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Web Based Water Billing System with Mobile Application

For San Jose Del Monte Water District, Bulacan

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Web Based Water Billing System with Mobile Application
For San Jose Del Monte Water District, Bulacan

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Project Context

San Jose del Monte has a biggest resettlement area in the Philippines,

Sapang Palay resettlement in 36 barangays (pop: 250,000) and others like

Pabahay 2000 in Muzon (pop: 106,603) Towerville in Minuyan Proper, (pop:

38,846) and 40 others scattered along the city. Managing a thousand of people is

not easy for Water District and monitoring their usage. One example problem

encountered by San Jose Water District is human error wherein water bill is not

delivered to the correct home owner, resulting to delay on payments. Manual

data entered is time consuming which leads to delays in the availability of data

resulting to slow processing of information and the important data is manually

entered resulting to inconsistencies on the records .

Web based water billing system is an automated system that is based

on delivering the water bills to the consumer. This system can manage the billing

by sending it directly to the consumer via mobile application or web. The

proponents proposed Web based Water billing with Mobile Application in order to

help the company’s growth. The system will be able to generate invoices,

process payment, calculate penalties, and generate billing reports and issues

official receipt. This will also serve as storage of billing information on a

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Web Based Water Billing System with Mobile Application
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centralized database wherein, whenever the accounting department asked for

billing reports periodically billing and collection has the ability to produce reports

immediately. The system is accurate enough to meet client’s demand.

This study is conducted to help the said establishment to make the billing

process easier, modernized yet user-friendly and reliable. The proponents will

develop a system entitled “Web Based Water Billing System with Mobile

Application” for San Jose Del Monte Water District to upgrade their existing

system to an automated system. The proposed System is a combination of

software and hardware that receives detail and service usage information,

groups this information for specific accounts or customers, creates report for the

management, records (posts) payments made to customer and Monitor and

supervise activities in progress to ensure they are on-course and on-schedule to

meet the objectives and performance target.

Purpose & Description

In this proposed system the Proponents will mainly focus on the

development of Web Based Water Billing System with mobile Application and will

provide an alternative way for efficiency to give their customers a fast, secure

and reliable service.

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Web Based Water Billing System with Mobile Application
For San Jose Del Monte Water District, Bulacan

The Major beneficiaries of the system are the following:

SJDM Water District. The implementation of the proposed system will

enhance the company transaction. The system will secure all the records of the

Water District, they’ll have an accurate detailed and timely reports of the

transactions.

Residence of SJDM. The customer will also benefit because they no

need to wait for the water bill from the bill delivery and the customer will not

experience a long time waiting because the customer will receive automatically

the water bill via mobile phone by using the water billing application.

Proponents. Through the study the proponents will enhance their skills in

system analysis, design and developing a mobile application which is vital for

future I.T professionals and to make a suitable system for the company that they

have chosen.

Future Researcher. The Study will serve as a guide for the student or

other researcher who are also conducting similar study on Web based Water

billing system with mobile application.

The results of this study could help them to realize that the Web based

Water billing system is much better than the existing system of water district of

San Jose del Monte because from time to time the technology is changing and

also the people that’s why the proposed project is significant than the existing

system.

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Web Based Water Billing System with Mobile Application
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Objectives of the Study

General Objective

The general objective of the study is to create a Web based Water Billing

System to improve the Billing System in San Jose Del Monte Bulacan.

Specifically it aims to:

Design and develop a Web- based Water Billing System with Mobile application

which will be capable of:

a. Providing an efficient web based water billing system where the system

will send a bill through web and mobile application.

b. To provide an application where in customer can easily access and

monitor their water bill.

c. Allows the user to view the previous bill.

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Web Based Water Billing System with Mobile Application
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Scope & Limitations

Scope of the Study

This study focuses on how the water billing of San Jose del Monte Water

District will improve their billing system. Therefor customers will receive their

consumption and water bill computation into mobile phone through web based

sending with efficient working environment and user friendly interface resulting

in fast processing of data of the customers, water district employees will no

longer print paper bill statements and manually deliver to the home owners.

Limitation of the Study

Even though customer can check how much they pay in each month from

home via Water Billing Application, the customer cannot process payment

through the application the system does not include payment transactions. This

Study does not cover the other city of Bulacan, the project will focus only to the

water district and the residence of San Jose del Monte Bulacan.

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Web Based Water Billing System with Mobile Application
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CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

In this chapter, the proponents present a review of different studies and

literature, which are related to the proposed study.

Related Literature

According to Amy Schmidt and Lynne Lewis (2017) .These results support

the assumption that, as consumption decreases, consumers face larger CBFR

bills to cover system costs. However, individual bills do not increase

proportionally to consumption decreases: a 25% system-wide decrease in

consumption over five years raises a high user’s bill by 8%, an average user’s bill

by 6%, and a low user’s bill by 3%. The result that greater users face greater

price increases over time also suggests that some amount of progressive pricing

is built into the system, for as overall community consumption decreases, those

who persist in using high volumes of water will account for a larger fraction of the

total and face higher bills as a result. This explains why high use bills increase

more than low-use bills. No bill value exceeds the 2% of MHI limit recommended

by the EPA. If fixed-variable costs decrease in absolute value by at least 2% per

year, CBFR bills should be lower for all users versus the status quo with no

conservation. Table 12 shows the results of such a simulation. At any level of

consumption, decreasing the fixed-variable costs over time decreases the

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Web Based Water Billing System with Mobile Application
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consumer’s bill. Compared to the status quo from Simulation 1, lowering costs

and consumption lowers bills by 6% for high users, 5% for average users, and

2.6% for low users. In contrast to the scenario with no change in utility costs, this

scenario provides a greater savings the greater the amount of water used. This

suggests that the yearly cost decreases overpower increases in the proportion of

the total accounted for by the high-use consumer. While all consumers see a

decrease in bills, the disproportionate benefit provided to high-income users may

conflict with other goals like equity and conservation-focused billing. Based on

the significant difference in billing prices for CBFR between Lomita and

Longmont, it is clear that the results of switching to the CBFR system are largely

dependent upon the current utility pricing situation and community

characteristics. Customers, whereas in Longmont, the system decreased bills for

high users but increased bills for low and average use customers. Comparing the

IBR systems employed by each utility reveals some key differences in current

pricing that ultimately make the CBFR either helpful or harmful to customers.

(Schmidt & Lewis, 2017)

According to Mr. Keith J. Richardson (2009) For a number of years, the

city has invested a significant amount of time and effort to replace the 30-year-

old customer billing system used by the Water Revenue Bureau (WRB) to

process water and sewer bills for customers of the Philadelphia Water

Department (PWD). With approximately 515,000 customers that annually

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Web Based Water Billing System with Mobile Application
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generate over $400 million in water and sewer charges, a reliable billing system

is critical to meeting the accounting and financial reporting needs of the city’s

Water and Sewer Fund. The old system had various limitations, and city

management felt that a new system would enhance the billing process. Over the

last eight fiscal years, the city has raised the rates that it charges for water and

sewer service by 41 percent and will be raising rates by another 18 percent over

the next three years (Exhibit I). The objectives of our review were to determine

whether the new system has improved the enforcement process and to

determine whether there were adequate safeguards and controls over the billing,

adjustment, and financial reporting processes. Our work consisted of interviewing

WRB and PWD personnel as well as analysing account activity, and testing the

new system’s billing, adjustment, financial reporting, and enforcement functions.

We performed our work from June 2008 through February 2009 in accordance

with Government Auditing Standards issued by the Comptroller General of the

United States. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to

obtain sufficient, appropriate evidence to provide a reasonable basis for our

findings and conclusions based on our audit objectives. We believe that the

evidence obtained provides a reasonable basis for our findings and conclusions

based on our audit objectives. (“CITY OF PHILADELPHIA REVIEW OF NEW

WATER BILLING SYSTEM,” 2009)

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Web Based Water Billing System with Mobile Application
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According to Mark Ehab Shoukry and Michael Maher Ibrahim (2017)

Technology and Communication always try to make peoples life easier. So the

main purpose of this paper is based on developing an automatic electronic water

billing system in Egypt. In this paper, we design and implement a complete

automatic water billing system without interference of any employees. All

currently implemented systems depends on1 bill for the whole building and water

companies pay a lot of money for printing the bills and some meters are

damaged or cannot take readings from. Our proposed system consists of smart

meters. These meters are present in every house and will take the water

readings and send them wirelessly to the water company base station via GSM

modules. The readings are saved into the data base automatically and uploaded

on the website automatically where the user can pay online. Frequents MS

notifications are sent to the user after each step. The Water is generally regarded

as a precious and limited resource. Although most of the Earth is covered by

water, only small percentage of it is fresh water usable for human activities.

Water billing system in Egypt contains many issues: The employee doesn’t take

the reading of the meter and puts threading aimlessly. Some of the meters are

damaged or in places hard to reach and readings cannot be taken from them.

Only one bill is produced for the whole building which is divided evenly among

the apartments in the building. So people who use huge amount of water are

equated to those who don’t. In addition, spending large amount of money for the

employee’s salary and printing the bills, and the bills can be lost as well.

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Web Based Water Billing System with Mobile Application
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Proposed system is simple, cheap, fast and friendly user.(Shoukry & Ibrahim,

2017)

According to Janelyn A. Ambre (2016) Water billing system is important to

provide consistent and accurate billing information to clients and service

recipients. The study is aimed to develop an automated water billing system for

the Abra State Institute of Sciences and Technology in Lagangilang, Abra,

Philippines and to determine the usability of it in terms of Efficiency, Affect,

Helpfulness, Control, and Learnability. The descriptive and applied types of

research were employed in the study. Data were gathered through interview and

feedback form. The respondents were from the 8 personnel of the accounting

and cashiering offices. The Rapid Application Development model was used in

the development of the system and the Software Usability Measurement

Inventory questionnaire to test its usability. The gathered data were analyzed and

interpreted using frequency count and mean. Findings of the study revealed that

they need an automated billing system to improve their billing procedures since it

is done manually. Using the Rapid Application Development model, reliable

infeasible automated billing system from development until implementation was

achieved. The developed system was found usable because it was designed to

fit the needs of ASIST. Computerized System and improved efficiency have been

the focus of entrepreneurs. As with many business scenarios, getting rid of paper

improves efficiency, reduces human error and allows information to flow to an

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Web Based Water Billing System with Mobile Application
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infrastructure without a time consuming data input process. There is also less

chance of handwritten orders being misread and a higher customer turnaround

as customers will be served faster. Scott (2011) concludes that automation

increases the accuracy of the data, as human error is less likely to occur. The

completeness of the data is also improved as the automated systems will

process all the data in an efficient manner. Neumann (2010) states that water

billing system is a necessary tool to assist small municipalities, utility providers,

bookkeepers, operators, managers, and auditors in unifying their water billing

services, in order to provide consistent and accurate billing information to clients

and service recipients. It is essentially software that processes data and

produces invoices in a given format. (Ambre, 2016)

According to Giselle Joy Esmeria and Rosemary R. Seva (2017) Finding

flights or booking for a hotel has never been easier. With the increasing

popularity of travel websites, interface designers are compelled to provide a

seamless experience for the users. Chiou et al. (Chiou, Lin, & Perng, 2011)

introduced a five-stage strategic framework for website evaluation. This

framework was further demonstrated in the two leading travel websites in

Taiwan. Quality service in terms of convenient shopping is found to be relevant

and providing more convenient payment methods is necessary to achieve this

objective. Haidurova (2013) stressed that common problems in the design

include bad presentation of search results, lack of clarity and difficulty in sorting

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Web Based Water Billing System with Mobile Application
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and filtering and confusing display of price. These usability problems greatly

influence the effective use of any travel websites. Most electronic commerce (e-

Commerce) applications are now Internet-based. People can communicate with

web-based online stores like Amazon, e-Bay, Lazada, OLX and many other

similar web-based businesses. The transition of doing business from the

marketplace to marketspace provides bigger opportunities for interface

designers. Interface design is becoming even more critical in the internet. Poor

interface design may lead users to shift from one site to another and eventually

lose business. Website quality has a tremendous effect on customer satisfaction

and purchase intentions (Bai, Law, &Wen, 2008). One critical issue raised by

Diaz et al. (2017) in the design of e-Commerce websites is the failure of interface

designers to consider Hofstede’s cultural dimensions. The cultural-oriented

interface quality is an important element to attract global website users and local

users. The use of e-learning technology is highly recognized nowadays. The

effectiveness of the system relies heavily on the design of the interface. Students

may lose interest in using the technology when they have difficulty in

understanding the interface. Retaining the interests of the students to use the e-

learning websites provides too much of a challenge for interface designers as

well. For instance, the study of Thawed and Salam (2014) revealed that there is

greater expectation from students with regards to the usability characteristics of

e-learning websites. Students are attracted to use e-learning websites when it

can provide better interactions. Penha et al. (Penha, Correia, Campos, & Barros,

2014) also conducted a study on similar website and the results show that

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Web Based Water Billing System with Mobile Application
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violations on the basic principles of design and usability greatly affect the

effective use of the eLearning system. The empirical-based study conducted by

Harrati et al. (2016) show that positive user experience and better usability of e-

learning websites are important to the students who are considered the primary

users.(Esmeria & Seva, 2017)

According to Gain U. Monzon, John Cyril O. Ramos, Jeffrey B. Jacob and

Frank Kelvin B. Naynes Android application is one of very common sources of

fun and entertainment now a days. Sometimes, people prefer spending much

time clicking and using their smartphones or gadgets whenever they are. Hence,

game developers and programmers are creating applications that can be easily

installed in their mobile gadgets to help users use their gadget sufficiently .The

use of Android application can help the users learn anywhere they are. They

need to install the application on Android phone. The users do not need to carry

heavy books, because it is simply installed in the Android phone. The application

has an audio voice clip, so the user can learn the correct grammars of the word.

The application is user friendly and is resourceful. The readers/users must

always be guided by the parents and must be helped if there are words that are

hard to read and to pronounce. It can also create bonding time between the

parents and their children. Some students at early age are already fond of using

technology. Because of this, it can be possible for them to be distracted, though it

has a good benefit. This project can help students to learn and at the same time

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Web Based Water Billing System with Mobile Application
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enjoy while learning. Even the students will reduce time and efforts in reading a

book. The application also addresser their needs, because they would not be

bored in reading in this application. This can also help with their relationship with

their parents. It can be their way to have a bonding time while using the

application. International Journal of Computer Science and Information

Technology Research. A mobile learning android application for beginner reader

in Filipino is a tool that helps the children learn how to read in their early age and

guide them in proper pronunciation. The contents of the application are the basic

reading manuals like Abakada. This application can help the young age’s excel in

class and at the same time practice while they are at home. The application runs

on Android platform that has aversion of 4.0 or ice cream sandwich up to kit Kat

version. Agile Methodology was used in developing application. It was designed

using Adobe Photoshop and Android Studio for its coding. There were two

testing tools that were used; these are the conformance testing and performance

testing which both passed. In addition, the project was evaluated using the

criteria on Android developers’ standard. (Monzon, Ramos, Jacob, & Naynes,

2016)

According to Charles W. Howe and F.P Linaweaver Jr. (2012). This

papers formulates models of residential water demand and estimate the relevant

parameters from cross‐sectional data. For the first time, it has been possible to

differentiate not only between domestic (inside) and sprinkling uses but also

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Web Based Water Billing System with Mobile Application
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among metered, flat‐rate, septic tank, and apartment areas. The major findings

are: domestic demands are relatively inelastic with respect to price 2 sprinkling

demands are elastic with respect to price, but less so in the west than in the east;

maximum day sprinkling demands, so important to system design, are inelastic in

the west but relatively elastic in the east. The findings indicate that the elasticity

of total demand, which this and other studies have found to be about −0.4, is a

weighted average of the domestic and sprinkling elasticities. Longer term

adjustments to price are empirically investigated, and the role of demand

functions in pricing and system design is discussed. (Howe and Linaweaver,

2012).

According to Ana Castillo-Martinez , Alberto Gutierrez-Escolar, Jose-Maria

Gutierrez-Martinez, Jose M. Gomez-Pulido and Eva Garcia-Lopez A significant

decrease in water consumption has been achieved in recent years thanks to

different campaigns run by different institutions in Spain. However, most citizens

do not have a very clear idea about whether or not they are efficiently using

water. To solve this situation, this paper aims is to develop two water labels in

order to improve the current water billing. These water labels evaluate the total

water consumption and the domestic hot water consumption. To make the tags,

several research studies were tackled for establishing consumer trends and

behavior patterns. Furthermore, a survey and data collection were conducted to

obtain updated values to validate information obtained from previous studies.

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Web Based Water Billing System with Mobile Application
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The result are two water labels that establish six different levels to graphically

show the efficiency, and they also include a comparison with the average

consumption by customers of the same province. To ensure that the benefits of

this evaluation are available to citizens, its inclusion on the water bill is proposed.

he aims of this paper is to propose a new way to improve the contents in water

bills by adding a new water label that allows for checking the efficiency of water

use. The water tag provides information to tenants about their efficiency of water

consumption. In case of houses with a special meter to obtain the domestic hot

water consumption, an extra water label can be shown with the evaluation of this

kind of consumption. Furthermore, this information is compared to the average

consumption value of citizens from the same province. To go further in citizens’

awareness about this subject, some recommendations should also be included,

which will help to reduce water consumption. This paper is organized into several

sections. Firstly, Section 2 presents the literature review related to this work.

Section 3 describes studies about Spanish housing water consumption, water

use distribution, a survey together with collecting data and the reasons for

incorporating a section with recommendations. After that, it describes the water

labels and how they should be incorporated in the bill. (Castillo-Martinez,

Gutierrez-Escolar, Gutierrez-Martinez, Gomez-Pulido, & Garcia-Lopez, 2014)

According to ZIYA’U BELLO (2014) Billing is a critical function of most

Water Boards especially towards sending the bill to their consumers. Most

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Web Based Water Billing System with Mobile Application
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problems, currently seen, result from the manual processes followed. Calculation

errors, delays in system updating and bill sending, also report tracking issues are

the major problems that water boards find difficult to find answers for. This

project work provides a solution called an sms based water billing system to

collect, process and notify consumers about consumption. This system will be

reliable, efficient and accurate to suit the requirements of Bagudo local

government water board. The proposed solution uses evolving Mobile

Technologies known as SMS and voguepay online payment technologies, over a

solution which uses web applications to handle the organization’s day to day

transactions which will allow the water board to send bills to their consumers via

SMS and consumers to pay their bills using ATM cards. The burden on the billing

is lessened and other new features have also been introduced. Consumer

interaction with the organization is improved and consumers can easily view their

monthly water bills by login to the organization’s web site. The importance of

computer cannot be over emphasized since the ancient times, computer has

proven itself capable of accepting data, storing, processing and producing an

accurate result or output. Since computer has partially taken most of the

responsibilities of human being, i intend to embed the use of computer in the

billing exercise. Water Board is an organization that deals with several paper

works and ledger cards in saving records. These records increase every day as

transaction is always going on in the organization. As the record increases,

information saving, retrieval and maintenance is becoming tedious every day.

There is lack of security because the data can be altered by any individual. A

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Web Based Water Billing System with Mobile Application
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web server is essentially a computer program which is responsible for handling

HTTP requests. A browser request to view a page the server then accepts the

request and displays the page. From a general point of view, we consider web

servers as the storage area for files which are available on the web. So in order

for any page to be viewable on the web it must be loaded on. (“No Title,” 2014)

According to Cristophe Dumaque (2013) The case studies reviewed

indicate that smart bills improve customers’ awareness of their energy usage and

initiate conservation behavior. In the USA, Opower (2013) who designed the

consumption reports analyzed as part of the Californian case study (SMUD)

found that 83% of customers remembered receiving the reports, 73% read them

thoroughly and 74% acted upon them. Regarding the large trials in Ireland, 82%

of participants made some changes to the way they use electricity and 54%

agreed that it succeeded in making them more aware of their electricity usage.

The results for gas indicate that 86% of participants recalled receiving the usage

statements and 87% made changes to the way they use gas. Finally, in Sweden,

where monthly billing based on actual consumption has been mandatory since

July 2009, consumers are slightly more aware of their electricity consumption

than in many other European countries. In competitive markets, utilities who offer

households solutions to manage consumption and reduce energy expenditure

should see some soft benefits. They should indeed be better placed to stop

consumers from switching to another retailer and also attract new ones. In non-

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Web Based Water Billing System with Mobile Application
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competitive markets, the industry’s image may improve. There is also some

evidence of a “halo effect”; in that utilities may be able to capitalize on customers’

newly built sense of empowerment and trust towards the utility These scores

were very similar for both the groups receiving a monthly bill and those receiving

a bi-monthly bill.. Numerous countries are upgrading or contemplate upgrading

their metering systems at massive costs which one way or another will fall on

end-users. Many countries facing increasingly difficult-to-manage spikes in

electricity consumption rightly see dynamic prices as one possible solution and

are trying to promote them to residential consumer. Nevertheless, smart meters

alone do not bring about consumption reductions and mandatory dynamic tariffs

can have a disproportionate negative impact on people who have no choice but

to remain at home all day or have little or no energy to shift. Supporting

regulation should ensure that feedback and education requirements (for instance

through smart billing but also possibly through other more dynamic and

interactive channels if deemed cost-effective) be an integral part of any smart

meter or residential dynamic pricing policy package to ensure that all consumers

are able to benefit financially and otherwise. This report assesses and provides

ex post evaluations of eight best practice examples of informative energy bills1

from diverse geographies, representing a mix of developed and developing

counties. Based on the findings, the report draws recommendations as to how

countries with different profiles and goals could implement and benefit from smart

billing (Dromacque, Xu, & Baynes, 2013)

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RELATED STUDIES

According to Mijung Kim (2015) This dissertation is an examination of how

push notifications affect habit formation and the relationship between habit and

mobile application use. As mobile phones become popular as a media platform

as well as a communication tool, recent design and technological improvements

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Web Based Water Billing System with Mobile Application
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in mobile phones have been aimed at increasing the mobile phone’s connectivity

in order to facilitate immediate access for users (Soror, Steelman, & Limayem,

2012). Moreover, as the number of features and applications available on mobile

phones increases, so do the kinds of activities people can carry out on them at

any time and location. Mobile technology continues to advance both in terms of

the functionality of mobile devices and the quality of connections. The

burgeoning choices of applications for data-enabled mobile phones (i.e.,

smartphones) are largely responsible for the expanded range of decision making

processes these devices provide. A lot of this content is useful and enjoyable to

users. Overall, mobile phone users experience fast and efficient information

consumption and enhanced social networking. Notifications from push

notification services transform smartphones into communication hubs that notify

users of incoming information or events as people on the go engage with social

networks, information services, location-based services, and interactive games.

Push notification services also allow “third-party application servers to actively

send data to their installed applications, even when the installed application is

currently not running” (Xu & Zhu, 2012, p. 11). To get push notification service,

mobile application users are asked whether they want to receive notifications

when they install applications. Through push notification services, mobile

application providers can feed information to users in efficient ways and in a 2

timely fashion. Notifications from push notification services serve as reminders

leading people to ultimately use the installed mobile applications. (Kim, 2015)

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Web Based Water Billing System with Mobile Application
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According to Paul John N. Macaraeg (2015) The health insurance industry

is saturated by big companies competing for market share. This saturation has

induced a change of focus towards this health insurance companies towards

their customers which went from customer acquisition to customer retention. A

need for a more holistic approach towards customer relationship management is

needed which entails the need for SMS, Telephone and Email helplines. No SMS

enabled customer relationship management tool is of existence in the health

insurance market hence utilization of the pros brought about by the said

technology hasn't been felt by its players yet. This need for an SMS enabled

CRM tool could be substantiated through the utilization of a GSM modem and

KANNEL for WAP based communication with a CodeIgniter based PHP web

application that utilizes MySQL database so as cost and setup would be

minimized for this software. Emails and Telephone helplines provide good quality

of service to members , as they have the perception that they are interacting with

real persons on the other end, however these technologies has a proven

drawback which involves customers waiting for responses in a long period of

time especially on telephone helplines which requires them to be held on the line

for an average duration of 56 seconds or more (Roddy, 2014). This length of time

needed for a consumer to avail of the customer relations services offered by

companies has been proven to be a primary factor for them to feel less of

importance towards that company hence minimizing their retention towards it, as

what the U.S. Survey Report (2014) has found out. Other technologies such as

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Web Based Water Billing System with Mobile Application
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SMS has already been proven, by the University of California 2 concluded with

their Group Case Study on Boomerang (2011) , to be of great value for it

provides a method with which companies could easily respond to customer

requests for an automated response system could be put in place of the human

factor needed for the two previously cited (Riley, Schmidt, & Tubin, 2011). The

SMS mode of conversing with consumers has not been explored that much by

health insurance companies in the Philippines although with it poses a great

promise if utilized properly. The reason as to why this happens is inconclusive

and no study has been put up in place to do so. (Macaraeg, 2015)

According to Chemonics International Inc. (2003) Billing and collection are

key elements of financial management and are central to managing a successful

business. Failure to either bill or collect, or to do both, in a timely and efficient

manner can have a negative if not drastic impact on the financial standing of a

company. The billing and collection functions are frequently separated from other

financial management activities in a water company. However, it is important that

data and information flow freely between them to ensure that billing and

collection operate smoothly, and that revenue, income and cash flow in the

company remain strong. The transformation of WAJ Aqaba into a limited liability

company will require the new company to adopt International Accounting

Standards (IAS) and a system of accrual accounting.2 The accrual method

provides a better matching of revenues and expenses than cash accounting and

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Web Based Water Billing System with Mobile Application
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helps analysts and managers to more accurately assess the profitability and

performance of the water company. It is important to note that while accrual-

based accounting is preferable to cash- based accounting, it can lead to a

potential problem in cash management. Under accrual accounting, revenue is

identified for the purposes of accounting when the bills are issued and delivered.

However, no cash is received by the company until the money is actually

collected. The difference between amounts billed and collected is recognized by

a current asset on the balance sheet known as “accounts receivable.” Obviously,

if a company is billing, but not collecting over a long period of time, or if there is a

delay between billing and collecting, its financial statements will present an overly

optimistic and inaccurate picture of its financial performance, when in fact the

finances of the company may be at stake due to an inability to convert accounts

receivable to cash. Many factors account for the large differences existing

between billings and collections and resulting in growing accounts receivable

balances. In some industries, companies may be overly aggressive in

recognizing revenue, especially in industries that allow some. (Pce-i----, 2003)

According to Laura Naismith, Peter Lonsdale, Giasemi Vavoula and Mike

Sharples (2004) Mobile technologies are becoming more embedded, ubiquitous

and networked, with enhanced capabilities for rich social interactions, context

awareness and internet connectivity. Such technologies can have a great impact

on learning. Learning will move more and more outside of the classroom and into

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the learner’s environments, both real and virtual, thus becoming more situated,

personal, collaborative and lifelong. The challenge will be to discover how to use

mobile technologies to transform learning into a seamless part of daily life to the

point where it is not recognized as learning at all. For more shareable

interactions, the devices themselves must become larger and hence less

portable. Examples include interactive classroom whiteboards and video-

conferencing facilities, as shown in quadrant 4. These technologies have been

included to show the complete space of possibilities engendered by our

classification, but they would generally not be classed as mobile technologies.

Mobile technologies are computers, but that does not mean that they should be

viewed as simply providing more portable versions of the learning activities that

are currently supported on more static machines. Being mobile adds a new

dimension to the activities that can be supported, both because of the personal

and portable nature of the devices themselves, and because of the kinds of

interactions they can support with other learners and the environment. (Naismith,

Lonsdale, Vavoula, & Sharples, 2004)

According to Maha.Alqahtani and Heba. Mohammad (2017) Mobile

applications are rapidly growing in importance and can be used for various

purposes. They had been used widely in education. One of the educational

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purposes for which mobile applications can be used is learning the right way to

read and pronounce the verses of the Holy Quran. There are many applications

that translate the Quran into several languages. In addition, there are

applications that help usersto read the Quran, and search for a particular word or

phrase in the text as well as listening to verses of the Holy Quran. Recently,

many researchers have focused on mobile learning and its environment. Some

researchers have defined the difference between e-learning and mobile learning,

saying thate-learning is a learning process which is supported by digital

electronic tools and media, and by analogy, m-learning is e-learning that uses

mobile devices and wireless transmission (Pinkwartet al,2003,). M-learning

functions by integrating a number of hardware and software technologies into

multimedia applications to facilitate the understanding of educational content, for

example, in the form of quizzes or games. A2010 study by Garajat the School of

Engineering and Design, Brunel University, United Kingdom, was designed to

enhance students’ performance and experiences within the BSc Multimedia

Technology and Design course. The research presented a number of m-learning

application concepts organized under the subjects of administration,

presentation, feedback, motivation, and innovation. The study found that

implementing m-learning is sufficient for students. Hashimand colleagues (2011)

introduced a Java m-learning application tool to review and revise course

materials. This application can be used either on-line or off-line. The on-line

feature helped users to access learning material through a certain URL, while the

off-line feature helped users to access learning content via the application, which

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had been installed on their mobile devices. This application mainly focused on

three subject areas: science, English, and mathematics. Learners could use the

application to review course materials before exams or quizzes.(Alqahtani &

Mohammad, 2017)

According to Professor Kari Smolander (2008) Enterprises have a need in

use of billing. Before actual choose of a billing system an appropriate platform

has to be deployed. This work presents a study of a platform choosing for a

billing system and shows the role of optimally chosen platform. In evaluation of a

platform several criteria were considered: cost, scalability, reliability, safety,

usability, portability and efficiency. In the thesis three different platforms MAC

OS, Linux and MS Windows were studied. The results of the evaluation of each

platform are shown and according to this results the most suitable platform for a

billing system was chosen A correct choose of an optimal platform makes BS

better and clearer. For example, optimal platform allows reducing the price; build

a safe system and understandable interface for users. There are many

methodologies for evaluation software. When we developed a BS, we should not

copy blindly a structure of BS that was driven to success. Some architecture is

success for some company; other can lead to failure. It is necessary to

understand final is high-quality software and using methods, methodologies,

standards, systems are just essential tools for achievement problem. Further

gives expert opinion about stage of the software evaluation. System low reliability

sources are programmers’ errors made on development stage and not corrected

during the program compilation. A program is correct if it does not have any

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errors. This program gives correct results thus it is absolutely reliable. Wrong

result can be consequence of several errors. Errors can compensate each other

and after correction of some of them the program will function worse. Therefore,

reliability characterizes frequency of error appearance but do not number of

errors. Errors appear with different frequency; some errors are overlooked after a

long period of service. (Technology & Technology, 2008)

According to Hal P. Schemer and Dennis D. Weiand (2000) A system and

method for monitoring and verifying inventory is provided. The system comprises

a portable computer with a printer and modem all "cabled" together and

maintained in a carrying case. The portable computer communicates with a

mainframe computer on which certain dealer inventory information is maintained.

Software, residing on a disk which is accessible by the portable computer, allows

for the input of dealer codes which are used to identify inventory information

which is downloaded from the mainframe computer to the portable computer.

The inventory information is used to support an audit of a dealer's inventory. The

system of the present invention provides an auditor with an up-to-date record a

dealer's current inventory. The system also provides the auditor with a means for

printing out a checklist for use in undertaking the inventory, for preparing

reconciliation reports for verifying the auditor's findings with the dealer and input

means for inputting the results of the inventory. Ultimately, a final inventory report

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can be printed which includes the present status of all inventory items and any

and all charges collected. (Schemer & Weiand, 2000)

According to Donald R. Frey Allows customers to be billed a set amount.

There is a settlement period when the budget amount is adjusted to reflect the

past experience. The budget amount is calculated programmatically. However,

the user may override the calculated amount. Many gas and electric utilities offer

this plan. However, we are finding other clients are interested in such a plan to

entice their customers to use ACH for making payments. Some customers are

leery about ACH because the amount varies each month. Budget billing can

eliminate that concern. As postal rates continue to climb, ACH becomes more

attractive as a means of collection. Capability for multiple users to access the

system. This option includes advanced security, record locking, operator logs,

active users on system, Thin Clients, and other features required for a

demanding processing environment. Capabilities for the account and Post net

bar coding of bills. Bar coded bills can be scanned with a variety of scanning

equipment. Imaging interfaces for scanning documents. Receipt printers and

cash drawers are also available with this option. A link to MapQuest is available

which will automatically display a client's location. ACH (Automated Clearing

House) processing is included. ACH provides automatic bank debiting

capabilities. It replaces the old bank drafting systems. Batch receipt processing is

also provided.(“Comprehensive Utility Billing & Control System,” n.d.)

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According Lawrence Berkeley (2010) This report summarizes the layout

and content of a website created for the CEC to make the information in the

Energy Aware Planning Guide readily available to California cities and counties,

to assist them in their efforts to reduce energy use. The website consists of an

electronic version of the entire Planning Guide that allows easy maneuverability

among the many sections of the document, and quick downloading of references

cited in the document. The website also contains individual briefing pages for 46

land use- and transportation-related measures, including 21 briefs that provide

information on additional transportation-related measures that are not specifically

identified in the Planning Guide. The website also summarizes estimates of the

effectiveness of individual measures described in the briefings, as well as the

cost-effectiveness of each measure, derived from a comprehensive national

study of the potential to reduce energy use from the transportation sector The

website includes 25 measures that are specifically identified in the Energy Aware

Planning Guide, as well as an additional 21 transportation-related measures not

identified in the Planning Guide. The Energy Aware Planning Guide summarizes

23 specific land use and transportation strategies for local governments to

reduce energy use. Some of these strategies were combined, and some were

separated into specific measures, for the website, based on the authors’

judgment. The additional 21 measures not specified in the Planning Guide were

developed based upon a review of the literature. This section includes

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effectiveness (in million metric tons of greenhouse gas emissions reduced) and

cost-effectiveness (in dollars per ton of greenhouse gas emissions reduced)

estimates, which are calculated using cumulative greenhouse gas emission

reductions and direct implementation costs by 2050, from the Moving Cooler

study released by the Urban Land Institute in 2009. (Morris et al., 2010)

According to QUSAY MOHAMMAD IBRAHIM AL-ZOUBI (2009) Mobile

phone plays a very important role in people life today; its functionality has been

extended from voice communication only devices to internet surfing and data

transfer. UUM as a higher education institute, hold and organize numerous

events throughout the academic year and it relies on email communications for

notifying its staff. Using the email notification to announce the staff for the

function is suffering from two main problems which are: First, some of the staff do

not check his/her email periodically, so they may miss read the notification email

about the function and therefore they will not attend the function. Second,

sometimes internet service is not available or staffs are at some place where

they cannot access internet which will lead also to make them unaware about the

function or the notification about that function. This study has successfully

designed and developed a notification system in order to be used by UUM to

send the notifications direct to the staff mobile phones via SMS and thus helps in

make sure that the notification is delivered to all interested staff. Successfully

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implementing this notification system in UUM will provide the university a reliable

and convenient inter communication channel. One of the most important fields in

concerned with using the notification systems is the business field who are aims

to distribute their advertisements to the largest possible number of consumers

with the less cost and effort. the researcher tries to show the importance and the

vary of usage of the notification system and how it help in the field. And same

time shows the mechanism that used at this study to develop and employ such

system. The system that Karolids, et al. (2005) worked on was designed to cover

any event category such as: sports events, TV schedule, and alert for

unexpected events at home or work and library environment. And it is consisting

of a subsystem for event inserting, user profile management, SMS notification.

The system has three types of users who are they administrator, content

administrator and the end user. The system description includes the main

operation for the system starting by user registration, user login and 14 check,

code access management, event editing add/delete and change, message

syntax and interested events and collection of user preferences. Thus

administrator will be in charge of all the system. The end user has a special

interface at the system, through this web page can defined his/her information

and the interested events of categories, this details will be stored in the system

database. When any event occur the content manager define the message

category then will write down the content of the SMS message and finalize the

message then save the message notification. The system will check at the

category of the message who is interested with this category and will send the

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message notification directly as SMS to the interested users cell phone numbers.

(al-Zoubi, 2009)

Synthesis

The review of related literature and studies serve as guideline and

foundation of the proponents on their designed proposal. Proponents used the

information of Pradeep Gokhale of Computerize Water Billing System. Water

Billing is important a community it is very useful for processing the water billing in

San Jose del Monte Bulacan. Proponents also adopt of method of study such as

descriptive research. Descriptive method of study focuses in describing the data

and characteristic about what being studied since the proponents engage on san

jose water district, observation and describing of process observation and

describing of processes will be the key in knowing weaknesses and problems of

existing water billing system. Proponents also adopt the theory of Janelyn A.

Ambre which is the iterative implementation study. In this theory, the overall

functionality of the system is broken-down to feature sets. This feature sets

represent different processes involves. Water users make many behavioral,

operational, and investment decisions that affect their water use. They invest

capital to improve on‐site storage capacity, water quality, and use efficiency.

They also allocate water daily from different quality sources to numerous end

uses. Yet water use models have given little systematic attention to sources

availabilities, reliabilities, qualities, conservation options, and local storage.

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These considerations are important in intermittent supply systems where

households adopt many interdependent actions to cope with insufficient piped

water. Proponents also adopt to Hal P. Schemer and Dennis D. Weiand A

system and method for monitoring and verifying inventory is provided. The

system comprises a portable computer with a printer and modem all "cabled"

together and maintained in a carrying case. The portable computer

communicates with a mainframe computer on which certain dealer inventory

information is maintained. Software, residing on a disk which is accessible by the

portable computer, allows for the input of dealer codes which are used to identify

inventory information which is downloaded from the mainframe computer to the

portable computer. The inventory information is used to support an audit of a

dealer's inventory just like the theory of Maha.Alqahtani and Heba. Mohammad

that mobile applications can be used is learning the right way to read. Some

researchers have defined the difference between e-learning and mobile learning,

saying that e-learning is a learning process which is supported by digital

electronic tools and media, and by analogy, m-learning is e-learning that uses

mobile devices and wireless transmission.

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CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

Software Methodology

Figure 1.Waterfall Method

The figure above is the development method of the proposed system. It

illustrates the process which the proponents experienced in developing the

project. This demonstrates the inputs and processes that help the proponents

create the system.

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This is the process on how the proponents created a Water District Web

Base Water Billing and Mobile Application.

Planning – the proponents will research about the features and background of

the existing system.

Analysis – the proponents gathered all the information about the system.

Design – the proponents will design the system that they propose based on the

proponent’s ideas.

Development – this is the phase where the proponents are making the system.

Testing – the proponents test the new system that they’ve created, looking for

any bugs and debug if they found any problem to the system.

Implementation – giving practical effect and ensure of actual fulfilment by

concrete measures.

Maintenance – maintaining the system based on the original features of the

system and the capabilities of the system.

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4. Requirement Analysis

4.1 Data Flow Diagram of Existing System

Figure No. 2 Data Flow Diagram (Existing System)

Data Flow Diagram Level 0 illustrate processed of data by a system in

terms of inputs and outputs and how data flow inside it, where data comes from

and where it goes and how it gets stored in the database of the system. This

shows a data system as a whole and emphasizes the way it interacts with eternal

entities.

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4.2 Level 0 of Existing System

Figure No. 3 Data Flow Diagram (Existing System)

Data Flow Diagram Level 0 of existing system it illustrate processed of

data by a system in terms of inputs and outputs and how data flow inside, where

data comes from and where it goes and how it gets stored in the database of the

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system. This shows a data system as a whole and emphasizes the way it

interacts with eternal entities.

5. Requirement Documentation

5.1. User Requirements

Mobile Application- The Consumer needs to download the water billing

application for water bill the user must register first to have an account using

the meter number of the water bill. After the confirm registration the user can

received the water bill every month.

Internet- The consumer must have an internet to view the bills using mobile

application. Also the employee for the purpose of sending the bill to the

consumer.

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5.2. System Requirement for Hardware

Table No. 1

EQUIPMENTS SPECIFICATIONS QUANTITY

HARDWARE

 Full view HD

Display

Desktop / Laptop  At least core i3

 Windows 10 1

Operating System

 128gb SSD and

1TB of internal

Storage

 Fast and Smoot

operate
Cell phone performance 1

 Android 8.1

operating system

SOFTWARE

SQL Database Version: Express Edition 1

PHP ---------------------------------- 1

Android Studio ---------------------------------- 1

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Table No. 1: Specific Requirements

The Table above illustrate the system requirements, tools and materials

will be used in creating the proposed system by the proponents. Including the

Software and Hardware to make it possible.

Interface Requirements

Figure No. 4 Interface Requirements

The figure above illustrates the interface requirements of the proposed

system, which is the first form display the sign in process.

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Figure No. 5 Interface Requirements

The figure above illustrates the interface requirements of the proposed

system, which is the second form display the two buttons the billing process and

viewing the records.

Figure No. 6 Interface Requirements

The figure above illustrates the interface requirements of the proposed

system, which is the third form display the main process of the billing system.

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Figure No. 7 Interface Requirements

The figure above illustrates the interface requirements of the proposed

system, which is the fourth form display the viewing of records of the system.

Figure No. 8 Interface Requirements

The figure above illustrates the interface requirements of the proposed

system, which is the fifth form display the summary and the statement of account

of the consumer.

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Interface of Mobile Application

Figure No. 9 Interface Requirements of mobile application

The figure above illustrates the interface requirements of the mobile

application of the billing system. The consumer needs to register and sign in to

view the water bill statement.

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Figure No. 10 Interface Requirements of mobile application

The figure above illustrates the interface requirements of the mobile

application of the billing system. The consumer will be able to view the bill

statement.

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DEVELOPMENT COST ANALYSIS

Table No.2

HARDWARE QUANTITY PRICE

Desktop / Laptop 1 (optional no.) Php. 40,000

Cell phone 1 (optional no.) Php. 8,490

SOFTWARE

MySQL Database 1 FREE downloadable

PHP 1 FREE downloadable

Android Studio 1 FREE downloadable

Total Cost of tools and

materials Php. 48,490

Table No. 2: Development cost Analysis of Hardware and Software

The table above Illustrates the development cost analysis of Hardware

and Software.

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Table No.3

LABOR COST

Programmer Php.30,000 x 2= 60,000

Program Designer Php.20,000 x 1= 20,000

Documentaries Php.5,000 x 1= 5,000

Total Labor Cost Php.75,000

Table No. 3: Development cost Analysis of Labor

The table above Illustrates the development cost analysis of Labor it

shows the total computation of labor cost.

Table No.4

MISCELLANEOUS

Supplies Php.250

Printing Php.1000

Others (Fares, Foods) Php.2,500

Total Miscellaneous Cost Php.3,750

Table No. 4: Development cost Analysis of Labor

The table above Illustrates the development cost analysis of miscellaneus

it shows the total computation of miscellaneous cost.

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Table No.5

Total Development Cost Total

Total Cost of tools and materials Php. 48,490

Total Labor Cost Php. 75,000

Total Miscellaneous Cost Php. 3,750

TOTAL AMOUNT DEVELOPMENT

COST Php. 127,240

Table No.5 Total Cost and Benefit Analysis

The figure above illustrates the Total Cost and Benefits Analysis of the

proposed system known as method that estimates the operating cost of the

proposed system and also the development cost of the system. This helps the

proponent and the client to identify the operating cost of existing system compare

to proposed system.

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6. Entity Relationship Diagram

Figure No. 11 Entity Relationship Diagram

The figure above illustrates the Entity Relationship Diagram shows the

relationship of the tables used in the system. The system is composed of the

following tables for: Clients, Disconnection notice and Bill. The relationship of

each entity can be determined by the lines connected.

7. Data Flow Diagram of the Proposed System

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Figure No. 12 Context Dataflow Diagram of the Proposed System

The figure above illustrates the context dataflow diagram of the proposed

system.

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8. Level 0 of Proposed System

Figure No. 13 Data Flow Diagram Level 0 of the Proposed System

Data Flow Diagram Level 0 illustrate processed of data by a system in

terms of inputs and outputs and how data flow inside, where data comes from

and where it goes and how it gets stored in the database of the system. This

shows a data system as a whole and emphasizes the way it interacts with eternal

entities.

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Flowchart of the Proposed System

Mobile Application Flowchart

Figure No. 14 Flowchart of Mobile Application

The Figure above shows the flowchart of mobile application, it illustrates

the process of the systems.

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Online Based Flowchart

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Figure No. 15 Flowchart of Mobile Application

The Figure above shows the flowchart of online based system, it illustrates

on how the systems flows.

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57