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1. Ginaw Bilog - was a Filipino poet who was recognized as a National Living Treasure by the
Philippine government.
Born on January 3, 1953, Bilog was a Hanunuo Mangyan who was a native of Mansalay,
Oriental Mindoro. He was known for his efforts in preserving the mangyan poetry tradition
of ambahan.
Then-President Fidel V. Ramos, conferred the National Living Treasure Award to Ginaw Bilog
on December 17, 1993 in recognition of his people's preservation efforts of the ambahan poetry
which is recorded on bamboo.
He died in June 3, 2003 at age 50 due to a lingering illness.
2. Masino Intaray - was a Filipino poet, bard artist, and musician who is a Palawan native
known for his performance of the local traditions of basal, kulilal and bagit. He is also a recipient
of the National Living Treasure recognition.
Intaray was born on April 10, 1943 in Makagwa Valley and lived Brooke’s point, Palawan. He is
known for playing multiple indigenous instruments namely the basal (gong), aroding (mouth
harp), and the babarak (ring flute). Intaray is also known for his performance of kulilal or songs
and bagit, a form of vocal music.
The Palawan native was married and had four children. Intaray died on November 30, 2013 due
to complications from diabetes which included multiple bouts of stroke. He was aged 70.
3.Samaon Sulaiman - was a Filipino musician who is a recipient of the National Living Treasure
award. The Maguinadanaon is known for his mastery of the indigenous kutyapi instrument.
Born on March 3, 1953, Sulaiman first leaned playing kutyapi at around 13 years old from his
uncle. By the time he was 35 years old, he was already recognized in Maganoy for his skills in
playing the instrument as well as being a teacher to aspiring kutyapi practitioners. He is credited
for influencing other local experts in his area such as Esmael Ahmad, Bitul Sulaiman, Nguda
Latip, Ali Ahmad and Tukal Nanalon. Sulaiman also plays the kulintang, agong (suspended
bossed gong with wide rim), gandingan, palendag, and the tambul.
He was also a barber, as well as an imam at the Libutan mosque. He died on May 21, 2011.
4.Lang Dulay - Born on August 3, 1928, Lang Dulay was a T’boli princess from the Lake sebu
region in South Cotabato. She first learnt weaving at the age of 12 from her mother, Luan
Senig.She is known for maintaining the use of traditional motifs in T'nalak weaving amidst
commercialization of the craft which saw the introduction of more modern designs by non-
T'bolis. She notably had a mental repertoire of around 100 patterns and designs: some of these
were based on her dreams, hence her description as a "dreamweaver".
Lang Dulay set up the Manlilikha ng Bayan Center workshop in her hometown to promote the
traditional art of T'nalak weaving and by 2014, five of her grandchildren had become weavers.
Lang Dulay fell into a coma in early 2015 and died on April 30 of the same year.
5. Salinta Monon - Monon was born on December 12, 1920 and grew up in
Bituag, Bansalan in Davao del Sur and watched her mother weave ikat a traditional abaca fabric
when she was a child, She asked her mother how to use the loom at age 12 and learned how to
weave within a few months. She weaves a design for three to four months. In a month she can
weave fabric which can be used for a single abaca tube skirt which measures 3.5 x 0.42 meters.
Her favorite design is the binuwaya or crocodile which is said to be among the most difficult to
According to Cherry Quizon, an anthropologist based in New York, the origin of Monon's design
can be dated back as early as the 1910s.
Monon was awarded the National Living Treasure Award in 1998. She died on June 4, 2009.

1. Fernando Amorsolo (1892-1972)

Labelled the country’s first National Artist in 1972 by then President Marcos, Fernando
Amorsolo is often known as the ‘Grand Old Man of Philippine Art’. The Spanish-trained realist
developed a backlighting technique, where his colorful depictions of local people reflect the
radiance of the Philippine sun. The figures and illuminated landscapes magically glow on the
canvas. Despite his deteriorating health and failing eyesight, he remained prolific until the end,
producing up to 10 paintings a month until his death at the age of 80. Amorsolo’s creativity
defines the nation’s culture and heritage to this day.

The Vargas Musuem – found inside the campus of his alma mater, the University of the
Philippines, displays a notable selection of his work.

2.José Joya (1931-1995)

A Filipino pioneer of Abstract expressionism, multi-media painter José Joya uses bold and
vibrant colours with a variety of painting techniques, layering, loose impasto strokes and
controlled drips. His harmonious colours are influenced by Philippine landscapes and tropical
wildlife. His mastery lies in gestural paintings, where the paint is applied spontaneously on
canvas, sometimes directly out of the tube or through the use of broad strokes with brushes.

Joya influenced younger artists to explore other mediums such as pottery and printmaking while
he served as the Dean of the College of Fine Arts at the University of the Philippines. In 1964,
Joya represented the country in the Venice Biennial, showcasing the advancement of modern
art in the Philippines. His most notable painting from 1958, called Granadean Arabesque, is a
large scale yellow hued mural that features clusters of sand and impasto. It can be viewed at
the Ateneo art gallery in Manila.
3.Pacita Abad (1946-2004)

Born on the northern island of Batanes the internationally revered artist first obtained a degree
in Political Science at the University of the Philippines. Her staunch activism against the Marcos
regime in the 1970s, led her to move to San Francisco to initially study law – but she found her
true calling with art. Her paintings consist of vibrant colors and a constant change of patterns
and materials. Earlier work dealt with socio-political depictions of people, indigenous masks,
tropical flowers, and underwater scenes. Pacita created a unique technique called ‘trapunto’,
where she stitches and stuffs her vibrant canvases with a wide range of materials such as cloth,
metal, beads, buttons, shells, glass and ceramics, to give her work a three-dimensional look.
Her many travels across the globe with her husband have served as an inspiration for the
techniques and materials used in her art. Pacita has participated in over 60 exhibitions across
the United States, Latin America, and Europe.

She is noted to have worked on more than 5,000 pieces of art – her masterwork being Alkaff
Bridge, Singapore, a 55-meter bridge covered in over 2,000 colourful circles. It was completed a
few months before she passed away from lung cancer in 2004.

4. Ang Kiukok (1935-2005)

Born to Chinese immigrants, Ang Kiukok is the pioneer of Philippine modern figurative
expressionism. Rewarded as the country’s National Artist in 2001, he was one of the most
successful commercial figures on the local art scene from the 1960s until his death from cancer
in 2005. Like Amorsolo, his paintings are popular at auctions and have received exceptionally
high bids at Sotheby’s and Christie’s. He is known for his distinct cubist and surrealist portrayals
of the crucifixion of Christ and mother and child. However, he is acclaimed for his series
of Fishermen at Sea, which connects both energy, faith and the struggle of fishermen under a
vibrant crimson sun labouring together to bring in the haul for the day.

His notable works are represented in the Cultural Center of the Philippines, the National
Historical Museum of Taipei and the National Museum in Singapore.
5. Benedicto Cabrera (1942-present)

Fondly known as ‘BenCab’ in the Philippines, Cabrera is the best-selling commercial painter of
his generation and a prominent head of the local contemporary art scene. He studied under
José Joya at the University of the Philippines and received his degree in Fine Arts in 1963. His
fruitful career has spanned five decades, where his paintings, etchings, sketches, and prints
have been exhibited across Asia, Europe, and the US. He currently resides in the chilly northern
hill station of Baguio, where he established his own four-level BenCab Museum on Asin Road
that features an eclectic selection of indigenous artifacts, personal works, and an overwhelming
collection of paintings from contemporary Filipino artists.
K. Folk Architecture

BATANES: At the end of the Architecture

Architectural treasures and anthropological wonders abound in Batanes, the Philippines’
ethereal edge.

The way most visitors to Batanes describe it, these far-flung islands seem to be a place that
isn’t quite believable. It has gained a reputation as a land seemingly not of this world, part of
some mythical realm, a peaceful pastoral haven in the middle of nowhere. If this were Middle
Earth, in consideration of its peaceable folk, verdant landscape, and quaint, rounded, partially
submerged architecture, Batanes would probably be the Shire. The smallest province in the
entire country in terms of both population and land area, it is also known as the “Home Of The
Winds” due to its legendarily stormy weather.
We spoke to architect Joven Ignacio, the assistant head of the Environmental Architecture Lab
of the University of the Philippines College of Architecture. The remote province appears to
have left quite an impression on the soft-spoken academic.
“Batanes was an eye-opener for me, for a lot of us actually. When we went there we were totally
surprised how beautiful it all looked.”

In the year 2000 the province endured a major earthquake of magnitude 7.1 that destroyed
some of its heritage structures. The Department of Tourism and the provincial government,
aware of the islands’ potential as a UNESCO World Heritage site, knew that something had to
be done when they realized that people were already starting to rebuild their houses, in any way
they could.
“Heritage houses have value, if you put something that wasn’t there originally then it won’t be
authentic anymore. If you use different materials, then it won’t be a heritage house, it’s already
something else, a clone,” contends Ignacio. So the provincial government of Batanes through
Congressman Florencio Abad invited the UP to provide technical assistance in their
preservation and conservation efforts. Ignacio first visited Batanes as part of a team from the
UP College of Architecture Extension Services Program, spearheaded by Professor Christina
Turalba, and supported by the Dean of the College, Professor Prosperidad Luis. His
companions included heritage architect Joy Mananghaya, and other experts such as architect
Augusto Villalon, mapping consultant Dr. Mani Bate, and Dr. Ronnie Manahan (former Dean of
the U.P. College of Architecture).The team may have been composed of esteemed veterans in
their fields, but the depth of architectural wealth in the province took them all aback.
“We saw for the first time, that there is this whole province with several municipalities that were
completely composed of intact heritage structures. There are stone houses that were built in the
last century during Spanish times, and structures that are even older. They haven’t been
tampered with and are very authentic. So when you walk through the munisipyos it’s like you’re
walking through time”

Not only were they impressed by the age and authenticity of the structures, but also the rich
variety of architectural forms.

“There are basic models consisting of stone houses and cogon roofing. But each island has its
own variations, its own language, terms and names, its own explanations for
things. Mayhurahed, means that there’s a stone base, Maytuab is a structure with four
slopes, Sinadumparan has two slopes. The Jin-Jin or Chivuvuhung are wood and thatch
houses. There’s a basic module, basic shapes and sizes, that gave us a general idea of how
these structures were actually designed and the history behind them.”
Given the opportunity, the team started identifying and measuring everything in order to
compose a lexicon of architectural terms and analyze the anatomies of the houses.
An Ivatan teacher by the name of Felix Adami and his brother Gerardo conducted a similar
study a few years ago. The team consulted them and used their work as the springboard for a
more intensive survey. But it still took them several trips to Batanes to dissect the different parts
and materials, understand the construction methods and dynamics of the houses, and deduce
how and why they lasted.

“We learned a lot from the Adami brothers and the Ivatan elders, some of whom are still alive
and in their 90s, who very generously provided us with information. Back then, they were the
ones who actually did the work. And they’re still practicing the same house building technology
to this day.”

The U.P. College of Architecture sees Batanes as a laboratory for learning more about
Philippine folk architecture and engineering. Civil and structural engineers analyzed the
structures and realized that the reason why the houses have withstood time is because they’re
all built according to the principles of gravity and compression.

“They stand on their own weight like an igloo. At the time there were no nails so every thing is
interlocking. From the architectural point of view there is significant science. This is only
Batanes. The whole of Philippine Folk Architecture also has to be analyzed on a more scientific
level,” Ignacio proposes.

The Ivatan houses were designed according to the principles of bio-climatic design.
Architectural elements like the cogon roof, stone walls, wooden slats and reed-matted ceilings
all contribute to the houses’ comfortable living conditions and resilience to typhoons. Each
component plays a part in helping cool air circulate within and preventing hot air from filtering
through the interior space.

Many folk stories are hidden behind the various Ivatan house morphologies. For example,
windows are oriented to avoid the chilly north wind, which comes in from Siberia, and is
particularly forceful during the rainy season. In old Ivatan tales, it is said that the north wind
causes bad luck. This is just one illustration of how history and spiritual beliefs have interacted
to influence their architecture.

Traditional houses often employed design principles based on nature and climate. Elements
such as the sun, wind, earth and the surrounding landscape are taken into consideration during
the development phase of design. Good folk architecture is not a product of any design theory
but of instinct, intuition, common sense and communal memory. Climate, site, use and purpose,
available building materials, historical and spiritual experience, have defined their form.
Ignacio insists that they have merely put forward what the locals have always been practicing,
and documented what was already in existence.

“Since it’s a day-to-day activity for them, they didn’t realize that they’ve been doing the right
things all along. They have a cooperative system in each municipality called Kamañidungan,
labor and materials are divided amongst home owners like in bayanihan.”
Teams of homeowners do the preservation of the houses themselves. Every time a house
needs a new roof, each member of the community contributes some material and time to do the

The roofs are made like baskets, layer by layer, in a very unique and complicated procedure.
They take coconut flower pods, soak them in water, and then slice them. The resulting material
is flexible while wet, but shrinks and hardens as it dries, and is what they use for tying down the
roofs. This guarantees that their roofs are very secure, able to last more than 50 years and
withstand the strongest typhoons.

The concept of sustainability is deep-rooted among the Ivatans. When they gather cogon, they
set aside certain areas so that what they take from nature can be replenished. The dynamics of
the Ivatan people are also reflected in their architecture, structural forms that cannot be built
without the community working together. The interlocking mechanism found in their architecture
is the same as in their community.

The UNESCO regulations for World Heritage Sites are very strict in ensuring that the structures
are respected in the manner they were originally built. If Batanes becomes a World Heritage
Site it will be easier for the province to get additional funding from other international agencies.
What consultants are studying is how to integrate modern amenities without having to
compromise the rules of UNESCO or the mechanisms of the community.

“You can’t drill holes or use materials that will be hazardous to the structures. If you’re building
new structures in a munisipyo that is filled with heritage architecture, you can’t put something
modern that isn’t in context. It’s a challenge for designers to come up with structures that blend
nicely with the community’s culture and aesthetics,” states Ignacio.

Fortunately, Congressman Abad and his urban planners have instituted programs in order to
address all these concerns. The province held several public hearing, attended by UNESCO
Regional Director Richard Englehardt, where the officers presented their efforts to the whole

“The locals themselves, the whole province, were very receptive to preservation. There wasn’t
any strong resistance. Their questions were mostly valid, like where were they going to get the
materials, is the government going to help them, and will they get financial support if they can’t
afford the preservation work themselves.”

As more attention is drawn towards the normally quiet islands. Ignacio worries that the influx of
outsiders may damage Batanes, like what has happened in other places where heritage
structures have been sold or demolished.

“The best that a tourist can do is not to desecrate the place. The experience alone will be
valuable. If you like something that belongs to the Ivatans, respect it. Its value lies in where it’s
located, it will lose this if you put it in your home, out of context. If we start taking things from
Batanes, the next generation won’t have anything left to appreciate,” he stresses.

“If you go to Batanes you realize that a very authentic culture exists in the province that tells you
a lot about our country, how it used to be, how it should have been, and how it should be. It’s all
still there. They are a very polite, dignified and respectable people, very reserved but also very
friendly. Their values are pure.”

So far, the province’s isolation has apparently worked in its favor. “Maybe because the window
of travel to Batanes is very limited, so they’re self-sustaining. But they’re not far from civilization.
They have satellite and cable TV. They’re educated, with a very high 98% literacy rate. I know
Ivatan farmers who speak perfect English.”

Batanes has a rich history with links to Austronesia. The team also visited Lanyu, the
southernmost island of Taiwan, which has a community of Ivatans who speak the same
language and even eat similar food. The architecture of Lanyu’s indigenous people is
submerged in the ground. Records from the studies of Dr. Florentino Hornedo of UST show that
when the Spanish first came, the houses in Batanes were also submerged. The symbolisms on
the carvings are particularly enlightening.

Ignacio gives an example, “The boat people of Lanyu have a symbol of a human being with
spirals around the arms, which signify that they are rowing, and they have another symbol like
an antenna for the eyes of the boatman when they are out at sea. Anthropologically, there’s so
much to discover.”

The younger Ivatans tend to migrate and so the ones who are left behind are the elderly and
the children. The UP team’s goal is to develop materials that can help re-inculcate the concepts
and traditions into the younger generation.

As an academic, Ignacio hopes they get enough funds for a complete digest of Ivatan
architecture, an inventory of everything, all their beliefs and practices, “from the first straw to the
last peg”. The team remains in touch with Batanes and continues to participate in their
preservation efforts. Outsiders like architect Ignacio and his colleagues show that instead of just
behaving like an encroaching menace, the world beyond Batanes can also extend a protective
embrace to this unpretentious pocket of real beauty and true harmony at the edge of our
careworn country.
L Maritime Transport
Maritime transport is the backbone of international trade and a key engine driving globalization
and competitiveness. Around 80% of global trade by volume and over 70% by value is carried
by sea, as per the UNCTAD estimate. The 2011-2016 Philippine Development Plan (PDP)
envisions a “safe, secure, efficient, viable, competitive, dependable, integrated, environmentally
sustainable and people-oriented Philippine transport system”. The main objective is to ensure
an integrated and coordinated intermodal transport network with backbone links to growth
areas. The critical role of maritime transport in ensuring an integrated and coordinated transport
network is incontestable for an archipelagic country like the Philippines. Since a high
percentage of domestic and international commerce, travel and tourism are by air and sea, the
efficiency of aviation and maritime transportation has become increasingly critical to growth and
competitiveness. Solutions to the numerous challenges involved in creating an efficient modern
air and sea transportation system require addressing policy and regulatory impediments as well
as upgrading and rationalizing airport and seaport infrastructure and networks. The continuous
capacity expansion of seaports and sea links will thus remain as a major development thrust.
The Philippines counts on the maritime industry as a vital component in attaining inclusive
growth and socio-economic progress. Shipping remains the major infrastructure by which
islands are linked, as well as, connects the country to international commerce and trade. A
responsible and modern Philippine registered fleet, supported by quality seafarers and capable
shipyards, will pave way for stability of trade, promote national development and promotes
national security. Per the NTPP study estimate, in 2006, the predominant mode of transport is
by road carrying about 1.71 billion passengers (93.14 %) and 25.9 million tons of freight (58 %),
with water transport at 1.22 % and 42 %, respectively. In 2012, domestic shipping posted 74
million tons of cargoes and 50 million passengers. Seafarer’s remittances US$4.8 billion also
contributed to the Philippine economy. The Maritime Industry Authority (MARINA), an attached
agency of the Department of Transportation and Communications (DOTC), performs promotion
and developmental as well as supervisory and regulatory functions over four (4) major sectors
of the Philippine maritime industry. MARINA functions cover domestic shipping; overseas
shipping; ship building and ship repair; and maritime manpower sectors. MARINA assumed a
new mandate under Executive Order No. 75 issued on 30 April 2012, designating the DOTC
through the MARINA as the Single Maritime Administration in the Philippines responsible for
oversight in the implementation 2 of the 1978 STCW Convention, as amended. Consequently,
MARINA assumed the functions of the Maritime Training Council (MTC) on 01 July 2012.
MARINA had total revenue collection of P 399.512 million in 2012, with total budget support of P
433.6 million. Total budget for 2013 stands at P 796.0 million. The purpose of this “Document” is
to present MARINA’s main strategic agenda and key areas for action in 2013 and beyond, to
nurture and strengthen the competitiveness of the Philippine maritime industry and enhance
functional performance as the Single Maritime Administration in the implementation of the 1978
STCW Convention, as amended. This “Document” provides a collective guide for broadening
and deepening concerted collaboration and support from all stakeholders concerned with the
view of undertaking the practical implementation of the actions and measures identified in this
strategic document.
M. Weaving
Weaving the Philippines Local textures and fabrics
From fibers and threads to colors and prints, weaving
speaks so much about the Philippines’ cultural narrative. Besides preserving history, the
country’s weaves are also promising products that bring attention to indigenous communities via
the international design and lifestyle stage.

According to the Garments and Textile Industry Development Office (GTIDO) and the Center for
International Trade Expositions and Missions (Citem), the 2014 edition of Manila FAME
identified the weaves that are beginning to show potential in global marketability.

Manila FAME is a premier design and lifestyle event held annually at the SMX Convention,
wholly supported by Citem, which in turn is the export promotions arm of the Philippine
Department of Trade and Industry (DTI).

“Citem has always been committed to highlighting the versatility, viability, and global
competitiveness of Philippine craftsmanship, and we are glad we were able to emphasize the
fabrics that have been part of the country’s culture and artistry,” related Citem executive director
Rosvi Gaetos.
He also identified the different Filipino designers who have become proponents of local
weaves.For the cotton and loom-woven abel textiles from Ilocos, Bungalow 300’s interior
designers Marga Espiritu and Vernice Songco, the artistic duo’s exhibit at Manila FAME injected
their refreshing take on vintage and modern aesthetics. This brought a new spin on the said
fabric that has been a huge part of the golden age of Ilocos.Weavers from Ilocos also
participated in presenting abel as material known for bolstering the economy of the Ilocos region
during the colonial times, as the products crafted from such thread were largely exported to
different countries of the world.

Aklanon weavers presented how this material is commonly used in making the traditional
barong, dresses, tapestries, bags, and furniture accessories.Finally, the art of t’nalak weaving
from South Cotabato, was brought to life by the design sensibilities of Bong and Rossy Rojales
of Heima.The T’boli women of Lake Sebu were invited to demonstrate the weaving practice.
This traditional cloth weaves are made with abaca-woven fiber, and the practice is widely
recognized for its age-old method involving the ikat process, where natural dyes and threads
from indigenous plants are used.To date, the time-honored weaving is dubbed as “dream
weaving” because the T’boli weavers believe that the textile patterns are lent by Fu Dalu, the
spirit of abaca, which are communicated to them through dreams.“We are thankful to the artists
and designers who lent their talent, vision, and artistic sensibilities pillars of local art, weaving,”
Gaetos ended.

N. Carving

Philippine Wood Carving And Its Exporting Potential

Wood Carving has fascinated a lot of people and Filipinos have been influenced by different
cultures that make our woodcraft unique. Different styles and different tastes from our native
heritage and culture that make us who we are today.
The Philippines has been known for a lot of things, but woodcraft is something we are naturally
good at. From the northern part of the country down to the south, there is always a wood
carving or sculpting province that will amaze us.
Wood carving capital of the Philippines
Paete, Laguna is really proud about their wood carvings. Paete, whose name was derived after
a chisel or paet, is a small town on the northeastern part of Laguna. It is famous for its sweet
lanzones and its finely made woodcraft that it was declared the Carving Capital of the
Philippines on March 15, 2005. They are simply amazing at it. From making statues, sculptures,
furniture to other things that you can name of that can be made of wood. As if they treat this skill
as they’re hobby or past time by creating different images and statues out of wood. Most of the
woodcarvers in Paete are third generation woodworking folks, this skill is still being passed on to
the next generation of woodcarvers.
While most of these woodcarvings will be distributed locally, some of these handmade products
are being exported internationally.
Paete’s local economy relies mainly on its handicrafts and sculptures, they had also suffered
from foreign interventions that brought in new technologies and mass produced their people’s
works. An example was when Paete’s expertise in papier-mache was adopted by the Chinese,
which eventually made their country the top supplier of papier-mache crafts in the world.
Although, Paete artistry and tradition can never be commercially produced for a mass market,
artistry and uniqueness will also be the edge of their products that can create high-value
pieces.In other places in the country, some use a more Filipino trait of design by using sawali
and bamboo. Although some designs show a European influence, you can still tell that it is a
Filipino made product because of the bamboo material used. It is also seen as the savior of the
wood carving industry in the Philippines not just because of the low cost of the raw material but
also the curiosity and interest of foreign buyers.

O. Performing arts

The performing arts refer to the forms of art where an artist uses his own face, body and
presence. The major types of performing arts include music, opera, dance, drama, and spoken

Music is a form of art whose medium is silence and sound. The word "music" was derived from
the Greek word "mousike" which means the art of the muses. The common elements of music
include rhythm, pitch, dynamics, timbre and texture. The performance, creation, significance
and definition of this art depend on the social context and culture. Music can range from
organized composition up to improvisational music to aleatoric forms.

Music can be assorted into different genres or subgenres, although the divisions of these
genres are usually vague and subtle. It is also said that there is a very strong connection
between mathematics and music. To a lot of people who belong to various cultures, music plays
an important part in their lives. Music is usually associated with the way of life of different kinds
of people across the land.

Opera is a form of performing arts wherein musicians and singers perform a dramatic work that
combines text, which is called the libretto and musical score. This form of art is a popular part of
the Western classical music tradition. The art incorporates a lot of elements of spoken theatre,
including scenery, acting and costumes. Sometimes it also includes dance. The performance in
an Opera is usually done in an opera house. It is also accompanied by either a musical
ensemble or an orchestra. Opera originated in Italy by the 16th century and it soon spread to
the rest of Europe as it gains popularity. Various musicians in Europe developed a lot of ways in
flourishing this form of art and made it even more popular.

Dance is a form of performing arts that refers to the art of moving the body rhythmically and
usually in accordance to music. It is used as a form of social interaction and expression, or it is
commonly presented in a performance or spiritual setting. It is also seen as a form of nonverbal
communication, a type of communication where words are not used. Definitions of what dance
is really all about usually varies in each culture, society or person.

Some people considered even the movement of the leaves as a form of dance while some even
considered martial arts, like karate, as one form of it. Dance can also be social, participatory,
and performed for an audience. It can as well be erotic, ceremonial or competitive in purpose.
Nowadays, dancing has evolved into many styles. These styles include ballet, break dancing,
and krumping. Nevertheless, each type of dance, whether what style, has something that is
common. It does not only involve the usage of the human body kinetics and flexibility but also

Drama refers to a mode of fiction represented in a performance. The word "drama" originated
from the Greek word "drao" which means action. Dramas are usually enacted by actors on a
stage for an audience. The structure of the text for dramas is usually influence by collective
reception and collaborative production. Masterpieces that can be considered to be in this form
include the classical Athenian tragedy, "Oedipus the King" of Sophocles and "Hamlet" of William

Spoken word is often used as an entertainment or musical term, referring to works that are
intended to be performed by a single person who will speak by himself naturally. Musically, this
is different from rapping for the latter involves rhythm while spoken words do not follow such.
Spoken words is said to be more akin to speaking or narration.

In entertainment, spoken word performances are consisted of poetry, storytelling or speeches.

Aside from these five, other forms of performing art are circus performances, magic, musical
and other that involve the use of an artist's face and body.

P. Literature
Philippine literature is the literature associated with the Philippines and includes the legends of
prehistory, and the colonial legacy of the Philippines. Pre-Hispanic Philippine literature were
actually epics passed on from generation to generation originally through oral tradition.
However, wealthy families, especially in Mindanao were able to keep transcribed copies of
these epics as family heirloom. One such epic was the Darangen, epic of the Maranaos of Lake
Lanao. Most of the epics were known during the Spanish era.

Classical literature in Spanish during the 19th Century

On December 1, 1846, the first daily newspaper, La Esperanza, was published in the country.
Other early newspapers were La Estrella (1847), Diario de Manila (1848) and Boletin Oficial de
Filipinas (1852). The first provincial newspaper was El Eco de Vigan(1884), which was issued
in Ilocos. In Cebu City, El Boleaetín de Cebú (The Bulletin of Cebu) was published in 1890.

On 1863, the Spanish government introduced a system of free public education that increased
the population's ability to read Spanish and thereby furthered the rise of an educated class
called the Ilustrado (meaning, well-informed). Spanish became the social language of urban
places and the true lingua franca of the archipelago. A good number of Spanish newspapers
were published until the end of the 1940s, the most influential of them being El Renacimiento,
printed in Manila by members of the Guerrero de Ermita family.

Some members of the ilustrado group, while in Spain, decided to start a Spanish publication
with the aim of promoting the autonomy and independence projects. Members of this group
included Pedro Alejandro Paterno, who wrote the novel Nínay (first novel written by a
Filipino) and the Philippine national hero, José Rizal, who wrote excellent poetry and his two
famous novels in Spanish: Noli Me Tángere (Touch Me Not), and El Filibusterismo.

Especially potent was La Solidaridad, more fondly called La Sol by the members of the
propaganda movement, founded on 15 February 1885. With the help of this paper, Filipino
national heroes like José Rizal, Graciano Lopez Jaena, and Marcelo H. del Pilarwere able to
voice out their sentiments.
Poetry and metrical romance
 Tanaga - Short poems consisting of four lines with seven syllables each that rhyme at the
end of each line.
 Ladino Poems – Were natives of first Tagalog versifiers who saw print: highly literate in
both Spanish and the vernacular.
 Corridos – Were widely read during the Spanish period that filled the populace's need for
entertainment as well as edifying reading matter in their leisure moments.
 Awit – like corridos, these were also widely read during the Spanish period as entertaining,
edifying, reading manner in their leisure time. It is also a fabrication of the writers
imagination although the characters and the setting may be European. The structure is
rendered dodecasyllabic
quatrains. Religious
 Moriones – Refers to the helmets of participants dressed as Roman soldiers, their identities
hidden behind colorful, sometimes grotesque, wooden masks. Found only on the island
of Marinduque, it is down during Holy Week, culminating in a Passion play that adds the
scene of Saint Longinus' conversion and martyrdom.
 Panunuluyan– the Tagalog version of the Mexican Las Posadas, and literally means
"seeking passage". Held during Christmastime but especially on Christmas Eve, it
depicts Joseph and Mary' search for room at the inn in Bethlehem. The actors playing the
Holy Couple chant their pleas for lodging in slow, mournful tones, while the innkeepers and
householders would drive them away with haughty verses sang in dance-like metre.
 Pangangaluwa – A practice formerly widespread during All Saints' Day which literally
means for the soul[s], it is analogous to the now-defunct English custom of Souling.
 Salubong – A ritual performed in the early morning of Easter Sunday a few hours after
the Easter Vigil and before the Easter Mass, dramatising the meeting between the
resurrected Jesus and his mother. In its basic form, the rite begins with two separate
processions—one consists of males accompanying a statue of the Risen Christ, the other of
women with a statue of the Virgin Mary veiled in black. Both processions meet at the
churchyard, town plaza, or some other suitable area, where a girl, dressed as an angel,
stands from a scaffold or descends on a rope and sings the Regina Caeli. The angel then
removes the black veil to the sound of pealing bells and firecrackers, ending the penance
and mourning of Lent.
 Senákulo – Essentially a Passion play, which depicts the passion and death of Jesus
Christ. It is customarily performed during Holy Week, and bears similarities to Mystery
plays popular in medieval Europe.
 Secular[edit]
 Comedia – It is about a courtly love between, a prince and a princess of different religions,
and highlights concepts of colonial attitudes to Christian-Muslim relations.
 Duplo – A forerunner of the balagtasan. The performances consist of two teams; One
composed of young women called Dupleras or Belyakas; and the other, of young men
called Dupleros or Belyakos.
 Karagatan – comes from the legendary practice of testing the mettle of young men vying for
a maiden's hand. The maiden's ring would be dropped into sea and whoever retrieves it
would have the girl's hand in marriage.

 Modern literature (20th and 21st century)

The greatest portion of Spanish literature was written during the American period, most
often as an expression of pro-Hispanic nationalism, by those who had been educated in
Spanish or had lived in the Spanish-speaking society of the big cities, and whose principles
entered in conflict with the American cultural trends.[citation needed] Such period of Spanish
literary production—i.e., between the independence of Spain in 1898 and well ahead into
the decade of the 1940s—is known as Edad de Oro del Castellano en Filipinas. Some
prominent writers of this era were Wenceslao Retana and Claro Mayo Recto, both in drama
and essay; Antonio M. Abad and Guillermo Gomez Wyndham, in the narrative;Fernando
María Guerrero and Manuel Bernabé, both in poetry. The predominant literary style was the
so-called "Modernismo", a mixture of elements from the
FrenchParnassien and Symboliste schools, as promoted by some Latin American and
Peninsular Spanish writers (e.g. the Nicaraguan Rubén Darío, the Mexican Amado Nervo,
the Spaniard Francisco Villaespesa, and the Peruvian José Santos Chocano as major

 Santacruzan – Performed during the month of May, which reenacts Saint Helena's Finding
of the True Cross and serves as an expression of devotion to the Virgin Mary. The young
women of a town, parish, or village dress in formal gowns and bear attributes related to
religious themes, such as titles of Mary, with the last (often most beautiful) lady "Reyna
Elena" representing the empress, and holding a crucifix, representing the True Cross. Its
May observance is due to the pre-1962 date for the feast
of Roodmas.

 Notable Philippine literary authors

Nicanor Sta. Ana Abelardo (February 7, 1893 – March 21, 1934) was
a Filipino composer known for his Kundiman songs, especially before the Second World War.

He was born in San Miguel de Mayumo, Bulacan. His mother belonged to a family of artists in
Guagua, the Henson. He was introduced to music when he was five years old when his father
taught him the solfeggio and the banduria. Abelardo completed his first composition, a waltz
entitled "Ang Unang Buko" dedicated to his grandmother, at the age of eight. By the age of
thirteen, he was playing at saloons and cabarets in Manila, and by fifteen, he was teaching at
barrio schools in San Ildefonso and San Miguel in Bulacan

In 1916, Abelardo entered the University of the Philippines Coservatory of Music, taking courses
under Guy F. Harrison and Robert Scholfield. During his studies, he composed the melody of
the university's official anthem, U.P. Naming Mahal. After earning a teacher's certificate in
science and composition in 1921, he was appointed head of the composition department at the
Conservatory in 1924. Years later, he ran a boarding school for young musicians, among which
were Antonino Vuenaventura, Alfredo Lozano, and Lucino Sacramento.

Abelardo died in 1934 at the age of 41, leaving behind a collection of roughly 140
compositions. [1] He is known for redefining thekundiman, bringing the form to art-song status.
Notable among his works are 'Nasaan Ka Irog," "Magbalik Ka Hirang," and "Himutok."

The main theater of the Cultural Center of the Philippines and the building housing the College
of Music in UP Diliman (Abelardo Hall) were named in his honor and memory.

José Rizal

josé Protasio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda or popularly known as José Rizal (Spanish
pronunciation: [xoˈse riˈsal]; 19 June 1861 – 30 December 1896) was a Filipino
nationalist and polymath during the tail end of the Spanish colonial period of thePhilippines.
An ophthalmologist by profession, Rizal became a writer and a key member of the
Filipino Propaganda Movement which advocated political reforms for the colony under Spain.
He was executed by the Spanish colonial government for the crime ofrebellion after an anti-
colonial revolution, inspired in part by his writings, broke out. Though he was not actively
involved in its planning or conduct, he ultimately approved of its goals which eventually led to
Philippine independence. He is widely considered one of the greatest heroes of the Philippines,
and is implied by Philippine law to be one of the national heroes. He was the author of the
novels Noli Me Tángere, and El Filibusterismo, and a number of poems.

Q. Graphic and plastic arts

The best starting point in the history of Philippine art is probably the Sixteenth century, with the
implantation of Spanish sovereignty over the islands.

During the pre-Spanish period, the Philippines already enjoyed a certain degree of civilization.
The unit of social and political organization varied in size from 5 to 7,000 inhabitants, and was
known as “barangay”. The people fabricated different kinds of boats, fishing apparatus, and
finished arts; they wove textiles from abaca, pineapple, cotton, and silk which came from China;
they embroidered and carved sculptures symbolic of their ancestors whom they called “anitos”.
According to [Trinidad H.] Pardo de Tavera, they were expert silver, gold and coppersmiths,
working on these minerals for artistic jewels and for bedecking their weapons and arms. The
late distinguished artist and sculptor, Jose Ma. Asuncion, says in this connection: “During the
first period (pre-Spanish) Filipino art was but the shadow of that existing in the Asiatic continent,
eminently oriental, with some local characteristic which were developed in manner parallel to
the different foci of Oriental civilization with which we were in close contact, such as India,
China, Indo-China, Japan, Borneo, Sumatra, Java and the Moluccas… Upon the implantation of
Spanish sovereignty over these Islands, every vestige of this Oriental art was swept away in the
center of the Philippines Archipelago.” Further he says, “ architecture, sculpture and painting, if
at all they existed by reason of the necessities and beliefs then obtaining, left no archeological
traces in forgotten corners of the Philippines.”

Until now, these are the only available data on Filipino art during the pre-Spanish period. As can
easily be seen, these observations are based on deductions which may be considered
reasonable, but for the purpose of the present treatment, it would seem desirable to look for
more authoritative sources. On the other hand, the bows and arrows, spears, blades, poniards,
coselettes, and helmets of wood or copper, etc., as the collars, bracelets and other objects of
more or less artistic value that can still be seen in our days, cannot be considered as basis
elements for our starting point in the treatment of Filipino art.

Having thus considered briefly the character of Filipino art during the pre-Spanish period, we
now come to the period of the Spanish conquest in order to understand the trend of the
development of our plastic-graphic arts.

R. Ornament
In architecture and decorative art, ornament is a decoration used to embellish parts of a
building or object. Large figurative elements such as monumental sculpture and their
equivalents in decorative art are excluded from the term; most ornament does not include
human figures, and if present they are small compared to the overall scale. Architectural
ornament can be carved from stone, wood or precious metals, formed with plaster or clay, or
painted or impressed onto a surface as applied ornament; in other applied arts the main
material of the object, or a different one such as paint or vitreous enamel may be used.
A wide variety of decorative styles and motifs have been developed for architecture and the
applied arts, including pottery, furniture, metalwork. In textiles, wallpaper and other objects
where the decoration may be the main justification for its existence, the terms pattern or design
are more likely to be used. The vast range of motifs used in ornament draw from geometrical
shapes and patterns, plants, and human and animal figures. Across Eurasia and
the Mediterranean world there has been a rich and linked tradition of plant-based ornament for
over three thousand years; traditional ornament from other parts of the world typically relies
more on geometrical and animal motifs.
In a 1941 essay,[1] the architectural historian Sir John Summerson called it "surface modulation".
The earliest decoration and ornament often survives from prehistoric cultures in simple
markings on pottery, where decoration in other materials (including tattoos) has been lost.
Where the potter's wheel was used, the technology made some kinds of decoration very
easy; weaving is another technology which also lends itself very easily to decoration or pattern,
and to some extent dictates its form. Ornament has been evident in civilizations since the
beginning of recorded history, ranging from Ancient Egyptian architecture to the assertive lack
of ornament of 20th century Modernist architecture.
Ornament implies that the ornamented object has a function that an unornamented equivalent
might also fulfill. Where the object has no such function, but exists only to be a work of art such
as a sculpture or painting, the term is less likely to be used, except for peripheral elements. In
recent centuries a distinction between the fine arts and applied or decorative arts has been
applied (except for architecture), with ornament mainly seen as a feature of the latter class.

S. Textile or fiber art

Weaving the Philippines Local textures and fabrics

From fibers and threads to colors and prints, weaving

speaks so much about the Philippines’ cultural narrative. Besides preserving history, the
country’s weaves are also promising products that bring attention to indigenous communities via
the international design and lifestyle stage.

According to the Garments and Textile Industry Development Office (GTIDO) and the Center for
International Trade Expositions and Missions (Citem), the 2014 edition of Manila FAME
identified the weaves that are beginning to show potential in global marketability.

Manila FAME is a premier design and lifestyle event held annually at the SMX Convention,
wholly supported by Citem, which in turn is the export promotions arm of the Philippine
Department of Trade and Industry (DTI).

“Citem has always been committed to highlighting the versatility, viability, and global
competitiveness of Philippine craftsmanship, and we are glad we were able to emphasize the
fabrics that have been part of the country’s culture and artistry,” related Citem executive director
Rosvi Gaetos.

He also identified the different Filipino designers who have become proponents of local weaves.

locos, Bungalow 300’s interior designers Marga Espiritu and Vernice Songco, the artistic duo’s
exhibit at Manila FAME injected their refreshing take on vintage and modern aesthetics. This
brought a new spin on the said fabric that has been a huge part of the golden age of Ilocos.

Weavers from Ilocos also participated in presenting abel as material known for bolstering the
economy of the Ilocos region during the colonial times, as the products crafted from such thread
were largely exported to different countries of the world.
Meanwhile, the vibrant and intricate handcrafted mats that define the traditional Samar mat
weaving are being advocated by painter and sculptor Patty Eustaquio. At the Manila Fame
exhibit, she infused her design trademark that highlights stark contrasts between the present
and the past.

Weavers from Samar also showcased how the sedge grass locally known as tikog can be
transformed as mats, and how it can be crafted for bags, furniture matting, adornments for
ceiling panels or walls, and other decorative pieces.

The piña fabric from Aklan, on the other hand, was exhibited through the interpretations of
jewelery designer Natalya Lagdameo. The fiber used in this famed weaving process in the
region comes from the mature leaves of the pineapple plant, which is scraped to extract the fine
thread called liniwan.

Aklanon weavers presented how this material is commonly used in making the traditional
barong, dresses, tapestries, bags, and furniture accessories.

Finally, the art of t’nalak weaving from South Cotabato, was brought to life by the design
sensibilities of Bong and Rossy Rojales of Heima.

The T’boli women of Lake Sebu were invited to demonstrate the weaving practice. This
traditional cloth weaves are made with abaca-woven fiber, and the practice is widely recognized
for its age-old method involving the ikat process, where natural dyes and threads from
indigenous plants are used.

To date, the time-honored weaving is dubbed as “dream weaving” because the T’boli weavers
believe that the textile patterns are lent by Fu Dalu, the spirit of abaca, which are communicated
to them through dreams.

“We are thankful to the artists and designers who lent their talent, vision, and artistic sensibilities
to innovate and recognize with respect the traditions woven into one of the oldest and strongest
pillars of local art, weaving,” Gaetos ended.

T. Pottery

Traditional pot-making in certain areas of the Philippines would use clay found near the Sibalom
River. Molding the clay required the use of wooden paddles, and the clay had to be kept away
from sunlight.[1]
Native Filipinos created pottery since 3500 years ago.[1] They used these ceramic jars to hold
the deceased.[2]
Other pottery used to hold remains of the deceased were decorated with anthropomorphic
designs. These anthropomorphic earthenware pots date back to 5 BC. - 225 A.D and had pot
covers shaped like human heads.[2]
Filipino pottery had other uses as well. During the Neolithic period of the Philippines, pottery
was made for water vessels, plates, cups, and for many other uses.[3]
Kalinga Pottery [4]
Ceramic vessels of Kalinga are divided into three types: rice cooking (ittoyom), vegetable/meat
cooking (oppaya), and water storage (immosso) pots. According to Skibo, the rice cooking pots
are usually larger, thinner and have a smaller opening than vegetable/meat pots. On the other
hand, water storage pots have an average and uniform size and a smaller neck size.
Except for water storage pots, which have a uniform size, the other two kinds can come in three
different sizes, large, medium and small. Although this is true in some cases, another larger
type of vegetable/meat pot and smaller water storage pot exists.
• Manufacture of Kalinga potteries

Group of Igorot pottery makers, from Samoki, Mountain Province (1910)

The first step in the manufacture of pots is the acquisition of the starting material, clay. The clay
is then pounded, added with enough amount of water, to reach the wanted flexibility, and placed
in a rotating plate. Using the hand-modeling and coil-and-scrape techniques, the height,
thickness and shape of the pot is established. After this, the rim is designed by placing a wet rag
on top of it and then rotating it in the other direction. Furthermore, scraping of the walls can also
be done if the walls produced are too thick.
The pot, after the modeling stage, is then dried for a short period of time before the base is
shaped. Also, after additional heating, small amounts of clay are added inside and outside the
clay to maintain the evenness of the surface. A polishing step can also be done through the use
of a polishing stone. In some cases, pots are also painted with red hematite paint for some
stylized design.
Pottery Functions [4]
Pots are ceramic vessels that are made by molding clay into its wanted shape and then leaving
it in an environment with an elevated temperature thereby making it solid and sturdy. It is widely
recognized as one of better tools that humans invented since it managed to store the surplus of
food Neolithic humans gathered.
In the book Pottery Function: A Use-Alteration Perspective, the author, James Skibo, reasoned
out why the use of pots is far more advantageous than baskets and other organic containers.
He said that since potteries are commonly made in clay, heat has little to none effect on the
container, and its contents, and that it protects the food from moisture and pests. Furthermore,
its range of storable contents is far wider than baskets and animal skins since it can store both
liquid and dry goods.
Also, Rice, in his book Pottery Analysis, classified ceramic vessels into 17 categories depending
on various factors that concern the use and production of the tool. One of these is the content
wherein he further divided a type of pot into four depending on the state (liquid or solid) and
temperature (hot or cold) of the food inside it. He also said that a ceramic has three main uses.
These three are storage, processing, and transfer.
Based from these three uses that Rice gave, Skibo further characterized the usage of ceramic
vessels by dividing the tool’s function into two, (1) intended use and (2) actual use.
Intended use, as the name implies, is how the tool’s supposed to be used. This is the basis of
the manufacture of the ceramic vessel since the form follows the function. On the other hand,
actual use is how the tool was used. This sometimes disregards the pot’s form as long it can do
a specific function.
Kalinga Pottery and its Uses [4]

A jar from the Philippines housed at the Honolulu Museum of Art, dated from 100–1400 CE.
In Kalinga, ceramic vessels can be used for two situations: daily life use and ceremonial use.
Daily life uses include the making of rice from the pots and the transfer of water from nearby
water bodies to their homes.
• Determining actual function of Kalinga pots
As said, a pottery sometimes has a different actual use than intended use. This is the reason
why when archaeologists study the function of a pottery, they tend to focus on how the tool was
actually used. They do this by studying the alterations that the pottery has. These alterations,
accretion and attrition, are commonly the abrasions and scratches on the vessel. In Skibo’s
study of Kalinga potteries functions, he relied on three main tests, namely (1) dissolved residue,
(2) surface attrition and (3) carbon deposition.

1. Dissolved residue – This test was done to determine the organic matters that were once
placed in the vessel. Through the combination of a gas chromatograph and a mass
spectrophotometer, the composition of the fatty acids inside the vessel was determined.
Although a complete identification of the species of plant and animals was not possible,
Skibo managed to know which pots were used for rice and vegetable/ meat cooking.
2. Surface Attrition – Skibo’s study on the attrition of the pots showed how the pot was
used. By looking at the trace attritions inside the vessel, the type, frequency, angle and
direction of stirring for each pot was determined. Furthermore, Skibo also concluded
that two pots can be differentiated from each other, on the basis of what type of food it
cooks, from the abrasions. He said that rice pots will have a little amount of stirring while
the vegetable/meat pots will have numerous marks.
3. Carbon Deposition – This test, as said by Skibo, can determine the type of food cooked,
how it was cooked and how the pot was placed on the flame. From this, another
distinction between rice and vegetable/meat pots was established.
Iron Age pottery [5]
There are three major complexes in Philippine Iron Age according to Solheim, Kalanay,
Novaliches and Bau pottery complexes. Kalanay pottery complex pertains to Beyer’s Early Iron
Age pottery of the Visayan Islands found in Negros and Mindoro; novaliches pottery complex to
Beyer’s Early Iron Age pottery from Rizal province. Bau pottery, on the other hand, does not fit
into the two previous complexes and could correspond instead to the Late Iron Age pottery.
Kalanay Pottery Complex [5]
The type site of the Kalanay pottery complex is the Kalanay Cave found in Masbate. From this
site, the pottery is further subdivided into pottery types Kalanay and Bagupantao.
Specific varieties of decoration are as follows:

 Paired diagonals and borders, with variations including single diagonals or verticals and
borders, or wavy lines and borders
 Curvilinear scrolls and triangles
 Rectangular scroll
 Triangles, with variations including alternating triangles and borders or running triangles
 Rectangles and diagonals
 Zoomorphs
 Punctate fieldwhere areas bonded by incised lines are emphasized by punctuations or
 Diagonals without borders, including a band of horizontal V’s and alternating diagonals off a
center line
 Impressed crenelations
 Impressed or carved scallop design
 Impressed tool
 Carved cutouts in ring stands
Kalanay complex pottery can be divided into 16 groups according to Solheim.

1. Large jars with wide necks

2. Large jars with narrow necks
3. Small jars
4. Deep bowls
5. Shallow bowls
6. Very shallow bowls
7. Lids
8. Shallow bowls with ring stands
9. Tetrapods
10.Jars with angle between side and bottom
11.Spherical jars with small mouths, without angle at rim
12.Angular Vessels
Bau Pottery Complex [5]
It has less variation in both form and decoration compared to the Kalanay pottery complex.
Specific varieties of decoration are as follows:

 Paddle Impressed
 Tool Impressed, including simple-tool and compound-tool impressed
 Stamp Impressed
 Applique ribbons of clay
In terms of forms:

 Small jars with everted rims

 Small jars without everted rim
 Small heavy jars with flat bottom
 Cups with ring feet
 Jars with ring feet
Novaliches Pottery Complex [5]

Carriers with water pots, in Iloilo(1899).

Most of Novaliches pottery can be distinguished from Bau pottery and Kalanay pottery. While it
shares form and decoration with Kalanay pottery, it contains more variability compared to Bau
pottery. According to Solheim (2002), “it is the most sophisticated pottery that has yet been
found in the Philippines”
Novaliches pottery can be diagnosed by its form being a shallow bowl with a high right-foot. The
shallow bowl is generally plain but the feet are highly decorated. Majority of Novaliches pottery
were well polished. The form is so symmetrical that it looks as if it was made in a potter wheel,
however, examinations showed that it wasn’t.
Specific varieties of decoration are as follows:

 Cutouts
 Narrow vertical elements; carved, tool impressed, or running impressed lines
 Horizontal and diagonal elements, including simple tool impressions, compound tool
impressions and carved elements
 Horizontal broadline impressed lines
Vessel forms are as follows:

 Shallow bowls with high ring stands

 Shallow bowls with low-ring stands
 Jars with low-ring stands
 Angle jars
 Jars with short necks and everted rims
Kalanay Cave Site [5]
The Kalanay cave site is a small burial cave. It is located at the northwest coast of Masbate.
• Kalanay Pottery

 Kalanay Plain
 Majority (80 per cent) of the excavated vessels.
 Variations in size and shape
 Technique used in the manufacture: Paddle-and-anvil technique
 Differences in the base of the vessels (some have rounded bottom while some use a ring
foot or a tetrapod for support).
 Large observable differences in color that is associated with the inability of the potter to
control the fire, causing the uneven distribution of the heat.
• Kalanay Incised

 Incised around the neck, rim of a jar or the outside of a bowl in a band of repeating
 Little care was given so the jars appear poorly made despite its well thought out designs.
This can be attributed to the possibility that the certain tradition of this pot was no longer
significant to the manufacturer
 Kalanay-Impressed: simple tool and simple and compound tool
 Simple tool impressing found around the jar or bowl with a flange
• Kalanay slipped

 Forms: jars, large with wide mouth and everted rim, or small with everted rim; bowls, deep
with inslanting sides, or very shallow which turned out lip
 Some were polished, some were not.
Bagupantao Pottery [5]
• Bagupantao Plain

 Majority of the pots’ paste is red-brown in color, with gray or black as the minority. Its texture
ranges from fine to medium and its thickness is usually 5–8 mm in length. The common
forms of the pots are jars with wide to narrow mouths and its normally large (a body
diameter of 24 to 35 cm).
 Difference between Kalanay Plain: Evenness of color and cleanness of clay
• Bagupantao Impressed

 The type of paste is the same as Bagupantao plain, red-brown in color. It is also highly
decorated on its rim with circles, punctuations and crenellations.
 Larger (28 –31 cm body diameter) and thicker (9-14 thickness) than Bagupantao plain.
• Bagupantao Painted

 The paste used is the same as Bagupantao impressed and plain but it is covered with
heavy red hematite slip inside and outside of the neck.
 Thinner (2–7 mm) and smaller than Bagupantao plain.
• Extraneous Pottery - Three vessels that did not belong to the Bagupantao and Kalanay style
were also found.
First pot

 Similar clay used as the Bagupantao and Kalanay vessels. The color, red-brown, was also
the same, inside and out.
 Ornamented with small crystals on the paste and black flakes on the surface.
 As thin (3–8 mm) as the Bagupantao painted vessel.
Second pot

 Same size and structure as the Bagupantao pots.

 Used a different paste (fibrous texture and contained mineral inclusions)
 Heavily polished and the surface color ranges from red-brown to light gray.
 As thick as the Bagupantao plain jars (5–12 mm).
Third pot

 The paste used is chocolate-brown in color and its texture is fine.

 It is very thick (15–20 mm) when compared to the other pots.
 Poorly made because of the uneven distribution of heat to the pot (pieces break
In Japan, pottery from Luzon became especially esteemed and was used in Japanese tea
ceremony as shimamono.

3. Local Materials used as applied to Contemporary arts

1. Coconut leaves- use for "Banig"
2. Egg shells
3. Stone and wood carving
4. Newpapers
5. Bamboo arch
6. abaca
7. Mud/Clay
8. Oil Paint
9. ink
10. Canvas
4. Traditional techniques applied to Contemporary creationContemporary art is often
looked at with a skeptical eye. The truth about contemporary artis tha
t it uses techniques that most people aren’t quite used to, causing that skepticism to
come into play. However, these techniques are actually quite difficult and all deserve our
credit. It’s an incredible feat to create a piece of contemporary art, especia
lly using thesetechniques. They challenge the mind and offer unique perspectives in a way that
art has
never been able to do before. For that reason, they’re some of the most valuable
techniques that a person can experience through artwork. Here are three techniques thatare
among the most relevant in contemporary art today.
One of the artistic movements that has been most relevant throughout the contemporary art
movement is minimalism. Minimalism seeks to take away what’s unnecessary and lea
only what’s essential. Minimalism is incredibly difficult and has even made its way into being
a huge part of branding and design for companies all over the world. This is probably themost
important part of contemporary art, as it has informed so much of society. Have younoticed that
branding has gotten more minimalist over the past ten years or so? You canthank the
contemporary art movement for doing that.
Taking something that people view as useless, and then using it in a unique way in
order tomake artwork is one of the most important movements that currently exist in
contemporaryartwork. The idea is that things that we often view as junk are actually more
valuable thanwe think that they are. Everything you find can be used to tell a story, or to create
diverse perspectives that we’re looking for when we attend an art exhibitions. The found
objects movement is one of the most important movements in all of contemporary artcurrently.
Walter De Maria created an art piece in 1977 that included a four hundred steel poles over
one mile by one kilometer. That’s incredible. Creating something huge to express diverse
perspectives in artwork is incredibly popular, even today. Over the past forty years, largescale
art, and art that includes the environment has come into its own as one of the most
important movements within contemporary art. That’s why you often see modern art pieces
alongside buildings, or as huge structures out in the open.
With every new age of art, there are new unique techniques that define how the
movementdevelops. For contemporary art, among many techniques, you can find techniques
such asminimalism, found objects, and large scale paintings. Each of these bring their
own uniqueperspective into the artistic community, and each is valued as a pick for a technique
that is
most influential in contemporary art. Look out for these when you’re out at an exhibitionnext,
you’ll find that they’re much m
ore relevant than you perhaps think that they are.
First part of a series on the traditional metalpoint technique and its contemporary use in fine art.