 = −30.8. Thus, the three principal stresses are 1 =
70.8 MPa, 2 = 0.0 MPa, and 3 = −30.8 MPa. Two principal directions can be obtained
from the original eigen value problem. Adding z-axis, the three principal directions are

 0.961 
  0
   0.276 
 

 
 
 
 
 

n   0.276 
1  , n  0
2  , n   0.961
3  

 
 
 
 
 

 0 
 
 
1  
 0 

     

For isotropic materials, principal stress directions and principal strain directions are the
same.
(d) Principal Stress-strain relations
From Eq. (1.55), the stress-strain relation can be written as

 1 
  1     1  
 0.0011 

 
   
 
 

  1      

 2    1   
 2    0.0002 

 
 E    1   
 
 

 
  
    
  
  
  0.0007 

 3   3 
56 Finite Element Analysis and Design

Also, all shear strains and stresses are zero because they are in the principal directions.
Thus, the stress-strain relation satisfies in the principal stresses and strains.
CHAP 1 Stress-Strain Analysis 57

24. A strain rosette consisting of three strain gages was used to measure the strains at a
point in a thin-walled plate. The measured strains in the three gages are: A = 0.016,
B = 0.004, and C = 0.016. Determine the complete state of strains and stresses (all
six components) at that point. Assume E = 100 GPa and = 0.3.

A
y 120 o 120o
B C
x

Solution:
(a) The angle and direction cosines of each rosette are listed in the table below.
 nx ny
o
A 90 0 1
B 210 o
 3/2 1 / 2
C -30 o
3/2 1 / 2

Then, we can use the following transformation equation to related Cartesian components
to the strains in the rosettes

## nn ()  x cos2   y sin2   xy sin  cos 

 xx nx2  yy ny2  xy nx ny

## The three rosette equations become

y  A  16  103

3 1 3
B  x  y  xy  4  103
4 4 4

3 1 3
C  x  y  xy  16  103
4 4 4

The last two equations can be solved for the shear strain as

3 24
xy  12  103  xy    103  13.86  103
2 3

## Then, from the second equation, we have

3
x  4  106  6  103  4  103  x  8  103
4
58 Finite Element Analysis and Design

Since it is the plane stress condition, z  yz  zx  0 . From the stress-strain
relation for the plane stress problem, we have

 x     9   3 
   E  1    x   100  10  1 0.3   8  10 
       
 y  1   2   1   y  1  0.09  0.3 1   16  103 
100  106  12.8   1407   1.407 
       106    GPa
1  0.09  18.4   2022   2.022 

E 100  109
xy  G xy 
2(1   )
xy 
2.6
 13.86  103   0.533 GPa .

yz zx
yz   0, zx  0
G G

 0.3
z   (x  y )    (1.407  2.022)  109  0.01 .
E 9
100  10
CHAP 1 Stress-Strain Analysis 59

25. A strain rosette consisting of three strain gages was used to measure the strains at a
point in a thin-walled plate. The measured strains in the three gages are: A = 0.008,
B = 0.002, and C = 0.008. Determine the complete state of strains and stresses (all
six components) at that point. Assume E = 100 GPa and = 0.3.

o
B 120
y
A
C 120o
x

Solution:
(a) The angle and direction cosines of each rosette are listed in the table below.
 nx ny
o
A 0 1 0
B 120 o
1 / 2 3/2
C 240 o
1 / 2  3/2

Then, we can use the following transformation equation to relate the strains measured by
the strain gages to the strain components:

## nn ()  x cos2   y sin2   xy sin  cos 

 xx nx2  yy ny2  xy nx ny

## The three rosette equations become

x  A  8  103

1 3 3
B  x  y  xy ( )  2  103
4 4 4

1 3 3
C  x  y  xy  8  103
4 4 4

The last two equations can be solved for the shear strain as

3 12
xy  6  103  xy   103  6.93  103
2 3

## Then, from the second equation, we have

8  3
y   106  x  xy  4  103
3 3 3
60 Finite Element Analysis and Design

Since it is the plane stress condition, z  yz  zx  0 . From the stress-strain
relation for the plane stress problem, we have

 x     9   3 
   E  1    x   100  10  1 0.3   8  10 
       
 y  1   2   1   y  1  0.09  0.3 1   16  103 
100  106  9.2   9.2   1.011 
       1.099  108    GPa
1  0.09  6.4   6.4   0.703 

E
xy  G xy    0.267 GPa .
2(1   ) xy

yz zx
yz   0, zx  0
G G

z   (  y )  5.142  103 .
E x
CHAP 1 Stress-Strain Analysis 61

26. The figure below illustrates a thin plate of thickness t. An approximate displacement
field, which accounts for displacements due to the weight of the plate, is given by

ux (x , y )  (2bx  x 2  y 2 )
2E

uy (x , y )   y(b  x )
E

## (a) Determine the corresponding plane stress field.

(b) Qualitatively draw the deformed shape of the plate.

A B
a a
x

Solution:
(a) From the definition of strain

ux 
xx  
(b  x )
x E
uy 
yy    (b  x )
y E

1 u uy 
xy   x    0
2  y x 

Also, from the stress-strain relation for the plane stress problem,

 
  1  0      (b  x )

 xx 
   xx   
 E  1    
 yy   0 
  
yy    0 

 
 1  2   
 
 
 

 
 xy  
  0 0 1
(1   )   
 xy 
   0 

 2   

## Thus, xx  (b  x ) is the only non-zero stress component.

(b) The deformed geometry is sketched below
62 Finite Element Analysis and Design
CHAP 1 Stress-Strain Analysis 63

## 27. The stress matrix at a particular point in a body is

 2 1 3 
 
[  ]   1 0 4   107 Pa
 3 4 5 
 

## Determine the corresponding strain if E = 20 × 1010 Pa and ν = 0.3.

Solution:

1 1
xx  [  (yy  zz )]  [2  0.3(0  5)]  107  1.75  104
E xx 2  1011

1 1
yy  [yy  (xx  zz )]  [0  0.3(2  5)]  107  4.5  105
E 11
2  10

1 1
zz  [zz  (xx  yy )]  [5  0.3(2  0)]  107  2.8  104
E 11
2  10

## 2(1   ) 2(1  0.3)

xy  xy   1  107  1.3  104
E 2  1011

## 2(1   ) 2(1  0.3)

yz  yz   4  107  5.2  104
E 2  1011

## 2(1   ) 2(1  0.3)

xz  xz   (3)  107  3.9  104
E 11
2  10
64 Finite Element Analysis and Design

28. For a plane stress problem, the strain components in the x–y plane at a point P are
computed as

## xx  yy  .125  102 , xy  .25  102

(a) Compute the state of stress at this point if Young‟s modulus E = 21011 Pa and
Poisson‟s ratio  = 0.3.
(b) What is the normal strain in the z–direction?
(c) Compute the normal strain in the direction of n = {1, 1, 1}T.
Solution:
(a) Compute the state of stress at this point if Young‟s modulus E = 21011 Pa and
Poisson‟s ratio  = 0.3

 xx 
 1  0      357 

 
   xx   

 yy 

E  1 0 
 

 

 357

 6
  10 Pa
  2    yy   
1   0
 
 xy 
 0 (1   ) / 2    
 xy 

 
      385 

zz  xz  yz  0 (Plane Stress)

## (b) What is the normal strain in the z-direction?

zz   (  yy )  0.1071  102
E xx

## (c) Compute the normal strain in the direction of n = {1, 1, 1}T

1
n {1, 1, 1}T
3
nn  n  []  n  0.2143  102
CHAP 1 Stress-Strain Analysis 65

## 29. The state of stress at a point is given by

 80 20 40 
 
[ ]   20 60 10  MPa
 40 10 20 
 

(a) Determine the strains using Young‟s modulus of 100 GPa and Poisson‟s ratio of
0.25.
(b) Compute the strain energy density using these stresses and strains.
(c) Calculate the principal stresses.
(d) Calculate the principal strains from the strains calculated in (a).
(e) Show that the principal stresses and principal strains satisfy the constitutive
relations.
(f) Calculate the strain energy density using the principal stresses and strains.
Solution:
(a) From Eq. (1.53),

 xx 
  1 .25 .25   80 
 
 0.6 

 
  
 
 
 

  1     6 3  

 yy     .25 1  .25   60  10  10  0.35 

 

11
10   
 
 

 
  
   .25  .25 1   20
  
 
  0.15 

 zz    
xy
xy   0.5  103
G
yz
yz   1.0  103
G

zx  zx  0.25  103
G

## (b) Strain energy density:

1
U      yy yy  zz zz  xy xy  yz yz  xz xz   59.25kPa
2 xx xx
(c) Principal stresses: 1  110, 2  50, 3  0 MPa
(d)

##  0.6 0.25 0.5 

Strain matrix: [ ]  103  0.25 0.35 0.125 
 
 0.5 0.125 0.15 
 

## Principal strains: 1  0.975  103 , 2  0.225  103 , 3  0.4  103

(e) From Eq. (1.55)
66 Finite Element Analysis and Design

 
   1 .25 .25  
 110 
 
 
 1    0.975 

 
 1   
 
 6 3 
 

 2   .25 1 .25   50  10  10  0.225 

 

11
10   
 
 
 

 
  
  .25 .25 1  
 0 
 
  0.4 

 3     

Thus, the principal stresses and principal strains satisfy the constitutive relations.
(f) Strain energy density

1
U      22  33   59.25kPa
2 1 1
CHAP 1 Stress-Strain Analysis 67

30. Consider the state of stress in Problem 29 above. The yield strength of the material is
100 MPa. Determine the safety factors according to the following: (a) maximum
principal stress criterion, (b) Tresca Criterion, and (c) von Mises criterion.
Solution:
(a) Maximum principal stress criterion

Y
SF   0.91
1

## (b) Tresca criterion

Y 110  0 Y
Y   50, max   55, SF   0.91
2 2 max

## VM  12  22  32  12  23  13  95.39

Y
SF   1.048
VM
68 Finite Element Analysis and Design

31. A thin-walled tube is subject to a torque T. The only non-zero stress component is
the shear stress xy, which is given by xy = 10,000 T (Pa), where T is the torque in
N.m. When the yield strength Y = 300 MPa and the safety factor N = 2, calculate the
maximum torque that can be applied using
(a) Maximum principal stress criterion (Rankine)
(b) Maximum shear stress criterion (Tresca)
(c) Distortion energy criterion (Von Mises)
Solution:
Since it is a pure shear stress state, the three principal stresses are

1  xy , 2  0, 3  xy

## (a) Maximum stress criterion,

Y
1  xy 
N
xy Y
T    15, 000 N  m
10, 000 10, 000N

## (b) Maximum shear stress criterion

Y Y
xy    10, 000T
2 2N
Y
T   7, 500 N  m
20, 000N

## (c) Von Mises criterion

2 Y
VM  3xy 
N
Y
xy   10, 000T
3N
T  8, 660 N  m
CHAP 1 Stress-Strain Analysis 69

32. A thin-walled cylindrical pressure vessel with closed ends is subjected to an internal
pressure p = 100 psi and also a torque T around its axis of symmetry. Determine T
that will cause yielding according to von Mises‟ yield criterion. The design requires a
safety factor of 2. The nominal diameter D of the pressure vessel = 20 inches, wall
thickness t = 0.1 inch, and yield strength of the material = 30 ksi. (1 ksi = 1000 psi).
Stresses in a thin walled cylinder are: longitudinal stress l, hoop stress h, and shear
stress  due to torsion. They are given by

pD pD 2T
l  , h  ,
4t 2t D 2t

Solution:

pD
xx  l   5, 000 psi
4t
pD
yy  h   10, 000 psi
2t
2T
xy  
D 2t

2 2 2 Y Y
VM  xx  yy  xx yy  3xy    15, 000
N 2

##  xy  7.071  103 psi

1
T   D 2t  444  103 lb-in
2 xy
70 Finite Element Analysis and Design

33. A cold–rolled steel shaft is used to transmit 60 kW at 500 rpm from a motor. What
should be the diameter of the shaft, if the shaft is 6 m long and is simply supported at
its ends? The shaft also experiences bending due to a distributed transverse load of
200 N/m. Ignore bending due to the weight of the shaft. Use a factor of safety 2.
The tensile yield limit is 280 MPa. Find the diameter using both maximum shear
stress theory and von Mises criterion for yielding.
Solution:
Note that in the below solution, failure will be governed by shear stresses due to torsion
and bending stresses from the distributed load. We will ignore the effects of transverse
shear stresses due to the distributed load, as it will be negligible compared to the bending
stresses and shear stresses due to torsion.

po = 200 N/m

R = poL/2

L/2

The maximum bending moment will occur at the center of the shaft, whose magnitude is

 p L  L   p L  L  p L2
M max   o      o     o  900N-m
 2   2   2   4  8

## In addition, the applied torque can be calculated from the power, as

Power  T
60
T   60000   1,146N-m
2(500)

Two stress components, xx and xy, can be calculated using the bending moment and
torque, as

Mr M D2 32M 9167
x     Pa
4 3
I D D D3
64

Tr T D2 5837
xy    Pa
J D 4 D3
32

(a) Max distortional energy theory: Since there are only two non-zero components of
stress, von Mises stress can be calculated by
CHAP 1 Stress-Strain Analysis 71

Y Y
vm  x2  3xy
2
 
N 2

Substituting stress components in the above expression, we can solve for the unknown
diameter, D = 46.02 mm.
(b) Maximum shear stress criterion: In order to calculate the maximum shear stress, the
principal stresses are calculated first

2
x     2
1,2    x
2  2  xy

## Then, the maximum shear stress becomes

max  min Y / 2 Y / 2
 max   
2 N 2

By substituting stress components in the above expression, we can solve for the unknown
diameter, D = 47.33 mm.
72 Finite Element Analysis and Design

34. For the stress matrix below, the two principal stresses are given as σ1 = 2 and σ3 = –3,
respectively. In addition, two principal directions corresponding to the two principal
stresses are also given below. The yield stress of the structure is given as σY = 4.5.

 2   1 
1 0 2     
   5  5
   
[  ]   0 1 0  , n1   0  and n 3   0 
 2 0 2     
 1   2 
     
 5   5 

(a) Calculate the safety factor based on the maximum shear stress theory and
determine whether the structure is safe or not.
(b) Calculate the safety factor based on the distortion energy theory and determine
whether the structure is safe or not.
Solution: Continuation from Problem 9.
From Problem 9, 1  2, 2  1, 3  3 . Thus, the von Mises stress becomes
VM  22  12  (3)3  (2  1  1  3  2  3)  21 . Also, the maximum shear
stress becomes max  (1  3 ) / 2  2.5 .

Y 2.25
(1) N     0.9 . Thus, the structure is not safe.
 max 2.5

Y 4.5
(2) NVM    0.982 . Thus, the structure is not safe.
max 21
CHAP 1 Stress-Strain Analysis 73

35. The figure below shows a shaft of 1.5 in. diameter loaded by a bending moment Mz =
5,000 lb∙in, a torque T = 8,000 lb∙in, and an axial tensile force N = 6,000 lb. If the
material is ductile with the yielding stress σY = 40,000 psi, determine the safety factor
using: (a) the maximum shear stress theory and (b) the maximum distortion energy
theory.

y
Mz T Mz
N N x

Solution:
From the given loading conditions, the magnitude of shear will be the same for all outer
surfaces, whereas the bottom surface will have the maximum tensile stress due to bending
and tension. Thus, if the material fails, it will fail at the bottom surface first. Let‟s take an
infinitesimal rectangle at the bottom surface. Then, the non-zero stress component will be
xx and xz .

xz
z xz
xx x
xx
xz
xz

## Each component of stress can be calculated from the mechanics of materials by

M r N 32  5000 4  6000
xx      18, 486 psi
I A (1.5)3 (1.5)2
T r 16  8000
xz    12, 072 psi
J (1.5)3

Principal stresses

xx   0 xz
0  0  (2  xx   xz
2
)0
xz 0 

2 2
xx  xx  4xz
1   24, 447, 2  0, 3  5, 961 psi
2

## (a) The maximum shear stress theory

1  3
max   15, 204 psi
2
Y 20, 000
N    1.315
max 15, 204
74 Finite Element Analysis and Design

## VM  244472  (5961)2  24447(5961)  27, 909 psi

40, 000
NVM   1.4332
27, 909
CHAP 1 Stress-Strain Analysis 75

36. A 20-mm. diameter rod made of a ductile material with a yield strength of 350 MPa
is subject to a torque of T = 100 N∙m and a bending moment of M = 150 N∙m. An
axial tensile force P is then gradually applied. What is the value of the axial force
when yielding of the rod occurs? Solve the problem two ways using (a) the
maximum shear stress theory and (b) the maximum distortional energy theory.

y
Mz T Mz
P P x

Solution:
(a) The yielding occurs at the bottom surface in which both M and P produce tensile
stress. At this bottom surface, the stress components are

32M 4P
xx   191  106  3183P
3
d d 2
16T
xz   63.662  106
d 3

And all other components are zero. Now, the maximum shear stress is expressed in term
of stress components:

1  3 1 2 2
 max   xx  4xy  175
2 2

## In the above equation, the following relations are used:

2 2 2 2
xx  xx  4xz xx  xx  4xz
1  , 3 
2 2

2
Then, xx  3502  4xz
2

## The above equation can be solved for axial force P = 41,413 N.

(b) The von Mises stress can be written in terms of stress components, as

## VM  12  32  13  2

xx 2
 3xz  350  106
xx  332  106  191  106  3183N

After solving for the axial force, we have P = 44,353 N. The distortion energy theory
allows a larger axial force.
76 Finite Element Analysis and Design

37. A circular shaft of radius r in the figure has a moment of inertia I and polar moment
of inertia J. The shaft is under torsion Tz in the positive z-axis and bending moment
Mx in the positive x-axis. The material is mild steel with yield strength of 2.8 MPa.
Use only the given coordinate system for your calculations.
(a) If Tz and Mx are gradually increased, which point (or points) will fail first among
four points (A, B, C, and D)? Identify all.
(b) Construct stress matrix []A at point A in xyz-coordinates in terms of given
parameters (i.e., Tz, Mx, I, J, and r).
(c) Calculate three principal stresses at point B in terms of given parameters.
(d) When the principal stresses at point C are 1 = 1, 2 = 0, and 3 = 2 MPa,
calculate safety factors (1) from maximum shear stress theory and (2) from
distortion energy theory.

z x

A
Tz B D x
y
C
Mx y

Solution:
(a) The bending moment will produce maximum stress at points A and C. Thus, A and
C will fail first.
(b) At point A, non-zero stress components are

Mxr Tz r
xx  , xz 
I J

## Thus, the stress matrix becomes

M r / I 0 Tz r / J 
 x
[  ]   0 0 0 
T r /J 0 0 
 z 

Tz r
yz  
J

## Thus, the three principal stresses are

Tz r Tz r
1  , 2  0, 3   ,
J J

## (d) For maximum shear stress criterion,

CHAP 1 Stress-Strain Analysis 77

1  3 Y
max   1.5, Y   1.4
2 2
Y
 N   0.933
max

## VM  12  22  32  12  23  13  7  2.645

 N  Y  1.06
VM
78 Finite Element Analysis and Design

## 38. A rectangular plastic specimen of size 100×100×10 mm3 is placed in a rectangular

metal cavity. The dimensions of the cavity are 101×101×9 mm3. The plastic is
compressed by a rigid punch until it is completely inside the cavity. Due to Poisson
effect, the plastic also expands in the x and y directions and fills the cavity. Calculate
all stress and strain components and the force exerted by the punch. Assume there is
no friction between all contacting surfaces. The metal cavity is rigid. Elastic
constants of the plastic are E = 10 GPa, = 0.3.

Rigid punch
Rigid punch
Plastic
Rigid die

Plastic
F

Rigid die

Solution:
The strains in the specimen are calculated as the ratio of change in length to original
length.

 9  10  101  100 
zz   0.1, xx  yy   0.01
10 100

We have assumed that the plastic expands laterally and fill the cavity completely. If it
does not, then we will get positive values for xx and/or yy, which will indicate that our
assumption is wrong. Then we can assume xx and/or yy = 0, and redo the problem and
obtain corresponding strains xx and/or yy which will be less than that calculated above.
Since there is no friction between contacting surfaces, all shear stresses and hence all
shear strains will be identically equal to zero.
The normal stresses can be obtained from three-dimensional stress strain elations:

 x 
  1         x  

 
  
 

 E
 y 
  
 1       y 
  

 
  1    1  2      
 
 z

 
 1      z 

Substituting for the strains and elastic constants E and  we obtain the stresses as

## {xx yy xx }  {385 385 1, 231} MPa

Since xx and yy are negative (compressive), our initial assumption about the strains is
correct. The punch force is obtained from z and the area of cross section:

## F  Az  0.1  0.1  1, 231  12.31 MN

CHAP 1 Stress-Strain Analysis 79
80 Finite Element Analysis and Design

39. Repeat Problem 38 with elastic constants of the plastic as E = 10 GPa and  = 0.485.
Solution:
The strains in the plastic specimen are calculated as the ratio of change in length to
original length.

 9  10   101  100 
z   0.1, x  y   0.01
10 100

We have assumed that the plastic expands laterally and fill the cavity completely. If it
does not, then we will get positive values for xx and/or yy, which will indicate that our
assumption is wrong. Then we can assume xx and/or yy = 0, and reiterate the problem
and obtain corresponding strains xx and/or yy which will be less than that calculated
above.
Since there is no friction between contacting surfaces, all shear stresses and hence all
shear strains will be identically equal to zero.
The normal stresses can be obtained from three-dimensional stress strain relations:

 x 
  1         x  

 
  
 

  E

 y    1       y 
  

 
  1    1  2     
 
 z

 
  1      z 

 

Substituting for the strains and elastic constants E and  we obtain the stresses as

{xx yy xx }  {8, 642 8, 642 9, 383} MPa

Since xx and yy are negative (compressive), our initial assumption about the strains is
correct. The punch force is obtained from zz and the area of cross section:

## F  Az  0.1  0.1  9, 383  93.83 MN

Note: Punch force for this problem is almost 8 times that for Problem 38. The increase is
due to Poisson‟s ratio. As the material compressibility decreases, Poisson‟s ratio
increases. For example, as   0.5 the material becomes incompressible, i.e., its
volume cannot be changed, and the stresses become unbounded. Note the term  1  2 
in the denominator of the above constitutive relation.
CHAP 1 Stress-Strain Analysis 81

40. Repeat Problem 38 with the specimen of size 100×100×10 mm3 and the dimensions
of the cavity 104×104×9 mm3. Elastic constants of the plastic are E = 10 GPa, =
0.3.
Solution:
The strain in the z-direction remains the same as z  (9  10) / 10  0.1 . As before,
if we assume that the specimen fills the cavity completely, the strains will be

 104  100 
x  y   0.04,
100

## The stresses are calculated using

 x 
  1         x  

 
  
 

  E

 y    1       y 
  

 
  1    1  2    
 
 z
 
 
   1      z 
 

## We obtain {xx yy xx }  {192 192 885} MPa .

The above stresses are not physically possible as the cavity walls cannot exert tensile
stresses on the specimen. We will repeat the calculations with x  y  0 . This is
actually uniaxial state of stress, and the strains are obtained as x  y  z  0.03 .
The extension of the plate in the x and y-directions is given by
x x  104  0.03  3.12 mm . Note that the expansion of the specimen is less
than the 4 mm-clearance.