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Experiment 1: Identification of peripherals of a PC, Laptop, Server and Smart Phones:

Prepare a report containing the block diagram along with the configuration of each
component and its functionality, Input/ Output devices, I/O ports and interfaces, main
memory, cache memory and secondary storage technologies, digital storage basics,
networking components and speeds.

Block diagram of computer

1.Input Unit:
Computers need to receive data and instruction in order to solve any problem. Therefore we need
to input the data and instructions into the computers. The input unit consists of one or more input
devices. Keyboard is the one of the most commonly used input device. Other commonly used
input devices are the mouse, floppy disk drive, magnetic tape, etc. All the input devices perform
the following functions.

2.Storage Unit:
The storage unit of the computer holds data and instructions that are entered through the input
unit, before they are processed. It preserves the intermediate and final results before these are
sent to the output devices. It also saves the data for the later use. The various storage devices of a
computer system are divided into two categories.

1. Primary Storage: Stores and provides very fast. This memory is generally used to hold the
program being currently executed in the computer, the data being received from the input unit,
the intermediate and final results of the program. The primary memory is temporary in nature.
The data is lost, when the computer is switched off. In order to store the data permanently, the
data has to be transferred to the secondary memory. The cost of the primary storage is more
compared to the secondary storage. Therefore most computers have limited primary storage

2. Secondary Storage: Secondary storage is used like an archive. It stores several programs,
documents, data bases etc. The programs that you run on the computer are first transferred to the
primary memory before it is actually run. Whenever the results are saved, again they get stored
in the secondary memory. The secondary memory is slower and cheaper than the primary
memory. Some of the commonly used secondary memory devices are Hard disk, CD, etc.

Memory Size:
All digital computers use the binary system, i.e. 0’s and 1’s. Each character or a number is
represented by an 8 bit code.
The set of 8 bits is called a byte. A character occupies 1 byte space. A numeric occupies 2 byte
space. Byte is the space occupied in the memory.
The size of the primary storage is specified in KB (Kilobytes) or MB (Megabyte). One KB is
equal to 1024 bytes and one MB is equal to 1000KB. The size of the primary storage in a typical
PC usually starts at 16MB. PCs having 32 MB, 48MB, 128 MB, 256MB memory are quite
3.Output Unit:
The output unit of a computer provides the information and results of a computation to outside
world. Printers, Visual Display Unit (VDU) are the commonly used output devices. Other
commonly used output devices are floppy disk drive, hard disk drive, and magnetic tape drive.
4.Arithmetic Logical Unit:
All calculations are performed in the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) of the computer. It also does
comparison and takes decision. The ALU can perform basic operations such as addition,
subtraction, multiplication, division, etc and does logic operations viz, >, <, =, ‘etc. Whenever
calculations are required, the control unit transfers the data from storage unit to ALU once the
computations are done, the results are transferred to the storage unit by the control unit and then
it is send to the output unit for displaying results.
5.Control Unit:
It is responsible for directing and coordinating most of the computer system activities. It does not
execute instructions by itself. It tells other parts of the computer system what to do. It determines
the movement of electronic signals between the main memory and arithmetic logic unit as well
as the control signals between the CPU and input/output devices.

6.Central Processing Unit:

The control unit and ALU of the computer are together known as the Central Processing Unit
(CPU).The CPU is like brain performs the following functions:
•It performs all calculations.
•It takes all decisions.
•It controls all units of the computer.
A PC may have CPU-IC such as Intel 8088, 80286, 80386, 80486, Celeron, Pentium, Pentium
Pro, Pentium II, Pentium III, Pentium IV, Dual Core, and AMD etc.

Components of CPU:

1.Power supply

2.Heat sink/fans.


4.Mother board



7.North bridge

8.South bridge


10.PCI slots



1. SMPS(Switching mode power supply)

The power supply converts the alternating current (AC) from your mains (110V
input or 220V input) to the direct current (DC) needed by the computer. In a PC,
the power supply is the metal box usually found in a corner of the case. The power
supply is visible from the back of many systems because it contains the power-cord
receptacle and the cooling fan.
. The typical voltages produced are: •3.3 volts, •5 volts, •12 volts

2.Heat Sinks/Fans:
As processors, graphics cards, RAM and other components in computers have
Increased in speed and power consumption, the amount of heat produced by these
components as a side-effect of normal operation has also increased. These
components need to be kept within a specified temperature range to prevent
overheating, instability, malfunction and damage leading to a shortened component

A computer case (also known as a computer chassis, cabinet, box, tower, enclosure,
housing, system unit or simply case) is the eclosure that provides protection to all the
components from heat light and temperature.
If you are building your own computer selecting the case will be one of your first
choices to make: the type of case, its size, orientation, tc.

The motherboard is the key circuit board holding the essential processing parts of a
Computer. It allows all the parts of your computer to receive power and
Communicate with one another. It is usually screwed to the case along its largest
face, which could be the bottom or the side of the case depending on the form factor
and orientation. Attached directly to the motherboard are the CPU, RAM, expansion cards,
networking, video, and audio components.

An integrated circuit (IC) supplied on a single silicon chip. It’s function is to control all the
computers functions. The main processor manufacturers are: AMD & INTEL

6.AGP(Accelerated graphical port)

Short for accelerated graphics port, AGP is an advanced port designed for video cards and 3D
accelerators. Developed by Intel and introduced in August 1997, AGP introduces a dedicated
point-to-point channel that allows the graphics controller direct access to the system memory.
Below is an illustration of what the AGP slot may look like on your motherboard.
7.North bridge

the Northbridge is an integrated circuit responsible for communications between

the CPU interface, AGP, and the memory. Unlike the Southbridge, the Northbridge is directly
connected to these components and acts like a "bridge" for the Southbridge chip to communicate
with the CPU, RAM, and graphics controller

8.South bridge

The southbridge is an IC on the motherboard responsible for thehard drive controller, I/O
controller and integrated hardware. Integrated hardware can include the sound card and video
card if on the motherboard, USB, PCI, ISA, IDE, BIOS, and Ethernet

9.ATX Power connector

ATX power connectors are designed to connect a computer’s power supply to a motherboard.
They are constructed of metal pins laid throughout a nylon matrix.

10.PCI Slots

Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) slot is a connecting apparatus for a 32-bit computer
bus. These tools are built into the motherboards of computers and devices in order to allow for
the addition of PCI devices like modems, network hardware or sound and video cards.
11.BIOS(Basic input and output)

Short for Basic Input/Output System, the BIOS (pronounced bye-oss) is a ROM chip found
on motherboards that allows you to access and set up your computer system at the most basic
level. The picture below is an example of what a BIOS chip may look like on a computer
motherboard. The example picture below is of an early AMIBIOS, a type of BIOS manufactured
by AMI.
12.CMOS(complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor)

CMOS is an onboard, battery powered semiconductor chip inside computers that stores
information.This information ranges from the system time and date to system hardware settings
for your computer.

Input/ Output devices

Input Devices

In computing, an input device is a piece of computer hardware equipment used to provide data
and control signals to an information processing system such as a computer or information
appliance. Examples of input devices include keyboards, mouse, scanners, digital cameras,
joysticks, and microphones.
Output Devices

An output device is any device used to send data from a computer to another device or user.
Most computer dataoutput that is meant for humans is in the form of audio or video. Thus,
most output devices used by humans are in these categories. Examples include monitors,
projectors, speakers, headphones and printers.

I/O ports and interfaces

Computer ports are interfaces between peripheral devices and the computer. They are mainly
found at the back of the computer but are often also built into the front of the computer chassis
for easy access.
Serial port - a 9-pin port. Often called Com ports - Com1, Com2 etc. Mice and external
modems were connected to these ports. They are turquoise in colour.

Parallel port - a 25-pin port used to connect printers, scanners, external hard disks etc. to the
computer. Burgundy in colour, they are often called LPT ports - LPT1, LPT2 etc.

Video port - used to connect a monitor to the computer system. There are two types:

 VGA port - This is a 15-pin port and is blue in colour. It is an analogue port and is
being replaced by the DVI port.
 DVI port - white in colour, it is a digital port. This means that no conversion is
necessary between the computer and the monitor and that means that images can be
produced more quickly on the monitor

PS/2 port - used to connect keyboards and mice to the computer. The keyboard port is purple
and the mouse port is green

Modem port - used to connect a modem to a telephone line. RJ11 is the technical term for the

USB port

Intended to replace Serial, Parallel and PS/2 ports with a single standard. 127 devices can be
connected to a single USB port.
Ethernet port - used to connect to a network. Known as RJ45, it is larger than a modem port.

Audio ports - used to input and output audio from the computer. Three mini jack ports but
there may be more:
Light blue - Line in - connect external devices
Lime - Connect the speakers to this port.
Pink - Connect a microphone to this port.

Cache memory

Cache memory, also called CPU memory, is high-speed static random access memory (SRAM)
that a computer microprocessor can access more quickly than it can access regular random
access memory (RAM). This memory is typically integrated directly into the CPU chip or placed
on a separate chip that has a separate bus interconnect with the CPU. The purpose of cache
memory is to store program instructions and data that are used repeatedly in the operation of
programs or information that the CPU is likely to need next. The computer processor can access
this information quickly from the cache rather than having to get it from computer's main
memory. Fast access to these instructions increases the overall speed of the program.

Primary Memory (Main Memory)

Primary memory holds only those data and instructions on which the computer is currently
working. It has a limited capacity and data is lost when power is switched off. It is generally
made up of semiconductor device. These memories are not as fast as registers. The data and
instruction required to be processed resides in the main memory. It is divided into two
subcategories RAM and ROM.
Characteristics of Main Memory

 These are semiconductor memories.

 It is known as the main memory.
 Usually volatile memory.
 Data is lost in case power is switched off.
 It is the working memory of the computer.
 Faster than secondary memories.
 A computer cannot run without the primary memory.

PROM-Programmable Read Only Memory

EPROM - Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory

EEPROM- electrically erasable programmable read-only memory

Secondary storage devices:

Hard disk

The hard disk drive is the main, and usually largest, data storage hardware device in a computer.
The operating system, software titles, and most other files are stored in the hard disk drive.
Floppy disk

A floppy disk drive (FDD), or floppy drive, is a hardware device that reads data storage
information. It was invented in 1967 by a team at IBM and was one of the first types of hardware
storage that could read/write a portable device. FDDs are used for reading and writing on
removable floppy discs. Floppy disks are now outdated, and have been replaced by other storage
devices such as USB and network file transfer.

Flash drive
Alternatively referred to as a USB flash drive, data stick, pen drive, memory unit, keychain
drive and thumb drive, a jump drive is a portable storage device. It is often the size of a human
thumb (hence the name), and connects to a computer via a USB port. Flash drives are an easy
way to store and transfer information between computers and range in sizes from 2 GB to 1 TB.

SD card
Short for Secure Digital card, the SD card is one of the more common types of memory cards
used with electronics. The SD technology is used by over 400 brands of electronic equipment
and over 8000 different models, including digital cameras and cell phones. It is considered the
industry standard due to the wide use.
Types of SD cards
The three versions of the SD card, along with their physical dimensions, are shown below.
 SD - 32mm x 24mm x 2.1mm.

 MiniSD - 21.5mm x 20mm x 1.4mm.

 MicroSD - 15mm x 11mm x 1.0mm.

Compact Disk
Abbreviated as CD, a compact disc is a flat, round, optical storage medium invented by James
Russell. The first CD was created at a Philips factory in Germany on August 17, 1982.

NOTE:When referring to a round CD, DVD, or Blu-ray it is known as a "disc" and not a "disk."
If you are referring to a magnetic media such as a floppy disk or a hard disk drive, it is called to
as a "disk" and not a "disc."

Short for digital versatile disc or digital video disc, a DVD or DVD-ROM is a disc capable of
storing a significant amount more data than a standard compact disc. DVDs are widely used for
storing and viewing movies and other data. The picture of the Matrix DVD movie disc is an
example of a DVD movie. CD/DVD drives that utilize both of these discs were first sold
in 1997.
A computer network is a set of computers connected together for the purpose of sharing
resources. The most common resource shared today is connection to the Internet.

A network consists of two or more computers that are linked in order to share resources (such as
printers and CDs), exchange files, or allow electronic communications. The computers on a
network may be linked through cables, telephone lines, radio waves, satellites, or infrared light

very common types of networks include:

 Local Area Network (LAN)

 Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
 Wide Area Network (WAN)

Local Area Network

A Local Area Network (LAN) is a network that is confined to a relatively small area. It is
generally limited to a geographic area such as a writing lab, school, or building.

Metropolitan Area Network

A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a network that interconnects users with computer
resources in a geographic area or region larger than that covered by even a large local
area network (LAN) but smaller than the area covered by a wide area network (WAN).

Wide Area Network

Wide Area Networks (WANs) connect networks in larger geographic areas, such as world.
Dedicated satellite uplinks may be used to connect this type of global network.

Computer Network components

Computer network involves the following components and devices (some are optional):-
 Network Interface Card (NIC)
 Hub
 Switches
 Router
 Modem
 Cables and connectors

Network Interface Card

Network adapter or NIC is a device which allows a computer to communicate with other
computer/network. The NIC is also referred to as an Ethernet card and network adapter. A
NIC is a computer expansion card for connecting to a network (e.g., home network or Internet)
using an Ethernet cable with an RJ-45 connector.
Network Hub
a hub is the most basic networking device that connects multiple
computers or other network devices together. When a computer request
information from a network or a particular computer, it transmits the request to the hub
through a cable.

Network Switches
Switch is like a smart Hub made in with advanced features like the ability to form tables that
keep updated about all the computer or device and on which switch port it is on.
Switches do not broadcast the received message to entire network like the Hub but rather
before transmitting, it analyses which system or port should the message be transmitted to.

Experiment 2: Virtual Machine setup:

 Setting up and configuring a new Virtual Machine

 Setting up and configuring an existing Virtual Machine
 Exporting and packaging an existing Virtual Machine into a portable format

Setting up and configuring a new Virtual Machine