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Professional Business Communication


MBA- 1st Sem

(Batch 2019-20)
Version Professional Business Communication L T P C
Apply to Programs: USB -MBA 3 0 0 3
Prerequisite: -Studied English Language upto senior secondary Total hours = 36
Aims to augment student’s overall communication and interpersonal skills by making them realize the
1 importance of good oral and written English Language in professional life.
To enrich reading capability and inculcate business sense with special emphasis on expanding vocabulary,
grammatical formations and analytical ability.
3 Write business documents clearly, concisely and analytically in correct syntax.
4 Speak coherently, concisely in social and professional environment.
Course Outcome
Student will be able to:
1 Demonstrate the ability to listen and read attentively, express ideas with clarity in both oral and written
2 Exhibit contextually correct ideas for a specific audience and purpose in the business world.
3 Demonstrate spoken competency in contextual business environment.
4 Exhibit competence to write business correspondence strategically in correct English.
5 Critically evaluate written text and form an informed decision.

Unit -1

Business Communication: Meaning, importance, process, models and types, barriers to effective communication, verbal
and non-verbal communication, Techniques for building LSRW Skills.

Reading Skills: The student is required to read the book: The Leader Who Had No Title
Writing: Paragraph writing, reading comprehension, note making and note taking.
Listening: Vowel sounds, stress and intonation
Speaking: Greeting, Complementing and Inviting
Book Review Discussion
Unit -2

Business Communication: Ethics in Communication- Significance, Factors, Dilemmas in Ethical Communication

Reading: Select Case Studies

Writing: Summarizing, leave application, permission letter, business letters - sales, request, order, inquiry,
acknowledgement, complaint and collection letters, memorandum writing, office order, circular, notice
writing, agenda and minutes of meeting, modern forms of communication: e-mails, video conference and
conference calls.
Listening: Consonant Sounds
Speaking: Case Discussion
Grammar: Punctuation, Correction of sentences
Vocabulary: One-word substitutes, synonyms, antonyms and contextual usage
Unit -3
Business Communication: Cross-cultural Communication – Significance, elements, cultural context and barriers to
Cross Cultural Communication
Reading: Select Case Studies
Writing: Report writing - proposal writing, types of reports, academic and technical reports, interview skills, job
application and resume writing, digital content writing (blogs and websites), proof reading.
Listening: Consonant Sounds
Speaking: Social Etiquette, Case Discussion, Mock Interviews
Vocabulary: Collocations, idioms
Text books
1. Raman, M. and Singh, P. (2017). Business Communication, Oxford University Press: New Delhi.
2. Sharma R: The Leader Who Had No Title
3. Communication Skills - Study Material
Reference Books

1. Lesikar R.V., Petit J.D. (2016). Business Communication, Tata McGraw: New Delhi
2. Chaturvedi, P.D. and Chaturvedi (2017). Business Communication, Pearson Education: New Delhi.
3. Kumar, S and Lata, P (2017). Communication Skills, Oxford University Press: New Delhi
4. Hewing, Martin, Advanced English Grammar, Cambridge University Press (2015), UK.
Suggested Readings
1. Covey S. R: The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People
2. Sun Tzu: The Art of War
3. Dr. Abdul Kalam: Wings of Fire
4. Napolean Hill: Think and Grow Rich
5. Eliyahu M. Goldratt: The Goal
6. Spencer Johnson: Who Moved My Cheese
7. Norman Vincent Peale: The Power of Positive Thinking
8. John Christen: Fish
9. Arindam Choudhary: Count Your Chickens before They Hatch and more…

Teaching –Learning Process

1. The significance of effective communication will be discussed and emphasized through the first chapter of each
2. The reading skills of the students will be addressed through the text book, where each student will be asked to
discuss a portion of the text. Difficult words with their meaning and usage will be discussed in the class.
3. The writing skills will be augmented through practice in class for business correspondence.
4. Grammatical errors would be corrected through worksheets.
5. Vocabulary and contextual word usage will be supplemented through the study material provided.
Communication Skills


Communication is fundamental for creating significant relationships among human beings. The word
communication has been derived from Latin word “communicare/communis’ that means to ‘share’ or
‘participate’. Communication is the exchange of ideas, opinions and information through written or
spoken words, symbols or actions. Effective communication ensures whether the transmitted contents are
received and understood by someone in the way they were intended.

Business Communication

Business Communication is a mode of communication used to promote a product, service, or organization –

with the intent of making a sale. In business communication, message is passed on through different channels
of communication including internet, print (publications), radio, television, outdoor, and word of mouth.

According to Fred Luthans: Business Communication means “The flow of material information, perceptions
and understanding between various parts and members of an organization.”

According to Fotheringham, “Communication is a process involving the selection, production and

transmission of signs in such a way as to help a receiver perceive a meaning similar to that in the mind of the

According to Murphy, “Communication is the process of transmitting and receiving verbal and non-verbal


According to Murphy, Communication is the stimulus of every organization. Without effective communication,
no organization can grow. Products are designed, made and sold keeping in mind its customers. People are
hired, services are rendered, policies are made, and jobs are learned and performed to boost the sales of any
organization. Communication has positive correlation with organizational outputs and is necessary for any
business to thrive.

Although communication plays a vital role in every facet of business, it is especially important in today’s age of
globalization when companies are expanding its off-shoots worldwide and has made communication more
complicated within and outside organizations.

Types of languages in relation to Business communication

 Formal Language
 Informal Language
Formal language is used when we tend to business areas to construct and foster productive relationships. The
business affairs can be termed as some of the follows:

1. Sending letters to different people on behalf of the company

2. Placing orders for different products.
3. Hiring people
4. Preparing reports both oral and written
5. Writing memos to other employees
6. Applying for jobs
All communication done in business affairs uses formal languages, we have to be vigilant while using formal
language, as usage of wrong ideas can lead to collapse of the organization. Avoid using slang and improper or
ambiguous words.

Informal language is used outside business areas such as private discussions, gathering with friends and family
and sharing ideas. Informal language is casual and spontaneous and often used to get ideas across quickly; short
form words are incorporated and are supported by understandable slang.


Feedback Message

Receiver Medium

Figure 1: Basic Communication Model

Components of communication (Factors of communication / elements of communication or process of


Every message whether oral or written, begins with context based on demographic, social, cultural, physical,
organizational and other external and internal factors. What we communicate predominantly depends on the
social environment we are in, some things considered as appropriate might be inappropriate to other cultures or
organizations. While communicating we have to be vigilant of this fact as neglecting it may lead to
misunderstanding or the whole idea may get rejected.

Sender of a message can be termed as the encoder, the writer, speaker or presenter depending on the situation
and whether our message is oral or written. Try to choose such language and words which are easily
understandable and comprehensive to others. If we use the inappropriate language or the faulty words we might
not get our ideas across and will not achieve desired result. .


The message is the main idea we intend to communicate. It comprises both verbal and non-verbal symbols. Our
first job is to decide what our message is and what we are trying to convey. How receiver will decode our ideas
and will it be understood clearly or not should be pivotal to us. We have to keep in mind the essentials of our
message. Do we have to give any answers? Do we have to pass-on any specific information? And do we need to
get something done?


Medium is the mode through which the message is transmitted; it can be the printed word, electronic mail or
sound. The medium depends on the context factor discussed earlier. In other words we can say medium means
whether we should speak or write and if we write in what manner or format. The written medium is preferred
when the message is usually long, technical or formal in nature or should be documented. The oral medium is
effective when the message is urgent or immediate feedback is required.


Receiver is the person who decodes or deciphers our message. Receiver is the one reading or listening to our
message. Receiver can be more than one for single message. We are well aware that no two people think in
similar way. So it depends on the receiver how the message is decoded or interpreted and it might also cause the
message to be taken in a different meaning as it was originally intended.


In the end the receiver acts on the message received. Feedback plays a vital role. It may be oral or written; it
may be a message or an action or simply silence. It can be either positive or negative; every message has a
feedback or response. We cannot say that there was no response to our message even silence is a kind of
feedback or response. Effective communication is where we get our required feedback or response. It is an
informal channel of business communication.

Types of Business Communication

Business communication in an organization is categorized into two types:

 Internal Communication
 External Communication

1. Internal Communication

All communication that takes place within an organization is called “Internal Communication”. Its main
purpose is to provide information to employees in any of the forms: informal, formal, or departmental.
Effective internal communication is an essential mode of attending to organizational affairs. Effective
communication may help to elevate safety, job satisfaction, productivity, and profits and lower grievances and

Internal Business Communication is further divided into some types:

 Upward-Communication
Upward communication is the flow of information that starts from the lower levels to upper levels of a
hierarchy within an organization, for instance communication from employees to management, or from
subordinates to superiors. Upward communication helps the management to work efficiently, knowing if the
messages have been received appositely, or if any other issue persists in the organization. As business
communication is a two-way process, it must get started from the bottom if it is to be efficiently completed.

Upward Communication helps the employees to:

 Exchange information
 Present ideas
 Show enthusiasm
 Attain job satisfaction
 Give feedback
 Downward-Communication
Opposite to upward communication, downward communication is the communication that flows from higher
levels to lower levels of a hierarchy. Message flow starts at the top of the organizational management hierarchy
telling people in the organization what is important and what is valued. Downward communication usually
provides information – which allows a junior to do something. For instance, providing instructions on how to
complete a task. Downward communication comes after upward communications have been successfully

Downward communication is required in an organization to:

 Exchange important information

 Provide instructions
 Encourage two-way discussion
 Announce decisions
 Seek cooperation
 Spread motivation
 Boost morale
 Increase efficiency
 Obtain feedback
 Horizontal/Lateral-communication
This type of communication normally deals in coordinating information and is necessary for collaboration and
cooperation of people with the same or similar ranks working in the same organization. To accomplish the
assigned work, communication among employees at the same level is important for the benefits of a business

Horizontal Communication is significant for:

 Dealing with problems

 Completing tasks
 Improving teamwork
 Building goodwill
 Uplifting efficiency

2. External Communication

External communication includes interaction with people outside the given organization. For the commercial
benefits of the organization, it is important for supervisors to communicate with sources outside the
organization, such as clients, customers and vendors.
It leads to better:

 Public trustworthiness
 Operational effectiveness
 Company benefits
 Sales volume

Types of Communication
One- way

Communication encompasses the transmission of information from one unit to another. In one-way
communication, information flows in one direction only, from the sender to the receiver. There isn't any room
for the receiver to give feedback to the sender. For instance; weather report on television, newspaper, recorded
music on the CD, billboard messages and books.


Two-way communication is a two-way process of transmission where both parties are involved to transfer
information. There is an opportunity for a receiver to give feedback or response to the sender or to seek any
clarification from the same. Therefore, two-way communication is also referred to as interpersonal
communication. Eg. face to face communication, Instant Messaging, Telephone conversations, classroom
lectures etc.


In this type of communication, the professional uses language (whether oral or written) as a vehicle of
communication. There are two types of verbal communication: Oral communication and written communication

1. Oral communication – It is a type of communication that does not include any written material,
communication is done orally i.e. a face-to-face interaction between the sender and the receiver. E.g.
Making presentations and appearing for interviews

2. Written Communication – The sender uses writing to transmit his/her messages to the receiver. E.g.
Writing reports and emails

This process requires non-verbal cues to be transmitted and received. Receiver notices physical behavior of the
sender. Here a message is transferred without using a word,. Eg. facial expressions, posture, eye contact, walk,
person’s voice, volume, pitch, voice modulation etc.
Communication includes both verbal and non-verbal forms. Therefore, it also includes lip reading, sign
language and body language.


An interchange of information between two or more people is called Interpersonal communication. In the
process transmission of information, feelings, and meaning is done through verbal and non-verbal means.
Therefore, it is also known as face-to-face communication. It is also called dyadic communication when it takes
place between two participants and group communication if there are more than two people. Conversations,
meetings, project discussions, sales visits, interviews etc are some examples. Communication in business
usually involves interpersonal communication, communication between management and staff as well as other
business contacts.


When communication takes place within one’s own self, it is called Intrapersonal communication. It occurs
within the mind of an individual. This implies individual reflection, Self-realization, contemplation and


We define organizational communication as the sending and receiving of messages among interrelated
individuals within a particular environment or setting to achieve individual and common goals. 1 Organizational
communication is highly contextual and culturally dependent. Individuals in organizations transmit messages
through face-to face, written, and mediated channels. It can occur in either formal or informal setting. It is an
element to effective management in a workplace environment to gain goodwill.

Mass Communication

It is a way of imparting messages to an entire crowd. Generally it is recognized with tools of modern mass
media, which include books, the press, cinema, television, radio, internet etc. It also includes speeches delivered
by leaders to a large audience.


It is a form of communication that stretches throughout the organization in every direction regardless of the
hierarchy or authority levels. As man is a social animal, he tends to interact with a lot of people while living in a
society, as a result he uses informal forms of communication more while working within an organization
despite the existence of formal channels. It exists more at lower levels of organization. E.g. Suppose the profit
amount of a company is known, rumor is spread that this much profit is there and on that basis bonus is
declared. Thus, grapevine spreads like wildfire and many a times it is not easy to find the cause of such

SMRC Model of Communication

Figure 2

SMCR model of communication by Berlo.

There are various elements that Berlo has incorporated in his model of communication:

Sender or Source

The starting point of a message is called Source. A message begins from a source.
Communication skills
According to Berlo, communication is also influenced by people’s skills of comprehension that is reading and
listening and skills of expression which include their ability in writing and speaking.

By attitude, Berlo means a sender’s attitude towards himself and his audience. It matters while communicating.
For instance, a teacher teaches with the attitude of imparting knowledge and a student’s attitude is to assimilate
This element deals with a speaker’s hold on the subject that he chooses to share with his audience. It shows that
the speaker doesn’t disseminate general information of the topic rather he displays his acquaintance with the
subject. He shows that he knows what he’s conveying.
Social system
A lot of social factors such as the moral standards, ideologies, ideals and beliefs of people are included in the
Social system. It also considers religious and cultural aspects of a specific society. Depending upon a social
system, communication occurs.
For e.g. class rooms are not same everywhere. They differ from country to country like behaviors or how we
communicate etc.
Social system also includes the culture of a specific society.
A message is encoded in the form of a text, a signal etc. Encoder is the one who initiates a message.
It is the content or the information which is to be shared with a receiver.
The entire message from beginning to end is called content. For example, everything that a teacher delivers in a
class from starting to end becomes content.
Elements of a message involve verbal and non-verbal methods such as body language, gestures, language etc.
Packing of the message is referred to as Treatment. It is the way in which the message is conveyed or delivered.
Structure of the message shows its arrangement or the way it is organized into various segments. The same
message may fail to be delivered if it not appropriately structured.
A message can be sent in any form such as language, body language, gestures, music etc. Sending a message
using a particular form is known as a Code. Culture is also considered as a code. A code is used to send or
receive a message. If improper code is used to transfer a message then clear message will not be transmitted and
there are chances of its misinterpretation.
Channel is a medium we use to send a message. Five sensory organs i.e. hearing, sight, touch, smell and taste
work as a channel. All communication happens through these five sense organs.
Here, ears act as a channel to receive vocal, interpersonal etc. messages.
This includes ocular/visual medium. For instance, television acts as a channel for a receiver to see and receive a
As a part of non-verbal communication, the sense of touch can be used as a channel to send a message. For
example, food is bought by touching. Hugging also falls in this.
A message is communicated through the sense of smell. For e.g. food, perfumes are smelled before buying
them. Charred smell communicates something is burning. Through smelling, we get to know the type of food
being cooked etc.
Communication occurs through tongue as well. The taste of food is checked through tongue.
Decoding a message means to unfold/analyze it. The one who receives a message and unravels it, is known as a
As per Berlo, a receiver and a source need to think alike.
Berlo’s model presents the view that a source and a receiver should share the same mental and social level for
an effective communication to take place. It’s only when they are on the same level, communication happens
appropriately. Thus, source and receiver should be same.

Criticism of Berlo’s SMCR model of communication:

1. This model doesn’t mention about feedback as one of the elements
2. Barriers in the form of noise which are an inevitable part of any communication, have not been talked about
3. This model is complex
4. It is a linear model of communication
5. The model requires communicators to be on the same page which is not practically possible
6. The biggest flaw lies in the fact that it doesn’t say anything about the important sense i.e. sixth sense. Sense
of perceiving, comprehending also acts as a significant medium which Berlo has not taken into

Shannon Weaver Model

An American mathematician and Electronic engineer, Claude Elwood Shannon and an American scientist,
warren Weaver came together to create an article named as “A Mathematical Theory of Communication”
which was published in the journal called “Bell System Technical Journal” This theory later on came to be
known as Shannon Weaver Model of communication.
This model reveals the stages involved in developing effective communication between a sender and a receiver.
They have also mentioned the barriers that disrupt communication and are called “Noise”. Initially, the model
was created to enhance the Technical communication. Later on, it’s implemented in Communication field as
The model comprises concepts like Sender, Encode, Noise, channel, Message, Receiver, and Decode.

The Information source chooses the message that he wishes to convey.
Message is converted into signals by the transmitter which is called encoder.
The message is compacted into signals (waves or Binary data)so that it can be transmitted through cables or
satellites. For instance, when a person chooses telephone as a medium to send his message, the voice is
transformed into wave signals and it is transmitted through cables.
This process is just opposite of the process of encoding. It is the reception place of signals. Here, signals are
converted back into a message or in other words it can be said that signals are changed into comprehensible
form by a decoder.
It is essential for a receiver to convert those binary data or waves into a message which is comfortable and
understandable. Without this process, a receiver fails to receive the exact message which in turn impedes
effective communication between a sender and a receiver.
The destination point of the message is a Receiver.
The receiver provides feedback to sender on the basis of the decoded message. If the message is obstructed by
noise it affects the smooth communication flow between a sender and a receiver.
When a message is sent by a sender to a receiver through a medium called channel, it may get distorted or
affected by physical noise such as the noise created by natural phenomenon like thundering, noise generated by
horns or crowd etc. Apart from it, encoded signals may get disrupted in the channel during the transmission
process which impacts the communication flow leading to the failure of the reception of correct message by a
Apparently, this model deals with only external noises which affect the messages or signals from external
sources. For example, any problem that crops up in the network which directly affects the mobile phone
communication and hampers the messages.

Criticism of Shannon-Weaver model of communication:

1. Unlike many complicated models, this model is one of the simplest models of communication which lays
foundation for other communication theories.
2. It arouses the interest of Human communication and Information theorist to carry out more research in the
field of communication
3. It’s more helpful in direct communication between two people than in a group or with a large audience.
4. It deals with the concept of “Sender and Receiver”. The key function is performed by a sender and a receiver
performs the secondary role.
5. Communication is a two-way process. If it were a one- way process, it would lose its strength. For example,
audience or receiver listening to a radio, reading the books or watching television reflects one-way
communication as there is no feedback provided by the receiver.
6. In order to resolve issues in communication, it is important to understand the factor of noise.

Barriers of communication (Problems in communication)

We understand that communication is a complex process. Even if we prepare the best, the receiver might
perceive it differently or there can be external problems which might cause our communication to be distorted
or problematic.

Following can create barriers to communication

i. Psychological barriers
ii. Physiological barriers
iii. Semantic blocks
iv. Organizational Barriers
Psychological barriers

We know that no two people think alike so there will be problems when our messages are taken differently from
different people, depending on their thought process. Psychological barriers include peoples’ emotions,
perceptions and selectivity.

It is the barriers to effective communication created from the lack of interest of the people from who the
communication is meant. People do not pay attention to the communication which is not interesting to them and
which do not fulfill their want.

a. Perception: – it is the process of accepting and interpreting the information by the receiver. People receive
things differently for a various number of reasons.

b. Filtering: – communication some time filters the negative information to make it more favorable to the
receiver. In this process, knowingly or unknowingly some valuable information may be disposed.

c. Distrust: – superior provides information or message to the subordinates according to their own view, ideas
and opinion which create obstruction in communication.

d. Emotions: – emotion also creates barriers to effective communication like anger, hate, mistrust, jealousy etc.

e. Viewpoint: – it also creates barriers to effective communication. If the receiver doesn’t clear the message and
ignore without hearing, the message may create obstructions.

f. Defensiveness: – if the receiver receives the message as threat and interprets that message in the same way, it
creates barriers to effective communication.


One possible psychological block is emotional. For example if you are announcing a new policy which you
know will be unpopular you will be emotionally blocked, giving the first major presentation for your job,
writing a letter to someone you dislike you will be emotionally blocked. The people we are communicating to
may also have emotional blocks. They may feel indifferent or hostile towards our subject or can be biased
against us or our subject.


Even if there are no poignant blocks every person perceives things differently. Communication involves
perception and perception is never accurate. One perceptual problem is that people perceive things differently.
A glass is half filled for one and half empty for another.

A final set of psychological barriers exist because of prioritizing one’s time and attention. In our daily lives we
are bombarded with a huge amount of information from different sources. We only remember the information
which we think is important to us or somehow is connected to us. The rest of the information is discarded from
the mind as garbage. Another thing is that we remember the extremes of everything and forget the moderate

Physiological barriers

Communication does not consist of words alone. Another set of barriers is caused by physical manifestation,
audience or the context of the document or presentation. For written communication take the examples of bad
handwriting, unclear photocopies, water or tea spots, messy overwriting. Another set of barriers might be
caused by the paper itself. For oral communication the examples are bad seating arrangements, loud noises
inside and outside the room, slamming doors, ringing telephones.

o Physical appearance of communicator or audience, the context of the document or the presentation. Illegible
documents, jammed margins, faulty typing, unclear photocopies – all are physical barriers.
o Other physical blocks include mumbling, speaking to fast, disturbing gestures, noise inside the room such as
ringing telephones etc – or outside the building such as traffic or aero -planes.
o Your message may be blocked because people in your audience are uncomfortable; they cannot hear
because of bad sound system and cannot see because of inadequate lighting.
Internal structure of the organization creates physical barriers in communication

a. Distance: – communication is found obstructed in long distance. Like communication between America and
b. Noise: – it is from external sources and affects the communication process. Noise depressingly affects the
c. Physical arrangement: – the physical arrangement of organizational sources like men, money, material and
machine hamper the communication process.
Semantic Barriers

Words as we know are symbols and therefore limited because they cannot have precisely the same meaning for
everyone. The study of word choice is called Semantics, so the barriers associated with use of words are known
as semantic blocks. These arise due to denotation and connotation. Denotation means the dictionary meaning of
a word and connotation is an implication of a word or a suggestion separate from the usual meaning.

Take the following examples: Cheap or inexpensive, heavy or bulky, divide and split, Elevated and alleviated,
proclaim and exclaim.

The use of difficult and multiple uses of languages, words, figures, symbols create semantic barriers.

a. Language: – we can find some words having different meaning. As meaning sent by the sender can be
quite different from the meaning understood by the receiver. Long and complex sentences create
problem in communication process.
b. Jargons: – technical or unfamiliar language creates barriers to communication that may be drawn from the
literature. So message should be simple and condensed as far as possible so that no confusion creation will
be there to the receiver.
Organizational Barriers

Most of the communication barriers exist in workplaces can be included into this category. Poor organization
structures, rules and regulations, poor employee relationships, physical separations, outdated equipments can
badly affect communication processes within the organization.

It is raised from the organizational goals, regulations, structure and culture.

a. Poor planning: – it refers to the designing, encoding, channel selection and conflicting signals in the

b. Structure complexities:- difficult organizational structure barrier for free flow of information. Appropriate
communication process must be used.

c. Status differences – it creates barrier for communication. Superior provides information to the subordinate
about plans and policies. Different information is further provided by different subordinates who create barrier
in communication.

d. Organizational distance - distance between sender and receiver also creates barriers to effective

e. Information overload – if superior provides too much information to the subordinate in short period receiver
suffers from information overload which creates barriers to effective communication.

f. Timing – communication can be obstructed if not done on time. It creates barriers to effective

The Seven 7 C’s of Effective communication -Principles of communication

i. Completeness

ii. Conciseness

iii. Consideration

iv. Concreteness

v. Clarity

vi. Courtesy

vii. Correctness


1. Confidence

2. Conversational tone

Your message is complete when you have given everything that is required to induce a reaction from the
audience (reader). Your message needs to be complete in all terms of data and facts. To accomplish this you
need to follow this guideline:

 Offer all necessary records

 Answer all questions requested

 Give something extra, if preferred

This indicates you have to offer all of the essential statistics required to complete your message which means all
the records and all the details. Secondly in case you are replying to a message make sure that you solve all
questions requested inside the request or message that you are replying to, in the last give a little something
extra to the reader as this extra information might help the reader but only when desirable, be careful not to put
in too much extra information.


Conciseness means to deliver your message in the least possible words, meaning in a nut shell. While following
conciseness do not in any case sacrifice the other principles of communication. To write your message concise
comply these guidelines:

 Discard prolonged expressions

 Only add relevant facts

 Avoid pointless repetition

This means do not use lengthy sentences wherein short sentences can suffice, secondly do not mention any extra
information in your message and in the last do not repeat things which the reader already knows or have already
been stated.


This means preparing every message keeping the receiver’s in mind; try to put yourself in reader’s place. You
are foremost aware of their desires, problems, circumstances, emotions and probable to your request, then
prepare your message. This thoughtful consideration is also called “you attitude”. There are three specific ways
to consider your receiver’s are:

 Emphasis on “You” in place of “I” or “We”

 Be sure benefits are prominent

 Consciously use positive information

As a final note, true consideration is a result of Integrity and ethics in communication. If your receiver‘s see
something of their advantage, they will surely react positively. By this it means that the message should use the
word “You” in places of “I” and “We” and sentences should then be structured for the message. Lastly no one
likes bad ideas or bad news so try to be more positive and friendly.

Communicating concretely means being specific and definite rather than vague and general. Be precise about
your data. The ideas in your message should be well established. It means you should be sure of what you are
communicating not unsure or indefinite.try to use energetic voice in preference to passive voice in your
message. Use words which the reader can relate to and make out in real life. The following guidelines should
help you compose concrete and convincing messages:

 Use specific facts and figures

 Put action in your verbs

 Choose vivid and image-building words

In this manner your message should be sturdy and the ideas in that message should be particular and positive.
Whenever possible use all facts and figures with exact information not vague ideas for example do not use some
time ago use 3 days ago instead.


The reader should not get harassed after reading your message. You must be accurate in what you need to say.
To achieve clarity we should follow these guiding principles:

 Choose easy and familiar phrases

 Construct effective sentences and paragraphs

Use clear terms, defines them briefly. If you don’t, you will confuse and irritate the reader. Don’t use words that
are not common and are used rarely in only a few situations. Use paragraphs that are easy to read with small
sentences and easy language, grammar and punctuation. This will help make your message much more


Courtesy is politeness, respect and consideration for others. It is not merely politeness with mechanical
insertions of please and thank you, but it means much more. It is being aware of other people’s values and
feelings and respecting them. Remember that a more courteous message will leave a good and lasting
impression on your receiver. Courteous communication generates a special tone in writing and speaking. For
courtesy in your messages the guideline is:

 Be absolutely thoughtful and appreciative

 Use expression which show respect

 Use of non discriminatory expressions

This means no one wants to hear or read massages which offend them in any manner by any means. Use
sentences which have a reflection of respect in them. Furthermore, you should not use any remarks or gestures
that would generally offend other people like religion, race, color, gender etc.

This last of the seven C’S focuses on correctness in grammar, punctuation and spellings as well as in facts and
information. Not only this, you have to check whether the information you are giving in your message is
accurate or not. Guideline for correctness:

 Select the right level of language

 Confirm accuracy of information, figures and statistics

 Use suitable medium of messages

The correct level of language means you have to use the level that is most suited with your audience not the
level you think is better because the message is intended for the reader not yourself. If you are giving any
details in your message such as figures or facts check that they are correct and verify the sources you took the
data from. Acceptable medium means use ways in which communication is usually done, do not endeavor to
find better approaches for conveying which would befuddle your audience.


Keep in mind when you communicate you should demonstrate confidence in yourself because this will
influence the receiver’s mind. If a person tells a truth half-heartedly and without much self-confidence people
tend not to believe, but if the same person tells a lie with full confidence people usually believe what is being
said. So the sender should always show confidence in one’s self. Try not to use words which mirror that you
don’t have much confidence, for example I trust, I accept, I think, perhaps

Conversational Tone

This implies that you should set up your message in such a way that the beneficiary is directly before you. The
reader ought to read as though conversing with you vis-à-vis rather than simply of just reading a piece of paper.
This means that your message need to be formal to a limit not over the edge formal, if this happens the reader
will lose enthusiasm in the message and you might fail to get a coveted response.

What is LSRW?

The four major formal communicative skills are known as LSRW.

L = listening
S = speaking
R = reading
W = writing

Listening refers to the ability to understand an oral message. One is to understand what one hears. Listening
attentively as well as assimilating the information is very important for effective communication. The way one
listens reveals ones attitude. Listener's response to the message (interest, empathy, boredom etc.) is
communicated through the act of listening. The power to comprehend the delivered information quickly is the
need of the hour. Effective listening skill is required for a professional as it is one of the basic and most
important skills needed for activities such as interviews, group discussions, meetings etc.

Importance of listening
Listening plays a vital role in communication. Many barriers can be avoided through effective listening. Use
below tips to improve your listening capabilities.

 Use face-to-face communication and eye contacts

 Listen to ideas not just words
 Do not interrupt when someone speaks
 Ask questions to clarify unclear points of the conversation
 Always give feedbacks

Types of Listening
 Discriminative listening
Discriminative listening is when the listener distinguishes between the verbal and the nonverbal message.
This type of listening can be used for all types of public speeches. For example recognizing somebody is sad
despite what they are saying or how they are saying it.
 Comprehensive Listening
Comprehensive listening involves understanding the message or messages that are being communicated.
Like discriminative listening, comprehensive listening is fundamental to all listening sub-types. For example
as when we attend a lecture or listen to directions for finding a friend’s house.
 Informational Listening
Whenever you listen to learn something, you are engaged in informational listening. This is true in many day-
to-day situations, in education and at work, when you listen to the news, watch a documentary, when a friend
tells you a recipe or when you are talked-through a technical problem with a computer.
 Critical Listening
Critical listening means engaging in what you are listening to by asking yourself questions such as, ‘what is
the speaker trying to say?’ or ‘what is the main argument being presented?’, ‘how does what I’m hearing
differ from my beliefs, knowledge or opinion?’. Critical listening is, therefore, fundamental to true learning.
 Therapeutic or Empathic Listening
Empathy is a way of deeply connecting with another person and therapeutic or empathic listening can be
particularly challenging. Counsellors, therapists and some other professionals use therapeutic or empathic
listening to understand and ultimately help their clients.
Appreciative Listening
Appreciative listening is listening for enjoyment. A good example is listening to music,
especially as a way to relax.

 Rapport Listening
When trying to build rapport with others we can engage in a type of listening that encourages the other
person to trust and like us. A salesman, for example, may make an effort to listen carefully to what you are
saying as a way to promote trust and potentially make a sale.
 Selective Listening
This is a more negative type of listening, it implies that the listener is somehow biased to what they are
Which is the most frequently required skill in professional and social spheres? It is Effective Speaking.
Effective speaking is but the ability to express one's message effectively to the audience through spoken words.
The delivery of messages is possible through both face-to-face communication and electronic devices. This
skill is very much required for communicating in conferences, meetings, seminars, group discussions etc.



Speaking is an act of making vocal sounds. We can say that speaking means to converse, or expressing one's
thoughts and feelings in spoken language. To speak often implies conveying information. It may be from an
informal remark to a scholarly presentation to a formal address.

Speaking skills:

 Speaking skills are the skills that give us the ability to communicate effectively.
 These skills allow the speaker, to convey his message in a passionate, thoughtful, and convincing manner.
 Speaking skills also help to assure that one won't be misunderstood by those who are listening.


Speaking is the productive skill in the oral mode. It, like the other skills, is more complicated than it seems at
first and involves more than just pronouncing words.

There are three kinds of speaking situations in which we find ourselves:

1. interactive,
2. partially interactive, and
3. Non-interactive.

 Interactive speaking situations include face-to-face conversations and telephone calls, in which we are
alternately listening and speaking, and in which we have a chance to ask for clarification, repetition, or
slower speech from our conversation partner.
 Some speaking situations are partially interactive, such as when giving a speech to a live audience, where
the convention is that the audience does not interrupt the speech. The speaker nevertheless can see the
audience and judge from the expressions on their faces and body language whether or not he or she is being
 Few speaking situations may be totally non-interactive, such as when recording a speech for a radio
In all the above explained conditions speaking is always a headache for most of the people.
Although the fear of speaking is common, studies show that ability to speaking can be enhanced by improving
speaking skills.

What to do before speaking?

The first step to speaking is to think and the first step to perfect speaking is to thick positive. Good speakers
have the ability to quickly analyze and absorb the information given to them, assess it fast and to make a
decision and communicate that decision to other. Keep in mind to:
1. Be an active listener:
The key ingredient towards making you a person who can think on the spot and respond intelligently is to be an
active listener. This means listening carefully and giving your full attention to the words, tone, emotion and
logic behind what the other one is saying.

2. Be a quick organiser of thoughts:

All of us have the ability to think fast. The trick is to adopt some frameworks or models to structure new
information into something coherent that we can respond with. One can break down issues or ideas into past,
present and future.

3. Structure your speech in your mind:

These are useful frameworks to organise ideas and thoughts quickly.
The basic structure of any speech involves:
 Opening
 Body
 Conclusion
It is very useful in delivering speeches and especially for speaking in situations such as table topics during
meetings or other times when called upon to "say some words". Thinking before speaking is important for us to
add value in terms of communicating our thoughts, ideas and feelings. We can touch lives through deeds and we
can touch lives through speech.

Speaking Skills:

Some speaking skills are:

1. Be prepared and practice. The more
you know what you want to say, the better you'll get at it. First, brainstorm the topic of your speech and
research it, if you need to. Write down all the points you want to make and then organize them into an outline.
Then, practice your speech out loud at least 3 to 5 times.

2. Know your audience.

The better you know your audience or listeners, the easier it will be to connect to them as you speak. When you
are able to make that connection, you'll hold their attention.

3. Pay attention to the old KISS principle, that is, Keep It Short and Simple.
When you are speaking don't beat around the bush or try to impress with complex metaphors. Stories, however,
can be a powerful public speaking tool, especially when they contain at least a hint of humor. But again, keep
them short and on point. Shorter messages leave more impression. They're also easier for your audience to

4. Interact with your audience.

Lectures will rarely have the same impact on an audience that an open discussion will. Look for opportunities to
involve your audience in what you are speaking about. Ask for validation of points you are making ("Am I
right?" "Has that ever happened to you?") Or allow time for questions. Also, make sure to establish eye contact
with your audience, and keep it throughout your speech.
5. Speak with sincerity and passion.
When a person wants to leave a lasting impression with the audience about one’s topic then be sure that you are
true to yourself and your topic as you speak .Don't be afraid to inject enthusiasm and passion into the speech as

6. Close your speech in a memorable way.

Give your audience something to think about as you finish up your speech. Certainly, it's a good idea to
summarize your main points one more time, but then finish up with an inspiring story or quote, or leave them
with a thought provoking question.

7. Fluency
The main goal is fluency. Remember that one don't have to know many complex grammatical structures to
achieve that goal! First of all try to speak as fluent as possible (even making some grammar mistakes). Then,
after making one’s speaking fluent, one can focus on grammar aspects.

Speaking skills required in meeting:

Speaking skills are very important in business. Those who are at ease conversationally have the ability to
"connect" with others which builds rapport and, eventually, relationships. Here are important tips on speaking
well as a meeting participant.

1. Talk to the entire group.

When speaking in groups moves your eyes around and talk to anyone who's listening to what you have to say.
"When responding to a question, address the entire group, not just the person who asked the question,"

2. Reach out and encourage feedback. Actively encourage

comment and feedback based on what you have to contribute.

3. Mirror the tenor of the meeting.

Another business meeting basic is establishing a comfortable atmosphere where everyone feels at ease. One
effective way to achieve that is to establish a consistency in communication. If, for instance, most participants
are keeping their remarks short, do the same. If their tone is low and reserved, follow their lead.

4. Don’t be a time hog.

Be thorough, but don't take much time to get your message across that you lose others' attention.


Here are some of the micro-skills involved in speaking.

 The speaker has to Pronounce the distinctive sounds of a language clearly enough so that people can
distinguish them. This includes making tonal distinctions.
 Use the correct forms of words. This may mean, for example, changes in the tense, case, or gender.
 Put words together in correct word order.
 Use vocabulary appropriately.
 Use the language that is appropriate to the situation and the relationship to the conversation partner.
 Make the main ideas stand out from supporting ideas or information.

Barriers while speaking:

There are certain barriers to speaking:

1.Unclear messages.
2. Lack of consistency in the communication process.
3. Incomplete sentences.
4. Not understanding the receiver.
5. Words can have different meanings to different listener.
6. Use of negative words.
Now the question arises how we can improve our speaking skills

How to improve speaking skills:

1. Practice where you can, when you can: Any practice is good whether you speak to someone who is a native
English speaker or not.
2. It's important to build your confidence. If possible, use simple English sentence structure that you know is
correct, so that you can concentrate on getting your message across.
3. Try to experiment with the English you know. Use words and phrases you know in new situations. Native
English speakers are more likely to correct you if you use the wrong word than if you use the wrong
grammar. Experimenting with vocabulary is a really good way of getting feedback.
4. Try to respond to what people say to you. You can often get clues to what people think by looking at their
body language. Respond to them in a natural way.
5. Try NOT to translate into and from your own language. This takes too much time and will make you more
6. If you forget a word do what native English speakers do all the time, and say things that 'fill' the
conversation. This is better than keeping completely silent. Try using um, or err, if you forget the word.
7. Don't speak too fast! It's important to use a natural rhythm when speaking English, but if you speak too fast
it will be difficult for people to understand you.
8. Try to relax when you speak you'll find your mouth does most of the pronunciation work for you. When you
speak English at normal speed, you'll discover that many of the pronunciation skills, such as linking
between words, will happen automatically.
9. Remember, when speaking English Try to become less hesitant and more confident. Don’t be shy to speak
the more you do it, the more confident you'll become. Remember to be polite use "please" and "thank you"
if you ask someone to do something for you.
Different types of Speeches

Special occasion: A Special Occasion (or ceremonial, commemorative, or epideictic) speech should pay tribute
or praise a person, an institution, an event, idea, or place.. Depending on the context, special occasion speeches
can be funny or sad.
There are many examples of special occasions like, an individual might give a speech at a memorial for an
audience of friends and families or a toast given at a wedding, which is also an example of a special occasion

Narrative/personal: Narrative speeches involve standing up in front of an audience and telling a story. As with
a written narrative, a narrative speech should include a clear opening, middle and conclusion. Some narrative
presentations include a teachable moment or a moral for the listener, but this element is not necessary.

Manuscript: When giving a manuscript speech, a speaker reads every word from a pre-written speech.
Manuscript speeches are useful when it is important for wording to be precise, such as with legal issues.

Impromptu Speech: This is a speech that has no advanced planning or practice. Think for a second about what
you are going to say.

 Keep your points brief and to the point.

 Take a few seconds between thoughts to compose yourself.

Extemporaneous Speech: It is a limited-preparation speech event based on research and original analysis.
Extemporaneous speaking provides 5-10 minutes of preparation time, followed by a 7-8 minute speech. This
speech involves the speaker's use of notes and some embellishment to deliver a speech. What makes this
different than an impromptu speech is that he has a loose guideline for his speech. He did not memorize
anything; he just used cues to know where to go next.

Following things are evaluated in an extempore speech:

 How quickly one can imagine and speak on the topic

 How one begins and ends the speech creating an impression on the audience
 Confidence - measured by the tone, hand gestures and facial expressions of the speaker
 Clarity of thought
 Stage presence and how one connects with the audience

Informational speeches: This type of speech is like teaching and explaining of a subject or idea. It tries to
explain how things work or how to do something. The classroom lecture of the teacher on any new subject is a
typical example of informative speech.
There are a few types of informational speeches: about objects, events, processes, concepts
Persuasive: The main consequence of persuasive speech is it inflicts some changes in the minds of the people.
It helps the audience to make a decision. In the persuasive communication the speaker is regarded as the sender
who tries to influence the values, beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors of the listeners who are regarded as receivers.

The act of effective reading requires the skills of decoding and comprehending the written message. Thus
reading is a complex skill. The reader has to develop different skills such as vocabulary, fast reading, and
intensive reading. Fast reading skills include; a) scanning, and, b) skimming. Intensive reading includes; a)
thorough reading, and, b) inferential skills.
Skimming Skills: Skimming is used to quickly gather the most important information, or 'gist'.
. For Example: The Newspaper (quickly to get the general news of the day) , Magazines (quickly to discover
which articles you would like to read in more detail) or Business and Travel Brochures (quickly to get

Scanning Skills: Scanning is used to find a particular piece of information. Use scanning on schedules,
meeting plans, etc. in order to find the specific details you require. Examples of Scanning - The "What's on
TV" section of your newspaper. Or A train / airplane schedule

Extensive reading is used to obtain a general understanding of a subject and includes reading longer texts for
pleasure. Use extensive reading skills to improve your general knowledge. Examples of Extensive Reading -
The latest marketing strategy book , A novel you read before going to bed or Magazine articles that interest

Intensive reading is used on shorter texts in order to extract specific information. It includes very close
accurate reading for detail. Use intensive reading skills to grasp the details of a specific situation. In this case, it
is important that you understand each word, number or fact.
Examples of Intensive Reading: An insurance claim or a contract of employment

Critical Reading Skills is a Form of language analysis that does not take given text at face value, but involves
a deeper examination of supporting points and possible counter arguments.
Critical readers thus recognize not only what a text says, but also how that text portrays the subject
matter. What a text means – interpretation, analysis of the text and asserting a meaning for the text as a whole.

Ways to improve Reading Skills

 Read about things that interest you.
 Read material that is at your level of understanding or just a little more difficult for you to comprehend.
 Ask yourself questions while reading and after reading.
 Read many kinds of texts. Recognize that the key is to read a lot.
 Let your imagination get involved.

When we write down a graphic element on a piece of paper, it becomes a written document. This written
communication is the second form of communication which is transmitted through words. Effective writing
skills are required to write documents such as reports, letters, memos and emails. Why written communication
is more important than oral communication? Because it is a permanent record of one's transactions and it can
be referred to at any point of time. Only practice can perfect the writing skill. For effective writing, one must
write, rewrite, and finally learn to edit.

Writing Skills

Seven principles to improve writing skills

1. Learn Grammar
Every language has its own grammar and knowledge of grammar is necessary to use that language accurately
and effectively. Improve your grammar skills to make you writing more effective.

2. Enhance your vocabulary

Vocabulary means the collection of words you have at your disposal when writing or speaking, the more words
you remember the better. Vocabulary can be mainly increased through reading English novels and newspapers
and consulting dictionaries.

3. Keep a Dictionary

Always keep a standard dictionary in your reach because it improves your chances of being effective as you will
get help not only in meanings of words but in pronunciation as well as spellings of different words.

4. Develop reading habit

Remember that the best writer is the one who reads the most as by reading you get more ideas and your
grammar as well as vocabulary increases and develops. In order to become an effective writer you should
become a frequent reader.

5. Develop writing habit

Effective writing not only comes from excessive reading but from writing as well. As it is said “Practice makes
perfect”. Make it a routine to write something like stories, notes or anything else that you prefer. The more you
write in a language the more your chances are of getting better in that language.

6. Develop your imagination

Imagination means the ideas that come to your mind while in the process of writing and speaking, great writers
have great imagination that is why they are able to write amazing stories and articles. Without good imagination
perfect grammar and best vocabulary means nothing.

7. Improve knowledge of the subject

Knowledge of the subject means the knowledge of what you are writing, suppose you want to write something
about Information Technology but if you do not even know what information technology is you cannot even
write a single line. Increase your knowledge by various ways; read, listen and research.

Types of Writing
Narrative Writing
Recounts a personal experience in the form of a story and always includes characters, setting, and plot.
Examples: short story, novel, narrative poem, journal
Descriptive Writing
Uses vivid images to describe a person, place, or event so that the topic can be clearly “seen” in the reader’s
Examples: menu, travel brochure, poster
Expository Writing
Provides information that explains, clarifies or defines
Examples: essay, research paper, report, manual
Persuasive Writing
Gives an opinion using facts that attempts to convince a reader to agree with a writer’s belief
Examples: movie review, restaurant critique, letter to a newspaper editor, essay
Creative Writing
Entertains the reader
Examples: short story, novel, poem, play
Argumentative Writing
 investigate a topic
 collect, generate, and evaluate evidence
 establish a position on the topic in a concise manner
 Extensive research so that she/he may choose a position and support it with the evidence collected
during research.

The writing process

Prewriting: Includes thinking, taking notes, talking to others, brainstorming, outlining, and gathering
information (e.g., interviewing people, researching in the library, assessing data).
Drafting: Ideas are put into sentences and paragraphs. Concentrate upon explaining and supporting ideas fully.
Begin to connect ideas. The draft tends to be writer-centered
Revising: document becomes reader-centered keeping readers’ needs and expectations in mind. Organize
effectively by refining prose, making each sentence concise and accurate. Make connections between ideas
explicit and clear.
Editing: Check for grammar, mechanics – lexical and syntax, and spelling.
 Lexical: Vocabulary and usage
 Syntax: the arrangement of words and phrases to create well-formed sentences in a language

Proofreading: Read and mark any errors. Indicate that a word or punctuation mark should be inserted or
deleted, that text should be moved, that paragraphs should be changed, and so forth

Tips for Effective Writing

Put the reader first
Use simple words and short sentences
Use jargon only when necessary
Use of appropriate punctuation, grammar and correct spellings are essential for effective writing.
Use multiple examples to clarify your point in each paragraph. Each point should include only one main topic.
Tips for Effective Writing
 When you begin writing, don’t forget to have a solid introduction.
 Make sure your entire writing is in the same tense.
 Using formal language is essential.
 Longer sentences are not necessarily better.
 Eliminate unnecessary words and phrases.
Coherence in writing is the "logical glue" that allows readers to move easily and clearly from one idea to the
Coherence in writing is much more difficult to sustain than coherent speech because writers have no nonverbal
clues to inform them if their message is clear or not.

Paragraph writing is developing a topic or an idea through a group of sentences. When learning how to write a
paragraph, these are three main components one needs to be aware of : Topic Sentence, Supporting Details,
and Closing Sentence or simply put, Beginning, Middle, and End.

The Topic Sentence has to be the very first sentence of your paragraph. The reason it's not just called “the first
sentence” is because it is more than just whatever you write first. You should present what the paragraph is
going to try to convey. t

An example of a Topic Sentence would be: I find it difficult to get out of bed in the morning.

This sentence gives you the main idea of what is going to be discussed. When working on paragraph writing ,
ask yourself whether the very first sentence gives you the exact meaning of what is going to be discussed in
that particular paragraph.

The next element is Supporting Details. The bulk of your paragraph will consist of sentences that support your
topic. These sentences should not drift from this topic.

Example of Supporting Details: As soon as I hear the alarm go off, my head fills with reasons telling me why I
should call in sick to work. I often begin to focus on the horrible things that may await me if I leave the comfort
of my bed to start my day. It doesn't take long for me to begin to plan what I may tell my boss when I call in.

The final element in paragraph writing is your Closing Sentence. This sentence serves as a reminder of your
topic. This will be your very last sentence and it should reiterate your Topic Sentence, however, it should be
phrased differently.

Closing Sentence Example: I go through this routine every morning which is why it is so difficult for me to
even make it out of bed.

The whole paragraph together would then be:

I find it difficult to get out of bed in the morning. As soon as I hear the alarm go off, my head fills with reasons
telling me why I should call in sick to work. I often begin to focus on the horrible things that may await me if I
leave the comfort of my bed to start my day. It doesn't take long for me to begin to plan what I may tell my boss
when I call in. I go through this routine every morning which is why it is so difficult for me to even get up at all.

How to Write a Paragraph Using the Four Essential Elements

A basic paragraph arrangement usually consists of five sentences: the topic sentence, three supporting
sentences, and a concluding sentence. But the secrets to paragraph writing lay in four fundamental elements,
which when used correctly, can make an okay paragraph into a great paragraph.

Element 1: Unity. Unity in a paragraph begins with the topic sentence. Every paragraph has one single,
controlling idea that is expressed in its topic sentence, which is usually the first sentence of the paragraph. A
paragraph is merged around this main idea, with the supporting sentences providing detail and discussion. In
order to write a good topic sentence, think about your theme and all the points you want to make. Choose which
point drives the rest, and then write it as your topic sentence.
Element 2: Order. Order refers to the way you systematize your supporting sentences. Whether you choose
sequential order, order of importance, or another reasonable presentation of detail, a solid paragraph always has
a specific organization. In a well-ordered paragraph, the reader follows along easily, aided by the pattern you’ve
established. Order helps the reader grasp your meaning and evade confusion.

Element 3: Coherence. Coherence is the quality that makes your writing comprehensible. Sentences within a
paragraph need to connect to each other and work together as a whole. One of the best ways to attain coherency
is to use transition words. These words create bridges from one sentence to the next. You can use transition
words that show order (first, second, third); spatial relationships (above, below) or reason (furthermore, in
addition, in fact). Also, use of consistent verb tense and point of view are important ingredients for coherency in
paragraph writing.

Element 4: Completeness. Completeness means a paragraph is well-developed. If all sentences clearly and
suitably support the main idea, then your paragraph is complete. If the information and the sentences are not
enough to prove your thesis, then the paragraph is incomplete. Usually three supporting sentences, in addition to
a topic sentence and concluding sentence, are required for a paragraph to be complete. The concluding sentence
or final sentence of the paragraph should recapitulate your main idea by reinforcing your topic sentence.

Reading comprehension is the skill to interpret a text, process it and comprehend its connotation. An
individual's capacity to realize the text is influenced by his qualities and dexterity, one of which is the knack to
make conclusion.

A reading comprehension exercise contains a passage followed by some multiple choice questions. The reader
is supposed to select the most appropriate response based on the information specified in the passage.

One first needs to read the passage so that one can recognize the chief thought of the passage and understand
features such as the author's tenor and approach as well as the association of the passage.

Reading comprehension is the adroitness to read text, process it and know its meaning. An individual's ability to
comprehend text is influenced by his traits and skills, one of which is the ability to make inferences.

A reading comprehension exercise contains a passage followed by some multiple choice questions. The
respondent is supposed to choose the most appropriate answer based on the information given in the passage.

For example, the fairy tale Cinderella narrates the tale of a young girl, whose malevolent stepmother won't let
her go to the ball. Cinderalla's fairy godmother, however, magically whisks her off and Cinderella ultimately
marries her Prince.

1. Lexical understanding: Understanding key vocabulary words in a text.

Reading passages are written in a manner that numerous flowery words are not used on the same page. Further,
if an unknown word is used, it is usually explained within the same sentence or with a description box in the
border. Also, words with multiple meanings may make it hard for a less experienced reader to truly comprehend
what is meant.

 If the word "enchanted" was used in the story, understand the meaning.
 Remember, definitions can begin as a series of examples. So, try to identify a common element between
them. Also, sometimes it's better to introduce a new vocabulary word before you read.

2. Factual Comprehension: Answers the questions Who, What, When, and Where with information found
directly in the text.

 Who was the girl who lost the glass slipper?

 What happened when the clock struck twelve?

3. Interpretive understanding: Answers the questions What if, Why, and How by inferring information from
the text.

 How did the pumpkin turn into a coach?

 What would have happened if Cinderella hadn't lost her slipper?

4. Applied grasp: Answer opinion questions or questions that have the reader relate the new information to
background information.

 Do you think Cinderella was incorrect for going to the ball after her stepmother told her she couldn't?
5. Effectual understanding: Understanding the social and poignant characteristics of a text. Try to grasp why
certain characters in a narrative may respond in a certain manner. They sometimes may get lost in the words and
the plan.

 How did Cinderella feel when she went to live at the castle?
 While most children will answer "happy" or "excited" to this question, some children will say "sad",
revealing a deeper approval for interpersonal and kin dynamics than you may have expected.

Here’s an overview of common Reading Comprehension question types and some example question stems to
understand them better:

1. Common – This question-type asks about the large picture, the passage as a whole.
 “Which of the following best recapitulates the passage?”
 “What is the author attempting to exemplify through this passage?”
 “What is the thematic emphasis of this passage?”
 “Which of the following best describes the main ideas____?”

2. Specific - This type asks about details from the passage. The correct answer is often a rephrase of something
directly stated in the passage.
 “Which _____ has not been cited as ______?”
 “According to the author, what is ______?”
 “By a _______, the author means…”
 “According to the passage, _______?”
 “Which issue has not been cited _______?”

3. Vocabulary-in-the Context – This is a type of Specific question which asks about the use of a particular word or
phrase or an expression.
 “In the passage, the expression _____ refers to”
 ‘’Find a word from the passage which means exactly the contradictory to the word____’’

4. Purpose – This type of question asks about the rational organization of a passage.
 “The writer cites ______, in order to”
 “The _____ in the passage has been used by the author to”
 “Which of the following best describes the reason the author ____?”

5. Inference – Inference questions require you to understand what is implied by but not necessarily stated in the
passage. The correct answer may rely on subtle phrases from the passage and be hard to find/less obvious than
Specific questions.
 “The passage uses _____ to imply that ___”
 “Which of the following cannot be inferred from the passage?”
 “What does the author mean by _____?”
 “What can be inferred when the author states____?”
 The sentence, ‘______’, implies that”

6. Application – This is a to some extent more particular type of deduction question, where you’re asking to select an
answer which mimics a procedure or exemplifies a condition described in the passage.
 Which of the following could be used to substitute_______?
 “A _____, as conceptualized in the passage, can best be described as____”
 “Which of the following best exemplifies the situation ____”

7. Tenor or tone – This question type is also a precise type of inference, requiring you to infer the author’s point of
view and opinion on certain statements.
 “The author of the passage is most probable to concur with ____?”
 “Which of the following views does the author most likely sustain__?”
Strategies to Improve Reading Comprehension skills:
 Use the framework - If a question asks about a particular line, don’t go back in to the passage and read just
that line. A good strategy is to read at least 2 sentences before and after the line in question. This will give an
idea of where the point started and where the author is going with it.

 Do not bring exterior information- Own prejudices might actually impair the process of answering
especially if it is an opinion passage.

 Underline and mark significant points while reading- Read the passage actively. Underline key words
or sentences that surround the main idea.
 Avoid intense answers- Usually, if an answer choice sounds extreme in tone; it’s not the best answer. Be
wary of answers that use words like never, always, completely, etc. There’s usually an exception to the rule

 DON’T assume- Inference is based on the information in the passage. Assumption brings in exterior
information or biases and is not based exclusively on the given passage. A supposition may seem applicable,
but if you can’t back it up with statements from the passage, it’s probably best to stay away from it.

 Predict an answer before even considering answer choices

Note-taking is a passive process which is done at lectures whereas note-making is more active and focused
activity where you assimilate all information and make sense of it for yourself. You take notes in lectures or
seminars, writing down what other people are saying for future reference. You make notes from reading books,
journals, any form of text. In this case it is important that you do not plagiarize without meaning to, so record
the reference before you make any notes, and make sure you use quotation marks “...” if copying.


Taking notes is an important process. It allows you to have a written record of the lecture which may not be in
your textbook. It also ensures that you become an active and involved listener and learner.
1. Bring the right materials:
 Always have an adequate supply of A4 note paper /exam pads, pens, pencils and highlighters.
 Use colour for emphasis; to highlight and to separate different sections or ideas.
 Sit in front and centre - sit in a position where you can hear and see clearly without straining.
2. Listening actively
This involves actively concentrating and paying attention to what is being said and how it is being said. Listen
beyond words to the lecturer’s body language.
Listening for repetition: When a lecturer repeats a phrase or idea, this is a signal that it is important and you
should take note of it.
Watch the board or overhead projector: If the lecturer takes time to write something down, consider that as
another sign that the material is important.
Listen for introductory, concluding and transition words and phrases.
For example:

 “The following three factors”

 “In conclusion”
 “The most important consideration”
 “In addition to”
Highlight obvious clues: Often your lecturer will blatantly point out what information is likely to appear in the
exam - make a note of this - don't rely on memory.
Notice the lecturer's interest level: When the lecturer seems excited about something, make a note as it is
more likely to appear in the exam.
Use pictures and diagrams - This makes the notes more visual and assists in recall. What you need to do is try
to find a note-taking format and system that works for you.
Some methods will work better for some individuals than others. See what works best for you.
1. General note-taking tips
 Give yourself plenty of space.
 Label, number and date all your notes.
 Develop your own system of shorthand and abbreviations
 Use colour, pictures or diagrams to make notes more visual.
 Keep your own thoughts separate - this ensures that you don t mistake your own idea for that of the
 Use a lost signal - when you find yourself lost in
a lecture, make a note of it using a specific symbol and
leave space to fill in this later.
Write legibly: Many people feel that they have no
control over their handwriting and resign themselves to
writing illegibly for the rest of their lives. However, if
you put your mind to it and make it a point to write
more legibly, your handwriting will improve. This has
implications not only for note-taking but for writing
exams as well.
NOTE TAKING - Cornell Notes
To help organize notes.
 Divide the paper into three sections.
 Draw a dark horizontal line about 5 or 6 lines
from the bottom.
 Use a heavy marker so that it is clear.
 Draw a dark vertical line about 2 inches from the
left side of the paper from the top to the horizontal line.
 Write course name, date and topic at the top of
each page
 Write Notes
 The large box to the right is for writing notes.
 Skip a line between ideas and topics
 Don't use complete sentences. Use abbreviations,
whenever possible. Develop shorthand of your own, such as using & for the word “and”.
Review and clarify
 Review the notes as soon as possible after class.
 Pull out main ideas, key points, dates, and people, and write them in the left column.
 Write a summary of the main ideas in the bottom section.
Study your notes
 Reread your notes in the right column.
 Spend most of your time studying the ideas in the left column and the summary at the bottom. These are
the most important ideas and will probably include most of the information that will be tested.
Common Note-taking abbreviations
Thus / Therefore ∴
Between Betw
Because ∵
Or /
Equals/same as =
Definition Def
Does not equal / not the same as ≠
Conclusion Conc
Greater than / more than >
Regarding / with regard to Re
Less than <
As against / contrast with Vs
And &
Before B4
Important / importance of NB
Especially Esp
Example / for example Eg
Namely / that is to say Ie
However But
-ment (e.g. agreement becomes agreem't) m't
Compare/contrast with Cf
It is/ that is Ie
Without w/o
Transfer t/f
-ion (e.g. proposition becomes proposit'n) 'n
Usually Usu

If the lecturer talks too fast

 Try to be extra prepared for the lecture before class.
 Familiarity with the subject makes it easier to pick out key points.
 Exchange notes with classmates Leave large empty spaces in your notes - for filling in information you
 See the lecturer after the lecture and show the lecturer what you missed.
 Consider using a voice/sound recorder.
 Go to the lecture again - if it is offered at a different time.
 Use your shorthand.
 Ask questions. Ask the lecturer to slow down.
 Remember, you don t have to take down everything the lecturer says verbatim.


Once you have taken down notes in lectures, the learning process is not complete. The next step is the note-
making process.
Reviewing lecture notes:
Your lecture notes form the basis of your final consolidated notes and your entire examination preparation is
based on these. The following should be done on a daily basis:
1. Read through your lecture notes.
2. Underline headings and subheadings.
3. Correct spelling mistakes and rewrite illegible portions.
4. Fill in any gaps.
5. Underline or highlight important sentences or paragraphs.
6. Make sure you understand the concepts.
7. If you use the Cornell system, fill in the key words in the left-hand column.
Integrating lecture notes and readings: The main aim is to integrate your lecture notes with reading from
articles, prescribed and recommended books or tutorials.
How to make notes:
1. Read the passage carefully and thoroughly.
2. While reading the passage, underline the key sentences. It will help you in forming the title and subtitles.
3. Make a rough note of the main points and give them a logical sequence.
4. Use any format you like but it should depend on the theme of the passage. A little practice will make
you adept in note-making.
1. Notes should be short and to the point.
2. Notes must be written in points. They should be listed one under the other and numbered properly.
3. They should have all the important and relevant information.
4. Information should be systematically divided and sub-divided.
5. Use universally recognized symbols and abbreviations wherever necessary and provide key to the
6. Main title should be short. Avoid a long sentence as a title unless it happens to be a common saying or a
proverb. I t should reflect the spirit of the message.
7. Always avoid lifting portions of a passage to form notes.
Ethics in Communication

Ethics plays a pivotal part in communication. When a company communicates inside, it shapes the beliefs of its
representatives; when it communicates remotely, it impacts the impression of the outside public. The word
ethics includes the whole range of human behaviour, such as employer, employees, customers, colleagues, the
government, the environment etc.

Ethics are the principles governing morality and acceptable conduct by an individual or a social group. It is an
arrangement of rules that offer direction about the decisions we make and clarify our acts. Dishonest or
unethical communication undermines the nature of all correspondence and thusly the prosperity of the people
and our general public.

Therefore, Ethics is a set of standards that lead our activities but some people associate it with discerning
between good and bad human activities the planet and between the idealistic and non-upright qualities of

Ethics is a system of principle that guides action while some relate ethics with distinguishing between good and
evil in the world, between right and wrong human actions, and between virtuous and non-virtuous
characteristics of people.

Ethical Communication

 It is the implementation of moral standards to the messages we deliver and devour.

 It is cardinal to mindful reasoning, basic leadership, and the improvement of connections and groups
inside and outside of settings, societies, channels, and media.
 It raises human value and pride by cultivating honesty, reasonableness, duty, individual unity, and
regard for self as well as other people.

Features of Ethical Communication:

 Comprises all pertinent data.

 Is accurate completely and is not deceitful in any way.
 Precise and genuine. Prevents language that misleads, treats differently or overstates.
 Does not conceal false attitude behind a positive disposition.
 Does not express beliefs as realities; depicts realistic information reasonably.

Basically, moral communicators have a "considerably strong feeling of social obligation." They are straightforward with bosses,
colleagues, and customers, and do not seek individual benefit by exacerbating others. They don't shove their individual inclinations to
impact your perception or the impression of others and act in accordance with some basic honesty.

Components Determining Ethical Communication

1. Veracity, precision, genuineness and rationality are fundamental to the respectability of ethical
2. Support opportunity of articulation, the different point of views and resilience of various opinions to
attain the educated and dependable decision making principal to a well-bred society.
3. Make great efforts to comprehend and regard different communicators before assessing and reacting to
their messages.
4. Access to communication assets and openings are important to satisfy human capacity and to give rise to
the prosperity of families, groups and society.
5. Encourage communication that promotes an atmosphere of kindness, concern for others and shared
understanding that regard individual needs and attributes of every communicator.
6. Denounce communication that debases people and mankind through bending, prejudice, terrorizing,
pressure, contempt and savagery.
7. Devote to the bold articulation of individual feelings in the quest for reasonableness and equity.

Ethical Dilemmas in Communication

Following are some of the ethical dilemmas faced by people while communicating:

 Secrecy: Sometimes people keep things hidden for both fair and shameful reasons; might be utilized
to protect closeness or to attack it. And that is a kind of a test for the administrator/supervisor: to
decide when secrets are legitimate and when they are not. At the point when the clip of mystery
fixes excessively, the outcome is the absence of advancement. Then again, associations have a
logical need to secure certain data. If contenders, for instance, get access to exclusive and innovative
work, they can create that item for a much lower net cost since they don't need to pay the research
and development costs.
 Whistle-blowing: Any company representative who discloses the information about corporate
maltreatments or carelessness in the world is known as a whistle-blower. Companies and
supervisors expect loyalty of workers. Avarice, envy, and revenge prompt some whistle-blowers.
Some are just misled. Some mistake private interest with public interest. People, surely, have a right
to know about corporate exercises that are possibly risky, still handling the whistle-blower
forcefully can be baffling and tricky.
 Leaks: A leak is similar to unknown whistle-blowing; one difference being the legitimacy of the
leak; that is to say, that the individual who spills data can't be interrogated. This frequently provides
a reason to feel uncertain about the believability of the claim. The denounced does not know who or
why a man has discharged certain data. Politicians have utilized these leaks for quite a long time to
criticize an adversary. Workers may leak data to the media as well, for honest or dishonest reasons.
Company plans are changed or forgone due to these leaks. Leaks can be a type of political guide in
the company or a means to undermine the profession of a co-worker contending for an occupation.
 Rumour and gossip: Rumors and gossip appear to be an inescapable piece of daily corporate life.
Despite the fact that gossipy tidbits and chatter regularly go through similar systems, there is a
difference between the terms. Rumours concentrate more on occasions and data, though gossip
concentrates on individuals. Although managers often regard such data as "yet to be affirmed," it
may give rise to assumptions about a representative/employee. Such information may affect
performance assessments and promotion decisions of that employee, even if not intended.
 Lying: A lie is a fake assertion aimed to cheat. Of all the moral dilemmas talked about so far, lying
appears to be the minimum ethically bewildering. Most would concur that "one should not lie." Still
lies in business are more typical than numerous would care to concede. Lying spoils the trust
between people, and shakes the establishment of ethical communication.
 Ambiguity: Ambiguity, similar to concealment, can be utilized for moral or exploitative purposes.
The language itself is comprised of different words that convey esteems. So by utilizing words in
certain ways, one can impact others conduct and desires. Since all dialect contains some level of
dubiousness, communicators are, to some degree, considered in charge of conceivable
misinterpretations. This implies that one must know about the probabilistic quality of
communication, and need to consider their aims, as well as how their messages may be

Principles to deal with Ethical Dilemmas

While some ethical predicaments are more effortlessly unraveled than others, all include making assessments
and judgments about what is ethically good and bad, what is reasonable and what is not and what will cause
damage and what will not. Ethical correspondence needs compelling basic reasoning abilities, perceiving the
significance of different viewpoints, regard for the prosperity of self as well as other people, accepting liability
for individual and group activities, and pondering over the decisions taken by the group members.

 Legal Considerations - One place to search for direction is the law. If stating or composing something
is unmistakably unlawful, you have no dilemma. You comply with the law.

 Moral Considerations - Though legal contemplations may settle some ethical inquiries, one has to
regularly depend on one’s own assessments and rationales. If your intentions are genuine, the assertion
is moral, despite the fact that it might be factually wrong. However, in the event that your purpose is to
deceive or control the people, the message is deceptive, regardless of its authenticity. One must consider
the outcomes of choices and should select an answer that can prove beneficial to the greatest number of
 Preserve Candidness - Candidness alludes to honesty, genuineness, and straightforwardness in your
correspondence with other individuals. While disclosing all that you know about a circumstance may not
generally be correct- for example, giving all your data to your opponents amid extreme and delicate
discussions will just compromise your position.
 Maintain Precise Messages - When you are delivering data starting with one source then onto the next,
imparting the original message as precisely as possible would be prudent. Ethical communicators don't
behave in a questionable manner with the messages they pass on.
 Avert Deception - Ethical communicators are constantly careful in their mission to stay away from
misdirection, deliberate twisting, or withholding of data in their correspondence.
 Behave Consistently - One of the most pervasive yet perceptible zones of deceptive conduct is
imparting something different and doing something else. You should constantly screen your conduct to
guarantee that it matches what you say to others.
 Conserve Confidentiality - When somebody reveals to you something and anticipates that you not will
disclose that data to others, a holy trust has been put on you.
 Ensure Timeliness - The timing of messages can be decisive. When you defer sending messages with
the goal that others don't obtain profit from it, they can presume that you have acted unscrupulously.
 Oppose Unethical Attitude- To hold a uniform ethical perspective; you should go up against exploitative
conduct whenever you watch it. Open and strong disapproval of dishonest people may not be essential, but rather
it is imperative that individuals comprehend that your own resistance to unscrupulous conduct is low.

Despite the use of modern means of communication available today such as Internet, mobile telephones, tele-
conferencing, etc., the value of traditional methods of carrying out business correspondence must not be
underestimated. The traditional methods are helpful in a number of ways, as given here
To get employment
To share information
To make inquiry
To request
To complain
To place an order
To build business relationships
Letters are brief correspondence sent to the receivers who are often not from within the organization. They are
often printed on letterhead paper, and represent the business or organization in one or two pages. Shorter
messages may include e-mails or memos, either hard copy or electronic, while reports tend to be three or more
pages in length.

Though there are many more advanced ways means of communication which may replace tradition letter
writing yet when the matter is complex letters are found to be more useful and effective as letters may help in
long term storage of information as compared to e-mails which may get destroyed over time by viruses and
computer crashes.

Types of Letters

Sales Letters
A sales letter tries to persuade its reader to buy a product or a particular subject. It has four major elements
which can be called AIDA.
Attention: Attract the reader’s attention
Interest: Build the reader’s interest in the product or service
Desire: Create a desire in reader’s mind for the product or service
Action: Induce the reader to take an action in favour of product or service

Traditionally sales letters start with a very strong statement to attract the attention of the reader with a purpose
of inducing the reader to take an action. These letters include strong calls to action, detail the benefits which the
reader will get including information to help the reader to act, such as including a telephone number or website

Order Letters
Order letters are sent by consumers or businesses to a manufacturer, retailer or wholesaler to order goods or
services if they find the term and conditions of purchase of goods agreeable.
The guidelines to be followed while placing an order are given here:
(i) List reference to seller’s reference letter, data, etc.
(ii) Mention the number of catalogue, price list, etc., used for the transaction
(iii) Mention specification of goods, quantity reuired
(iv) Mention forwarding directions
(v) Mention packing instructions
(vi) Mention the mode of payment
(vii) Mention the time limit, discount, quality, etc

Complaint Letters
Sometimes goods or services delivered to a company may not reach in right condition or may get delayed or
cause some other convenience to the buyer. In order to bring it in the notice of the seller, a complaint letter
needs to be written. The words and tone that you are using in the complaint letter determine whether your
complaint will be entertained or not.
The guidelines to be followed while writing a complaint letter are given here:
Be direct but tactful
Always use a professional tone if you want the company to listen to you.
Motivate the reader to take action

Adjustment Letters
It is considered good business practice not to show anger or get upset on receiving a complaint letter and to
reply immediately to the complaint. An adjustment letter normally is written and sent in response to a claim or
complaint. If the adjustment is in the customer’s favor, begin the letter with that news. If not, keep your tone
factual and let the customer know that you understand the complaint.

Inquiry Letters
A letter of inquiry is basically an information seeking letter. It could be for a special favour; asking materials or
for services. Such letters should be clear and concise and should convey the exact information which is
An inquiry letter should follow the following guidelines:
Purpose of writing letter or seeking information
Request for price list
Details of the sender’s business
Terms of discount, delivery
Quantity required
Thanks to the writer for his time and effort

Be sure to include your contact information so that it is easy for the reader to respond.

Letters of Recommendation
Prospective employers often ask job applicants for letters of recommendation before they hire them. This type
of letter is usually from a previous employer or professor, and it describes the sender’s relationship with and
opinion of the job seeker.

Acknowledgment Letters
Acknowledgment letters act as simple receipts. Businesses send them to let others know that they have received
a prior communication, but action may or may not have taken place.

Causes for writing business letter are as follows:

To get employment
To share information
To make inquiry
To request
To complain
To ask for credit
To make an adjustment
To congratulate
To sell a product or service
To place an order
To build business relationships and sustain them
To reach out to a large group of people spread out geographically
Parts of a Business Letter

1. Sender's Address
The sender's address usually is included in letterhead. If you are not using letterhead, include the sender's
address at the top of the letter one line below the date. Do not write the sender's name or title, as it is included in
the letter's closing. Include only the street address, city, and zip code.

2. Date
The date line is used to indicate the date the letter was written. However, if your letter is completed over a
number of days, use the date it was finished in the date line. When writing to companies within the United
States, use the American date format. (The United States-based convention for formatting a date places the
month before the day. For example: June 11, 2017. ) Write out the month, day and year two inches from the top
of the page. Depending which format you are using for your letter, either left justify the date or tab to the center
point and type the date.

3. Inside Address
The inside address is the recipient's address. It is always best to write to a specific individual at the firm to
which you are writing. If you do not have the person's name, do some research by calling the company or
speaking with employees from the company? Include a personal title such as Ms., Mrs., Mr., or Dr. Follow a
woman's preference in being addressed as Miss, Mrs., or Ms. If you are unsure of a woman's preference in being
addressed, use Ms. If there is a possibility that the person to whom you are writing is a Dr. or has some other
title, use that title. Usually, people will not mind being addressed by a higher title than they actually possess.

4. Salutation
Use the same name as the inside address, including the personal title. If you know the person and typically
address them by their first name, it is acceptable to use only the first name in the salutation (for example: Dear
Lucy:). In all other cases, however, use the personal title and last/family name followed by a colon. Leave one
line blank after the salutation.
If you don't know a reader's gender, use a non-sexist salutation, such as their job title followed by the receiver's
name. It is also acceptable to use the full name in a salutation if you cannot determine gender. For example, you
might write Dear Chris Harmon: if you were unsure of Chris's gender.

5. Body
For block and modified block formats, single space and left justify each paragraph within the body of the letter.
Leave a blank line between each paragraph. When writing a business letter, be careful to remember that
conciseness is very important. In the first paragraph, consider a friendly opening and then a statement of the
main point. The next paragraph should begin justifying the importance of the main point. In the next few
paragraphs, continue justification with background information and supporting details. The closing paragraph
should restate the purpose of the letter and, in some cases, request some type of action.

6. Closing
The closing begins at the same vertical point as your date and one line after the last body paragraph. Capitalize
the first word only (for example: Thank you) and leave four lines between the closing and the sender's name for
a signature. If a colon follows the salutation, a comma should follow the closing; otherwise, there is no
punctuation after the closing.

7. Enclosures
If you have enclosed any documents along with the letter, such as a resume, you indicate this simply by typing
Enclosures one line below the closing. As an option, you may list the name of each document you are including
in the envelope. For instance, if you have included many documents and need to ensure that the recipient is
aware of each document, it may be a good idea to list the names.
8. Typist initials
Typist initials are used to indicate the person who typed the letter. If you typed the letter yourself, omit the
typist initials.
Sample - Block Letter

Sender’s Capital Supplies

8995, Andheri West
Address Mumbai

October 2, 20XX Date

Ajay Bose, Director

Inside Address Altus Trucking
P.O. Box 4440
Pune Salutation

Dear Mr. Bose

Thank you for your conscientious service. All 15 of your last shipments
have arrived undamaged. We have never contracted with a supplier
with as fine a record as yours. We appreciate the extra effort it takes to
ship our order intact and on time.

Ramesh Kumar and Mohd. Irfan have delivered these shipments to our
loading dock supervisor. I have attached copies of logs for your review.
Main Body
Note that the unloading time is approximately half of that from other
shippers for a similar load. Ted and Bob frequently help our crew
unload the crates. This additional service always comes with an
exchange of jokes. Our crew collects laughs to compete with your

Doing business with your organization is a pleasure. You save us

money by eliminating shipping waste and time by providing efficient
drivers. Please accept the enclosed certificates of merit to Altus
Trucking, with our appreciation. We are confident in referring our
Signature Lines customers and vendors to Altus Trucking for their shipping needs.

Sincerely, Complementary Close

Ram Kumar

Enc. (10)


Memo (short for memorandum) is a business-oriented style that is best suited for interoffice or inter colleague
correspondence. More informal in tone and organization than a letter, memos are generally used to provide or
ask for information, announce a new policy, update on personnel transfers, or for any other internal issues.
Elements of an Effective Memo
An effective memo:
 grabs the reader's attention
 provides information, makes a recommendation, or asks for action
 supports your position or explains benefits to reader
 mentions next steps and deadlines
When composing a memo, always take the four-step approach to writing: plan what you want to say, write a
draft, revise the draft, and edit.
Types of Memos
There are four types of memos you might have to write, each with its own organizational format: information,
problem-solving, persuasion, and internal memo proposal.
Information Memo
 used to deliver or request information or assistance
 first paragraph provides main idea
 second paragraph expands on the details
 third paragraph outlines the action required
Problem-solving Memo
 suggests a specific action to improve a situation
 first paragraph states the problem
 second paragraph analyzes the problem
 third paragraph makes a recommendation
 when making a recommendation, include not only the positive details but also the drawbacks and diffuse
them yourself
Persuasion Memo
 used to encourage the reader to undertake an action he or she doesn't have to take
 first paragraph begins with an agreeable point
 second paragraph introduces the idea
 third paragraph states benefits to the reader
 fourth paragraph outlines the action required
 fifth paragraph ends with a call to action
Internal Memo Proposal
 used to convey suggestions to senior management
 first paragraph states reason for writing
 second paragraph outlines present situation and states writer's proposal
 third paragraph describes advantage(s)
 fourth paragraph mentions and diffuses disadvantage(s)
 fifth paragraph ends with a call to action

Memo Parts

Name of Company (Letter Head)

Ref. No.____________
To: [Audience]
From: [Person and/or Department issuing the memo]
Date: [Date Sent]
Subject: [Subject of the Memo]
[Opening – Get to the point in the opening paragraph. Keep things simple and short. Make it easy and fast to
[Summary – Provide enough background so all readers understand the history, but again, keep it simple.]
[Conclusion – End with a call to action.]

CC: [Send copies to anyone affected by the memo.]

Attachments: [List any attachments to the memo. Only list items referred to in the body of the memo.]


A Notice is a written or a printed information or news announcement. Notices are either displayed at prominent
places or published in newspapers/magazines. It is meant only for a select group. Since a notice contains a
formal announcement or information, its tone and style is formal and factual. A notice is always brief and to the
point. It is widely used by individuals and organizations to announce events and celebrations, births and deaths,
occasions like inaugurations or sales to issue public instructions to make appeals and to extend invitations
besides issue notices of termination to the employees or other way round ie notice of leaving the job from the
employee to the employer. Must notices are meant to be pinned up or pasted on special boards meant for this
specific purpose only. There must be one or more such notice board in the school and other organization.
Whereas notices issued by the Government departments other big organization also appear in various

How to Write a Notice?

Writing an effective notice is a kind of art that can be acquired with practice with keep some basic pont in mind
while writhing them out. Your notice should give complete information and must be written in a clear and lucid
style and easily understandable language.

Content that a good effective notice must include in it are:

 Name of the Organization, Institution or Office issuing it.

 Date of issuing of a particular notice.
 The heading ‘Notice’ to make it very clear.
 A suitable description/ eye- catching caption or heading to hold the immediate attention of the reader.
 Purpose for which it has been written like calling a meeting, drawing attention, making an appeal or
informing general public about some issue of concern etc.
 Details of schedule i.e. date. Time, venue, programme, duration etc. in case the notice is about and
event to be organized in the near future.
Name of organisation/office issuing the notice
Date Notice


Body of Notice


Points to remember:
• A well-written notice must inform the readers about the 5 Ws:
— What is going to happen, (that is, the event)
— Where it will take place
— When it will take place (that is, the date and time)
— Who can apply or is eligible for it
— Whom to contact or apply to (that is, the issuing authority)
• Only the most important points should be written.
• A.O.D. – that is, any other detail given in the question.
• One is free to add any relevant information not included in the question.
• The sentences should be short and grammatically accurate. They should be in the passive voice as far as
• The notice should be presented within a box.
• Information given in a notice must be clear and should not cause any misunderstanding or confusion.
• A notice must be catchy and appealing – it should attract the reader’s attention at once.
• Increase the visual appeal of your notice by using bold letters, catchy slogans, striking words and phrases, etc.
• Standard abbreviations are allowed.
The Residents’ Welfare Association, Green Park is organizing a ‘Holi Fiesta’ in the locality. As the
president of the association, draft a notice in not more than 50 words informing the residents about the
same. Give other essential details too.

Residents’ Welfare Association

March 10, 2017

Holi Fiesta
The Residents’ Welfare Association is organizing a Holi Bash in the colony as per the following details:

Date : 17 February 2007

Time : 9 am to 5 pm

Venue : Green Park Club

The residents are requested to come along with their families and friends and add colour to the rejoicings.
Ravi Kumar
President, RWA


An Office order contains directions or instructions which are complied by the person receiving the order. It is a
means of downward communication. It carries a stamp of authority and people working at lower levels are
bound to accept this. It is used to communicate matters concerning:
 Posting
 Promotion
 Transfer
 Suspension
 Termination of services
 Granting / Withholding certain privileges
 Imposing certain restriction
 Disciplinary proceedings
 Refusing leave to an employee
Essentials of Office Orders
 order must be very precise
 it should be written in very simple words
 order should be written in unoffending language
 it should be clearly specify for whom they are meant
 it should be correct, short & to the point
 it should draw the attention of the concerned person’s who have to comply with the office order
 it must contain specific instructions or directions for compliance
 it must be authentic & duly signed by a competent authority

Prasar Bharati
Prasar Bharati House
Copernicus Marg, New Delhi

Ref. No. A-101/01/2017-ABC Dated: July 20, 2017


In pursuance of this Secretariat's Office Order no. 140/2017-PPC dated 10.06.2017, Ms. Shalinia has
been relieved of her duties from NPL (A), w.e.f 30.06.2017 (AlN) has reported for duty in Prasar Bharati
Secretariat w.e.f 19.07.2017 (FIN). Accordingly, the official stands posted in Operations Division of this

2. Ms. Shalini shall draw her pay and allowances from DG: AIR, being placed on the strength Of the

(Ashok Kumar)
Dy. Director
Copies to:

I. Concerned Officer
“Circulars” is information for all. It is just information about some routine process or circulating some
information to intended viewers for being aware about the same. It need not be issued by competent authority
but generally it is issued by officers or managers. Circulars are for specific purpose or event like meeting, or
any other event.
Importance or advantages of circulars
1. Easy method of conveying information: Circular is the most easy, simple and effective way to convey
any information to a huge number of people.
2. Achieving economy: Circular can be used for wide publicity of products. As a result, organizations can
save cost of sending letters to different parties separately and can gain economy.
3. Saving time: Circular transmits information to a large number of people at a time. It does not require
reaching each individual separately. Thus, it saves time.
4. Less effort: Circulating information to each individual separately is a time consuming and laborious job.
Circular helps to overcome this problem. Through circulars, we can communicate with large number of
people at a minimum effort.
5. Creating market: Through circular, a company can inform the potential customers about its products and
services. In this way, new market can be created.
6. Increasing consumer’s confidence: Convincing and attractive circulars can easily touch the reader’s
heart and thus it helps to enhance consumer’s confidence on the company’s products.
7. Creating public consciousness: In circulars, information like price, quality, utility, place of availability
etc. are mentioned in details that make people more conscious about the product.
Difference among Circular, Office order, and Notice
Circular Office Order Notice

1. There is no order of any 1. It is issued by competent 1. It is issued by some

authority. authority. competent authority.
2. It is just an information 2. An office order has an 2. The purpose of a notice is to
about some rules, element of “order” passed by announce or display
regulations or routine the issuing authority intended information to a specific
process of circulating some to be followed by the target group of people.
information to intended group of viewers concerned. 3. Notices are generally meant
viewers for being aware 3. It contains instructions to be pinned up on specific
about the same. related to office works, display boards whether in
3. Circulars are also for change of working hours, institutions, offices, or in
specific purpose or event instruction on closed public places.
like meeting, or any other holidays, promotions, etc. 4. This is also a kind of
event. 4. Office orders are issued circulation of some
4. They are usually duplicated periodically like every information about an
or printed with a space left Monday or on every 1st of event/occurrence which has
for the names of addresses month etc. The sequence of already occurred or is going
to be written or typed in the information is pre- to occur within in a short
those spaces. decided. period. The retention time of
5. “Circular” is an information 5. “Office Order” is mandatory a notice is generally short.
for all. of compliance by all. 5. “Notice” is an advisory for
Agenda and Minutes

Agenda and minutes are two of the most important ingredients of a meeting. There are many things on
the mind of the person who arranges the meeting such as the schedule, timing, venue, the guests, the
meeting plan, and so on.

The differences between agenda and minutes:


Agenda is a word that is used to describe the schedule or the program items of a meeting. It is a list of
things that need to be done or discussed during the meeting. Any formal meeting that is organized
requires making its agenda. There is a sequence in which items are taken up and discussed during the
meeting and the agenda of the meeting clearly mentions this sequence. This agenda is circulated among
the guests well before they actually arrive at the venue at the time of the meeting so as to allow them to
familiarize with the topics that will be discussed during the meeting. Another objective of the agenda is to
make sure that the participants prepare accordingly and are not caught unawares.


A minute of meeting is a term that is used to refer to the written record of the official proceedings during
a formal meeting. They often give an overview of the structure of the meeting, starting with a list of those
present, a statement of the various issues before the attendees, and each of their responses thereto. They
are often created at the moment while the meeting proceeds. The minute taker may record the meeting in
shorthand, and then type the minutes and issue them to the attendees afterwards.

These minutes serve as records of what happened during a meeting as also to remind people after some
time if they forget. These minutes are also useful for all those who are not able to attend the meeting as
they get to know everything that took place during the meeting. Minutes contain the name of the venue,
the date and time of the meeting, and the list of all those who attended the meeting. These minutes also
contain the name of the person who takes these minutes.

An organized meeting needs a well-written agenda. Keep the meeting streamlined and focused, ensuring
that all goals are met for the meeting in the shortest amount of time.

Giving the agenda a title: The title should tell the reader two things: First, that s/he is reading an agenda.
Secondly, the purpose of the title is to inform reader’s the topic that will be covered in the
meeting. Simple and direct titles are usually best.

 Date and time. These can be grouped together or in their own separate sections.
 Location. If your business has multiple locations, you may want to write the address, whereas if it
has just one location, you may want to name the room you're meeting in (e.g., Conference Room
 Attendees. Job titles are usually required with their signature.
 Special individuals present. These may be special guests, speakers, or meeting leaders.

Name of Organization Name of Department


Name Title Signature

Chairperson or Presiding Officer

Date Time Place

Facilitator Minute Taker Documentor

PREPARATION: 1 Documents required

2 Presentation to be given
3 Report to be submitted
Date Time Place
Next Meeting Decision



1.Confirmation of minutes of To adopt the minutes of the Academic Senate To be printed and
previous meeting meeting held on 10 September 2015 as a correct filed in the records
2 Report from the Presiding record.
3 New items of business



Date: ………………………..

Memo (short for memorandum) is a business-oriented style that is best suited for interoffice or inter colleague
correspondence. More informal in tone and organization than a letter, memos are generally used to provide or
ask for information, announce a new policy, update on personnel transfers, or for any other internal issues.
Elements of an Effective Memo
An effective memo:
 grabs the reader's attention
 provides information, makes a recommendation, or asks for action
 supports your position or explains benefits to reader
 mentions next steps and deadlines
When composing a memo, always take the four-step approach to writing: plan what you want to say, write a
draft, revise the draft, and edit.
Types of Memos
There are four types of memos you might have to write, each with its own organizational format: information,
problem-solving, persuasion, and internal memo proposal.
Information Memo
 used to deliver or request information or assistance
 first paragraph provides main idea
 second paragraph expands on the details
 third paragraph outlines the action required
Problem-solving Memo
 suggests a specific action to improve a situation
 first paragraph states the problem
 second paragraph analyzes the problem
 third paragraph makes a recommendation
 when making a recommendation, include not only the positive details but also the drawbacks and diffuse
them yourself
Persuasion Memo
 used to encourage the reader to undertake an action he or she doesn't have to take
 first paragraph begins with an agreeable point
 second paragraph introduces the idea
 third paragraph states benefits to the reader
 fourth paragraph outlines the action required
 fifth paragraph ends with a call to action
Internal Memo Proposal
 used to convey suggestions to senior management
 first paragraph states reason for writing
 second paragraph outlines present situation and states writer's proposal
 third paragraph describes advantage(s)
 fourth paragraph mentions and diffuses disadvantage(s)
 fifth paragraph ends with a call to action
Memo Parts

Name of Company (Letter Head)

Ref. No.____________
To: [Audience]
From: [Person and/or Department issuing the memo]
Date: [Date Sent]
Subject: [Subject of the Memo]
[Opening – Get to the point in the opening paragraph. Keep things simple and short. Make it easy and fast to
[Summary – Provide enough background so all readers understand the history, but again, keep it simple.]
[Conclusion – End with a call to action.]

CC: [Send copies to anyone affected by the memo.]

Attachments: [List any attachments to the memo. Only list items referred to in the body of the memo.]

Email has changed the way we work – allowing us to communicate cheaply and quickly with colleagues,
suppliers and other contacts around the world. Many of us now use it as our main means of communication
during the working day. But what are the best techniques to use when writing emails? Are the rules for writing
emails different to those we have already learned?

Emails are written communications, and their purpose, generally, is to send information. If we relax the rules of
grammar and clear communication, we will fail to get our message across. So it is important to stick to the usual
guidelines. However, emails are normally less formal than a printed business letter.

Email Etiquette
There is still some confusion about the correct way to write emails, which 'tone' is appropriate, and whether to
use slang or abbreviations. It is important that whether for business or personal use that you follow the basics of
email etiquette.

Sending Emails

 Make sure your e-mail includes a courteous greeting and closing. Helps to make your e-mail not seem
demanding or terse.
 Address your contact with the appropriate level of formality and make sure you spelled their name
 Spell check - emails with typos are simply not taken as seriously.
 Read your email out loud to ensure the tone is that which you desire. Try to avoid relying on formatting
for emphasis; rather choose the words that reflect your meaning instead. A few additions of the words
“please” and “thank you” go a long way!
 Be sure you are including all relevant details or information necessary to understand your request or
point of view. Generalities can many times causing confusion and unnecessary back and forth.
 Are you using proper sentence structure? First word capitalized with appropriate punctuation? Multiple
instances of ! or ? are perceived as rude or condescending.
 If your email is emotionally charged, walk away from the computer and wait to reply. Review the
Sender's email again so that you are sure you are not reading anything into the email that simply isn't
 Refrain from using the Reply to All feature to give your opinion to those who may not be interested. In
most cases replying to the Sender alone is your best course of action.
 Make one last check that the address or addresses in the To: field are those you wish to send your reply
 Be sure your name is reflected properly in the From: field.
 Type in complete sentences. To type random phrases or cryptic thoughts does not lend to clear
 Never assume the intent of an email. If you are not sure -- ask so as to avoid unnecessary
 Just because someone doesn't ask for a response doesn't mean you ignore them. Always acknowledge
emails from those you know in a timely manner.
 Be sure the Subject: field accurately reflects the content of your email.
 Don't hesitate to say thank you, how are you, or appreciate your help!
 Keep emails brief and to the point. Save long conversations for the old fashioned telephone.
 Always end your emails with “Thank you,” “Sincerely,” “Take it easy,” “Best regards” - something!
Formatting Emails

 Do not type in all caps. That's yelling or reflects shouting emphasis.

 If you bold your type, know you are bolding your statement and it will be taken that way by the other
side - X10!
 Do not use patterned backgrounds. It makes your email harder to read.
 Stay away from fancy fonts.
 Use emoticons sparingly to ensure your tone and intent are clear.
 Typing your emails in all small case gives the perception of lack of education or laziness.
 Refrain from using multiple font colors in one email. It makes your email harder to view and can add to
your intent being misinterpreted.
 Use formatting sparingly. Instead try to rely on choosing the most accurate words possible to reflect
your tone and avoid misunderstandings in the process.
Email Attachments

 When sending large attachments, always “zip” or compress them before sending.
 Never send large attachments without notice! Always ask what would be the best time to send them first.
 Learn how to resample or resize graphics to about 600 pixels in width before attaching them to an email.
This will greatly reduce download time.
 Never open an attachment from someone you don't know.
 Be sure your virus, adware and spyware programs are up to date and include scanning of your emails
and attachments both incoming and outgoing.
 It is better to spread multiple attachments over several emails rather than attaching them all to one email
to avoid clogging the pipeline.
 Make sure the other side has the same software as you before sending attachments or they may not be
able to open your attachment. Use PDF when possible.
To, From, CC, BCC, RR, Subject:
 Only use Cc: when it is important for those you Cc: to know about the contents of the email. Overuse
can cause your emails to be ignored.
 Don't use Return Receipt (RR) on every single email. Doing so is viewed as intrusive, annoying and can
be declined by the other side anyway.
 Include addresses in the To: field for those who you would like a response from.
 Include addresses in the Cc: field for those who you are just FYI'ing.
 Make sure your name is displayed properly in the From: field.
 Remove addresses from the To:, CC; and BCc: field that don't need to see your reply.
 Always include a brief Subject. No subject can get your email flagged as spam.
 Think about your motives when adding addresses to To:, CC:, BCc. Use your discretion.
 Never expose your friend's or contact's email address to strangers by listing them all in the To: field. Use
 Make sure when using BCC: that your intentions are proper. To send BCc: copies to others as a way of
talking behind someone's back is inconsiderate.
Email Forwarding

 Don't forward emails that say to do so--no matter how noble the cause may be. Most are hoaxes or
hooey and may not be appreciated by those you send to.
 If someone asks you to refrain from forwarding emails they have that right and you shouldn't get mad or
take it personally.
 When forwarding email, if you cannot take the time to type a personal comment to the person you are
forwarding to--then don't bother.
 Don't forward anything without editing out all the forwarding >>>>, other email addresses, headers and
commentary from all the other forwarders.
 If you must forward to more than one person, put your email address in the TO: field and all the others
you are sending to in the BCC: field to protect their email address from being published to those they do
not know. This is a serious privacy issue!
 Be careful when forwarding email on political or controversial issues. The recipient may not appreciate
your POV.
Email and Perception, Privacy, Copyright

 Choose your email address wisely. It will determine, in part, how you are perceived.
 Try not to make assumptions when it comes to email. Always ask for clarification before you react.
 Posting or forwarding of private email is copyright infringement -- not to mention downright rude. You
need permission from the author first!
 Even though it isn't right; emails are forwarded to others. Keep this in mind when typing about
emotional or controversial topics.
 When there is a misunderstanding by email, don't hesitate to pick up the old fashioned telephone to work
things out!
 Know that how you type, and the efforts you make or don't make will indicate what is important to you
and if you are an educated courteous person.
 If you forward an email that turns out to be a hoax, have the maturity to send an apology follow up email
to those you sent the misinformation to.
 When filling out a contact form on a Web site, do so carefully and with clarity so your request is taken
 If a friend puts your e-mail address in the To: field with others you do not know, ask them to no longer
expose your address to strangers without your permission.
Business Email

 Think of your business email as though it was on your business letterhead and you'll never go wrong!
 If you cannot respond to an email promptly, at the very least email back confirming your receipt and
when the sender can expect your response.
 Emailing site owners about your product or service through the site form is still spam. Ask them if they
want more info first!
 When replying to emails always respond promptly and edit out unnecessary information from the post
you are responding to.
 Formality is in place as a courtesy and reflects respect. Assume the highest level of formality with new
email contacts until the relationship dictates otherwise. Refrain from getting too informal too soon in
your email communications.
 Never send anyone an email they need to unsubscribe from when they didn't subscribe in the first place!
 Be very careful how you use Reply to All and Cc: in a business environment. Doing so for CYA or to
subtlety tattle can backfire and have your viewed as petty or insecure.
 When replying to an email with multiple recipients noted in the To: or Cc: fields, remove the addresses
of those who your reply does not apply to.
 Never send business attachments outside of business hours and confirm that the format in which you can
send can be opened by the other side.
Email Considerations...

 Before getting upset because you perceive someone didn't respond, check to see if their reply was
inadvertently deleted or sent to your Trash or Junk folder.
 With emotionally charged emails, wait until the next morning to see if you feel the same before clicking
 Feel free to modify the Subject: field to more accurately reflect a conversation's direction.
 When it comes to your email communications, know who you can trust; trust only those you know.
 Take the time to review each email before clicking Send to ensure your message is clear and you are
relaying the tone that you desire.
 Never use an old email to hit reply and start typing about an entirely new topic.
 Regardless of how noble a forwarded email may be, don't just forward without investigating its
authenticity @
 Always add the email addresses of Web sites and new contacts immediately to your approved senders or
address book so they get through Spam filters.
 Before completing a Web site's Contact form; make an effort to review the site to be sure the
information you seek is not already available.
 Take a quick look at the e-mails in your Trash before you delete them just in case a good e-mail landed
there by mistake.
 If any email states to forward to all your friends, or just 5 people -- do everyone a favor and just hit
 Don't mass e-mail people who didn't ask to be on your personal “mailing list”.
 Double check that your adware, spyware and virus programs are set to automatically update at least once
each week so the software knows what to protect you from.
 And finally... Type unto others as you would have them type unto you!


A video conference is a live connection between people in separate locations for the purpose of communication,
usually involving audio and often text as well as video. At its simplest, videoconferencing provides
transmission of static images and text between two locations. At its most sophisticated, it provides transmission
of full-motion video images and high-quality audio between multiple locations.

The tangible benefits for businesses using videoconferencing include lower travel costs and profits gained from
offering videoconferencing as an aspect of customer service. The intangible benefits include the facilitation of
group work among geographically distant teammates and a stronger sense of community among business
contacts, both within and between companies. In terms of group work, users can chat, transfer files, share
programs, send and receive graphic data, and operate computers from remote locations. On a more personal
level, the face-to-face connection adds non-verbal communication to the exchange and allows participants to
develop a stronger sense of familiarity with individuals they may never actually meet in the same place.

How you connect to a video conference

o There are three main types of video conference solutions for businesses: point-to-point, multipoint and
o Point-to-point (sometimes referred to as single call) is a direct connection between two locations. It’s like a
telephone call, just with video.
o Multipoint lets three or more people or locations take part in the same video conference. Multiple parties can
meet through HD video in a meeting room, from a desktop at work, from a home computer, or even over a
smart phone or tablet when on the road.
o Streaming connects your video conference to others who may choose to view the meeting on a remote
computer or mobile device using software instead of hardware. You can even access the video conference at
a later time via a web browser.
Videoconferencing Tips for Success

Meeting Preparation

 Arrive well before your videoconference starts to test the videoconferencing system and the interface to
your laptop.
 Minimize distracting glare and uneven lighting by pulling the shades on windows and doors and
covering glass-framed wall hangings. You should minimize combining outside light with indoor
fluorescent lighting to prevent problems with the videoconference camera and the quality of your image.
 Make sure the room has adequate lighting, typically what would be used for standard office work. If it's
too dark, the other sites won't be able to see you clearly.
 Try to set up a back channel for communication to the other site(s) such as with Instant Message client
or email. This allows for communication without interrupting the discussion.
 Wear neutral, muted, or pastel solid colors. Avoid plaids, stripes, polka dots, very bright colors, and the
colors white or red—they can cause distracting effects on screen.

Communicate Effectively

 Do an audio check before the virtual meeting begins to ensure that everyone can hear you.
 Speak in a normal voice, you shouldn't have to shout.
 Talk directly into the microphone. Do not turn your head from side to side while talking or your voice
will fade in and out at the remote site.
 When you start talking, JUST KEEP TALKING! Try not to ask "can you hear me?" or anything like
that. Assume that everything is working fine. You will be interrupted if something is wrong.
 When possible, keep your microphone muted when you won't be speaking for several minutes or more.
Un-muted microphones can be the single most important problem communicating during a
videoconference meeting.
 Be natural, but limit excess movement to avoid looking jerky on screen. If you walk around while
speaking, remain in a small area and walk slowly.

Videoconferencing Etiquette

 When videoconferencing with many sites, start your comment by saying your name and location (for
example, "This is Ramesh at New Delhi.") Doing so helps the video equipment switch to your site and
also helps other sites identify who is speaking before the video monitor catches up.
 When your microphone is on, be careful with side conversations and do not rustle papers or make
tapping sounds near the microphone. Any sounds you make will be heard by the other sites and can be
 Direct your questions to a specific site, and preferably a specific individual. Expect a few extra seconds
of delay in getting an answer because of the technology and distance involved (at minimum, un-muting
the microphone).
 Do not cause echo. If you are causing echo, it will disrupt the videoconference. If necessary, keep your
microphone muted until you have to speak, and then quickly mute it when you are finished.
 Look directly at the camera as often as possible. This will give the remote site the impression that you
are looking directly at them.

A summary gives the reader a condensed account of the main ideas in a text. It is often no more than a few
paragraphs long (or between ten and twenty percent of the original text). It reports accurately and objectively
what the original author has said. It addresses the following:

 the subject of the article

 the author’s main point

 the kind of evidence the author uses: Scientific studies? Personal research or experience?

 the author’s conclusions: What does the author want the reader to think about this topic?

A process for writing summaries:

1. Preview

 Before you read, consider the title and other headings – what do they suggest this text will be about?

 Consider the author’s background. Is s/he an expert in this field? Does s/he have a bias?

 What is his/her purpose for writing? To persuade? To inform?

 Who is the intended audience?

 Where the text was originally published?

2. Read

 Identify the author’s thesis – where in the text does the author state the main point?

 Divide the text into logical sections; headings and paragraph breaks will be a useful guide.

 Label each section or stage of thought (on the text itself).

 Highlight/underline key ideas and terms.

 Annotate the text in the margin

 label main points – explain why they’re important
 define key terms
 ask questions
 respond to the author in your notes, indicating if you agree or disagree.

3. Thesis and One-sentence Summaries

 Write a thesis: a one-sentence statement which cites the author, title of the text, and expresses the

 main idea in your own words.

 Write one-sentence summaries of each section or stage of thought in your own words.

 Include author tags (i.e. according to, the author claims, the author cites research suggesting).

 Report the main ideas as objectively as possible, but avoid summarizing specific examples or data.

4. First Draft

 Combine the thesis and one-sentence summaries with significant details from the passage.

 Use as few words as possible to convey the main idea.

 Eliminate repetition; disregard or generalize minor details.

 Use your own words; quote only the most important terms.

5. Revise the Summary

 Check your summary against the original passage to see if the summary is accurate and complete.

 Does your summary use as few words as possible to convey the main ideas?

 Be sure the summary is primarily in your own words, with only brief but essential quotes.

Cross Culture Communication

Cross-cultural communication refers to interpersonal communication and interaction across different cultures..
It can also be referred as communication among people having different ideas, customs or behavior. This has
become an important issue in the age of globalization and internationalization Effective cross-cultural
communication results in overcoming cultural differences across nationality, religion, borders, culture and

Culture: Definition

Culture is the ideas, customs, and social behavior of particular group of people or society. A culture is a one’s
way of life i.e. the behavior, belief, values and symbols that they accept, generally without thinking about them,
and that are passed along by communication and imitation from one generation to the next. It refers to the
cumulative deposit of knowledge, experience, beliefs, values, attitudes, meanings, hierarchies, religion, notions
of time, roles, spatial relations, concepts of the universe, and material objects and possessions acquired by a
group of people in the course of generations through individual and group striving. Culture acts as a “lens” in
particular people or society through which they view the world.

Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary defines culture as 'the integrated pattern of human knowledge,
belief and behaviour that depends upon man's capacity for learning and transmitting knowledge to succeeding

Cross Cultural Communication:


Cross Cultural Communication is the sending and receiving of messages across languages and cultures. It
is the ability to successfully foster, improve & form relationships with the members of different cultures.
It is based on other culture's manners, values, decision-making practices, social structure & perceptions, and the
way of communication of group members - in person, verbal or non verbal, or in writing. It is also a negotiated
understanding of meaning in human experiences across social systems and societies. Effective cross-cultural
communication requires that we understand what a culture is, and the ways in which it affects every aspect of
life. Today, a growing number of companies are investing resources toward training employees in inter-cultural
communication utilizing either in-house programs or consultants.

Following these five cross-cultural communication needs will allow us to improve lines of communication and
better cross-cultural awareness and successful cross-cultural relationships. Cross-cultural communication needs:

 Listening Skills: The emphasis usually lies on being a competent speaker, listening is a key skill that
many business personnel do not exercise enough. For cross-cultural communication, attentive listening
is critical to be able to understand meanings, read between the lines and enable to empathize with the
 Speaking Skills: Listening and speaking must work in tandem for effective cross-cultural
communication. Speaking well is not about accent, use of grammar and vocabulary or having the gift of
the gab. Rather, cross-cultural communication is enhanced through positive speech such as
encouragement, affirmation, recognition and phrasing requests clearly or expressing opinions
 Observation: Large amounts of cross-cultural information can be read in people's dress, body language,
interaction and behaviour. Be aware of differences with your own culture and try to understand the roots
of behaviours. Asking questions expands your cross-cultural knowledge.
 Patience: People need to recognize and understand that sometimes cross-cultural differences are
annoying and frustrating. In these situations, patience is definitely a virtue. Through patience, respect is
won, and cross-cultural understanding is enhanced.
 Flexibility: Flexibility, adaptability and open-mindedness are the route to successful cross-cultural
communication. Understanding, embracing and addressing cross-cultural differences leads to the
breaking of cultural barriers, which results in better lines of communication, mutual trust and creative

Barriers in Cross Cultural Communication:

Cross-cultural communication plays a critical role in successfully carrying out business with teams and
stakeholders in other areas of the globe. Ineffective communication however, can offend, confuse or send a
misconstrued message which could lead to broken relations with customers, partners, vendors, and employees.

Language Barriers

Language is a very complex thing, and communication between people speaking different languages is
difficult. Misunderstandings are common among people who speak the same language, so it's not surprising
that people from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds face communication barriers. Anything from the
mispronunciation of a word to a lack of specificity can lead to misunderstandings. Although English is regarded
as the common international language of business, not every business globally uses English on a regular basis.
Employees may have more difficulty when communicating in English, which can lead to misunderstandings
when taking direction, understanding level of urgency and communicating issues or concerns. Check for real
understanding by asking others to give feedback about what they just heard you say.

Cultural Barriers

Every culture has a different set of values, business ethics, accepted behavior and decorum− even different
facial expressions and gestures. It is important to understand these differences – to show genuine respect for
other cultural mores –when communicating with professionals from other cultures. For example, in the United
States it is common for the speaker to share personal anecdotes to build audience rapport, but in other countries
this is considered tiresome. Humor can be especially tricky to employ; better to be straightforward rather than
run the risk that your joke may inadvertently embarrass or insult the listener.


Behavioural differences between employees of different cultures can cause misunderstandings. These
differences can be barriers to effective communication if they are not recognized. Every culture has guidelines
about what is considered appropriate behaviour. In some cultures, looking someone in the eye when they are
talking to you is considered rude, while in other cultures refraining from doing so is considered disrespectful.
Getting right to the point at a business meeting may be considered impolite by some, who expect to have “small
talk” before the business discussion. Likewise, in some cultures, people talking to each other give each other
space, while in other cultures, they stand close. For example, in the U.S., it is important to make eye contact
with someone who is speaking to you or they may think you are distracted or uninterested. However, in many
Asian countries, eye contact can be a sign of disrespect or a challenge to authority. There are many other
cultural differences in body language that can create barriers to effective communication. Those include
differences in facial expressions, the use of nodding to indicate agreement or understanding, and the amount of
space to give someone with whom you are having a conversation.


Inaccurate stereotypes of people from other places can be a barrier to communication in the workplace.
Stereotypes are assumptions people make about the traits of members of a group. For example, a stereotypical
American is thought to be impatient and arrogant as well as friendly and tolerant. The danger is entertaining
stereotypes is that an individual is thought to possess characteristics that are ascribed to the group. Obviously,
not all Americans are impatient and arrogant, nor are they all friendly and tolerant. Prejudging an individual can
lead to misconceptions and barriers to communication.

Emotional Display

What is considered an appropriate display of emotion can differ from culture to culture. In some countries,
displaying anger, fear or frustration in the workplace is considered inappropriate in a business setting. People
from these cultures keep their emotions hidden and only discuss the factual aspects of the situation. In other
cultures, participants in a discussion are expected to reveal their emotions. You can imagine what
misunderstandings can arise if a businessperson displays strong emotion in the company of employees who feel
that such behavior is out of place.


Ethnocentrism is the inherent belief that your own cultural tradition and values are correct and superior. People
around the world are ethnocentric to a degree. Beliefs, values, and behaviors that differ from those of your
culture may seem peculiar, strange and even wrong. Comparing the values and behavior of different cultures
and usually judging them against standards of right and wrong leads to barriers. This approach to other cultures
becomes a barrier when you assume that cultural beliefs, values and behaviors are wrong if they differ from
those of your culture.

Presentation Style

Believe it or not, culture influences how people in different countries prefer to receive information. For
example, how interactive you should make your presentation depends on the culture to which you present. In
general, English speaking cultures like presentations to be lively and interactive. However, Eastern Europeans
are accustomed to presentations that are formal, high detailed and with few interruptions. Questions are
answered at the end of a presentation. Japanese audiences expect more technical information. Canadians, like
Americans, enjoy a brisk pace; and Latin American audiences prefer a speech with a high level of emotional

The key with any group of listeners from another culture is to do your homework, and don’t rely on your
personal frame of reference when addressing an audience of another culture. By focusing on their own
frames of reference, you acknowledge their customs and perspective, which goes far towards winning
them over.

Overcoming Barriers to Cross Cultural Communication

1. For understanding to take place, both people must have some form of knowledge or awareness regarding the
norms or customs that exist in each other's culture.
2. It is essential that people understand the potential problems of cross-cultural communication, and makes a
conscious effort to overcome these problems and important to assume that one's efforts will not always be
successful, and adjust one's behavior appropriately.
3. If words are used differently between languages or cultural groups, however, even active listening can
overlook misunderstandings. Active listening can sometimes be used to check this out-by repeating what one
thinks he or she heard, one can confirm that one understands the communication accurately.

4. Intermediaries are helpful in translating both the substance and the manner of what is said.

5. Provide workshops, tips and techniques for communicating effectively in cross-cultural work environments.

Report Writing

Definition: Technical writing is a specialized, structured way of writing, where information is

presented in a format and manner that best suits the psychological needs of the readers, so that
they can respond to a document as its author intended and achieve the purpose related to that
document. The process of gathering information from experts and presenting it to an audience in
a clear, easily understandable form is called technical writing.


Technical writing is the presentation of information that helps the reader solves a particular problem.
Technical communicators write, design and/or edit proposal, web pages, lab reports, newsletters and
many other kinds of professional documents.

Purpose of technical writing - why study technical report writing

Technical report writing has two basic purposes:

1. To inform
2. To persuade
A tech. report can be used for the physical description of a new machine, the steps in a particular process, or the
results of an experiment.

For example; A writer not only describes two sites for a factory but also persuades readers to accept one of them
as the best i.e. to prove your point. The document that achieves these purposes is called technical writing.

Functions of Technical Writing also include the following points:

a. Reassure recipients that you are making progress, that the project is going smoothly, and that it will be
completed by the expected date.

b. Provide their recipients with a brief look at some of the findings or some of the work of the project.

c. Give the recipients a chance to evaluate your work on the project and to request changes.

d. Give you a chance to discuss problems in the project and thus to forewarn recipients.

e. Force you to establish a work schedule so that you'll complete the project on time. It gives the writer a
motivation to work more and produce results more efficiently.

Characteristics of Technical Writing

Technical writing is an important part of everyone's career. Writing well is difficult and time consuming and
writing in a technical way about technical subjects even makes it more difficult. People write to propose
projects, to document their own actions, to help other understand the research, to analyze and solve problems, to
describe procedures and objects. If done well, technical writing is an exciting, fulfilling experience but if done
poorly, it is frustrating, even harmful to career development. Technicality in writing is based upon the following

There are six basic properties of Technical writing

1. Clarity
2. Accuracy
3. Comprehensiveness
4. Accessibility
5. Conciseness
6. Correctness

1. Clarity

Technical document must convey a single meaning that the reader can understand. Unclear Technical
writing is expensive. They vital communication link among the various employees is usually the report,
if this link is weak, the entire project may be jeopardized. Unclear technical writing can be dangerous
e.g. unclear instruction on how to operate machinery.

2. Accuracy

Unclear writing can cause many problems and even inaccuracy in the report. If you mean to write 40,000 don’t
write 400,000. If you mean to refer to fig 3.1 don’t refer to fig 3.2. Slightest error can confuse or even annoy the
reader of the report. If the reader suspects that you are slanting information they have the right to doubt the
entire document.
3. Comprehensiveness:

When writing technically, all the information should be provided, its background must be described and clear
description of any process, or method of carrying out a specific work, should also be given. It also includes
results, conclusions and recommendations.

4. Accessibility:

It means the ease with which the readers can locate the information they seek.

To increase Accessibility, include headings and lists in the report. A table of contents, list of illustrations
glossary and index are preferred.

5. Conciseness:

Technical writing is meant to be useful. The longer a document is, the more difficult it gets to use it. Even it
takes more of the user's time.

Conciseness works against clarity and comprehensiveness. Solution to this conflict is to create a balance
between the requirements of clarity, conciseness and comprehensiveness. In short, in T.W every aspect of the
subject is discussed in optimized detail. Document must be long enough to be clear. It must give the audience
purpose and object but no extra details. Technical writing can be shortened 10-20% by eliminating unnecessary
phrases and choosing short words and sentences.

6. Correctness

Qualities of technical report writing also include correctness. Good technical report must also be correct. It
must be free from grammatical errors, punctuation mistakes, and should have appropriate format standard. If a
report contains grammatical errors, the reader will doubt the accuracy of the information in the report. Technical
writing is meant to convey information and to persuade the audience. To accomplish these goals it must be clear
accurate, easy to access and must be economical and correct.

Project Proposals in Technical Writing

A document which persuades its readers to accept the writer's idea is called a proposal. The Project Head asks
for both a technical proposal and a cost proposal.

There are two kinds of proposals.

1. External Proposal
2. Internal proposal

A. External Proposal:

In external proposal, one firm responds to a request from another firm or the government for a solution to a
problem. It ranges from lengthy (100 pages or more) to a short (4-5 pages).
A firm writes external proposals to win contracts for work. Government agencies and large and small
corporations issue a request for proposal which explains the project and lists its specifications. Companies who
receive the writes proposals. A team assembles a document that shows that the company has the managerial
expertise, technical knowhow and appropriate budget to develop the project.

After receiving all the proposals, the firm that requested them turns them over to a team of evaluators, who after
judging the technical management and cost sections, select the best proposal.

Planning the External proposal

To write an external proposal, you must consider your audience, research the situation, use visual aids, and
follow the usual form of this type of document.

1. Consider the audience:

Usually your audience express problem to you in a written statement (an RFP) or in an interview. You must
assess their technical awareness and write accordingly. To write to them effectively, one should

1. address each need that they have expressed

2. explain in clear terms how your proposal fills their needs
3. Explain the relevance of technical data.

2. Research the situation:

To write the proposal effectively you must clearly understand your customer’s needs as well as your own
service. You must research their needs by means of interviewing them or by reading their printed material.

3. Use visual aids:

Many types of visual aids e.g table, maps etc may be appropriate to your proposal. Your goal is to convince the
decision makers that only your way is the best approach; good visuals are direct and dramatic, drawing your
client into the document.

To write an external proposal, follow the usual form for writing the proposals. The four main parts of a proposal

a. Executive summary:

The executive summary contains information designed to convince executives that the proposers should receive
the contract. It should present the content of technical, managerial and financial sections in clear terms. This
section is often designed to make non technical people feel comfortable with the proposal.
b. Writing the technical section:

A proposal's technical section begins by stating the problem to be solved. The proposers must clearly
demonstrate that they understand what the customer expects. The proposal should describe its approach towards
solving the problem.

c. Writing the management section:

This section describes the personnel who will directly be related to the project. The proposal writer must explain
what technical personnel and levels of management will be responsible for the success of the project. In a large
external proposal, this section often contains organization charts and resumes. In short proposal, this section
usually explains qualifications of personnel and firm's success with other similar projects.

d. Writing the financial section

The financial section provides a breakdown of the costs for every item in the proposal. Often this section is not
just a table of costs. At times a brief introduction and the table may be all you need, but if you need to explain
the significance of certain figures, then do so.

B. The Internal proposal

In an internal proposal, an employee on department urges someone else in the company to accept an idea or to
fund equipment on research. There are two types of internal proposals:

1. Assigned Proposal
2. Unsolicited Proposal

1. Assigned proposal:

In assigned proposal an employee writes solution for a given problem. He does not have to establish the

2. Unsolicited proposal:

In unsolicited proposal the writer writes the solution of a problem which he has discovered himself.

Planning the internal proposal

The goal of the proposal is to convince the person or group in authority to allow the writer to implement his
idea. To achieve this goal, the writer must consider the audience, use visual aids, understand organizational
principles and design a format.

I. Consider the audience

Writer considers the audience of a proposal in at least three ways; according to their involvement, their
knowledge and their authority.
a. How involved is the audience

In most cases, readers either have assigned the proposal or they are unaware of the problem. In assigned
proposal, the writer does not have to establish that the problem is a problem; but he or she does have to show
how the proposal will solve the problem. If the proposal is not assigned then he first convinces the audience that
the problem is a problem then he offers a convincing solution to the problem.

b. How knowledgeable is the audience.

The audience may or may not have the concepts and facts involved in the proposal. If the audience is less
knowledgeable, take care to define terms, give background and use common examples.

c. How much authority does the audience have?

The audience may or may not be able to order implementation of your proposed soultion. A manager might
assign the writer to investigate some problem, but most likely the manager will have to take the proposal to a
higher authority before it is approved.

II. Consider your own position

Your own position mirrors the audience position. If you have been assigned to write the proposal, you don’t
have to establish that the problem is a problem, but you do have to show how your proposed solution matches
the dimension of the problem. If you have discovered the problem then you have to establish that the problem is
a problem and then explain your solution.

III. Use visual aids

Since the proposal probably will have multiple audiences, visual aids can enhance its impact. Visuals can
support any part of the proposal - the problem, the solution, the implementation or even the benefits.

Writing / organizing the internal proposal

The writer should organize the proposal around four questions.

What is the problem?

Describing the problem is a key part of proposals. You must establish three things about the problem.

a. The data
b. The significance
c. The cause

Designing the proposal

To design a proposal, select an appropriate format, either formal or informal. A formal proposal will have a title
page, table of contents and summary. The formats for an informal proposal can be a memo report on some kind
of pre-printed form. The format depends on company policy and on the distance that the proposal must travel in
the hierarchy-usually the shorter the distance, the more informal the format. Also, the less significant the
proposal, the more informal the format is.

Use the introduction to orient the reader

The introduction must orient the reader to the writer, the problem and the solution. Introductory sections often
contain a separate executive summary that give the main prints of the body. If the body contains section on the
solution, benefits, cost, implementation and the rejected alternatives, the summary should cover the same prints.

Use the discussion to convince your audience

The discussion section contains all the detailed information that you must present to convince the audience. A
common approach functions this way:

The problem

1. Explanation of the problem

2. Causes of the problem

The solution

1. Details of the solution

2. Benefits of the solution
3. Ways in which the solution satisfy criteria

The context

 Schedule for implementing the solution

 Personnel involved
 Solutions rejected

Formal elements of a technical report

Those components which are usually included in a report in business and industry

1. Letter of transmittal
2. Title page
3. Abstract
4. Table of contents
5. List of illustrations
6. Executive summary
7. Glossary and list of symbols
8. Appendix

1. Letter of Transmittal
The components of a report are not written in the same order in which they appear e.g. the letter of transmittal is
the first thing the reader sees, but it is probably the last to be created.

It introduces the purpose and content of the report to the principle reader. It gives you an opportunity to
emphasize whatever you think, your reader will find particularly in the attached material. It enables you to point
out any errors or omission in the material.

Transmittal letter contains the following element.

 A statement of title and purpose of report.

 A statement of who authorized the project and when
 A statement of method used in the project or of the principal results, conclusion and recommendations.
 An acknowledgement of any assistance you received in preparing the material.

2. The title page

Usual elements are

 Title
 Name and position of writer
 Name and position of principle reader
 Date of submission

A good title must be informative. It. answers two basic questions

1. What is the subject of the report

2. What type of report is it? E.g. sea pollution - control devices

Define the type of report by using a generic term such as analysis, recommendations e.g summary, review etc.
For a simple title page, centre the title (typed in full capital letter) about a third of the way down the page, then
add the readers and writer's position, the organization’s name and date.

3. The abstract
It’s like a brief technical summary, usually not more than 200 words of the report. Its directed to readers
who are familiar with the technical subject and need to know whether to read the full report or not. This
can use technical terminology and refer to advanced concepts. Basic types of abstract are descriptive and
informative abstracts. The descriptive abstract sometime called topical or table of contents abstract. It
does not provide the import results, conclusion or recommendations. It lists the topic covered giving
equal coverage to each. The informative abstract states the problems the scope and methods, and the
major results, conclusion or recommendations.

4. The table of contents

It enables different readers to turn to specific pages to find the information they want. Well organized report
becomes ineffective if table of contents, is not clear. T.O.C provide only guide to report's structure, coverage
and pagination. The headings that appear in the report are listed in T.O.C

For effective T.O.C make sure the report has effective headings.

5. The list of illustrations

It is a T.O.C for the figures and tables of a report. If the report contains figures but not tables, it is called the list
of figures

But if the report contains tables but not figures so is called the list of tables only

List of illustrations may be on the same page as the table of contents, or may be on the separate page. If it
begins on a separate page, it should be listed in the table of contents.

6. The executive summary

Sometimes called executive overview or the management summary. It is a one page condensation of a
report. Managers don’t need a detailed and deep understanding of various projects undertaken in their
organization because of limitations in time and specialization. The background of the project is also
discussed clearly herein. The specific problem that is to be solved through the project is clearly discussed;
also the conclusion and recommendations are discussed in a full separate paragraph.

7. The glossary and list of symbols

A gloss is an alphabetic list of definitions. It is useful if you are addressing a multiple audience that includes
readers who will not be familiar with the technical vocabulary used in the report. An asterisk or any other
notation can be used along the word to tell the audience that the word is defined in glossary. It is generally
placed at the end of the report just before the appendix. Though if the glossary is a brief one, so can be placed
right after the table of contents.

A list of symbols is structured like glossary, but rather than defining words and phrases, it defines the symbols
and abbreviations used in the report.

Like glossary, the list of symbols may be placed before the appendices or after the table of content.
8. The appendix
An appendix is any section that follows the body of the report (and the list of references or bibliography,
glossary or list of symbols). Appendices provide information that is too bulky to be presented in the body or that
will interest only a small number of readers. For conciseness in the report, this information is separated from the
body. Examples of the kind of material that are usually found in the appendix include maps, large technical
diagrams or charts, computations, test data and texts of supporting documents. Appendices are usually lettered,
rather than numbered and are listed in the table of contents.

What is a Report?

In academia there is some overlap between reports and essays, and the two words are sometimes used
interchangeably, but reports are more likely to be needed for business, scientific and technical subjects, and in
the workplace.

Whereas an essay presents arguments and reasoning, a report concentrates on facts.

Essentially, a report is a short, sharp, concise document which is written for a particular purpose and
audience. It generally sets out and analyses a situation or problem, often making
recommendations for future action. It is a factual paper, and needs to be clear and well-

Reports may contain some or all of the following elements:

 A description of a sequence of events or a situation;

 Some interpretation of the significance of these events or situation, whether solely your own analysis or
informed by the views of others, always carefully referenced of course. An evaluation of the facts or the results
of your research;
 Discussion of the likely outcomes of future courses of action;
 Your recommendations as to a course of action; and
 Conclusions.
Not all of these elements will be essential in every report.

Sections and Numbering

A report is designed to lead people through the information in a structured way, but also to enable them
to find the information that they want quickly and easily.
Reports usually, therefore, have numbered sections and subsections, and a clear and full contents page listing
each heading. It follows that page numbering is important.
Getting started: prior preparation and planning
The structure of a report is very important to lead the reader through your thinking to a course of action
and/or decision. It’s worth taking a bit of time to plan it out beforehand.

Step 1: Know your brief

You will usually receive a clear brief for a report, including what you are studying and for whom the
report should be prepared.
First of all, consider your brief very carefully and make sure that you are clear who the report is for and why
you are writing it, as well as what you want the reader to do at the end of reading: make a decision or agree a
recommendation, perhaps.
Step 2: Keep your brief in mind at all times
During your planning and writing, make sure that you keep your brief in mind: who are you writing for,
and why are you writing?
All your thinking needs to be focused on that, which may require you to be ruthless in your reading and
thinking. Anything irrelevant should be discarded.
As you read and research, try to organise your work into sections a bit like writing a Literature Review.
Make sure that you keep track of your references, especially for academic work. Although referencing is
perhaps less important in the workplace, it’s also important that you can substantiate any assertions that you
make so it’s helpful to keep track of your sources of information.

The Structure of a Report

Like the precise content, requirements for structure vary, so do check what’s set out in any guidance.

However, as a rough guide, you should plan to include at the very least an executive summary, introduction, the
main body of your report, and a section containing your conclusions and any recommendations.

Executive Summary
The executive summary or abstract, for a scientific report, is a brief summary of the contents. It’s worth
writing this last, when you know the key points to draw out. It should be no more than half a page to a page in
Remember the executive summary is designed to give busy 'executives' a quick summary of the contents of the
The introduction sets out what you plan to say and provides a brief summary of the problem under discussion.
It should also touch briefly on your conclusions.
Report Main Body
The main body of the report should be carefully structured in a way that leads the reader through the issue.
You should split it into sections using numbered sub-headings relating to themes or areas for consideration. For
each theme, you should aim to set out clearly and concisely the main issue under discussion and any areas of
difficulty or disagreement. It may also include experimental results. All the information that you present should
be related back to the brief and the precise subject under discussion.
Conclusions and Recommendations
The conclusion sets out what inferences you draw from the information, including any experimental results. It
may include recommendations, or these may be included in a separate section.
Recommendations suggest how you think the situation could be improved, and should be specific, achievable
and measurable. If your recommendations have financial implications, you should set these out clearly, with
estimated costs if possible.

A Word on Writing Style

When writing a report, your aim should be to be absolutely clear. Above all, it should be easy to read and
understand, even to someone with little knowledge of the subject area.
You should therefore aim for crisp, precise text, using plain English, and shorter words rather than longer, with
short sentences.
You should also avoid jargon. If you have to use specialist language, you should explain each word as you use
it. If you find that you’ve had to explain more than about five words, you’re probably using too much jargon,
and need to replace some of it with simpler words.
Consider your audience. If the report is designed to be written for a particular person, check whether you
should be writing it to ‘you’ or perhaps in the third person to a job role: ‘The Chief Executive may like to
consider…’, or ‘The minister is recommended to agree…’, for example.

A Final Warning
As with any academic assignment or formal piece of writing, your work will benefit from being read over
again and edited ruthlessly for sense and style.
Pay particular attention to whether all the information that you have included is relevant. Also remember to
check tenses, which person you have written in, grammar and spelling. It’s also worth one last check against
any requirements on structure.
For an academic assignment, make sure that you have referenced fully and correctly. As always, check that you
have not inadvertently or deliberately plagiarised or copied anything without acknowledging it.
Types of Reports
The reports are classified on many bases. Such types of reports are:
Reports on the basis of Importance or Frequency
The reports are classified into two types. They are ordinary or routine reports and special reports.
1. Ordinary or Routine Report
Ordinary reports are prepared and presented before the managing director at specific intervals or to the next
authorized person in the business routine. The reports shall be submitted daily, weekly, fortnightly, monthly,
quarterly, bi-annually or annually. This type of report contains mere statement of facts in detail without any
opinion or recommendation of the reporter.
Examples for routine reports are Report of Directors to the Annual General Meeting, Auditor’s Report to the
Annual General Meeting, Sales Report, Production Report and the like.
2. Special Report
This type of report is prepared and presented before the top management on specific request. It usually contains
the opinions or recommendations of the reporter with the help of facts and arguments. Examples for special
report are opening of branch, introducing a new product, Improving the quality or changing the shape or size of
the product and the like.
Reports on the Basis of Legal Formalities
The reports are classified into two types. They are formal report and informal report.
1. Formal Report
Formal report is prepared in a prescribed format and presented before the competent authority in an established
procedure. Reports submitted by officials or committees of constituted bodies (example: Companies,
Cooperative Societies, Local Bodies etc.) are usually formal report.
2. Informal Report
Informal report is prepared in a format of the convenience of the reporter and presented directly before the
required person as and when demanded. An informal report is presented as in the form of letter or
memorandum. Generally, it takes the form of a person to person communication.
The formal reports are classified into two types. They are statutory report and non-statutory report.
Reports on the basis of Function
The reports are classified on the basis of function into two types. They are informative and interpretative.
1. Informative Report
An informative report is prepared and presented with the help of available information at the maximum with
regard to an issue or situation.
2. Interpretative Report
An interpretative report is not only contains the facts, views and opinions of reporters and others but also
includes the causes for an issue or an event and required remedial action with recommendations.
Reports on the basis of meetings
Whenever a meeting is organized in any business organization, a report is prepared by the secretary or any other
individual about the proceedings of the meeting. Such reports are classified into two types. They are Verbation
Report and Summarized Report.
1. Verbatim Reports
A verbatim report is a complete word by word record of all discussions made at a meeting. For example,
Appointment of an Auditor. A resolution is passed in the meeting. Likewise, Directors are appointed and the
remuneration and perquisites of key personnel are fixed by passing a resolution. In this case, a report is prepared
by including the verbatim record of the resolutions passed with the names of the proposers and seconder,
manner of voting and results.
However, the verbatim report should not be confused with the minutes of the meeting which is the official
record of the proceedings and the decisions arrived at in the meeting.
2. Summarised Report
A summarized report is prepared with the help of the essential details discussed in the meeting. This type of
report is prepared for sending to the press or to shareholders of the company or members of the institution.
Reports on the basis of Nature of the Subject dealt with
The following reports are included in the report which is classified on the basis of the nature of the subject dealt
1. Problem Solving Report
A problem may arise in any one of the department or in the whole organization. Hence, the top management
may seek a report for solving the problem. When, the reporter collects various information to find the causes for
such problem. Moreover, the report is concluded with the ways of solving the problem. Such type of report is
called Problem Solving Report.
2. Fact Finding Report
A machine may be breakdown in the factory premises. Sometimes, there may be a rivalry between the two
group of workers. Now, the management wants to know the real reason for machine break down and group
clash between the workers. In this case, the reporter analyze the incident through detailed investigation and find
the truth. Finally, the reporter presents the facts in the report form before the top management.
3. Performance Report
The business organization wants to know the performance of each department periodically or performance of a
branch or performance of newly appointed employee or performance of existing employees for promotion,
transfer and the like. The management is not in a position to take a decision without knowing the performance.
Hence, a reporter is asked to prepare the performance report for anyone of the reasons mentioned above.
4. Technical Report
There is a lot of changes made in the technology. Whenever a company is going to introduce mechanical
process instead of manual process, the level of technology required assessed. Sometimes a design may be
changed in the existing product, if so, latest technology should be adopted. In this case, a detailed report is
essential to top management for taking a decision. Such type of report is called Technical Report.
What is Plagiarism?

 Presenting another's ideas as if they are your own – either directly or indirectly
 Copying or pasting text and images without saying where they came from
 Not showing when a quote is a quote
 Summarising information without showing the original source
 Changing a few words in a section of text without acknowledging the original author

Academic Referencing

There are numerous ways to reference. Different institutions, departments or lecturers may require
different styles – check with your lecturer if you are unsure.

Why Do We Cite and Reference?

When writing assignments for your studies, academic papers outlining our research or reports for work, you
need to highlight your use of other author's ideas and words so that you:

 give the original author credit for their own ideas and work
 validate your arguments
 enable the reader to follow up on the original work if they wish to
 enable the reader to see how dated the information might be
 prove to your tutors/lecturers that you have read around the subject
 avoid plagiarism

Referencing Styles
There are many styles of referencing, one of the most popular (in UK institutions) is the Harvard system, the
remainder of this article deals with the Harvard referencing system. Your university may prefer the use of a
different referencing system, check with your lecturer or in any study skills information you have been provided

Be Organised

When writing an essay, report, dissertation or other piece of academic work the key to referencing is
organisation, keep notes of the books and journal articles you have read, the websites you have visited as
part of your research process.

What needs to be recorded?

Record as much information as possible in references to make finding the original work simple.
Author/s – Include the author/s name/s where possible. You should write the surname (last name) first
followed by any initials. If there are more than three authors then you can cite the first author and use the
abbreviation 'et al', meaning 'and all'.

For one, two or three authors:
Jones A, Davies B, Jenkins C
For more than three authors
Jones A et al.

For some sources, especially websites, the name of the author may not be known. In such cases either use the
organisation name or the title of the document or webpage. Example:

Skills You Need or What Are Interpersonal Skills.

Date of Publication - You should include the year of publication or a more specific date if appropriate, for
journal or newspaper articles/stories. For webpages look for the when the page was last updated. Include dates
in brackets (2012) after author information. If no date can be established then put (no date).
Publisher Information - Usually only relevant for books, you should include the publisher name and place of

Title of Piece - Include the title of the piece; this could be the name of the book, the title of a journal article or
webpage. Titles are usually written in italics. For books you should also include the edition (if not the first) to
make finding information easier. Often when books are republished information remains broadly the same but
may be reordered, therefore page numbers may change between editions.

Page Numbers - If you are referencing a particular part of a book then you should include the page number/s
you have used in your work. Use p. 123 to indicate page 123 or pp. 123-125 to indicate multiple pages.

URL and Date Accessed - For webpages you need to include the full URL of the page (http://www... etc.) and
the date you last accessed the page. The web is not static and webpages can be changed/updated/removed at any
time, it is therefore important to record when you found the information you are referencing.

Once you have recorded the information, you have everything you need in order to reference correctly. Your
work should be both referenced in the text and include a reference list or bibliography at the end, the in text
reference is an abbreviated version of the full reference in your reference list.


The internet has changed writing. Today, there are more people writing every day — e-mails, text messages,
blog posts — and more self-published authors than ever before. Written communication is popular in a way it
hasn’t been in a century, and everyone’s doing it. But unlike when writing between two people was quiet and
private, much of today’s writing is loud and public, connected through a web of hyperlinks to every other piece
of writing out there.
Digital writing can be anything. It can be a blog post, an e-mail, a text message. It can be a tweet, or a Facebook
update, or a conversation on Tumbler. It can be comments on blog posts, responses to news articles, book
reviews shared on Good Reads, or fan fiction. It can also look a lot more traditional: poems posted on the web,
or self-published novels on Amazon and I Books.

Hypertext allows us to link what we write to what others have written. Google Docs allow for simultaneous
collaborative writing. Multi-site blogs allow many authors to work together toward a common goal. The
internet allows us to communicate through our text in new ways; it frees us to join our words with others’, to
innovate, and to let our words become our actions. We can live spontaneously through our words, or
vicariously, or cooperatively. Our words can form communities, can take a stand, can create at the same time as
we create them.

What is a “blog” and “blogging”?

A blog (shortened from the phrase “weblog”) is known as many things—a digital magazine, diary, newscast,
collector’s meeting place, a showcase for your art, information sharing, teaching hub, place to learn and... well,
almost anything you want it to be. A typical blog combines text, images, videos and links to relevant pages and
media on the Web. Blog readers can leave comments and communicate with the author. In fact, dialogue and
interaction are a popular part of a blog’s success.

In the blogging world, you have the word “blog” (an online journal), “blogger” (the person who owns and
contributes to a blog) and “blogging” (the act of creating content for the blog). You can be a “blogger blogging
on a blog,” a “blog about a blogger blogging” or a “blogging blog about a blogger.”

One of the great things about blogging is the impact it has made on communication throughout the world. Blogs
can report news as it happens, hold mainstream media to higher standards and provide specific news and
information to meet niche interests.

The most popular styles and types of blogs

Personal blogs: Personal blogs share thoughts, original art, poems, writing or photography. Some sell custom
crafts, art or products. If you just want to make a statement, show your DIY (do it yourself) skills, have fun or
blog for therapy, a personal blog is perfect for you needs.

Business blogs: Business blogs are created in the voice of the company, as a crucial component of marketing.
They can function as a direct-sales tool and are outstanding for both messaging and two-way communication as
part of a company’s public relations efforts. Blogs are effective and cost-efficient vehicles for small
organizations that need to publish information for their customers or members.

Niche/topical blogs: Niche/topical blogs focus on a particular interest. They can be about health, gardening,
education, sports, fashion or lifestyle. Name your special interest and you can blog about it. If you’re a collector
of antiques, a true-mystery fan, a travel addict or just love cooking, there may be a blog in your future. Niche
blogs usually manage to have a list of loyal followers, which adds charm to blogging.

Media-type blogs: Media-type blogs are defined by their content. If you enjoy video blogging, then you’re a
blogger. If you curate content from other websites, you have a link log. All types of photos of art sketches come
under photo blog or art blog.
Reverse blogs: Reverse blogs are a unique but popular type of blog. Instead of the owner creating content, the
content is supplied by the public. A team moderates the content in these types of blogs, i.e. they prevent any
kind of unpleasant content to be published in the blog.

The biggest benefits of blogging

There are several reasons why you might consider blogging.

1. Blogs are free and easy to setup.

2. They make it easy to promote your research or community group – anyone with an internet connection
can follow what you are doing.

3. Become a better writer and thinker

4. Establish yourself as an expert

5. Blogs are usually written in an informal style. It’s OK to use them to try out ideas, to write about
personal experiences, or to pose questions.

6. Increase your self-confidence

7. Make friends and have fun

8. Make money from your blog

9. Updating your blog regularly with interesting content means that readers are more likely to return to
your blog. This might make your blog more effective than a static website which is seldom updated.

Tips to writing successful blogs

Writing well for a blog is quite different from most other ways you might record an event, such as taking
minutes or writing a departmental report. The tips below should help you write a blog post that is engaging,
attractive, accessible to non-specialists and easy to find!

1. Cover the key points: The blog post format lends itself to short summaries and reflections, rather than
exhaustive accounts of an event. UCL Events blog posts should be 600-800 words, certainly fewer than 1,000,
so put yourself in the shoes of someone who didn’t attend – what would you highlight to attract their attention
and demonstrate why the topic is relevant to a general audience? What were the main thrusts of the arguments
presented, and are there any controversial aspects that might interest the lay reader?

2. Write for a non-specialist audience: Events blog readers will largely be well educated, as many will come
from the university itself, but they will come from all disciplines. Imagine you are writing for a friend or a
relative who is not a specialist in the area – avoid jargon, spell out acronyms and try to demonstrate why the
subject matter is relevant to the general public. Feel free to draw on your own knowledge of a subject to
enhance your piece.

3. Make it personal: Everybody’s idea of what is interesting is different; a highlight for you might be one
speaker’s presentation manner, a memorable statistic, or the question and answer session that followed a lecture.
You don’t have to cover all elements of an event equally. Feel free also to link the subject matter in with
relevant reading you may have done.

4. Make your headline work: Your headline should use keywords or even a list-format (“Seven ways that…”,
“Five reasons why…”), so that readers know at a glance the area covered, and search engines can find them
more easily. Your headline can also include a short phrase or quote from the event that is attention-grabbing.

5. Draw readers in with your first line: Usually, only your first paragraph will be visible on the Events blog
homepage, so your opening should entice readers to click through to the full post. You’ll also need to get the
key facts about the event in here too. Classic ways to grab attention are to start with:

 a controversial comment

 a statistic

 a question.

6. Make your text scannable: People find it harder to read online than to read print publications, so they tend
to scan online text, rather than read it closely. You can make your posts easy to scan and digest by using:

 Short paragraphs: one or two main ideas should be grouped together in a paragraph, no more. It might
look strange in your Word document, but it will work well online

 Subheadings for different sections. These should be short and punchy – using puns and alliteration can

 Bullet points, wherever appropriate, for lists

 Short, direct quotes: these can break up the text and help bring the discussion to life

7. Make your post ‘findable’: As well as an informative headline, relevant links will help your blog post be
better indexed by search engines. Feel free to link back to the department that held an event, the homepage or
organization of the speaker, or previous coverage on the topic by UCL News or by the mainstream press. Links
have the added benefit of allowing non-specialist readers to delve more deeply into a topic if you have whetted
their appetite.

8. Be professional:


 ALWAYS ASK SOMEONE ELSE TO READ IT – not just for grammar and spelling, but to see if
there’s anything unclear or ambiguous to someone who didn’t attend the event.

After all, the blog posts will be permanently archived, and you might want to refer someone back to your posts
in future as an example of your writing.
9. Use engaging photos: If you are being so good as to provide a photo of an event, try to choose one that
demonstrates some dynamism, for instance a speaker gesticulating to emphasise their point. Remember that the
photo will be quite small in the blog post, so better to crop in or use a close-up rather than a view of an entire
room. If an image is from an external source, please ensure that you have the rights to use it.

10. Learn from others: There are plenty of excellent blogs that you can learn from – why not sign up to a
couple in your area of interest to get some good ideas? The articles below provide some more guidance on best

What is a Website?

A website in return can be anything. Anything on the internet presented in HTML/CSS or

Java/Javascript/Python/Php, etc. comprises of a website. A blog can be a part of a website but the homepage of
the website is used for browsing other pages and while the homepage of a blog is for posts. Efficient and
attractive websites are generally high in cost as you have to create a base for the same. However with platforms
and services like Adobe Dreamweaver, you could build your own website.

A website doesn’t have limitations. Thus a website could be anything from a single page to a 1 Billion-users
social network (Say, Facebook).

Basic identification of a website:

 Content from various segments of internal website pages is displayed by a homepage.

 A design portfolio of work.

 A blog might be a part of a website, but not the only thing.

 A Frequently asked questions page that readers can browse to get more information.

 A page of client testimonials and feedback.

 Company’s terms and privacy statements pages.

 A Contact form that allows visitors to get in touch.

 A services/products page that displays what they have to offer for the visitors.


Box, Evernote, Wikipedia, Facebook, Odesk, etc, and the list goes on.

Website Content Writing

Website Content writing involves creating relevant content for websites. The content on a website is unique and
customized in order to cater to the need of a specific audience. The key words that a website contains helps in
improving a website's Search Engine Optimization (SEO).

There is a growing demand for skilled web content writing on the Internet. Higher revenues in online businesses
are directly proportionate to quality of content. Website owners and managers solely depend on content writers
to execute several key errands like producing content that offers the site visitors to access the information they
want promptly and efficiently. Efficient and focused web content gives readers access to information in a user-
friendly manner.

Website content writing aims for relevance and search-ability, i.e. the text of the website must be useful and
helpful for the readers. Search-ability on the other hand means that the website uses the keywords that help
search engines guide users to websites and content they are looking for. Outsourcing of the content writing is
one of the ways whereby a website can come up with article writing. However, it is riskier than other options, as
not all writers can write content specific to the web.

Seven C’s of Writing Content for a Website

1. Client-Centric: Quality content is not about what you want to write. It’s about what your clients and
prospects need to read. If you learn your audience’s needs and pain points, you have a chance at creating high-
quality content for them.

2. Compelling: How do you engage with your audience in a way that they will want to read your content? Web
users typically scan the page and only read if they see words that are obviously relevant to them. If they come
from search, they will look for the words they typed into their queries to determine relevance. If you bold these
words within punchy prose, you will tend to be more compelling.

3. Credible: Web readers are inherently skeptical and sensitive to hyperbole. Everything you write needs have
solid evidence behind it. Think of it like writing a Wikipedia article, where you actually need to put references
into every statement. Outside of Wikipedia, you don’t need to include the references, but keep them in your
back pocket and refer to them to strengthen your position, if necessary.

4. Concise: Web users are extremely time challenged. Give them the information they need in the smallest
possible time. Notice I said time, not space because it’s really not about text length as much as how easy it is to
process the information. A dense sentence can take longer to process than an accessible paragraph. Most
importantly, conciseness is about providing all and only the information your audience needs on that page.

5. Clear: Clarity is also in the eye of the beholder. And that’s really the most important point. If you think as
your audience thinks, you will learn how to express yourself in ways that are clear to them. Use their language
and simplify your sentences. If you do, your content will tend to be clear to them.

6. Conversational: On the web, nothing turns an audience off faster than writing that sounds mechanical, like
you’re trying too hard to increase your keyword density. Only slightly better is writing that is dry or impersonal,
like academic writing. Imagine your audience sitting across from you in a café and engaging in a chat. Read
your writing out loud before you publish it. If it sounds mechanical or stuffy, it doesn’t pass this simple litmus

7. Correct: Like it or not, typos and grammatical errors turn off a portion of your audience. It’s the easiest C on
the list to control and measure, but it is no less important than the other six.

Basic differences between a website and a blog

Website Blog

1. Content is static. 1. Content is regularly updated.

2. Formal/professional. 2. Not formal.

3. Interactivity does not exist. There is only 3. Interactive.

one-way communication.
4. Informative and educational.
4. Transactional.
5. Interactivity about industry/customer
5. Communication about products and/or issues.
6. Some people have a blog.
6. Almost every company has a website. In
fact, it is almost a requirement in business

Some popular blogs:

1. The Huffington Post

News and editorial with a liberal perspective.

2. Mashable!

Social media and technology news.

3. TechCrunch

Technology business news.

4. Gizmo do

Technology reviews and news.

5. Engadget

Technology reviews and news.

6. Boing Boing

A blog of “cultural curiosities and interesting technologies.”

7. The Daily Beast

News aggregator and liberal commentary.

8. Business Insider

Business and economics