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Tiara Wiji Rahmaddhani

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Tiara Wiji Rahmaddhani
20180610375 / IPOLS B

The Comparative Study of State

(Indonesia and russia)

Indonesia officially the republic of indonesia is a country in southeast asia , between the indian and
pacific oceans . it is the world’s largest island country , with more than thirteen thousand islands , and at
1,904,569 square kiloometres (735,358 square miles) , the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in
combines sea and land area . with over 261 million people , it is the world’s 4th most populous country as well
as the most populous muslim majority country . java , the world’s most populous island , contain more than half
of the country’s population .

The Flag of Indonesia is a simple bicolour with two equal horizontal bands, red (top) and white
(bottom) with an overall ratio of 2:3. It was introduced and hoisted in public at the Indonesian Declaration of
Independence on 17 August 1945 in Pegangsaan Timur street in Jakarta, and again when the Dutch formally
transferred sovereignty on 27 December 1949. The design of the flag has remained unchanged since. The
national emblem of Indonesia is called Garuda Pancasila.The main part of Indonesian national emblem is the
Garuda with a heraldic shield on its chest and a scroll gripped by its legs. The shield's five emblems represent
Pancasila, the five principles of Indonesia's national ideology. The Garuda claws gripping a white ribbon scroll
inscribed with the national motto Bhinneka Tunggal Ika written in black text, which can be loosely translated as
"Unity in Diversity". Garuda Pancasila was designed by Sultan Hamid II from Pontianak, supervised by
Sukarno, and was adopted as the national emblem on 11 February 1950. "Indonesia Raya" has been the national
anthem of Indonesia since the proclamation of independence of the Republic of Indonesia on the 17 August

The politics of Indonesia take place in the framework of a presidential representative democratic
republic whereby the President of Indonesia is both head of state and head of government and of a multi-party
system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government
and the two People's Representative Councils. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.
The 1945 constitution provided for a limited separation of executive, legislative and judicial power. The
governmental system has been described as "presidential with parliamentary characteristics". Following the
Indonesian riots of May 1998 and the resignation of President Suharto, several political reforms were set in
motion via amendments to the Constitution of Indonesia, which resulted in changes to all branches of

The Constitution (UUD 1945) does not clearly mandate the party system that must be implemented.
Nevertheless the constitution implies that the Indonesian nation applies a multi-party system. The article is
Article 6A (2) of the 1945 Constitution which states that the President and Vice President are proposed by
political parties or a combination of political parties. The article implies that Indonesia follow to a multi-party
system because those who have the right to nominate candidates for presidential and vice presidential candidates
are political parties or a combination of political parties. The word "political party combination" means at least
two political parties that combine to nominate the president to compete with other candidates carried by other
political parties. Thus from the article in the presidential and vice presidential elections there are at least three
political parties. There are several political parties in Indonesia including Indonesian Democratic Party (PDI) ,
Party of the Functional Groups (GOLKAR) , Great Indonesia Movement Party (GERINDRA) , Democratic
Party (PD), National Mandate Party (PAN), National Awakening Party (PKB), Prosperous Justice Party (PKS),
United Development Party (PPP), Nasdem Party (NASDEM), People's Conscience Party (HANURA) .

The Indonesian state is a follower of democracy so that the government implements Trias Politika and
presidential system is the Indonesian government. Trias Politika itself in it regulates the division of government
power through 3 institutions that stand equal, one of which is the legislature whose job is to make laws. The
Legislative Institution in Indonesia includes:

a. House of Representatives (DPR).

The DPR is a representative body of the people who are domiciled as state institutions. Members of
Parliament come from members of political parties participating in elections who are elected based on
election results. The Membership of the Parliament is inaugurated by a presidential decree. DPR members
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live in the national capital. The term of office of DPR members is five years. The number of DPR members
is 560 people
b. Regional Representative Council (DPD)
The Regional Representative Council (DPD) is a regional representative institution that is domiciled as a
state institution. The DPD consists of representatives from the provinces selected through general elections.
The number of DPD members from each province is not the same, but is determined to be as many as four
people. The term of office of DPD members is five years.
c. People's Consultative Assembly (MPR)
The MPR Institution consists of members of the DPR and DPD members elected through general elections
for a term of office of five years. Before the 1945 Constitution was amended, the MPR was the highest state
institution. However, after the 1945 Constitution the term "highest institution of the state" did not exist, only
a state institution.

Executive institutions in Indonesia include the president and vice president and the ministers who assist
him. The president is a state institution that holds executive power, namely having the power to run the
government. In Indonesia, the President has a position as head of government and at the same time as head
of state. The president and vice president hold positions for five years. The President and Vice President
before carrying out their duties swear or make promises and are sworn in by the Chair of the MPR in the
MPR session. After being appointed, the president and vice president run the government in accordance with
the program that has been set by itself.

Judicial power has the authority to interpret the contents of the law and sanction any violation of it. The
Indonesian Judiciary Body functions to administer judicial power. In Indonesia, there are now 3 fields
related to the implementation of this power. These bodies are the Supreme Court, the Constitutional Court,
and the Judicial Commission.


Russia, is a country that extends extensively to the east of Europe and northern Asia. With an area of
17,075,400 km², Russia is the largest country in the world. The area is approximately twice the area of the
People's Republic of China (China; PRC), Canada or the United States. Its population is ranked seventh most
in the world after China, India, the United States, Indonesia, Brazil and Pakistan.

The flag of Russia is a tricolor flag consisting of three equal horizontal fields: white on the top, blue in
the middle, and red on the bottom. The flag was first used as an ensign for Russian merchant ships and
became official as the flag of the Tsardom of Russia in 1696. It remained in use until the establishment of
the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (RSFSR) in 1917. The coat of arms of the Russian
Federation derives from the earlier coat of arms of the Russian Empire which was abolished with the
Russian Revolution in 1917 and restored in 1993 after the constitutional crisis. Though modified more than
once since the reign of Ivan III (1462–1505), the current coat of arms is directly derived from its mediaeval
original, with the double-headed eagle having Byzantine and earlier antecedents from long before the
emergence of any Russian state. The general tincture corresponds to the early fifteenth-century standard. The
shape of the eagle can be traced back to the reign of Peter the Great (1682–1725), although the eagle charge
on the present coat of arms is golden rather than the traditional, imperial black . The "State Anthem of the
Russian Federation is the name of the official national anthem of Russia. It uses the same music as
the "State Anthem of the Soviet Union", composed by Alexander Alexandrov, and new lyrics by
Sergey Mikhalkov, who had collaborated with Gabriel El-Registan on the original anthem.

The politics of Russia take place in the framework of the federal semi-presidential republic of Russia.
According to the Constitution of Russia, the President of Russia is head of state, and of a multi-party system
with executive power exercised by the government, headed by the Prime Minister, who is appointed by the
President with the parliament's approval. Legislative power is vested in the two houses of the Federal
Assembly of the Russian Federation, while the President and the government issue numerous legally binding

The Communist Party was the only official political party in the Soviet Union until March 1990. At
that time, the Soviet Constitution which gave full control to the Communist Party was changed. A coalition
of political parties with a democratic platform, known as the Russian Democratic Movement, began to play a
key role in the reform movement. The Russian Democratic Movement ensured Yeltsin's victory in the free
presidential election held in June 1991. The collapse of the Soviet Union led to the outbreak of the Russian
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Democratic Movement. This component group broke out and developed into a separate political party. Since
then, Russia's political landscape has continued to shift. There are many political parties and coalitions, and
power changes hands in each election . There are several political parties in Russia, including United Russia,
Communist Party, A Just Russia, Liberal Democratic Party, Yabloko, Patriots of Russia, Right Cause.

Russia's legislative body is the highest Soviet, and its role as the highest organ of state power, which is
the embodiment of the "sole will of the people". In a country with communist ideology the legislature or in
Russia is called the highest Soviet not only is a single legislative power but also has an Executive and
Judiciary. Because the concentration of power is in the hands of the legislature, this system is called the
Assembly Government. Structure of the Russia Legislature are Federation Council , Federal Assembly, and
State Duma . And structure of the Russian Executive Institution are Government of the Russian Federation,
Deputy Chair of the Government of the Russian Federation, Chairman of the Russian federation
government, Prime Minister of the Russian Federation, Minister of Russian Federation . Structure of the
Judicial Institution of Russia are Supreme Court, Arbitration, Supreme Court, Constitutional Court,
Civil court , Criminal court , and Administrative court.


Russian government system:

1. Form a federation
2. The form of republic government
3. The dictatorial government for adopting a one-party system
4. Totalitarian power
5. Citizen rights are not guaranteed
6. Economic system of Ethatism
7. Marxist-Leninist Marxist ideology
8. The government politics is closed

System of Government of the Republic of Indonesia

1. Form a unitary state
2. Form of republican government
3. Sovereignty is in the hands of the people
4. Presidential presidential system
5. There is a division of power between the legislature, the executive and the judiciary
6. State of law
7. Decentralization
8. Multi party


Budiardjo,Miriam.2008.Dasar-Dasar Ilmu Politik. Jakarta: PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama.
http://N7 Portal Makalah tentang Politik di Rusia.htm.