Sei sulla pagina 1di 470

¯

THE BRAHMAY AMALATANTRA AND

´

EARLY SAIVA CULT OF YOGIN IS ¯

Shaman Hatley

a dissertation

in

Religious Studies

Presented to the Faculties of the University of Pennsylvania

in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of

Doctor of Philosophy

2007

Dissertation Super visor

Graduate Group Chair

Acknowledgements

The present study would have been impossible without the support of numerous

individuals and institutions. S everal years of my graduate studies at the University

of Pennsylvania were funded by the university itself, while the Muktabodha Indo-

logical Research Institute and the American Institute of Indian Studies provided the

fellowships necessar y for conducting dissertation research. The departments of Re-

ligious Studies and S outh Asia Studies at Penn b oth provided me travel grants at

various times, and sustained my intellectual jour ney in numerous other ways. For

access to manuscripts and other research materials, I am grateful to the curators and

staff of the National Archives of Kathmandu, Asiatic S ociety of Bengal, Department

of Sanskrit (Manuscri pt Division) of Visv´ abharat¯ ¯ı University, Bhandarkar Oriental

Research Institute, Van Pelt Librar y, Nepal R esearch Center, and AIIS Center for Art

and Archeology. I am grateful to the staff of the AIIS office in Pune for their logisti-

cal support as well, and particularly to Prof. S. S. Bahulkar of the Tilak Maharashtra

Vidyapeeth, who arranged for my affiliation with the t. m.v. and graciously ser ved as

my academic advisor in India.

My studies at the University of Pennsylvania have indebted me to numerous

teachers; beyond the dissertation committee, I owe special thanks to Professors Adit ya

Behl, George Cardona, Stephen Dunning, the late (a nd much missed) Wilhelm Halb-

fass, Christian Novetzke, and Ludo Rocher. I am particularly indebted to the lat-

ter, who first taugh t me Sanskrit and super vised my m. a. studies. I am also much

obliged to Prof. Alexis Sande rson of the University of Oxford, with whom I had the

privilege of reading part of the Brahmay amala¯ at an early stage in my research, and

whose guidance has been invaluable. Professors Michael Meister and Guy Welbon,

members of the dissertation committee, have been continual sources of knowledge

and encouragement over nearly a decade, and I am grateful for their feedback on

the dissertation at various stages in its for mation. Most of all, I wish to thank Prof.

Harunaga Isaacson, from whom I have lear ned much of what I know; I am lost for

ii

iii

words to express my gratitude for his years of painstaking mentorship. Without his

detailed feedback on drafts of this thesis, it would have been a much inferior work.

S everal others have read and made valuable remarks on sections of the dissertation,

especially Alberta Ferrario, Ayesha Irani, Prof. Kathleen Kesson, Prof. John Nemec,

and Dr. Judit Törzsök. I have also benefited from the opportunity to present and dis-

cuss work drawn from or connected with the dissertation at the AIIS Junior Fellows’

Conference in Gurgaon (Janua r y 2006 ), the University of Virginia at Charlottesville

´

(November 2006 ), the Workshop on Early Saivism at Pondicherr y (Januar y 2007), and

Concordia University (Januar y 2007 ).

The present study would have been much poorer but for the increasing avail-

ability of searchable electronic texts. In particular, I am indebted to Dr. S omadeva

Vasudeva and Prof. Harunaga Isaacson for sharing extensive material with me, in-

cluding transcriptions of manuscripts of unpublished sources; to Dr. Judit Törzsök,

who provided me an electronic copy of her edition of the Siddhayoge svar´ ¯ımata ; and

to Prof. Alexis Sanderson, for providing me draft editions of portions of the Jayad-

rathay amala¯ , including its entire third book (the Yogin¯ısañcaraprakaran¯ . a). As a student

´

of Saivism, I am also indebted to Dr. Mark Dyczkowski, who has made available

numerous transcriptions of unpublished tantric texts through the Digital Librar y of

the Muktabodha Indological Research Institute. His collation of manuscripts of the

Tantrasadbh avatantra¯ has been of significant value in this study. I also thank Prof.

Vidya Dehejia, who gave per mission to reproduce one of her photographs ( figure

2 .6 ). The typesetting of the critical edition of the Brahmay amala¯ using L A T E X was in no

small measure enabled by technical help from Dr. S omadeva Vasudeva, from whom

´

I have lear ned much concer ning Saivism as well.

Finally, I owe an incalculable debt to my family, who have tolerated a great deal

so that I could complete this thesis, and given me much joy in the process. This work

is dedicated to them.

Abstract

´

THE BRAHMAY AMALATANTRA AND EARLY SAIVA CULT OF YOGIN IS ¯

¯

Shaman Hatley

Dissertation super visor: Harunaga Isaacson

The present thesis comprises a study of the Brahmayamalatantra¯ , a scripture of early me-

´

dieval tantric or “esoteric” Saivism, and its cult of yogin¯ı s: flying, shapeshifting female deities

whose occult powers practitioners sought in visionar y, transactional encounters. Composed

prior to the ninth centur y, and perhaps considerably earlier, this unpublished work of one-

hundred and one chapters and more than 12, 500 verses constitutes one of the most signifi-

´

cant sources for the study of early Saiva ritual and goddess cults. After introducing the text,

the tradition, and the figure of the yogin¯ı , chapters 2 and 3 review the extant literar y, art-

historical, and epigraphic sources concer ned with yogin¯ıs, with a focus on the background

´

and early development of their Saiva cult. It is within this context that the Brahmayamala¯

is situated. Particular problems addressed include the relationship between the yogin¯ı cult

of the Brahmayamala¯

and the Brahmanical Mother goddesses (matr¯ . ), the post ninth-centur y

´

temples of yogin¯ıs, early tantric Saiva literature, and the Buddhist yogin¯ıtantras. Chapter 4

investigates the Brahmayamala¯ ’s for m, textual strata, provenance, and social and geographic

´

horizons, while chapter 5 examines the position the text articulates for itself within the Saiva

tradition. Part II of the dissertation consists of critical editions and translations of several

chapters of the BraYa¯ , which appear in print for the first time.

iv

List of Tables vii

List of Figures viii

C ontents

I Histor y and S ources

 

1

1 Introduction 2

 

1

.1

The Brahmay amalatantra¯

and Cult of Yogin¯ıs

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

2

1

.2

The Brahmay amala¯

in S cholarship

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

23

1

.3

A Note on Conventions

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

29

2 Early Evidence for the Cult of Yogin¯ıs: the Literar y, S culptural, and Epi-

graphic S ources 31

2

.1

Introduction: Yogin¯ıs and Mother Goddesses

 

2

.2

Early S ources

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

2

.3

The Later Literar y Evidence .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

2

.4

Temples of the Yogin¯ıs

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

2

.5

Conclusions

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

31

.

73

. 110

.

35

. 128

3 The Cult of Yogin¯ıs and its Background in Early Tantric Literature 131

3 .1

3

3

.2

.3

Introduction

The Background of the Yogin¯ı Cult in Tantric Saiva Literature

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

´

´

S criptures of the Saiva Yogin¯ı Cult: the Vidy ap¯ ¯ıt ha and Kaula

.

v

.

.

.

. 131

133

153

vi

3 .4 Yogin¯ıs in Early Buddhist Tantric Literature

´

3 .5 Buddhist and Saiva “Yogin¯ıtantras”: the Case of the Brahmayamala¯

Laghucakra sam´

.

3 .6 Conclusions

varatantra

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

4 The Content, Structure, and Provenance of the Brahmay amala¯

4

.1

Introduction: S elect Topics in the Brahmay amala¯

.

.

.

.

4

.2

Structure and Textual Strata

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

4 .3

On the Provenance of the Brahmayamala¯

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

 

´

.

.

.

.

190

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

and

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

162

175

. 187

. 190

. 200

. 211

5 To Name a Tantra: Identity, Histor y, and the Saiva Canon in the Epithets of

the Brahmayamala¯

5

5

5 .3 Nav aks¯ aravidhana:¯

.

5 .4 Mulatantra:¯

5 .5 Dv ada¯ sas´ ahasraka:¯

5 .6

.

237

.

.

.

.

.

the “Method of Nine Syllables”

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

the “Root S cripture”

.

the “Tantra of Twelve-Thousand Verses”

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.1

.2

Brahmay amala¯

Picumata

Vimala and the Ucchus matantra

.

6 Conclusion 282

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

II The Brahmay amala¯

: A Critical Edition and Translation of

Chapters i , ii, lv, lxxiii , and xcix

Appendices 424

A Chapter Colophons of the Brahmay amala¯

3 -370 ) 425

in i ts Oldest Nepalese Codex (nak

. 238

. 243

251

258

273

275

285

List of Tables

3

.1

A parallel passage in Brahmay amala¯

lxxxiv and Laghu sam´

.

vara 26 .

.

.

.

.

.

4

4

.

4 .3 Tantras of the Left Stream ( v amasr¯

4 .4 Bhairavatantra s of the Right Stream ( daks asr¯ otas )

4

4

.1

For ms of Bhairava in the Brahmayamala¯

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.2 Siddh antatantra¯

xxxviii

.

.

.

s of the Middle Stream (madhyamasrotas ) according to BraY a¯

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

otas ) and Lower Stream ( adhah srotas)

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

in

.

.

and Ni sv´ asatattvasam¯

.

hit a¯

.

.

.

.

and the Vidy ar¯ aja¯ of the Svac-

.5

.6

A parallel passage in the Brahmayamala¯

The Navatman¯

Mantra in the Nisv´ asottara¯

chandatantra

The Nine Tattva s in the BraY a¯

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

4

4

4

4 .10 The Eight Sacred Mounds ( p¯ıt . ha) in BraY a¯ lxxxiv

.7

.8

.9

Individuals mentioned in BraY a¯ i

The Eight Cremation Grounds in BraY a¯ iii

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

5

5

.1

.2

Deities of the Nav aks¯

.

ara¯ Vidya¯

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

The Ten Streams of Revelation according to BraY a¯ xxxviii

vii

. 178

. 192

. 217

218

218

219

. 220

221

230

233

234

. 252

267

List of Figures

1

1

1

.1

.2

.3

National Archives of Kathmandu ms 3 - 370, folios 3 v–4 nak 3 - 370, detail of folios 3v and 4 r, left

´

Siva enshrined within a circle of sixty-four yogin¯ıs. Yogin¯ı temple, Ran¯ ¯ıpur-

Jharial, Orissa. AIIS Photo Archive .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

2

2

.1

.2

Mother goddess bearing lotus and infant, making the abhayamudr a¯ . Kus a-¯

n a-era Mathur a.¯ AIIS Photo

.

.

Skanda (left) and five matr¯ s. Kus an¯ . a-era Mathur a.¯ State museum, Mathura.¯

AIIS Photo Archive .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

2 .3 Kubera and two m atr¯ s. Kus an¯ . a-era Mathur a.¯ AIIS Photo Archive

.

.

2 .4 S even matr¯ s, with Skanda (left). Kus an¯ . a-era Mathura.¯ State museum,

.

Bird-headed Mother goddess carr ying an infant in her likeness. Kus . an¯ . a-

2

.

.

Mathur a.¯ AIIS Photo Archive.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.5

2

2

2

2

.6

.7

.8

.9

era Mathur a.¯ State museum, Mathur a.¯ AIIS Photo Archive

Horse-headed yogin¯ı from Lokhari, U.P., w ith like infant. Photograph by

Vidya Dehejia, published in Dehejia, Yogin¯ı Cult and Temples ,

C amun¯ .

a¯ and Vin ay¯ aka/Gan e sa,´ Rame¯ sv´ ara Cave (no. 21 ) m atr¯ shrine,

Ellora. Sixth centur y.

d

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

´

Siva and the S even Mother goddesses (detail). Saptamatr¯ . cliff shrine be-

tween Badoh and Pathari, Madhya Pradesh. AIIS Photo

Saptam atr¯ Panel, with V¯ırabhadra (left) and Gan e sa´ (right). State Mu-

seum, Ashapuri, Madhya Pradesh. AIIS Photo

.

.

viii

.

.

.

.

4

4

12

38

39

40

40

43

43

56

59

59

ix

2 .10 Yaks a at pillar base, Nagar junakonda. National Museum, New Delhi. AIIS

.

2 .11 Theriomor phic gan . a or dv arap¯ ala¯ . Deorani temple ( circa 6th centur y); Tala,

.

.

Photo Archive .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

62

near Bilaspur, M.P. AIIS Photo

 

62

2 .12 Head of a fanged, large-eared yaks . a. Pawaya, Gwalior, M.P. 5 th– 6th cen-

 

tur y. AIIS Photo Archive.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

63

2 .13 Mah ak¯ ala¯ and Kal¯ ¯ı? Ellora, Rame¯ sv´ ara cave temple, west wall of Mother-

 

goddess shrine. AIIS Photo Archive

 

71

´

Vaital¯ Deul temple, Bhuvanesvar. AIIS Photo

.

2 .15 Frontal view of the H¯ır apur¯

yogin¯ı with d amaru drum, standing upon wheel and rat (?). AIIS

.

2 .17 H¯ır apur¯ yogin¯ı on lotus and elephant, drinking from a skull-bowl. Photo-

2 .16 H¯ır apur¯

.

2 .14 Siva “Gajasam . haram¯

urti,”¯

Archive .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

yogin¯ı temple. AIIS Photo Archive

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Photo Archive (detail).

graph by Don Stadtner, from the AIIS Photo Archive .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

72

112

114

. 114

2 .18 One of nine “katy¯ ayan¯ ¯ı s” (?); H¯ır apur¯ yogin¯ı temple, to the right of the

entrance, exterior facade, standing upon severed head. AIIS Photo Archive. 115

Lion-faced yogin¯ı, H¯ır apur¯

in the AIIS Photo Archive

116

116

115

2

.19

temple. Photograph by Don Stadtner; included

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

yogin¯ı temple. AIIS Photo

2 .20 Ekap adabhaira¯

2 .21 C amun¯ .

2 .22 Veneration of sandals representing a yogin¯ı, depicted below a yogin¯ı im-

va, H¯ır apur¯

d

.

a,¯ H¯ır apur¯

yogin¯ı temple. AIIS Photo Archive

age’s pedestal. Bher agh¯

at¯ yogin¯ı temple. AIIS Photo Archive

119

 

´

5

.1

The ‘Origin of S cripture’ ( Sivatantrotpatti ) according Nisv´ asatantra¯

, Uttaras utra¯

 
 

1 .23 25

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

260

5

.2

The ‘Descent of S cripture’ ( s´ astr¯ avat¯ ara¯ ) according to Svacchandatantra 8

261

5

.3

The ‘Descent of S cripture’ ( s´ astr¯ avat¯ ara¯ ) according to Brahmay amala¯

 

i and

 

xxxviii

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

263

A bbreviations

BraY a¯ Brahmayamala¯

nak ngmpp ksts tss aiis ms , mss cod.

National Archives of Kathmandu

Nepal-Ger man Manuscript Preser vation Project Kashmir S eries of Texts and Studies Trivandrum Sanskrit S eries American Institute of Indian Studies manuscript(s) reading of the codex in question

corr. correction em. emendation conj. conjecture

) err.

ac

pc

f., ff.

syllables marked by the scribe as erroneous ante correctionem post correctionem folio(s); “r ” = recto, “v”= verso (e.g. “f. 4r ”)

identifies text for which the reading adopted seems insecure

 

text passage deemed corrupt, for which no conjecture is offered

(¿)

(?)

conjectural translation

+

a marginal or interlinear insertion

)

syllables only faintly legible

x

xi

B y a

Brahmay

amala¯

codex nak 3 -370 (in part i )

 

A

Brahmay

amala¯

codex nak 3 -370 (in the edition and translation)

By b

BraY a¯ codex nak 5 -1929 (in part i)

 

B

BraY a¯ codex nak 5 -1929 (in the edition and translation)

B y c

BraY a¯ codex nak 1 -143 (in part i )

 

C

BraY a¯ codex nak 1- 143 (in the edition and translation)

By d

BraY a¯ codex nak 1- 286 (in part i )

 

D

BraY a¯ codex nak 1- 286 (in the edition and translation)

B

y e

BraY a¯ codex nak 6- 2608 (in part i )

E BraY a¯ codex nak 6- 2608 (in the edition and translation)

K jn cod Kaulajñ ananirn¯

.

aya codex nak 3- 362 ( ngmpp reel a48 /13 )

K jn ed

St ksts

St cod

Ts k,kh,g

P. C. Bagchi’s edition of the Kaulajñananirn¯

Svacchandatantra , ksts edition

Svacchandatantra , ms nak 1 - 224

Tantrasabh ava¯ mss “ka,” “kha,” and “ga,” as reported by Dyczkowski

. aya (see bibliography)

Part I History and Sources

1

Chapter 1

I ntroduction

1 .1 the brahmay amala¯

tantra and cult of yogin ¯is

On the eighth day of the waxing moon of the month of Magha¯ in the year 172 , Nep al-¯ samvat —Sunday, 12 Januar y, 1052 c .e .—a certain Jayakaraj¯ ¯ıva, who resided in the vicinity of Kathmandu’s Pa supatin´ atha¯ temple, completed copying a Sanskrit text called, among other names, the Brahmay amala¯ . This endeavor had undoubtedly oc- cupied him a long while, for the text fills three hundred and fifty-eight long, double- sided palm-leaf sheets (figures 3.1 2 ). Fortunately, the product of his labors found its way into the manuscript collections of Nepalese royalty, and is today h oused in the National Archives in Kathmandu. 1 But for this, precious little knowledge of a vast and important pre ninth-centur y work would have been possible, 2 a fate which has befallen all too many works of tantric literature. The other extant codices of the Brahmay amala¯ (hereafter BraY a¯ ), also of Nepalese provenance, all appear to descend from this eleventh-centur y manuscript. 3 Although the scripture itself was not com- posed in Nepal, 4 no complete manuscript appears today to sur vive outside of this

1 nak accession no. 3 - 370 . S ee the ms ’s description i n the introduction to the critical edition. Luciano

National

R.-P.- sr´ ¯ı-Baladeva-r ajye¯ sr´ ¯ı-

Pasupativ´

date is verified for Sunday, Januar y 12 th, 1052 .” Petech, Mediaeval History of Nepal (circa 750 1482 ) , 2 nd ed., 44 . (Petech’s samvat 100 - 50 - 2 is a typographi cal error for samvat 100 - 70 - 2 ; the ms reads samvat a c u¯

The

Archives, iii .370 . Colo phon: samvat 100 - 50 - 2 M agha-¯

Petech records the colophon and date of the manuscript as follows: “Ms. Brahmayamala,¯

sukl´ as¯ . . amy am¯ adityadine¯

t

.

s´ astram¯

astavya¯

sr´ ¯ı-Jay akaraj¯

¯ıven a Brahmay amalam¯

.

.

nama¯

.

likhitam . Written at Pasup´ ati N ath.¯

.

2 .)

2 The dating of the Brahmay amala¯

3 Manuscripts of the BraY a¯ are described and discussed in the introduction to the critical edition.

4 The question of the provenance of the BraY a¯ is taken up in chapter 4 .

is addressed in chapter 4 , section 3 .

2

3

region.

The BraY a¯ designates itself a tantra: a treati se, ostensibly of divine origin, con-

´

sidered authoritative scripture within the cult of Siva that is “based on the tantra s”

( t antrika¯

is “the Mantram ar¯ ga” or “Way of Mantras.” 5 It should not be inferred from the

paucity of extant manuscripts that the BraY a¯ was an unimportant or little-known

work of tantric literature. A glimpse of the authority it once commanded may be

had in the writing of the Kashmiri polymath Abhinavagupta (fl. circa 1000 c .e.), who

cited the scripture often despite its degree of cultic and doctrinal remoteness. 6 S ome-

what like the Rudray amala¯ , the actual text would largely be forgotten; 7 yet its aura

of authority would persist, on the basis of which there would emerge several new

Brahmay amala¯ s.” I am aware of five: a S outh Indian text connected with the cult of

Bhadrak al¯ ¯ı, in which some traces of the older BraY a¯ are discer nable; 8 another S outh

)—i.e. “Tantric Saivism.” The most significant emic ter m for this tradition

´

´

5 On the ter m “Mantram ar¯ ga” and its scope, see Alexis Sanderson, “Religion a nd the State: Saiva Of-

ficiants in the Territor y of the King’s Brahmanical Chap lain,” 229 (n. 1 ). On the ter m tantra , see Sander-

´

son, “ Saivism and the Tantric Traditions,” 661 62. It is noteworthy that in addition to “Mantram ar¯ ga,” the BraY a¯ in one instance uses the ter m “Tantram ar¯ ga” in what appears t o be a co mparable sense. BraY a¯

xcv

.29 cd–30 ab:

tantram ar¯ gaprasiddhena vidhin avarttayan¯

pr apnuy¯

sad a¯ 29

ata¯ mah adevi¯

siddhayo manasepsit ah¯ |

.

psit ah¯ ] em. ; psit a¯ B y a

.

“Ever repeating [the mantra] wi th the method established in the Way of Tantras, O Great Goddess, one would obtain t he siddhi s the mind desires.”

( pr apnuy¯ ata¯ appears to represent the “correct” optative, pr apnuy¯ at¯ , metri causa , while siddhayah . is nom- inative in for m but accusative in sense—a common phenomenon in the BraY a¯ .) Harunaga Isaa cson

arn¯ ava

(personal com munication, S eptember 2007 ) draws my attention to the fact that the Purascary´

.

´

refers to Tantric Saivism as the Way of Tantras as well, in 1 .149 ab: vedam ar¯ gam . parityajya tantramar¯ gaika-

tatpar ah¯ , “[those who,] abandoning the Way of the Vedas, are devoted excl usively to the Way of Tantras

.

”.

6 For a discussion of some of Abhinavagupta’s references to the BraY a¯ , see chap ter 4 , section 3 (n.

57 ).

7 On the Rudray amala¯

, of which no old version sur vives but which became “t he foremost locus of

´

ascription in Hindu Tantric literature,” see Goudriaan, Hindu Tantr ic and Sakta¯

possible that the old BraY a¯ continued to have a place in Nepalese tradition into the early twentieth

Literatu re, 47 48 . It is

´

centur y; Harapras ad¯ Sastr¯ ¯ı, who more than a centur y ago cataloged the oldest codex of the BraY a¯ ,

reports on views of the text then current in Nepal: “in the opinion of the Pan its of Nepal the full

. texts of Brahma Yámala is a la kh and a quarter of slokas, and that it belongs to all the six schools of Tantra. Th e present work, extending over 1200 [ sic ; 12 , 000?] sloka´ s, belongs, however, to the wester n

school.” A Catalogue of Palm-leaf and Selected Pap er Manuscripts Belonging to the Durbar Library Nepal , vol.

d

.

´

ii , reprinted in Reinhold Grünendahl, A Concordance of H. P. S astri’¯

the Microfilms of the Nepal-Ger man Manuscript Preservation Project , 61 .

s Catalogue of the Durbar Library and

8 This text is preser ved, incomplete, in a Devan agar¯ ¯ı transcription in the collection of the Institut

4

4 F igure 1 . 1 : National Archives of Kathmand u ms 3 - 370

F igure 1 .1 : National Archives of Kathmand u ms 3 - 370 , folios 3 v– 4r.

of Kathmand u ms 3 - 370 , folios 3 v– 4 r. F igure 1

Figure 1 .2 : nak 3 - 370 , detail of folios 3 v and 4r, left third.

5

Indian “Brahmay amala”¯ related to this of which only a few chapters sur vive; 9 a short text preser ved in a Bengali manuscript expounding a series of ritual diagrams ( cakra s or yantra s), with no discer nable relation to the older BraY a¯ ; 10 a text of the cult of Tar¯ a¯ by this name transmitted in an untraced Bengali manuscript, a section of which has been published; 11 and a “Brahmay amala”¯ preser ved in a single, fragmentar y Nepalese ms , which though eclectic, draws directly from the older BraYa¯ . 12 Additionally, the BraY a¯ has been the locus of ascription for several hymns of praise ( stotra ), 13 and

Français de Pondichér y (manuscript T. 522 ), copied from a manuscript from Tirukkalukkunra m in Tamil Nadu. Ver y recently, this text has been discussed by Alexis Sanderson, who provides evidence

for its S outh Indian proven ance and shows several respects in which it demonstrat es continuity with

the older Brahmay amala¯

Oriya Paippal adins¯ and their Connection with the Trika and the K al¯ ¯ıkula. With cr itical editi ons of the Par ajapavidhi¯ , the Par amantravidhi¯ , and the * Bhadrak al¯ ¯ımantravidhiprakaran . a ,” 277 78. 9 This tex t, transmitted in Trivandrum University Librar y ms no. 982 , is mentioned by Sanderson,

Texts of the

¯

. Sanderson, “ Arthavavedins in Tantric Territor y: the A ngirasakalpa˙

ibid.; he reports that it breaks off in the fifth chapter. I have been unable to consult the text thus far. That it concer ns the cult of Bhadrakal¯ ¯ı is suggested by passages S anderson cites in ibid., 278 (n. 143 ).

10 Asiatic S ociety of Bengal manu script g6392 .

11 Two chapters of this text were published as an appendix in Gir¯ısacandra´ Vedantat¯ ¯ırtha (ed.),

T ar¯ atantram.¯

ances fro m a much later period, this “Brahmay amala”¯ seems unrel ated to the older text of the same

name. The ms on which the edition is based apparently comes from the collection of the Varen- dra Research Museum Librar y. M aitra, introduction to ibid., 22 . H owever, this might no longer be available, for the archive’s relevant catalog of manuscripts makes no mention of it. S everal “Brah-

may amala”¯ manuscripts are described, but none appear likely to be the basis for the publis hed text:

“in” the Brahmay amala¯ (the colophon reads iti sr´ ¯ıbrahma-

y amale¯

sam jñ am¯ [?]

tak ar¯ adisahasran¯

( iti brahmayamale¯

attributed to the BraY a¯ (no colophon is provided). Sachindra Nath Siddhanta, A Descriptive Catalogue

of Sanskrit Manuscripts in t he Varendra Research Museum Library , vol. I, 228 29 . The material published from the Varendra BraY a¯ codex narrates the jour ney o f the Brahmanical sage Va sis´ . ha to “Mah ac¯ ¯ına,” where th e inebriated Buddh a instructs him in “the Chinese method” (c¯ın ac¯ ara¯ ) for the worship of Tar¯ a.¯ As Joel Bordeaux brought to my attention (personal com munication, May, 2007 ), this has close parallels in chapters 12 of the Mah ac¯ ¯ın ac¯ aratantra¯ , a text pu blished by Marion Meisig. Die “China-Lehre” Des

sam p urn¯ am . ). Number 250, of sixteen fol ios, consists of a

number 279 transmits the Sr¯ıradh¯ akavaca¯

. stotra of the goddess T ar¯ a¯ (the colophon reads iti sr´ ¯ıbrahmay amale¯

. ). Number 310 (six folios) is the “Caitanya-kal pa” of the BraY a¯

Number 303 (five folios) consists of the “G¯ıt as¯ ara”¯

´

Sr¯ıgir¯ı scandraved´

antat¯ ¯ırthasa nkalitam.˙ With an Introduction by A. K. Maitra . By all appear-

´

haragaur¯ısam . v ade¯ sr´ ¯ı r adh¯ akavacam¯

.

amastotram¯

.

sivadur´

sam aptam¯

.

t ar¯ adevy¯

ah¯ s amr¯ ajye¯

.

.

.

gasam¯ . v ade¯ caitanyakalpalm

t

.

´

Saktismus: Mah ac¯ ¯ın ac¯ ara-T¯

antra, kritisch ediert nebst Übersetzung und Glossar.

12 nak 1- 1557 (ngmpp reel a165 / 16 ). This undated paper ma nuscript, in Newari script, consists of twenty-one folios; the scribe ap pears not to have completed his task, or else to have copied from an

incomplete exemplar. The text calls itself by several of the titular epithets of the old BraY a¯ (on which see

chapter 5): Picumata , Nav aks¯ aravidh ana¯ , and, of course, Brahmay amala¯

chapter, unfortunately. It d irectly draws upon or e choes the old BraY a¯ per vasively, in effect comprising a digest of the latter. Its seventh chapter, for instance, incor porates material from BraY a¯ liv and lv on the su bject of Ma hak¯ ala¯ a nd the Mot hers, and secret signs (chomm a¯ ). The old BraY a¯ does n ot appear t o be its only source, however, for this chapter contains material related to the Tantrasadbh ava¯ as well: a passage from ff. 14r– 14 v has close parallels in Tantrasadbh ava¯ 18 . 18 25 .

. The text breaks off in the twelfth

.

13 Theodor Aufrecht makes reference to at least fifteen dis tinct works having the BraY a¯ as locus of ascription, mostly apotropaic hymns (the kavaca genre) and hymns of th e “thousand names” genre of panegyric ( sahasran amastotra¯ ). Aufre cht, Catalogus Catalogorum. An Alphabetical Register of Sanskrit Works and Authors , vol. i , 382 ; vol. ii, 87 ; and vol . iii , 81 . S ee also n. 11 above. I have had no opportunity to

6

possibly more literature that has not come to my attention.

Though sur viving in just a handful of manuscripts, the old BraY a¯ has in fact fared

´

better than most early Saiva scriptures. As Dominic Goodall shows, a relatively small

´

number of the early tantra s of the Saivasiddh anta¯

texts listed in ancient descriptions of the tantric Saiva canon exist only in versions

of post eleventh-centur y, S outh Indian provenance. 14 And little at all sur vives of the

sur vives; further more, many of the

´

´

scriptures of the proto-tantric cults of the Saiva Atim ar¯ ga, “the Path Beyond,” which

´

apparently for med the immediate background of the Saiva Mantram ar¯ ga. 15

Tantric traditions have been characterized in popular culture and no small amount

of scholarship as quintessentially concer ned with goddesses and/or ritualized for ms

of sexual activity. 16 But that there is no intrinsic connection with either, and that

the two are not concomitant, should in fact be obvious; indeed, goddesses and ritual

coitus have little or no place in several of the major, early tantric traditions. Tantric

Buddhist practice system s based on the yogatantra s and earlier literature infrequently

accord high cultic status to female deities, while sexual ritual appears to have been

a comparatively late development. 17 Extant sources of the Vais . . ava tradition of the

appear to give no place to ritualized sexualit y, while the Laks m¯ıtantra—a

work of the early second millennium shown to have been influenced by nondual-

Pañcar¯

n

atra¯

.

consult the manuscripts of these works; but with titles such as Suryakavaca¯ , R amakavaca¯ , and Caitanya- kalpa , it seems most improbable that any of them is connected to the old BraY a¯ .

Goodall, introdu ction to Bhat . . a Ramakan¯ . xxxvi–li.

t ha’s Commentary on the Kiran atantra. Vol. 1 : Chapters 1 6 ,

14

t

.

.

´

´

15 On the divi sion of Saivism into Atimar¯ ga and Mantramar¯ ga traditions, see Sanderson, “ Saivism

and the Ta ntric Traditions,” 664 69 ; and Sanderson, “The Lakulas:¯ N ew Evidence of a System Inter me-

diate B etween P añc¯ arthika¯ P a¯ supatism´

be gleaned concer ning lost scriptures of the Atimar¯ ga in ibid., and “Histor y through Textual Criticism

and Agamic Saivism,” passim. Sanderson discusses what can

¯ ´

´

in the Study of Saivism, the Pañcar atra¯

16 To catalog the varied guises in which such visions of the tantric traditions have and continue to surface is no small task; Hugh Urban’s recent monograp h tracing the g enealogy of moder n understand- ings of “Tantra” provides a us eful starting point: Tantra: Sex, Secrecy, Politics and Power in the Study of Religion .

and the Buddhist Yogin¯ıtantras,” 2931 .

17 Coitus and the ritual engagement with other varieties of ‘impurity’ ap pear to have their earliest

attestation in the Sarvatath agatatattvasam¯ . graha . S ee Steven Weinberger, “The Significance of Yoga Tantra and the Compendium of Princip les (Tattvasam graha Tantra) within Tantric Buddhism in India and Tibet,”

and related works, liter a-

ture in some respects transitional between the yogatantra s and yogin¯ıtantra s, and classified accordingl y as mah ayogatantra¯ s. S ee A nthony Tribe, “Mantr anaya/Vajrayana:¯ tantric Buddhism in India,” 212 13 . In the present thesis, chapter 3 , section 4 , discusses the emergence of goddess cults in Tantric Buddhism.

197 200 . These elements take on added importance in the Guhyasam ajatantra¯

.

7

´

ist Saivism—seems exceptional in according theological preeminence to the divine

feminine. 18 And in the early pan-Indian and living S outh Indian traditions of the

´

Saivasiddh anta,¯

tested. 19 Arguably, these represent the predominant tantric traditions flourishing in

S outh Asia a nd the lands of its cultural influence through much of the early medieval

period. 20 Yet tantric traditions did develop that centered upon goddesses, including

ones which har nessed sexuality as an important element in a wide range of prac-

tices focused upon achieving occult powers (siddhi ) and liberation (mukti , moks a). The

BraY a¯ represents such a tradition. It in fa ct comprises one of the most consequen-

´

tial sources of evidence for early tantric Saiva goddess cults, while sexuality has a

significant presence in its systems of ritual.

female deities have subsidiar y roles, while sexual ritual is little at-

.

´

In a model of the canon of Saiva scripture advanced in chapter thirty-eight of

18 Alexis Sanderso n argues for the influence of the Pratyabhijñ ahr¯ daya of the Kashmiri author

.

´

Ks emar aja,¯ as well as o ther Saiva works, on th e Laks m¯ıtantra , in “Histor y throug h Textual Criticism,”

35 36 . On the Laks m¯ıtantra and the role of godde sses therein, see Sanjukta Gupta’s introduction to her

translation, Laks m¯ı Tantra: A P añcar¯

hita¯ , an early siddh antatantra¯ ,

see chapter 3 , section 2. Interestingly, sexual ritual does have limited attestation in some of the earliest

siddh antatantra¯ s, though even in thes e it appears marginal. S ee Sanderson, review of N. R. Bha tt, ed.,

ha ,

. and of Bhatt, ed., Raurav agama.¯ Édition Critique, introduction et no tes, 565 ; and also chapter 3 , section 2 ,

in the present thesis.

20 Nonetheless, much of the scholarly literature has assumed an artificial distinction that, at times,

from the c ategor y of “Tantra.”

. Note for in stance David White’s recent remarks: “a number of works that closely res emble the

goes so far as to exclude the Vais . ava Pañcar¯

Mata ngap˙ arame¯ svar´ agama¯

.

.

.

atra¯ Text. Translated with an In troduction and Notes.

.

19 On the comparative insignifican ce of goddesses in the Ni sv´ asatattvasam¯

.

(K riyap¯ ada,¯

Yogapada¯ et Caryap¯ ada),¯

n

atra¯

´

avec le commentaire de B hat a R amakan¯ .

t

.

t

.

and/or Saivasiddh anta¯

¯

Tantras in their ritual focus call themselves Agamas or Sam hitas.¯ These are works belon ging to the

atra¯ schools, respect ively.” Kiss of the Yogin¯ı: “Tantric Sex” in

are

its S outh Asian Contexts, 17 . This view, which suggests that the Saivasiddh anta¯

marginal to the stu dy of tantri c traditions p roper, is based in part on what Dominic Goodall points out

.

´

Saivasiddh anta¯

and (Vais . ava) Pañcar¯

n

.

´

and P añcar¯

atra¯

´

s: in fact, early Saiva scriptural sources, whether

siddh antatantra¯

as well. Goodall, introduction to Bhat . . a R amakan¯ .

scriptures—wh ich often do refer to thems elves as sam hit a¯ s—

are also, by their own designation, “ tantra s,” requires little investigation; not e, for instance, the text

title “Laks m¯ıtantra” (see above), and e.g. Ahirbudhnyasam . hit a¯ 11 . 62 ab: pañcar atr¯ ahvayam¯

phalalaks . an am (“[Vis . u created] the Tantra called ‘Pañcar atra,’¯

atra¯ tantra s as

sole aim”). Cf. Yamun¯

tantram moks aika-

1 6 , xxxvi–xxxix. That the Pañcar¯

s or e.g. bhairavatantra s, designate themselves by both these ter ms, and sam hita¯ is atte sted

t ha’s Commentary on the Kiran atantra. Vol. I: Chapters

is an artificial distinction be tween tantra s and agama¯

.

t

.

.

atra¯

.

.

.

.

.

.

n

.

characterized by having liberation as its

¯

ac¯ ar¯ ya’s Agamapr am¯ an¯ ya , which refers to “the status of the Pañcar¯

.