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LEADING Leading an organization

Leading vs managing • Key work attitudes exhibited by groups/teams

of workers must be taken into consideration in
Leading leading organization because of the diversity
of their attitudes toward things and events at
 Involves inspiring and influencing people in the
organization to achieve common goal
F0llowing key works attitude:
 Organizational Citizenship behavior (OCB)
 Process of working with and through
organization to achieve a common goal  employee behavior that exceeds work role
requirement; behaviors that go beyond the
call of duty
 Personality pertains to the unique combination
 Organizational Commitment
of physical and mental characteristic
 extent to which an individual employee
 affect how individuals react to
identifies with an organization and its goal
 Job Satisfaction and Productivity
 interact with others
 Refers to employee’s general attitude
 and if unhealthy or not fully
toward their respective jobs
functioning could cause

 Individual human resources must have a MOTIVATION

healthy personality because if one is
functioning at the highest level, one inevitably  Encourages individuals to work
becomes efficient in his or her work , enthusiastically, often performing more work
cooperative, managers and coworkers. than what is required

 Leading individuals in organizations becomes  Internal and external factors that stimulate
effortless for the manager /leader desire and energy in people to be continually
interested and committed to a job, role or
Big five personality characters subject, or to make an effort to attain a goal.
Robbin and Coulter 2009 Early theories of motivation
research has shown that five basic personality Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
dimension underlie all others and encompass most of
the significant variation in human personality”  Published by Abraham Maslow In 1943

The five personality traits in the Bid Five Model are: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Five Human Needs

 Extraversion A. Physiological Needs

B. Safety Needs
 Agreeableness C. Social Needs
D. Esteem Needs
 Conscientiousness
E. Self-actualization Needs
 Emotional Stability
Important to managers and leaders to focus on
 Openness to experience satisfying employee needs related to self-respect, self
–esteem, and self actualization.
This Big Five Model provides more than just a
personality framework
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y accepted by employees, result in greater
motivation to perform well.
 Proposed by Douglas McGregor
• Reinforcement theory
Theory X
negative view of workers which assumes that workers Theory which states that behavior is a function of its
have little ambition, dislike work, and avoid consequences
Theory Y • Job Design Theory
positive view of workers which assumes that
 Theory which states that employees are
employees enjoy work, seek out and enjoy
motivated to work well by combining task
responsibility, and self-directed
to form complete jobs
Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory • Equity Theory
 Proposed by Frederick Herzberg  Develop by J. Stacey Adams
 Known as Motivation-Hygiene Theory  States that employees assess job outcomes
in relation to what they put into it and
 Which state that intrinsic factor are associated
then compare these with their co-workers
with job satisfaction while extrinsic factor
associated with job dissatisfaction. • Expectancy Theory
McClelland’s Three Needs Theory  States that an individual tends to act in a
certain way, base on the expectation that
 Proposed by David McClelland
the act will followed with an outcome
 State that individuals have three needs that which may be attractive or unattractive to
serve as motivators at work him or her

THREE NEEDS Leadership theories

1. Need for achievement (nAch) Leadership- Should result in the willingness of

individuals to work with zest, ardor, and self reliance
2. Need for power (nPow)
Leadership Theories - In order to respond to the need
3. Need for affiliation (nAff) to explain certain aspects of leadership, and to better
understand what drives success in that area
Alderfer’s ERG Theory
Early leadership theories
1. Developed by Clayton Alderfer
• Trait Theory
2. Similar to the needs presented in Maslow’s Theory
Based on leader traits or personal character that
3. For Alderfer, set of core needs explains behavior. differentiate leaders from follower
E-Existence Needs • Behavioral Theory
R-Relatedness Needs Focuses on the behavior, action, conduct, demeanor,
or deportment of a leader instead of on his or her
G-Growth Needs
personality traits
Modern theories of motivation
Contemporary theories of leadership
• Goal setting Theory
• Fiedler Theory
• theory stating that specific goals motivate
 Situational leadership theory
performance and more difficult goals, when
 Proposed by Fred Fiedler • Team Leadership Model

 Based on the assumption that a leader’s  Theory that emerged because of the fact that
effectiveness is contingent leadership is increasingly taking place within a
team context
• Hersey-Blanchard Model
• Servant Leadership Model
 Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard
 Theory proposed by Robert Greenleaf
 Focused on subordinates’ readiness or the extent
to which said subordinates have the ability and  Stating that servant-leaders must focus on
willingness to accomplish of specific work increased service to others rather than to one’s
assignment self

• Path-Goal Theory  Researchers have gathered proof that this

leadership model is positively associated with
 Developed by Robert House workers’ job satisfaction
 States that the leader’s task is to lead his followers COMMUNICATION
or subordinates in achieving their goals
 applies to all management functions
House Four Leadership Theory
 its general purpose for the organization is to
1. directive leadership bring about positive changes that influence
activities leading to the firm’s welfare
2. supportive leadership
 accurate communication results the sender
3. participative leadership
and receiver give the same or similar meanings
4. achievement-oriented leadership to the words

Direction and flow of communication

Modern Leadership views  Vertical

• Transactional Leadership Model • Flow between people belonging the

same level
 States that Leaders guide their subordinates
toward the achievement of their organization’s  Upward
goals by using social exchange or transaction
• Flow of information from an employee
• Transformational Leadership Model who belongs to lower hierarchical level
to the boss wo belong to higher
 States that leaders inspire or transform followers hierarchical level
to achieve extraordinary outcomes
 Downward
• Charismatic Leadership Model
• From manager, who belongs to higher
 States that leaders who have charismatic hierarchical level, to the subordinate
personality are able to influence their who belong to lower hierarchical level
subordinates to follow them
 Horizontal/lateral
• Visionary Leadership Model
• Takes place among employees
 States that leaders are able to make their belonging to the same hierarchical
subordinates because of their ability to create level
and articulate a realistic, credible, and attractive
vision that may improve present conditions or  Diagonal
• Communicating with someone or  Two related activities/functions of
others who belong to different management because trying to make to bring
department/unit and different about change in organization
hierarchical levels
Organizational change- alteration of people,
Types of communication networks structure, and technology

 Chain network Organizational diversity- host of individual

differences that make people in organizations
 flows according to the usual formal chain different from and similar to each other
 Wheel network Types of change
 flows between leader and other member of  Changes in people
their group
 Changes in structure
 All-channel network
 Changes in technology
 Flows freely among all members of a team
Managing resistance to change
Barriers to communication
The following are required to manage
 Filtering resistance change:
 Shaping of information communicated in order  Education
to make it look good or advantageous to the
receiver  employees have to be educated regarding for
and the relevance of change
 Emotions
 Participation
 The interpretation of communication may be
influenced by extreme emotion felt by the  allowing organization members to participate
receiver in decision-making related to bringing about
change in their company
 Informally overload
 Facilitation and support
 Too many pieces of information received may
have negative effect on a person’s processing  by facilitating or providing new skills training
capacity and counselling for employees to minimize
their fear of change
 Defensive
 Manipulation of information
 Act of self-protection when people are
threatened by something or someone  by withholding damaging information about
change to make it acceptable to organization
 Language members
 Words used may have different meanings to  Selection of people
different people belonging to different age,
educational or cultural group  by selecting people who are open to change to
help disseminate the beneficial effects of
 National culture change
 May cause negative interpretation  Coercion
Management of change  by use of direct threats or force to make
and diversity in organizations people accept change
New issues in change management  manana habit

 Understanding Situational Factors  pertains to the belief or practices that it is

alright to postpone work or finishing tasks to
 The appropriate time and situation is suggested another day
when bringing about change in organization
 ningas cogon
 Making Changes in Organizational Culture
 refers to initial show of enthusiasm over a
 Change in organization cannot be done easily, project during its beginning and wanting of this
because highly valued and ingrained among the interest over the project over time
firm’s members
 filipino time
 Managing Workplace Diversity
 common filipino practice wherein arriving late
 Workforce diversity in organization is inevitable to work or to both formal and informal
meetings with associates and friends
 A fact that organization members differ in age,
gender, physical ability, ethically/race, culture Influence of Filipino's shared values and
values, attitudes, beliefs, and personality among beliefs/practices on organizational management
• The values of social acceptance, economic
Filipino and foreign cultures in organizations security, and social mobility may have both
positive and negative implications to
Culture- set of beliefs and values about how
organizational management.
community should act and do things
• The manana habit, ningas cogon, and filipino
Organizational culture-set of values and
time all have negative implication to
norms/standards behavior and expectation that
organizational management
influence the interaction of organization members in
order to achieve their set mission, vision, goals, and Influence of foreign culture on organizational
objectives management
Filipino and foreign cultures in organizations Examples of the following cultural dimensions:
• Filipino and foreign culture in organizations (KREITNER AND KINICKI)
exert a big influence on how managers do their
functions and how their subordinates respond  Gender Egalitarianism
to their rules/regulations
Refers to the amount of effort which must be put
Shared values and beliefs/practices of Filipinos into minimizing gender discrimination and role
• Our unique culture as a people also influence
our attitudes about work, as well as our Assertiveness
 Refers to how confrontational and dominant
Three primary Filipino values: individuals should be in social relationships

1. Social Acceptance-focus in the desire of Filipinos Performance orientation

to be accepted and treated well by others
 Refers to how much individuals should be
2. Economic Security- emphasize one must have rewarded for improvement and excellence
financial stability
 Humane Orientation
3. Social Mobility-concerned with his or her desire
to move up the social ladder  Refers to how much society encourage and
reward people for being kind, fair, friendly, and
Example of Filipino beliefs and practice: generous