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Aircraft Operations

167

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9. Procedures For Air Navigation Services: Questions

219

10. Air Traffic Services

235

11. Area Control Service

269

12. Approach Control Service

293

13. Aerodrome Control Service

303

14. Use of Air Traffic Services Surveillance System

321

15. Aeronautical Information Services

335

Accelerate-Stop Distance Available (ASDA). The length of the take-off run available plus the length of stop way, if provided.

Accepting Unit. Air traffic control unit next to take control of an aircraft.

Accident. An occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft which takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight, until such time as all such persons have disembarked, in which:

a) a person is fatally or seriously injured.

b) the aircraft sustains damage or structural failure.

c) the aircraft is missing or is completely inaccessible.

(For details see chapter 21, Part II) Accredited Representative. A person designated by a State, on the basis of his or her qualifications, for the purpose of participating in an investigation conducted by another State.

Accuracy. A degree of conformance between the estimated or measured value and the true value.

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Aerodrome Beacon (ABN). Aeronautical beacon used to indicate the location of an aerodrome from the air.

Aerodrome Control Service. Air traffic control service for aerodrome traffic.

Aerodrome Control Tower (TWR). A unit established to provide air traffic control service to aerodrome traffic.

Aerodrome Elevation. The elevation of the highest point of the landing area.

Identification Sign. A sign placed on an aerodrome to aid in identifying

the aerodrome from the air.

Aerodrome operating minima. The limits of usability of an

Aerodrome

aerodrome for:

a) take-off, expressed in terms of runway visual range and/or visibility and, if necessary, cloud conditions;

b) landing in 2D instrument approach operations, expressed in terms of visibility and/or runway visual range, minimum descent altitude/height (MDAlH) and, if necessary, cloud conditions; and

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Note: _ An aircraft is in the vicinity of an aerodrome when it is in, entering or leaving an aerodrome traffic circuit. Aerodrome(AD). A defined area on land or water (including any buildings, installations and equipment) intended to be used either wholly or in part for the arrival, departure and surface movement of aircraft. Aerodyne. means an aircraft whose support in flight is derived dynamically from the reaction on surfaces in motion relative to the air, and includes all aeroplanes, helicopters, gyroplanes, gliders and kites; Aeronautical Data. A representation of aeronautical facts, concepts or instructions in a formalized manner suitable for communication, interpretation or processing. Aeronautical Fixed Service (AFS). A telecommunication service between specified fixed points provided primarily for the safety of air navigation and for the regular, efficient and economicaloperation of air services.

Aeronautical Ground Light. Any light specially provided as an aid to air navigation, other than a light displayed on an aircraft.

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safety of the aircraft and includes any item of equipment;

Aircraft Operating Manual. A manual, acceptable to the DGCA containing normal, abnormal and emergency procedures, checklists, limitations, performance information, details ofthe aircraft systems and other material relevant to the operation of the aircraft.

Note: - The aircraft operating manual is the part of the operation manual.

Aircraft Stand. A designated area on an apron intended to be used for parking an aircraft.

Aircraft (ACFT). Any machine which can derive support in the atmosphere from the reactions of the air other than reactions of the air against the earth's surface and includes balloons whether fixed or free, airships, kites, gliders and flying machines.

Air-Ground Communication. Two-waycommunication between aircraft and stations or locations on the surface of the earth.

Air-Ground Control Radio Sta.tion. An aeronautical telecommunication station having primary responsibility for handling communications pertaining to the operation and control of aircraft in a given area.

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safety of an aircraft and its occupants.

Alerting Post. Any facility intended to serve as an intermediary between a person reporting an emergency and a rescue coordination centre or rescue sub centre.

Alerting Service (ALRS). A service providedto notify appropriate organizations regarding aircraft in need of search and rescue aid, and assist such organizations as required. Alternate Aerodrome (ALTN). An aerodrome to which an aircraft may proceed when it becomes either impossible or inadvisable to proceed to or to land at the aerodrome of intended landing. Alternate aerodromes include the following:

Altimetry System Error (ASE). The difference between the altitude indicated by the altimeter display, assuming a correct altimeter barometric setting, and the pressure altitude corresponding to the undisturbed ambient pressure.

Altitude (ALT). The vertical distance of a level, a point or an object considered as a point, measured from mean sea level (MS:L).

Altitude (ALT). The vertical distance of a level, a point or an object considered as a point, measured from mean sea level (MSL).

7

Apron Management

Service. A service provided to regulate the activities and

the movement of aircraft and vehicles on an apron.

Apron (APN). A defined area, on a land aerodrome, intended to accommodate aircraft for purposes ofloading or unloading passengers, mail or cargo, fuelling, parking or maintenance.

Area Control

Centre

(ACC).

A unit established to provide air traffic control

service to controlled flights in control areas under its jurisdiction.

Area Control Service. Air traffic control service for controlled flights in control

areas.

A navigation specification based on

area navigation that does not include the requirement for performance monitoring and

alerting, designated by the prefix RNAV, e.g. RNAV 5, RNAV 1.

The Performance-based Navigation (PBN) Manual (Doc 9613), Volume II contains detailed guidance on navigation specifications,

Area Navigation

(RNAV) Specification.

8

_

significant points, reporting requirements and, as determined by the appropnate ATB

authority, the lowest safe altitude, ATS Surveillance Service. Term used to indicate a service provided directly

by means of an ATS surveillance system, ATS Surveillance System. A generic term meaning variously,ADS-B,PSR,SSR or any comparable ground-based system that enables the identification of aircraft: A comparable ground-based system is one that has been demonstrated, by comparatlve assessment or other methodology,to have a level of safety and performance equal to or

better than monopulse SSR. Automatic Fixed ELT (ELT(AF». An automatically activated ELT which

is permanently attached to an aircraft.

Automatic D~;,"ndent Surveillance - Broadcast (AI?S-B). A me~ns by which aircraft aerodrome vehicles and other objects can automatlcally transmIt and! or receive data such as identification, position and additional data, as appropriate, in

a broadcast mode via a data link.

9

b)

a runway visual range less than 175 m but not less than 50 m.

Balloon. means a non-power-driven lighter-than-air aircraft;

Bare Earth. Surface of the Earth including bodies of water and permanent ice and snow, and excluding vegetation and man-made objects.

Barrette. Three or more aeronautical ground lights closelyspaced in a transverse line so that from a distance they appear as a short bar of light.

Base Turn. A turn executed by the aircraft during the initial approach between the end of the outbound track and the beginning of the intermediate or final approach track. The tracks are not reciprocal.

Note:- Base turns may be designated as being made either in level flight or while

descending, according to the circumstances of each individual procedure.

Cabin Crew Member. A crew member who performs, in the interest

of safety

of passengers, duties assigned by the

but who shall not act as a flight crew member

operator or the pilot-in-command of the aircraft,

C ate gory

IIIC

(C AT IIIC) Operacion, A precision instrument approach and

r

.

.

visual range imitations, .

.

landing with no decision height and no runway

Note' - Where decision height (DR)and runway visual range (RVR) fall.mto d~f~e;;e~!

cate 'ories of operation, the instrument approach and landing operatw~ wou ! ted in accordance with the requirements of the most demanding categorv

but with an RVR m the range

CAT IIlB operation or an operation with a DR in

CAT

the range of CAT II but with an RVR in the range of CAT I wou

con uc of (e.g. CAT an

ti ~ ith. a DR in the range of CAT IlIA

id

d

a

IIIB opera iooiu wnldw~b

e eonsz ere

ld b

id

d

e consz ere

a

Il operotio»).

.

Causes. Actions, omissions, events, conditv-ns, or a combination thereof, which led to the accident or i~~2;dent.

Ceiling. The height above the ground or water of the base of the lowest layer of

cloudbelow 6,000 metres (20,000 feet) covering more than

half the sky.

Certificate of Airworthiness. means a certificate issued under these rules;

limitations and performance correction.

Continuing Airworthiness. The set of processes by which all aircraft comply with the applicable airworthiness requirements and remain in a condition for safe operation throughout their operating life.

Contracting State. means any State which is for the time being a party to the Convention on International Civil Aviation concluded at Chicago on December 7, 1944, thereof; and any amendment which may be made thereto under the provisions of Article 94

limit above Control the Area earth. (CTA). A controlled airspace extending upwards from a specified

Control zone (CTR). A controlled airspace extending upwards from the surface of the earth to a specified upper limit.

provided Controlled to aerodrome Aerodrome. traffic.

An aerodrome at which air traffic control service is

Note:- The term "controlled aerodrome" indicates that air traffic control service is

provided to aerodrome traffic but does not necessarily imply that a control zone exists.

12

rest.

Cruising Level. A level maintained during a significant portion of a flight.

Culture. All man-made features constructed on the surface of the Earth, such as cities, railways and canals.

about

by subsequent clearances.

Current Flight Plan. The flight plan, including changes, if any, brought

.

C clic Redundancy

Check (CRC). A mathematical algorithm apphed to ~he

digital expression of data that provides a level of assurance agamst loss or alteration of data.

13

er ra

er t an m

es o p ys ca recor s.

Datum. Any quantity or set of quantities that m for the calculation of other quantities (ISO 19104*). ay serve as a reference or basis

Dead Reckoning (DR) Navigation Th

by advancing an earlier known position b th . e e~~lm~tmgor.determining of position

data.

y e app ication of dlrectlOn, time and speed

.

~ecision

Altitude

(DA) or Deci '.

h

.

.

heIght m a 3D instrument a

be initiated if the required vi~;~~::£ operation at .whlCha missed approach must

established.

erence to contmue the approach has not been

slO~ heIght ~DH). A specified altitude or

D

(DH) IS referenced to the

Note l: -

l

.

1

ecision. " a I titude . (DA) 1Sreferenced . t.

threshold elevation.

Th

e require . d visual . reference mea

b

.

th t

.

egory

.

.

"0 mean sea level and decision. height

,. .ns a section. of tne visual aids or of the

V~t een. 1~ view for sufficient time for the pilot to have

Note 2' -

approach area which should ha

made an assessment of the a'

to the desired flight path In ;;:;~ POlsI1ltwnan~ rate ?f change of position, in relation

easton hei eig h t the required

V1sua reterenee is that specified I. the narti

.

operatwns wah ad"

tor e particular procedure and operation.

14

De-icing/anti-icing Pad. An area comprising an inner area for the parking of an aeroplane to receive de icing/anti-icing treatment and an outer area for the manoeuvring of two or more mobile de-icing/anti-icing equipment.

Dependent Parallel Approaches. Simultaneous approaches to parallel or near-parallel instrument runways where radar separation minima between aircraft on adjacent extended runway centre lines are prescribed.

Descent Fix. A fix established in a precision approach at the FAP to eliminate certain obstacles before the FAP, which would otherwise have to be considered for obstacle clearance purposes.

Destination Alternate. An alternate aerodrome to which an aircraft may proceed should it become either impossible or inadvisable to land at the aerodrome of intended landing.

Note:- The aerodrome from which a flight departs may also be an en-route or a destination alternate aerodrome for that (light.

DETRESF A. The code word used to designate a distress phase.

15

,

.

ellipsoid, measured along the ell"

Ellipsoid Height (Geodetic .dIg Hei ht) Th

e hei eight related to the reference

. IpSOIa outer normal through the point in question .

EmergencyLocatorTransmitter(ELT)

desi

which broadcast distinctive signal

application, may be automatically :ct~~ t ~~n~ted frequencies and, depending on ELT may be any of the following: a e y Impact or be manually activated. An

A'

genencter~descnbmgequipment

h

phase, alert phase or distress phase.

Emergency Phase. A generic term mea .

rung, as t e case may be, uncertainty

. excludes the propeller/rotors (if a~~rt:a~~~~necessary for functioning and control, but

of at least those components and

0 e use or aircraft . propulsion. It consists

Engine. A unit used or intended t b

d £

. Enhanced Vision System (EVS) A

Images of the external scene achieved th roug . h system the use to of Image .dlsplay sensors. electronic real-time

. b nate ~erodrome at which an aircraft would be

able to land after experiencing a

.

En-route Alternate. An alter

n a norma or emergency condition while en-route.

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Fatigue. A physiological state of reduced mental or physical performance capamnty resulting from sleep loss or extended wakefulness andlor physical activity 2.·.~na{can impair a crew member's alertness and ability to safely operate an aircraft or 'riA,,,f'n,,,,, safety related duties.

Filed Flight Plan. The flight plan as filed with an ATS unit by the pilot or a designatedrepresentative, without any subsequent changes.

Final Approach (FNA). That part of an instrument approach procedure which commencesat the specified final approach fix or point, or where such a fix or .point is not specified,a) at the end of the last procedure turn, base turn or inbound turn of aracetrack procedure, if specified; or b) at the point of interception of the last track specifiedin the approach procedure; and ends at a point in the vicinity of an aerodrome fromwhich:

1)

a landing can be made; or

2)

a missed approach procedure is initiated.

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Atmosphere:

a) when set to a QNH altimeter setting, will indicate altitude;

b) when set to a QFE altimeter setting, will indicate height above the QFE reference datum; c) when set to a pressure of 1013.2 hPa, may be used to indicate flight levels.

Note 2: - The terms "height" and "altitude", used in Note 1 above, indicate altimetric rather than geometric heights and altitudes.

Flight Manual. A manual, associated with the certifi~ate of ~irworthiness, containing limitations within which the aircraft is to be considered airworthy, and instructions and information necessary to the flight crew members for the safe operation of the aircraft.

Flight Manual.

means a manual associated with the certi~cate of~irworthiness,

containing limitations within which the aeroplane is to be.considered alrworth~', and contains instructions and information necessary to the flight crew members tor the

safe operations of the aeroplane;

18

p

p

,

aeroplane first moves for the purpose of taking off until the moment it

finally comes to rest at the end of the flight; and

(ii) in respect of a helicopter, means the total time from the moment the helicopter's rotor blades start turning until the moment it finally comes to rest at the end of the flight, and the rotor blades are stopped.

.-- Flight time as herein defined is synonymous with the term "bloch to block" time,

"chock to chock" time in general usage which is measured from the time an aeroplane moves for the purpose of taking off until it finally stops at the end of the flight;

Flight Visibility. The visibility forward from the cockpit of an aircraft in flight.

Flying Machine. means a mechanically driven aerodyne, and includes all yLU'l'LCUHO"" helicopters and gyroplanes;

Forecast (FCST). A state.nsnt of expected meteorological conditions for a ""'''H.Leu time or period, and for a specified area or portion of airspace.

Foreign Aircraft. means an aircraft registered in a country other than India;

Frangible Object. An object of low mass designed to break, distort or yield on so as to present the minimum hazard to aircraft.

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on beh~lf of th~. Central Government and includes an airport to which the Airports Authority of India Ac~, 1994 (55 of 1994) applies or is made applicable;

Gregorian Calendar. Calendar in general use; first introduced in 1582 to define a year that more closely approximates the tropical year than the Julian calendar (ISO

19108*).

Note: -: .In t~e Gregorian calendar, common years have 365 days and leap years 366 days diuided into twelve sequential months.

Gro_und Handling. Services necessary for an aircraft's arrival at, and departure from, an airport, other than air traffic services.

Ground Visibility. The visibility at an aerodrome, as reported by an accredited observer or by automatic system.

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training, operations and maintenance and which seek ~afe interface the human and other system components by proper consideration to human

Human Performance.

Human capabilities and limitations which have an

on the safety and efficiency of.

Identification

Beacon (IBN). An aeronautical beacon emitting a coded signal

of which a particular point of reference can be identified.

IFR Flight. A flight conducted in accordance with the instrument flight rules.

IFR. The symbol used to designate the instrument flight rules.

Import. means bringing into India;

INCERFA. The code word used to designate an uncertainty phase.

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manoeuvres by reference to flight.instruments with specified protection from obstacles from the initial approach fix, or where applicable, from the beginning of a defined arrival route t.o a point from which a landing can be completed and thereafter, if a landing is not completed, to a position at which holding or en-route obstacle clearance criteria apply. Instrument approach procedures are classified as follows:

Non-precision approach (NPA) procedure. An instrument approach procedure designed for 2D instrument approach operations Type A (Instrumsnt approach operation 250' or above).

Approach procedure with vertical

guidance (APV). A performance-

based navigation (PBN) instrument approach procedure designed for 3D instrument approach operations Type A.

Precision approach (PA) procedure.

based on navigation systems (lLS, MLS, GLS and SBAS Cat I) designed for 3D instrument approach operations Type A or B (A-Instrument approach operation 250' or above or B- below 250').

Note: - Lateral and vertical guidance refers to the guidance provided either by:

a) a ground-based navigation aid; or b) computer-generated navigation data.

An instrument approach procedure

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_

(200 ft) but not lower than 30 m (100 ft) and a runway VIsualrange not less

than 300 m.

Precision approach runway, category III. A run.way serve~ by vis~al aids and

non-visual aid(s) intended for landing operations followmg an mstrument

approach operation type B to and along the surface of the runway and:

A - intended for operations with

a decision height (DR) lower than ao m

(100 ft), or no decision height and a runway visual range not less than

175m.

B - intended for operations with a decision height (DR) lower than 1~ m

visual range less than 170 m

but not less than 50 m. C - intended for operations with no decision height (DR) and no runway

(50 ft), or no decision height and a runway

visual range limitations.

.

.

- Visual aids need not necessarily be matched to the scale of, ~?n-v~~ual a~ds The criterion for the selection of uicucl aids is the conditions ui iohich. are intended to be conducted.

- Refer to Annex 6 for instrument approach operation types.

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whose territory it is situated as an airport of entry and departure for international air traffic, where the formalities incident to customs, immigration, public health, animal and plant quarantine and similar procedures are carried out.

NOTAM office (NOF). An officedesignated by a State for the

exchange of NOTAMinternationally.

Investigation. A process conducted for the purpose ofaccident prevention which includes the gathering and analysis of determination ofcauses and, when appropriate, the making of safety recommendations.

International

Investigator-in-charge. A person charged, on the basis of his or her

qualifications, with the responsibility for the organization, conduct and control of an investigation.

to preclude the functions of an

investigator-in-charge being assigned to a commission or other body.

Item of Equipment. means any self-contained unit, which, when attached to, or installed on aircraft, performs a function essential under certain operating conditions of airworthiness or safety of the aircraft or its occupants;

Note: - Nothing in the above definition is intended

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flight and meaning variously, height, altitude or flight level.

Lighting System Reliability. The probability that the complete installation operates within the specified tolerances and that the system is operationally usable.

LogonAddress. A specified code used for data link logon to an ATS unit.

M

Maintenance Organization's Procedures Manual. A document endorsed by the head ofthe maintenance organization which details the maintenance organization's structure and management responsibilities, scope of work, description of facilities, maintenance procedures and quality assurance or inspection systems.

Maintenance Programme. A document which describes the specificscheduled maintenance tasks and their frequency of compietiou and related procedures, such as a reliability programme, necessary for the safe operation ·ofthose aircraft to which it applies.

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to e unserv cea e

at th: .commencement of a flight. The MMEL may be associated with special operating condItIOns, limitations or procedures.

tate o

es gn contammg

tems, one or more o w c

s perm tte

Maximum Mass. Maximum certificated take-off mass.

f . Meteorological

or mternational air navigation.

Office. An office designated to provide meteorological service

. Microlight

Aircraft

(single seater).

means

a fixed wing aircraft

with

maXImum all up weight not exceeding 330 kg. and a wing area not less than 10 sq meters and which is designed to carry not more than one person;

.

u Mi~rolight Aircr~ft (two seater). means a fixed wing aircraft with a maximum

u Mi~rolight Aircr~ft (two seater). means a fixed wing aircraft with a maximum

all

. P ~eIght not exceeding 450 kg. and

w

a wing area not less than 10 sq. meters and

hich ISdesigned to carry not more than two persons;

hich ISdesigned to carry not more than two persons;

hich ISdesigned to carry not more than two persons;

. Microlight Aircraft. means Microlight aircraft (single seater) and Microlight aIrcraft (two seater) and excludes hang gliders and para-planes.

26

established for the aircraft type.

Minimum Obstacle Clearance Altitude (MOCA). The minimum altitude for a defined segment of flight that provides the required obstacle clearance.

Minimum Sector Altitude (MSA). The lowest altitude which .may be used which will provide a minimum clearance of 300 m (1 000 ft) above all objects located in an area contained within a sector of a circle of 46 km (25 NM) radius centred on a radio aid to navigation .

Minimum Stabilization Distance (MSD). The minimum distance to complete a turn manoeuvre and after which a new manoeuvre can be initiated. The minimum stabilization distance is used to compute the minimum distance between waypoints.

Missed Approacn Holding Fix (MAHF). A fix used in RNAV applications that marks the end of the missed approach segment and the centre point for the missed approach holding.

Missed Approach

Point (MAPt). That point in an instrument approach

procedure at or before which the prescribed missed approach procedure must be initiated in order to ensure that the minimum obstacle clearance is not infringed.

27

and landmg which utIlIzes lateral guidance but does not utilize vertical guidance.

· Normal Flight Zone (NFZ). Airspace not defined as LFFZ, LCFZ or LSFZ but

the which eye. must be protected from laser radiation capable of causing biologicaldamage to

Norm~l Fligh.t. means flight co~prising climbing, horizontal flight, turning or an~ m descen~mg, the attitude provIded, of the aircraft; however, that It does not entail abrupt variations in height

· Nor~al Operating zone (NOZ). Airspace of defined dimensions extending ~o either SIde of an ILS localiz~r course. andlor MLS final approach track. Only the

approaches. mner half of the normal operatmg zone IStaken into account in independent parallel

.~OT~. A ~otice to airmen distributed by means of telecommunication contamll~g mfor.~atIOn concerning the establishment, condition or change in any aeron~utlcal facility, service, procedure or hazard, the timely knowledge of which is essential to personnel concerned with flight operations.

28

bounded by these surfaces, which is not penetrated by any fixed obstacle other than a low-mass and frangibly mounted one required for air navigation purposes.

Data Collection Surface. A defined surface intended as a

reference for the purpose of collecting obstaclelterrain data.

On the surface of the water. An aircraft is deemed to be "on the water" so long as any portion of it is in contact with the water;

Obstacle/terrain

surface of the

Operational Control. The exercise ofauthority over the initiation, continuation,

diversion or termination of a flight in the interest of the regularity and efficiencyof the flight.

Operational Flight Plan. The operator's plan for the safe conduct of the flight based on considerations of aeroplane performance, other operating limitations and relevant expected conditions on the route to be followed and at the aerodromes concerned.

safety of the aircraft and the

Operations

Manual. A manual containing procedures, instructions and

guidance for use by operational personnel in the execution of their duties.

29

.

Performance

class 1 helicopter.

A helicopter with performance such that,

in case of critical power- unit failure, it is able to land on the rejected take-off area or

safely continue the flight to an appropriate landing area depending on when the failure occurs.

Performance class 2 helicopter. A helicopter with performance such that, in

case of critical power-unit

the failure occurs prior to a defined point after take-off or after a defined point before landing, in which cases a forced landing may be required.

failure, it is able to safety continue the flight, except when

Note: ; tateral and vertical guidance refers to the guidance provided either by: a) a groun - ased navigation aid; or b) computer generated navigation data.

Precisi on approach runway, see Instrument

Precision.

runway.

The smallest difference that can be reliably distinguished by a

measurement process.

Nfote:- In re(erence togeodetic surveys, precision is a degree of refinement in performance

o k~n operatwn or a degree of perfection in the instruments and methods used when

t

a ing measurements.

Permit to Fly. in relation to microlight aircraft, means a document issued by the Director-General of Civil Aviation authorising the flight of a microlight aircraft in

.

f

Pr~-flight Information

Bulletin (PIB). A presentation of current NOTAM

accordance with these rules.

in

ormatlOn of operational significance, prepared

prior to flight.

Personnel. in relation to any aircraft means the person in charge, the pilot, the

d

t

~r~limina~y Report. The communication used for the prompt dissemination of

navigator, the engineer, and all other members of the crew;

a

a 0 tamed during the early stages of the investigation.

Petroleum

in Bulk. means petroleum contained in receptacle exceeding 900

hi h Pressure-Altitude.

An atmospheric pressure expressed in terms of altitude

liters in capacity;

w IC corresponds to that pressure in the Standard Atmosphere.

30

31

,

.

Prohibited Area. An airspace of defined dimensions, above the land areas or territorial waters of a State, within which the flight of aircraft is prohibited.

hazardous Protected effects of Flight laser radiation. Zones. Airspace specifically designated to mitigate the

Alcohol, opioids, cannabinoids, sedatives and

whereas hypnotics, coffeeand cocaine, tobacco other are psychostimulants, excluded. hallucinogens, and volatile solvents,

Psychoactive

Substances.

PUblic Transport Aircraft. means an aircraft which effects public transport;

Public Transport. means all carriage of persons or things effected by aircraft for a remuneration of any nature whatsoever, and all carriage of persons or things transport effected by undertaking; aircraft without such remuneration if the carriage is effected by an air

32

. parameters for communication transaction time, continuity, availability and mtegnty.

Reference Datum Height (RDH). The height of the extended glide path or a nominal vertical path at the runway threshold.

Relief. The inequalities in elevation of the surface of the Earth re~resented on aeronautical charts by contours, hypsometric tints, shading or spot elevatIOns.

Rendering a Licence Valid. means the action taken as a~ alternative to assuming a licence, in accepting a licence issued by any other Contractmg State as the equivalent of an Indian licence;

yp .

.g.

p

g

Repair. The restoration of an aeronaut~cal produc.tto an airworthy c(lnditio~to ensure that the aircraft continues ;0 comply with the design aspects oft?e appropnate airworthiness requirements used for the issuance of, ~he type certlficate for the respective aircraft type, after it has been damaged or sUbjectedto wear.

Repetitive Flight Plan (RPL). A flight ?la~ rel~ted to ~ series of frequ~ntly recurring, regularly operated individual flights with IdentI~albasic features, submitted by an operator for retention and repetitive use by ATS umts.

33

areas or territorial waters of a State, within which the flight of aircraft is restricted in accordance with certain specified conditions.

Reversal Procedure. A procedure designed to enable aircraft to reverse direction during the initial approach segment of an instrument approach procedure. The sequence may include procedure turns or base turns.

RNP Type. A containment value expressed as a distance in nautical miles from flying the intended time. position within which flights would be for at least 95 per cent of the total

on Example: a 95 per - cent RNP containment 4 represents basis. a navigation accuracy of plus or minus 7.4 km (4 NM)

exclusive Road. use of An vehicles. established surface route on the movement area meant for the

required Road-holding to hold.

Position. A designated position at which vehicles may be

34

Note: - In radiotelephony phraseologies, the expression "holding Point" is used to designate the runway-holding position.

S

Safe Forced Landing. Unavoidable landing or ditching with a reasonable expectancy of no injuries to persons in the aircraft or on the surface.

Safety Management System. A systematic approach ~o.managing safety, including the necessary organizational structures, accountabilities, policies and procedures.

Safety Management System. A systematic approach to managi~g. safety,

including the necessary organizationa

procedures.

I structures, accountabilities, policies and

.

Safety Oversight Function. means a function b~ means of which the ~afet~- related standards and recommended practices an,~associated procedures contained in the Annexes to the Convention are implemented.

35

. Search and. Re~cue Region (SRR). An area of defined dimensions, associated WIth a rescue coordmatIOn centre, within which search and rescue services are provided.

Se.arc.h and ~esc~e

Service.

The performance of distress monitoring,

co~mumcatIOn, coordmatIOn and search and rescue functions

initial medical

~SsIst~nce or med~cal evacuation, through the use of public and ;rivate resources, mcludmg cooperatmg aircraft, vessels and other craft and installations.

Se~rch ~nd R~scue Un~t. A mobile resource composed of trained personnel operatIOns. and pr?vIded WIth eqUIpment sUItable for the expeditious conduct of search and rescue

Search. An operation normally coordinated by a rescue coordination centre or reSCue subcentre using available personnel and facilities to locate persons in distress.

S~cond~ry Area. ~ defined area on each side of the primary area located along PrImary th7 nommal area.) flIght track in which decreasing obstacle clearance is provided. (See also

36

Signal Area. An area on an aerodrome used for the display of ground signals.

Significant

Point. A specified geographical location used in defining an ATS

route or the flight path of an aircraft and for other navigation and ATS purposes.

There are three categories of significant points: ground-based navigation aid, intersection and waypoint. In the context of this definition, intersection is a significant aids. point expressed as radials, bearings and/or distances from ground-based navigation

Slush. Water-saturated

snow, which with a heel-and-toe slap-down motion

against the ground will be displaced with a splatter; specific gravity: 0.5 up to O.B.

Note: - Combinations of ice, snow and/or standing water may, especially when rain, rain and snow, or snow is falling, produce substances with specific gravities in excess of O.B. These substances, due to their high water/ice content, will have a transparent rather distinguishable than a cloudy from slush. appearance and, at the higher specific gravities, will be readily

5700 kg Small or less. Aeroplane. An aeroplane of a maximum certificated take-off mass of

37

,

,

for the State type design. of Design. The State having jurisdiction over the organization responsible

State of Manufacture.

responsible for the final assembly of the aircraft.

The State having jurisdiction

over the organization

OCcurs. State of Occurrence.

The State in the territory

of which an accident or incident

State of Registry.

State of Registry.

The State on whose register the aircraft is entered.

The State on whose register the aircraft is entered.

Note: - In the case of the registration of aircraft of an international operating agency on other than a national basis, the States constituting the agency are jointly and severally bound to assume the obligations which, under the Chicago Convention, attach to a State of Registry. See, in this regard, the Council Resolution of 14 December 1967on Nationality and Registration of Aircraft Operated by International Operating Agencies which can be found in Policy and Guidance Material on the Economic Regulation of International Air Transport (Doc 9587).

38

Synthetic Flight Trainer. Anyone of the followingthree types of apparatus in which flight conditions are simulated on the ground:

T

Take-off Alternate. An alternate aerodrome at which an aircraft can land should this become necessary shortly after take-off and it is not possible to use the aerodrome of departure.

Take-off Runway. A runway intended for take-off only.

Target Level of Safety (TLS). A generic term representing the level of risk which is considered acceptable in particular circumstances.

Tariff. means any fare, rate or charge collected by an air transport undertaking for the carriage ofpassengers, baggage, cargo, including the commissionpayable to the agents, and the conditions governing such fare, charge or rate.

Taxiing (TAX). Movement of an aircraft on the surface of an aerodrome under its own power, excluding take-off and landing.

39

con uence o routes n t e v c n ty o one or more major aero romes.

Ter~ain. ~he s~rface of the Earth containing naturally occurring features such as mo:,ntams, hills, ndges, valleys, bodies of water, permanent ice and snow, and excluding obstacles, In practical terms, depending on the method of data collection used, terrain represents the continuous surface that exists at the bare Earth th t of the canopy or something in-between, also known as "first reflective surface", e op

landmg. . Threshold (THR). The beginning of that portion of the runway usable for

Time d.ifference of arrival (TDOA). The difference in relative time that a receivers. tran.sponder SIgnal from the same aircraft (or ground vehicle) is received at different

To Lan~. is the action under normal conditions of making contact with the ground or a solid platform or water by an aircraft equipped for this purpose;

To Pilot. means to manipUlate the flight controls of an aircraft during flight

time;

40

responsibility for providing air traffic control service to an aircraft to the next air

traffic control unit along the route

at or below which the vertical position

of an aircraft is controlled by reference

of flight.

Transition Altitude (TA). The altitude

to altitudes.

Transition

transition level.

Layer. The airspace between the transition altitude and the

Transition Level (TRL). The lowest flight level available for use above the transition altitude.

means a certificate issued or validated by the Director-

General to signify that the design of a type of aircraft, aircraft component or item of

equipment, complies with the applicable design standard specified or approved by the Director-General;

Type Certificate.

means all aircraft of the same basic design including all

modifications thereto except those modifications which result in a change in handing or flight characteristics;

Type of Aircr

:.'t.

41

Visibility (VIS). Visibility for aeronautical purposes is the greater of: a) the greatest distance at which a black object of suitable dimensions, situated near the ground, can be seen and recognized when observed against a bright background; b) the greatest distance at which lights in the vicinity of 1000 candelas can be seen and identified against an unlit background.

Note 1:- The two distances have different values in air of a given extinction coefficient, and the latter b) varies with the background illumination. The former a) is represented by the meteorological optical range (MOR).

Note. 2.- The definition applies to the observations of visibility in local routine and

special reports, to the observations of prevailing and METAR and SPEC! and to the observations of ground

atmosphere. Visible. as applied to lights means visible on a dark night with a clear

minimum visibility reported in visibility.

Visual Manoeuvring (circling) Area. The area in which obstacle clearance should be taken into consideration for aircraft carrying out a circling approach.

42

43

rat

e

t s convent on. ome mportant art c es are

AIR NAVIGATION

ste

e ow:

Article 1- Sovereignty: The contracting States recognize that every State has complete and exclusive sovereignty over the airspace above its territory.

Article 2- Territory: For the purposes of this Convention the territory of a State shall be deemed to be the land areas and territorial waters adjacent thereto under the sovereignty, suzerainty, protection or mandate of such State.

44

Article 3-Civil and state aircraft:

a) This Convention shall be applicable only to civil aircraft, and shall not be applicable to state aircraft.

b) Aircraft used in military, customs and police services shall be deemed to be state aircraft.

c) No state aircraft of a contracting State

State or land thereon without authorization by special agreement or otherwise, and in accordance with the terms thereof.

shall fly over the territory of another

45

permission or other authorization of that State, and in accordance with the terms of such permission or authorization.

Article 7- Cabotage: Each contracting State shall have the right to refuse permission to the aircraft of other contracting States to take on in its territory passengers, mail and cargo carried for remuneration or hire and destined for another point within its territory. Each contracting State undertakes not to enter into any arrangements which specifically grant any such privilege on an exclusive basis to any other State or an airline of any other State, and not to obtain any such exclusive privilege from any other State.

Article 8- Pilotless Aircraft: No aircraft capable of being flown without a pilot shall be flown without a pilot over the territory of a contracting State without special authorization by that State and in accordance with the terms of such authorization. Each contracting State undertakes to insure that the flight of such aircraft without a pilot in regions open to civil aircraft shall be so controlled as to obviate danger to civil aircraft.

Article 9- Prohibited Areas:

a) Each contracting State may, for reasons of military necessity or public safety, restrict or prohibit uniformly the aircraft of other States from

46

,

a similarly designated customs airport. Particulars of all deslgnat~d cust?~S aI~po~s shall be published by the State and transmitted to the International C.lvIl.AviatIOn Organization established under Part II of this Convention for communication to all

other contracting States.

Article 11-Applicability of Air Regulations: Subject to the provisions ~ft?is

Convention, the laws and regulations of a contracting State relating

to or departure from

or to the operation and navigation of such aircraf~ while '';It?m ~ts territory, .shall.be applied to the aircraft of all contracting States WIthout distinction ~s to natIOnalI~y, and shall be complied with by such aircraft upon entering or departmg from or while

within the territory of that State.

Article 12- Rules of the Air: Each contracting Stat~ und~rt~k~s to adopt measures to insure that every aircraft flying over or maneuvermg wlt~m Its territory and that every aircraft carrying its nationality ma:k, wherever. such aircraft may be, shall comply with the rules and regulations relatmg to the flight and maneuv~r of aircraft there in force. Each contracting State undertakes to keep Its own r~gulatIOns in these respects uniform, to the greatest possible extent, with t~ose established from time to time under this Convention. Over the high seas, the rules m force shall be those

to ~he ad~ms~IOn

its territory of aircraft engaged i.n in~erx:at.ionala~r navigation,

47

,

a) As to aircraft not engaged in scheduled international air services than ~ho~e:hat would.be paid by its national aircraft of the same class e~gaged m similar operations, and

b) As to aircraft engaged in scheduled international air services than those t~at wo~ld be paid by its national aircraft engaged in similar international air services.

. .All such charges shall.be published and communicated to the International Civil

Aviation Organization:

State,. the charges Imposed for the use of airports and other facilities shall be bi t to revle~ by t~e Council, which shall report and make recommendations ther:~nJ~~r the.consideration of the State or States concerned. No fees, dues or other charges shall

be imposed by ~ny con.tractin? State in respect solely of the right of transit over or entry mto or exit from ItS territory of any aircraft of a contracting Stat

e or persons or

property thereon.

provided that, upon representation by an interested contracting

~ticle 16- Search of Aircraft: The appropriate authorities of each of the contractmg States s~all have the right,. without unreasonable delay, to search aircraft

contractmg States on landmg or departure, and to inspect the certificates

of the other

48

Article 22-Facilitation of Formalities: Each contracting State agrees to adopt all practicable measures, through the issuance of special regulations or otherwise, to facilitate and expedite navigation by aircraft between the territories of contracting States, and to prevent unnecessary delays to aircraft, crews, passengers and cargo, especially in the administration of the laws relating to immigration, quarantine, customs and clearance.

Article 23-Customs and Immigration Procedures: Each contracting State undertakes, so far as it may find practicable, to establish customs and immigration procedures affecting international air navigation in accordance with the practices which may be established or recommended from time to time, pursuant to this Convention. Nothing in this Convention shah be construed as preventing the establishment of customs-free airports.

Article 24-Customs Duty:

a) Aircraft on a flight to, from, or across the territory of another contracting State shall be admitted temporarily free of duty, subject to the customs regulations ofthe State. Fuel, lubricating oils, spare parts, regular equipment and aircraft stores on board an aircraft of a contracting State, on arrival in

49

the inquiry shall communicate the report and findings in the matter to that State.

Article 27-Exemption from Seizure on Patent Claims:

a) While engaged in international air navigation, any authorized entry of

aircraft ofa contracting State into the territory of another contracting State or authorized transit across the territory of such State with or without landings shall not entail any seizure or detention ofthe aircraft or any claim against the owner or operator thereof or any other interference therewith by or on behalf of such State or any person therein, on the ground that the

aircraft is an

infringement of any patent, -design, or model duly granted or registered in the State whose territory is entered by the aircraft, it being agreed that no deposit of security in connection with the foregoing exemption from seizure or detention of the aircraft shall in any case be required in the State entered by such aircraft.

construction, mechanism, parts,

accessories or operation of the

b) The provisions of paragraph (a. of this Article shall

also be applicable to the

storage of spare parts and spare equipment for the aircraft and the right to use and install the same in the repair of an aircraft of a contracting State

50

TO AIRCRAFT

Article 29-Documents Carried in Aircraft: Every aircraft of a contracting State, engaged in international navigation, shall carry the following documents in conformity with the conditions prescribed in this Convention:

a) Its certificate of registration;

b) Its certificate of airworthiness;

c) The appropriate licenses for each member of the crew;

d) Its journey log book;

e) If it is equipped with radio apparatus, the aircraft radio station license;

1)

If it carries passengers, a list destination;

of their names and places of embarkation and

g) If it carries cargo, a manifest

Article 30-Aircraft Radio Equipment:

a) Aircraft of each contracting State may, in or over the territory of other contracting States, carry radio transmitting apparatus only if a license to install and operate such apparatus has been issued by the appropriate

and detailed declarations of the cargo.

51

.

Article 34-Journey Log Books: There shall be maintained in respect of every aircraft engaged in international navigation a journey log book in which shall be entered particulars ofthe aircraft, its crew and of each journey, in such form as may be prescribed from time to time pursuant to this Convention.

Article 35-Cargo restrictions:

a) No munitions of war or implements of war may be carried in or above the territory of a State in aircraft engaged in international navigation, except by permission of such State. Each State shall determine by regulations what constitutes munitions of war or implements of war for the purposes of this Article, giving due consideration, for the purposes of uniformity, to such recommendations as the International Civil Aviation Organization may from time to time make.

b) Each contracting

State reserves the right, for reasons of public order and

safety, to regulate or prohibit the carriage in or above its territory

of articles

other than those enumerated in paragraph (a.: provided that no distinction is made in this respect between its national aircraft engaged in interna-

52

i) Aeronautical maps and charts;

j) Customs and immigration procedures;

k) Aircraft in distress and investigation of accidents; and such other matters

concerned with the safety, regularity, and efficiency of air may from time to time appear appropriate.

navigation as

Article 3S-Departures from International

Standards

and Procedures:

Any State which finds it impracticable to comply in all respects with any such

international standard or procedure, or to bring its own regulations or practices into full accord with any international standard or procedure after amendment of the latter, or which deems it necessary to adopt regulations or practices differing in any particular respect from those established by an international standard, shall give immediate notification to the International Civil Aviation Organization of the

differences between its own practice and that established

In the case of amendments to international standards, any State which does not make the appropriate amendments to its own regulations or practices shall give notice to the Council within sixty days of the adoption of the amendment to the international standard, or indicate the action which it proposes to take. In any such case, the Council

by the international standard.

53

Article 42-Recognition of Existing Standards of Competency of Personnel: The provisions of this Chapter shall not apply to personnel whose licences are originally issued prior to a date one year after initial adoption of an international standard of qualification for such personnel; but they shall in any case apply to all personnel whose licenses remain valid five years after the date of adoption of such standard.

ICAO

The International Civil Aviation Organization, a UN Specialized Agency, is the global forum for civilaviation. ICAOworks to achieve its vision of safe, secure and sustainable development ofcivil aviation through cooperation amongst its member States.

Name and composition An organization named the International Civil Aviation. Organization is formed by the Chicago Convention,1944. It is made up of an Assembly, a Council, and such other bodies as may be necessary.

54

I- Committee on Joint Support of Air Navigation Services Not more than 11 members, with not less than 9 members, appointed by the Council.

- Finance Committee Not more than 13 members, with not less than 9 members, appointed by the Council.

- Committee on Unlawful Interference 15 members appointed by the Council.

55

 

Bureau.

-

Legal Bureau.

-

Bureau of

Administration

and

Services.

the states with limited recognition.

World Headquarters, Regions and regional offices:

ICAO World Headquarters: Montreal, Canada

56

ontract ng

tates o t e spec

cat ons conta ne

n t e nternat ona

tan ar s

is recognized as necessary for the safety or regularity of international air navigation while the uniform application ofthe specifications in the Recommended Practices is

regarded as desirable in the interest of safety, regularity or efficiencyof international

air navigation. Knowledge of any differences between the national regulations or

practices of a State and those established by an International Standard is essential to the safety or regularity of international air navigation. In the event of non-compliance with an International Standard, a State has, in fact, an obligation, under Article 38 of the Convention, to notify the Council of any differences. Knowledge of differences

from Recommended Practices may also be important for the safety of air

and, although the Convention does not impose any obligation with regard thereto, the Council has invited Contracting States to notify such differences in addition to those relating to International Standards.

Procedures for Air Navigation Services (PANS) Are approved by the Council for worldwide application. They contain, for the most part, operating procedures regarded as not yet having attained a sufficient degree of maturity for adoption as International Standards and Recommended Practices, as well as material of a more permanent character which is considered too detailed for incorporation in an Annex, or is susceptible to frequent amendment, for which the processes ofthe Convention would

navigation

57

4. Aeronautical Charts

5. Units of Measurement to be Used in Air and Ground

6. Operation of Aircraft:

Annex 4:

Annex 5:

Annex 6:

01. Procedure for Air Navigation Services - Air Traffic Management (PANS ATM).

02. Regional Supplementary Procedures (SUPPS).

03. ICAO Abbreviations and Codes

Doc 4444:

Doc 7030:

Doc 8400:

Part I : International Commercial Air Transport

04. Doc 8168:

Aircraft Operations

Part

II : International General Aviation

 

05. Doc 7910:

Location Indicators

Part III : International Operations - Helicopters

7. Annex 7 : Aircraft Nationality and Registration Marks

8. Annex 8 : Airworthiness of Aircraft

9. Annex 9 : Facilitation

10. Annex 10: Aeronautical Telecommunication

Vol. I : Radio Navigational Aids

Vol. II : Communication Procedures

Vol. III : Communication Systems

58

06. Designators for Aircraft Operating Agencies, Aeronautical Authorities and Services

07. Aircraft Type Designator

08. Aeronautical Information Service Manual

09. Aeronautical Chart Manual

Doc 8585:

Doc8643:

Doc 8126:

Doc 8697:

10. Manual of Aeronautical Meteorological Procedure

11. Aeronautical Information Service by States

12. Aeronautical Chart Catalogue

Doc 8896:

Doc 7383:

Doc 7101:

59

29. Doc 8733:

Caribbean and South American Regions

30. Doc 7754:

European Region

31. Doc 8700: Middle East and Asian Regions

32.Doc 8755:

North Atlantic, North American and Pacific Regions

60

~Fifth

Freedom of Air: The privilege to take on passengers, mail and cargo destined for

the territory of any other Contracting State ami the privilege to put down passengers, mail and cargo coming from any such territory.

UNLAWFUL ACTS

Following conventions were held to deal with unlawful acts associated with Aviation, and ratified by India:

CONVENTION ON OFFENCES AND CERTAIN OTHER ACTS COMMITTED

ON BOARD AIRCRAFT, SIGNED AT TOKYO, ON 14 SEPTEMBER (TOKYO CONVENTION.)

SCOPE OF THE CONVENTION

Article 1 :

1963

1. This Convention shall apply in respect of:

a) offences against penal law;

b) acts which, whether or not they are offences, mayor do jeopardize

61

A~ticle 4:.A Con~rac~ing ~tate which is not the State' of registration may not interfere WIth ~n aircraft In flight In order to exercise its criminal jurisdiction over an offence committed on board except in the following cases:

a) the offence has effect on the territory of such State;

b) the offence has been committed by or against a national or permanent resident of such State;

c) the offence is against the security

d) t~e

of such State;

offence consists of a breach of any rules or regulations relating to the

flight or manoeuvre of aircraft in force in such State'

e) t~e e.xercise of jurisdiction is necessary to ensure th~ observance of any Iigation of such State under a multilateral international agreement.

POWERS OF THE AIRCRAFT

Article 5:

COMMANDER:

ob-

1. The provisions of this Chapter shall not apply to offences and acts committed or about to be committed by a person on board an aircraft in flight in the

62

Article 7:

p without such authorization when he has reasonable grounds to believe that such action is immediately necessary to protect the safety of the aircraft, or of persons or property therein.

g

y

p

1. Measures of restraint imposed upon a person in accordance with Article 6 shall not be continued beyond any point at which the aircraft lands unless:

a) such point is in the territory of a non-Contracting State and its authorities refuse to permit disembarkation of that person or those measures have been imposed in accordance with Article 6, paragraph Lc) in order to enable his delivery to competent authorities;

b) the aircraft makes a forced landing and the aircraft commander is unable to deliver that person to competent authorities; or

c) that person agrees to onward carriage under restraint.

2. The aircraft commander shall as soon as practicable, and if possible before landing in the territory of a State with a person on board who has been placed under restraint in accordance with the provisions ofArticle 6, notify

63

Article 10: For actions taken in accordance with this Convention, neither the aircraft commander, any other member of the crew, any passenger, the owner or operator of the aircraft, nor the person on whose behalf the flight was performed shall be held responsible in any proceeding on account of the treatment undergone by the person against whom the actions were taken.

THE HAGUE CONVENTION OF 1970

Following the Tokyo Convention, and after a spate of politically motivated terrorists hijackings. ICAO called a convention hosted by the Dutch government to address this

problem. The Convention for the

the act of unlawful seizure and the measures to be taken by contracting states to enforce severe punishment upon perpetrators. This agreement specifies extradition of offenders and obliges contracting states to extradite offenders.

Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft defines

64

Convention on the marking of plastic explosives for the purpose of detection was signed at Montreal on 1st march, 1~91.

Tokvo Convention 1963, Hague Convention 1970, Montr~al Conventions 1971 and

1991 and Montreal Protocol 1988 have been ratified by India,

65

The functions of DGCA include the following:

1.

Registration of civil aircraft;

2. Formulation of standards of airworthiness for civil aircraft registered in India and grant of certificates of airworthiness to such aircraft;

3. Licensing of pilots, aircraft maintenance engineers and flight engineers, and conducting examinations and checks for that purpose;

4. Licensing of air traffic controllers;

5. Certification of aerodromes and CNS/ATM facilities;

6. Granting of Air Operator's Certificates to Indian carriers and regulation of air transport services operating to/from/withiniover India by Indian and foreign operators, including clearance of scheduled and non-scheduled flights of such operators;

7. Conducting investigation into accidents/incidents and taking accident prevention measures including formulation of implementation of Safety Aviation Management programmes.

8. Carrying out amendments to the Aircraft Act, the Aircraft Rules and the

66

3. Construction, Modification and Mafnageme;t Of.~:~:e::::::;::~::~l Development and Management 0 cargo errm

4.

5.

domestic airports.

P

rovision 0

•.

f passenger facilities and information system a

t th

e p

and

as senger

6.

terminals Expansion at and airports. strengthening of operation . area, Taxiway etc.

viz. Runways, Aprons,

7

.

8.

Provision

of visual aids.

Provision

of Communication an

Radar etc.

d N

.

aviganon

aids

d

,

VOR DME

viz. ILS, D

.,.

. di tion

,

,

9. Provision of Air Traffic Services a~ Airpor~s un u~I~::ti~~I;f~I~ NOTAMS,

10.

P rovision of aeronautical information services p

AIRRACS, PIBs etc.

'

.

.

67

e p ace an

a e o ssue.

• An indication of the place of departure and destination.

• The agreed stopping places, provided that the carrier may reserve the right to alter the stopping places, and that if he exercises that right, the alteration shall not have the effect of depriving the carriage of its international character.

• The name and address of the carrier or carriers.

• a statement that the carriage is subject to the rules relating to the liability established by this convention usually printed on the ticket jacket.

The absence, irregularity, or loss of the passenger ticket does not affect the validity of the contract of carriage, which shall be subject to the rules of the convention. If a carrier accepts a passenger without a ticket, the carrier will not be able to fall back on

the provisions of the convention that limit liability. If a carrier issues an 'electronic' ticket,

then the provisions of the warsaw Convention must Baggage check

be communicated by other means.

For luggage, other than

small personal objects that the passengers

take

themselves, the carrier must issue a luggage ticket. The luggage ticket is made out in duplicate, one for the passenger and the other for the carrier.

68

Convention on international interests in mobile equipment as applied to aircraft objects to meet the particular requirements of aircraft finance a~d to exten~ the s~here of a lication of the Convention to include contracts ~f sal: of aIr~raft equipment; was signed at Cape Town on 16 November 2001. Convention alms at mtroducmg a legally tain effective and prompt system of enforcement that can assure and encoura~e investments in Aircraft objects. India has ratified this convention and protocol m

2008.

COMMERCIAL PRACTICES AND ASSOCIATED RULES (LEASING).

AOC/AOP

Dry lease

Air Operators Certificate Permit, adocument.issuedbythe~uthorityofa State allowing an Operator to conduct public transport flights,

The aeroplane is operated under leasing the aeroplane.

the AOC of the lessee (the company

Wet lease

The aeroplane is operated under the AOC of the lessor ( the company who let the aircraft out.

"Military aircraft" includes naval, military and air force.aircraf~, and every aircraft commanded by a person in naval, military or air terce service detailed for the purpose.

69

6.

A) Aerodromes

B) Security

C) Facilitations

g

!he State. has to notify the Council of ICAO and publish

I lntthe n~tlonal AlP If a state finds that n ernatronal Standard:

such di

it is impracticable to comp~eyr~~~e:n

A) t '~shall give 45 days ~otice to ICAO of the differences between its own prac- Ices and the International Standard

of the differences between its own prac-

8)

t '~ shall give 60 days ~otice to ICAO Ices and the Internat!onal Standard

C) It Sh~1!give immediate notice to ICAO of the differences between its 0 practices and the International Standard

wn

70

there in, by an aircraft registered in the territory of another contracting state

B) only caused in the territory of a contracting state by any aircraft registered in the territory of another contracting state

C) caused in the territory of a contracting state by any aircraft regardless the reg- istration

12. The International Civil Organisation (ICAO) was established by the international convention of:

A) Warsaw

B)

Chicago

C)

Montreal

13. The Rome Convention and later amendments deals with:

A) Damage caused by foreign aircraft to third parties on the surface

B) offences and certain other acts committed on board aircraft

C) Regulation of transportation of dangerous goods

14. The convention on offences and certain acts committed on board aircraft, is:

A) the convention of Rome

B) the convention ofTokyo

C) the convention of Chicago

71

20.

Proposal to give effect to an International Convention in India is initiated by:

A)

Ministryof Civil Aviation

8)

Parliament

C)

DGCA

21. If a Air India provides an aeroplane and complete crew for lease to Indian Air Force (a wet lease-out situation), who is the operator of the aeroplane?

A)

Air India providedthey carry civil loadonly

8)

Air India - becauseit is their crew flyingthe aero plane

C)

IndianAir Force- providingthey absolveAir Indiaof any responsibilityin the manner in which the aeroplaneis operated

22. What flights are protected by the Prevention of Terrorism Act?

A)

All flights

8)

Privateflights only

72

C)

Militaryflights only

ANSWERS

 

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

C

C

8

A

8

8

8

A

C

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

C

A

8

A

B

C

C

C

B

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

8

C

8

A

B

B

C

A

73

74

by the State ofRegistry, provided those requirements are not lower than the Standards ofAnnex 6, Part I.

To facilitate the import and export of aircraft, as well as the exchange of aircraft for lease, charter or interchange, and to facilitate operations of aircraft in international air navigation, ICAO places the burden on the State of Registry to recognize and render valid an airworthiness certificate issued by another Contracting State, subject to the condition that the airworthiness requirements under which such a certificate is issued or rendered valid are equal to or above the minimum st:mdards which may be established by ICAO from time to time.

It is recognized that ICAO Standards would not replace national regulations and that national codes of airworthiness containing the full scope and extent of detail considered necessary Ly individual States would be required as the basis for the

develop its own comprehensive

certification of individual

and detailed code of airworthiness or to select, adopt or accept a comprehensive and detailed code established by another Contracting State.

Annex 8 includes broad standards which define, for application by the national airworthiness authorities, the minimum basis for the recognition by States of

aircraft. Each State is free to

75

(1)

. indicate that the safety ofthe aircraft I~Imp

e

endorse the Type Certificate Issued

product of that aircraft, he ma~ cance dsu~pe~ ~~y require the incorporation of any

or validated for the a.e~onauftIhcal/ro ~crti~cate remaining in force, as the case may

modification as a condition 0 t e ype be.

d

The owner or operator of an aircraft may apply to the Director-General for the issue of a certificate of airworthiness in respect of the aircraft or for the aircraft. validation of a certificate of airworthiness issued elsewhere in respect of the

(2)

an The aircraft Director-General when- may issue a certificate of airworthiness in respect of

(a) the applicant furnishes such documents or other evidence relating to the airworthiness ofthe aircraft as may be specified and as the Director- General may require by special or general order, and

(b) the Director-General is satisfied that it is airworthy.

(3) The Director-General may validate a certificate of airworthiness in respect of any aircraft that may be imported:

Provided that -

(a) the airworthiness authority of the country in which the aircraft equivalent is manufactured, document; has issued a certificate of airworthiness or such

Flight Manual -

Where a flight manual IS required to ~e

.

.

ke t in relation to an aircraft in ac~ordance

p G

I shall endorse the certificate of

, airworthiness of the aircraft accordmg y.

WIt . h provisions

of these rules the . Director- I enera

d ith the instrument and equipment

Every aircraft shall be fitted an~ elqm~pe ~I as may be specified according to the

Instruments and Equipment-

.

including use and circumstances ra 10 appara un d er w hi IC h the flight is to be conducted.

di

tus and specia equipmen

76

77

5.

C)

Th

that the aircraft is still airworthy

t'

e

s ate of registryconsidersthat the dam

e aircraft IS stili airworthy

" age sustainedIS of a naturesuch

Jet Airways flight is to tak ff f

the rules of:

A) UK

B) India

e 0

rom London to Bosnia. C of A will be as per

C) Bosnia

ANSWERS

C

2

B

3

B

4

C

5

B

78

made of fireproof metal or other fireproof material of suitable physical properties and the identification plate shall be secured to the aircraft in a prominent position near the main entrance or:

a) in the case of an unmanned free balloon, affixed conspicuously to the exterior of the payload.; and

b) in the case of a remotely piloted aircraft, secured in a prominent position near the main entrance or compartment or affixed conspicuously to the exterior of the aircraft if there is no main entrance or compartment.

• The registration mark shall be letters, numbers, or a combination of letters and numbers, and shall be that assigned by the State of Registry or common mark registering authority.

• When letters are used for the registration mark, combinations shall not be used which might be confused with the five-letter combinations used in the International Code of Signals, Part II, the three-letter combinations beginning with Q used in the Q Code, and with the distress signal SOS, or other similar urgent signals, for example XXX, PAN and TTT.

79

lessor also include and the the lessee. validity of the lease and the names, natioJ;lalitiesand addresses of the

Cancellation: The registration of an aircraft registered in India may be cancelled at any time by the Central Government, if it is satisfied that-

i. Such registration is not in conformity with the

provisions of rules; or

11. The registration has been obtained by furnishing false information; or

iii. The aircraft could more suitably be registered in some other country; or

iv. The lease in

v. The aircraft has been destroyed or permanently withdrawn from use; or

VI. istered It is inexpedient in India. in the public interest that the aircraft should remain reg-

respect of the aircraft, registered is not in force; or

Register of Aircraft: A register of aircraft registered in India shall be maintained by the Director-General and shall include the particulars as provided for in respect of certificate of registration. Such a register shall be open to inspection by members of the public at such times and subject to such conditions as may be specified

80

colour and are of not the lettermg capable of and confusion sIgn~ WI ith , the nationality and registration

(3) A

(4)

marks of the aircraft.

.

ft other than a State aircra . t s a

State aircraft.

.

d

f

h 11not bear any mark or sign

n aI~cra prescribed for use by a

that National they flags are distinct or colours and may are not be 1~~s~la:aecrZ:teconfusionwith 1 e y the markings

used by military aircraft.

the aircraft in such a manner

81

5. When letters are used for the registration mark combinations shall not be used which might be confused with

A) Three letters combinationsused in the internationalcode of signals

B) Four letter combinationsbeginningwith Q

C) Five letter combinationsused in the internationalcode of signals

6. The height of the marks on the fuselage (or equivalent structure) and on the vertical tail surfaces of heavier than air aircraft shall be

A) At least 20 centimetres

B) At least 40 centimetres

C) At least 30 centimetres

7. The height of the marks on lighter than air aircraft other than unmanned free balloons shall be at least

A) 60 centimetres

B) 50 centimetres

C) 1 meter

82

ANSWERS

4

A

5

C

6

C

83

7

B

8

B

9

B

10

A

11

B

limitations, providing States with basic information on this vital subject as well as the material necessary to design proper training programmes. ICAO's objective is to improve safety in aviation by making States more aware of, and responsive to, the importance of human factors in civil aviation operations.

NATIONAL PROVISIONS

Licensing Authority - The authority by which the licences and ratings specifiedbelow may be granted, renewed or varied shall be the Central Government, which may withhold the grant or renewal of a licence or a rating, if for any reason it considers it desirable to do so :-

a) Student Pilot's Licence (for aeroplanes, helicopters, gliders. balloons and microlight aircraft),

84

b) Private Pilot's Licence (for aeroplanes and helicopters),

c) Commercial Pilot's Licence (for aeroplanes and helicopters),

d) Airline Transport Pilot's Licence (for aeroplanes and helicopters),

e) Instrument Rating (for aeroplanes and helicopters),

85

enaazed i

, operating in a multi-crew environment, a IOnsWIt m the territory of India and while

f 5700 ki ilograms

ngage m commercial air transport oper ti

excee mg an all up weight

, hi

,0

STUDENT PILOT'S LICENCE . (AEROPLANES/HELICOPTERS/GLIDERS)

1. Requirements for Issue of Licence -

An applicant for a student Pilot's L' shall satisfy the followingrequirements:-

, icence (Aero planes/HelIcopters/ Gliders)

a) Age application, - the applicant shall be

b) Ed,:,"cational Qualification

no

t I

ess t h an SIxteenyears ' of age on the date of

- He shall h v

eqUl~alent examination from a recognized Bo:r~ passed Class Ten or its

c) Medical Fitness - He shall produce on a'

e

:

of

a medical examination, during which h ha~thractItIOner,after u~dergoing

s a ave established hIS medical

physical fitness from an approved medi~I escrIb~d,proforma a certificate

86

relevant provisions of Rules,

shall be to fly within Indian territory only, as Pilot-in-Command of any aero plane,

helicopter or glider entered in the aircraft rating of his licence :Provided that.-

the privileges of the holder of a Student Pilot's Licence

a) He shall fly at all times under the authority and supervision of a Flight Instructor or an Approved Examiner;

b) He shall fly under Visual Flight Rules only;

c) He shall not carry passengers, animals and

goods or fly for hire, reward or

remuneration of any kind;

d) He shall not undertake cross-country flights unless he has a minimum often hours of soloflight time and has passed the examinations in Air Navigation and Aviation Meteorology,

Note:- The Student Pilot's Licence shall be issued by a Flying Club/Government Flying Training School specifically authorized in this regard and subject to the conditions as laid down by the Director-General,

87

iii. Not less than ten hours of solo flight time'

~welvemonths immediately ISsue of licence;

di

. completed within a period of

.

prece mg the date of application for the

iv. fut~ percent of solo flying experience on mi

v.

crolIght aIrcraft acquired

subject to a maximum of te hourmont s from the date of application

during the preceding twenty fi

h

re I e towards the total

fift

y ~ercent of solo gliding experience shall experIence requirement subject to . count towards total flying

total flight time.

experIence required for the issue ofth li

.

m Ours may be c dit d

e icenco,

a maximum of ten hours towards

f) F~ying Training - He shall have completed fl .

WIththe syllabus prescribed by th D'
g)

.

.

Skill _ H

h

e Irector-General.

ying trammg in accordance

.

m command or a Co-pilot of an a

e s all have demonstrated his co

I ~petency to perform as a Pilot erop ane, t e procedures and manoeuvres

88

g an approved Examiner for the type of aircraft and a certificate to this effect shall be recorded by the Flight Instructor/Examiner in the Pilot's Log Book before the Pilot is released to exercise the privileges of his open-rating

un ergone a groun an

g

am

ar sa on w

a

ns ruc or or

b) Night Rating - Night Rating entitles the holder of the licence to carry passengers at night. Conditions for the issue of this rating are detailed

below:-

1. he must have completed not less than fifty hours of flight time as Piloting- command and as sole manipulator of the controls including not less than five hours by night, which must include a minimum of five take-offs and five landings carried out within the preceding six months of the date of application;

11. he must have completed a dual cross-country flight by night of at least one hundred nautical miles before he can be permitted to undertake sole cross-country flights by night, and m, He must have completed not less than five hours of dual instructions in instrument flying which may include not more than two and a half hours on an approved synthetic flight trainer.

m on s s ImmedIately preceding the d t f '

1 0 om-comman w '

d

n

a perio

0

SIX

iii, no flight shall be undertaken under~: 01In!en ed flIght; and

being in possession of a valid Instru

et Rns:ument Flight Rules without

ating.

men

CO~MERCIAL PILOT'S LICENCE (AERO PLANES)

1. ReqUIrements for Issue of Licence _

, An applicant for a Commercial Pilot' requirements:_

s Licence shall satisfy the following

a) Age application: - He shall

b) Educational Qualification - He shall hav

or an equivalent examination with P

be not less than E' Ig h teen years of age on the date of

,e passed Class Ten plus Two

recognized Board/University, hyslCS and Mathematics, from a

c) Medical Fitness - He shall produce on a '

of P?ysical fitness from an approved Me~:~:~r:ed ~roforma a certificate

oaru after undergoing a

IC e sal have established his medical

medical examination during whi h h

h I

90

y p

g

date

of application for licence,

Provided that

in case of an applicant who is in possession of a Commercial Pilot's

Licence (Helicopters) and who has satisfactorily completed not less than one thousand

hours of flight time as Pilot-in-Command of a helicopter, the above experience requirement of two hundred hours as pilot of an aero plane shall be reduced to one hundred hours,

f) Flying Training - He shall have completed the flyingtraining in accordance with the syllabus prescribed by the Director-General.

g) Other Requirements - He shall be in possession of a current Flight Radio Telephone Operator's License for operation ofradio telephone apparatus on board an aircraft issued by the Director G"y'om.l.

h) Skill - He shall have demonstrated his competency to perform the procedures and maneuvers prescribed in the syllabus to the satisfaction of an examiner, on the type of aero plane to which the application for license relates, within a period of six months immediately preceding the date of application, The competency shall be demonstrated in -

i. General flying test by day;

91

4. Aircraft Rating _

a)

b)

P

The licence shall indicate the types of aero

An open rating for all sin I

. plane the holder is entitled to fly.

0 f aero pane I having an

granted if he has completed not leso~~an rve hundred Kgs. may also be

on such types of aero planes in 1 di an one thousand hours of flight time

Pilot-in-Command and has at 1 c ut ~ng n~t less than five hundred hours

the aircraft rating of his lice e~s our different types

. t

a upweight not exceeding one th

II

.

g e PIS on engine type

d fi

as

of aircraft entered in

id

nce.

havmg undergone a ground and flight £ .f .ra~mg shall be exercised only after

appr~ve~ Examiner and a certificate to th~mlf~ar~S~I~?with a flight Instructor or an

the pilot s log book, before the pilot is rele:s:d ~c s a .be record~~ by the Examiner in

on that type of aircraft.

.

rOVIed that the privileges of the 0 en

.

0

exercise the privilegos of open rating

c) In~tru.ctor's Rating - Instructor's flymg mstructions. The privile es

. g ~n:ltles the holder to impart

ratings are laid down in Section: Q ~~. conditions, for the issue of these

Ratin

d

92

Subject to the validity of endorsements and ratings in the licence and compliance with the relevant provisions of Rule·39B, Rule 39C and Rule 42 of the Aircraft Rules, 1937, the privileges of the holder of a Commercial Pilot's Licence shall be :-

a) To exercise all the privileges of Private Pilot's

b) to act as Pilot-in-Command of any aeroplane having an all-up-weight not exceeding five thousand seven hundred Kgs, and which is entered in the aircraft rating ofhis licence provided that when passengers are to be carried at night, he shall have carried out within a period of six months immediately preceding the date of the intended flight not less than ten take-offs and ten landings by night as Pilot-in-Command:

c) To act as Co-Pilot of any aero plane where a Co-Pilotis required to be carried and which is entered in the aircraft rating of his licence:

Provided that for all flights under the Instrument Flight Rules, either as Pilot- in- Command or as Co-Pilot, he shall have a current Instrument Rating:

Provided further that for all flights as Co-Pilot of transport aero planes having an all-up weight

Licence;

93

e) Experience - He shall produce evidence of having satisfactorily completed as a pilot ofan aeroplane within a period offive years immediately preceding time, the date which of application shall include for _ licence not less than two hundred hours of flight

(i)

not less than hundred hours of flight time as Pilot-in-Command out of which not less than thirty hours flight time as Student Pilot-in- Command which shall include not more than twenty hours of cross

country flight time and not more than ten hours circuits-landings with minimum ten landings;

(ii)

not less than fifteen hours time as Pilot-in-Command flight time within a period of six months immediately preceding the date of application;

(iii)

not less than fifty hours cross-country flight time as Pilot-in-Command including a cross-country flight of not less than three hundred

nautical miles in the Courseof which full stop landings at two different aerodromes shall be made;

94

relates, WI m

application, The competency s a

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

h 11be demonstrated in _

general flying test by d~y;

general flying test by night;

a cross-country flight ~S\ bY'fa~ C~~:I~~:rse of which at least one full two stop hundred landing fifty at an nautica aerodrome mi es ot ~ er than the aerodrome of departure

, ti g of a flight of not less than

shall be made;

fl

'

g test by mg t consIS 1

,

'I

t

, h

' ting of a flight of not less than

ture

(iv) a cross-country ym

(v)

one hundred twenty nautical mi es re ur

without landing elsewhere; ~nd

ability to fly an aerop, lane IS respect 0

desired, solely with the a~dof IFs~rument~s immediately preceding t~e

flying test within a period 0, SIXT~O~ving test shall be carried out in date of application for the rating. ib d by the Director-General, The

ning to the place 0

f

f d

epar

hich Instrument Rating is

t

w by undergoing an instrume instrument

,

accordance WI

carried out on an approve simu a

ith the syllabus prescri e

d si

1 tor for the type of aircra ,

ircraft

95

Provided that the privileges

of the open rating

shall be exercised

only after

or an

approved Examiner and a certificate to this effect shall be recorded by the Examiner in on the that pilot's type log of book, aircraft. before the pilot is released to exercise the privileges of open rating

having undergone a ground and flight familiarization

with a flight Instructor

c)

Instructor's

Rating

- Instructor's

Rating entitles

the holder

to impart

flying instructions.

ratings

and conditions

are laid down in Sections Q & R.

The privileges

for the

issue

of these

d) Instrument

Rating - No separate instrument rating is provided for

in the licence. The privileges of instrument rating are included in the privileges of this licence provided that the instrument rating flight tests

have been carried out to the satisfaction of the Director-General within a Instrument period of twelve Flight months Rules. immediately preceding the interested flight under

96

with the relevant provisions of Rule 39B, u e. I P'~~'s Licence (Aeroplanes) shall be

1937

the privileges of the holder of a Commercia

1

).

'

having an all-up-weight not

b) to act as Pilot-in-Command of ahnydaerdoPKaneAnd which is entered in the

ided un re that when gs. passengers are to be c~rne . d

immediately

at night, he shall have car~Iedo~tt~.~t ~t less than ten take-offs and ten

. d

a) to exercise all the privileges . . 0

f Private Pilot's Licence (Aeroplanes,

I

exceeding five t o~s~n

h

d seven

aircraft rating of his hcenc: provi ithin a eriod of six months

preceding the date of the mten e ig n

.

b

. ht as Pilot-in-Command:

landmgs y mg '1 t

f

aeroplane were h a

Co-pilotis required to be carne

c) to ~c~~~c~oi~P~:te~e~~~the aircraft rating of his licence:.

.

Provided an that for all flights . under thed Instrument t ated Flight his company Rules, either in accordance as PIlot-

in-Command or as Co-pilot, he shall have emons r

. an all-up-weight Provided further exceeding that five ~orall thousand flights as seven Co-hI un 0 dred Kgs, He shall have carried

with para l(h) (v)

Pil t of transport aeroplanes having

97

e) Experience - He shall produce evidence of having satisfactorily completed as a Pilot of an aero plane not less than one thousand five hundred hours of flight time of which not less than one hundred fifty hours flight time shall be in the preceding twelve months and his total flying experience shall include

1. not less than five hundred hours of flight time

as Pilot-in-Command or

as Co-Pilot performing, under the supervision of a pilot who fulfills the flying experience requirements ofa check pilot, the duties and functions of a pilot-in-command provided that at least two hundred hours out of these shall be cross-country flight time, including not less than fifty

hours of flight time by night.

Note:- "Wherean aero plane is required to be operated with a co-pilot in accordance with the provisions of the Flight Manual of the aero plane, not more than fifty percent of the co-pilot flight time shall be credited towards the total flight time required for the issue of the licence, but not more than fifty percent of the co-pilot flight time under supervision shall be credited towards pilot-in-command flight experience required for time issue required of the licence, for issue and of full the credit licence. for such flight time shall be given towards total flight

98

I

plane or aero panes, as

the case may . be, Commercial mc u em) Pilot's Licence (Aeroplanes an

0 -t

h

d th

Pilot's Licence (Aero planes) or

h

e

Pil t 'n-Command or twenty hours as

pilot Co-pilot possesses at least ten on one ours such multi-engine type Wt 'thin the preceding six mont s.

offlying experience as

2.

Validity-

The period of validity shall c?mmence r?md ecified in Rule 39C subject to

.

1

f

f

the date of Issue or renewa

sp

0

the licence. T e icence s

compliance with the renewal requiremen s as s

h

li

hall be vahd . for t a perio

tipulated in para 3 hereinafter.

3. Renewal-

li be renewed on receipt of satisfactory evidence of the app ( ) ican

. . ti n in accordance with

t

The L· icence may

a) Having un~ergone. a m-idical exa:~~:s~o than ten hours flight time as Pilot-

b) Having satisfactorily complete~ ~. C Pilot may be counted towards in- Command (fifty pe:cent offlig ~~~~~:-C~~mand) within a period of six the requireme~ts of flight ~~e a~ d t of application for renewal, or in lieu months immedlatel~ prece . mg tel ~ ~ the flying tests by day and by night thereof; as laid down having in clause satlsfactonfly (g) 0 paragrap comp e ~ 1 within the same period.

para 1 c .

99

. Extension of Aircraft Rating _

'

apPlic;nt shal~ be require;~~ ~:~~~!!~i~:~~:~tn additional

For extension of air

f

'

type of aero plane, an

, having passed a written ex

'

,

~npa~a l(d) and ofhaving g:::~atlOn in Aircraft and Engines as menti

I~

o

a)

flymg the aircraft of such ty ,under appropriate supervision exp ,oned

b)

c)

the following ' namely'

,-

N ormal flight procedures and t?lnormal and emergency pro:~neuvers during all phases

a~du:7:frand ~alfunctions of eqUi~::n~~~u~:noeuvres in the

arne, approach where applicable '

pe or on approved flight simulat; , erlence

r In respect

of flight,

even; of

.

as power plant, systems

,mcIudmg ,

SImulated , engine ,

,Instrument '

b

' mIssed approach and I

Instrument ,

d' ,an Ing procedures under normal

procedures' d'

a ,normal and emergen faIlure;

cy con ItlOns, including

100

Kgs. he shall have undergone satisfactorily within the preceding six months of the intended flight, appropriate proficiency checks in respect of that type of aircraft as required by the Director-General, Provided also that for all IFR flights as Pilot-in-Command or as Co-pilot, he shall be required to have current Instrument Rating,

INSTRUMENT RATING (AERO PLANES)

1. Requirements for Issue of Rating -

An applicant for an Instrument Rating shall satisfy the followingrequirements:

a) Knowledge - He shall pass a written and oral examination

in Air

Regulations, Air Navigation, Aviation Meteorology and Instrument

Rating

as per syllabus prescribed by the Director-General for issue of Commercial Pilot's Licence, He shall also pass a practical test on interpretation of aural and visual signals as per the syllabus prescribed by the Director-General.

b) Experience - He shall produce evir1"l,,:;eof having satisfactorily completed as a pilot of an aeroplane-

101

2.

Validity-

(a)

(b)

The rating shall be valid for

satisfactory

I

period of twelve months which sh 11

. d

f

completion oftheai~esrtrlOu0 ttwelt~emonths from the date of the

. y ~ t e ratmg shall be for a

n the case of renewal, the period of validit

men ra mg test.

f h

10:t~n~~;~~~~tO;:~~:~::ob~::~~~~;~;:~r~~

~~: c~~d~:~~~~:~~n;t:~~

date of expiry and all other requirem~~t: fo;~e~: onIe month

application.

In cases other than those referred to in 1

the rating shall commence from th d t c afutshe. ,the validity of renewal of

wa are met on the date of

preceding the

(c)

(b)

3. R enewal-

applicant: The Instrument Rating may b

ea

e 0

e mstrument ratmg test 3

e renewe d on receipt . of satIsfactory . evidence ofthe

102

his Instrument Rating on all multi - engine aeroplanes within the aforesaid weight category.

Notwithstanding anything said here-in-before, the holder of an Instrument Rating on any transport aeroplane, shall exercise his privileges only on the type of aeroplane on which the Instrument Rating Flight test has been satisfactorily carried out;

Provided further that the holder of an Instrument Rating on aeroplanes having an all-up-weight exceeding five thousand seven hundred Kgs. shall exercise the privileges of his Instrument Rating only on the type of aeroplane on which the Instrument Rating Flight test has been satisfactorily carried out. Provided also that, notwithstanding anything said herein before, the holder of an Instrument Rating on any multi -engine aeroplane may exercise the privileges of Instrument Rating on any single engine aeroplane entered in the aircraft rating of his licence.

103

required to be operated with a copilot, shall be entitled to be credit with not more than:

A) 40% of the copilotflighttime towardsthe totalflight time requiredfor a higher gradeof a pilotlicence

B) 50% of the copilotflighttime towardsthe totalflight time requiredfor renewal of a commercialpilotlicence

C) 100hoursof flyingtime requiredfor a highergradeof a pilotlicence

5. The minimum age of obtaining a PPL is:

A) 18years

B) 17years

C) 21 years

104

B) 50% of the flight timetowardsthe total time requiredfor highergradeof pilot licencein accordancewiththe requirementsof the licensingauthority

C) in full with hisflighttimetowardsthetotaltime requiredfor highergradeof pilot licence

10.

An applicant holding a private or commercial pilot license aeroplane for the

issue of an instrument rating, shall have completed

hours

of cross-country

flight time as pilot-in-command of aircraft in categories acceptable to the licensing Authority

A) 20 hours

B) 40 hours

C) 50 hours

11

An applicant for an Airline Transport Pilot Licence shall have completed in aeroplanes not !:cc; than:

A) 75 hoursof nightflightas pilot in commandor as copilot

B) 100hoursof nightflightas pilotin commandor as copilot

C) 100hoursof nightflightonlyas pilotin command

105

A) noneof the answersare correct

B)

C)

12 monthsto 6 months

24 monthsto 12 months

16. The applicant to exercise the function aeroplanes shall prove accordin s of an Instrumental Flight Rating in his!her capability to pilot ~uch . g ~o ANNEX 1: PERSONNELLICENSING,

engine

.

arrcra

only by Instrumental rules and an

A) Multi-engine!inoperativeor simulatedinoperative

B) Land!inactive

C) Amphibious/inactiveor simulatedinactive

106

C) 16 years of age

21. To be able to execute a public transport flight, the minimum and maximum age (with ATPL) is:

A)

21 and 65 years

B)

16 and 60 years

C).

18 and 60 years

22. Which of the following Annexes to the Chicago convention contains minimum specifications for a crew licence to have international validity?

A) Annex 1

B) Annex 3

C) Annex 4

107

jurisdiction over the territory over flown. For purposes of flight over those parts of the high seas where a Contracting State has accepted, pursuant to a regional air navigation agreement, the responsibility of providing air traffic services., the "appropriate ATS authority" referred to in this chapter is the relevant authority designated by the State responsible for providing those services.

Compliance with the Rules of the Air The operation of an aircraft either in flight or on the movement area of an aerodrome shall be in compliance with the general rules and, in addition, when in flight, either with:

a) the visual flight rules, or

b) the instrument flight rules.

Note :- Local flights as may be exempted by Air Traffic Control and such training flights of Flying Club aircraft as may be cleared by Air Traffic Control may be operated during night in Visual Meteorological Conditions. For this purpose local flight is a flight wholly conducted in the immediate vicinity of an aerodrome.

108

109

Negligent or reckless operation of aircraft

endanger An life aircraft or property shall not of others. be operated in a negligent or reckless manner so as to

Minimum Safe Heights

Except Whennecessary for take-off or landing, or except by permission from the Director General, aircraft shall not be flown over the congested areas of cities, towns or·settlements or over an open-air assembly of persons, unless at such a height as will permit, in the event of an emergency arising, a landing to be made without undue hazard to persons or property on the surface.

Notwithstanding anything contained above, the Director-General may, by order in writing, permit, subject to such conditions and restrictions as he may deem fit to impose, any aircraft engaged in aerial spraying or crop dusting, mining exploration to fly at or above such height as may be specified in the order. CrUising Levels

The cruising levels at which a flight or a portion of a flight is to be conducted

110

d

below an as mIca

. appropriate air traffic services umt.

.

. di ted by relevant mrorma ion,

h or if it is flown by a person for t e

it purpose shall be of qualifying flown by a for hcen~ed a l~cen~eun pilot, d er these . rules ' such person shall be

.

ft i

d for aerobatics - .

.

When an arrcra t IS use

a)

b)

. db

licensed pilot mstructor,

.ed whether t e carna

t

accompame

if their passengers previous are consent carrr to , the performance 0

y a 1

he

carri ge is public transport or no ,

b

d .

f acrobatics shall be 0 tame m

.

c)

(d)

writing;

the pilot or person m c

commencmg

secured by safety belts, an

the aerobatics shall be com~e~~! ~~ ;~~ot ~essthan 600 metre~ (20~O

h ghi her height as may be specified l.n

feet) the certificate above the of ground airworthmess or .above.sue Issue d m . grespect of an aircraft in aerobatic

category.

completion of the manoeuvre a

harge 0

f

alrcr .

aft shall satisfy himself . before . I

.ed in the aircraft ISproper y

.

.

the flight that every person earn

.

d

h

.

height that will permit

Aircraft shall not be flown in

a restricted area'

ENR except in accordance with the conditi

. f h as p~bl~shed in the AlP (India)

.

the Director General.

Avoidance of Collisions

. responsibility of taking such action . 1 di pi ot-~n~comm~ndof an aircraft from the on resolution advisories provided by'~~~~ mg.collision avoidance manoeuvres based

1 IOns0 t e restnceion» or by permission of

Nothing in these rules shall relieve the '1

.

.

.

"

equipment, as well as avert collision

h

.

Proximity

a collision An aircraft hazard. shall not be operated in

sue proximity to other aircraft as to create

Right-of-way

The aircraft that has the ri ht of w

h

'"

air~raft that is obliged by the folrawin - r~ie: all maintain ItS heading and speed. An

to keep ou.t of the way of another shall

into account the effect of aircraft wake turb~l~;:de~nless It passes well clear and takes

avoid passing over, under or in front of~he

112

An aircraft in flight, or operating on the ground or water, shall give way to aircraft landing or in the final stages of an approach to land.

When two or more heavier-than-air aircraft are approaching an aerodrome for the purpose of landing, aircraft at the higher level shall give way to aircraft at the lower level, but the latter shall not take advantage of this rule to cut in in front of another which is in the final stages of an approach to land, or to overtake that aircraft. Nevertheless, power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft shall give way to gliders.

Emergency Landing. An aircraft that is aware that another is compelled to land shall give way to that aircraft.

Taking Off. An aircraft taxiing on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome shall give way to aircraft taking off or about to take off.

113

o Technical Manual (Doc 9051) to enhance aircraft conspicuity,

From sunset to sunrise or during any other period prescribed by the Director General,

a) all aircraft moving on the movement area of an aerodrome shall display navigation lights intended to indicate the relative path of the aircraft to an observer and other lights shall not be displayed if they are likely to be mistaken for these lights;

may

e use

n a

on

e an -co s on

g s spec f e

n

e

rwor ness

b) unless stationary and otherwise adequately illuminated, all aircraft on the movement area of an aerodrome shall display lights intended to indicate the extremities of their structure;

c) all aircraft operating on the movement area of an aerodrome shall display lights intended to attract attention to the aircraft; and

d) all aircraft on the movement area of an aerodrome whose engines are running shall display lights which indicate that fact.

114

a) Observe other aerodrome traffic for the purpose of avoiding collision;

b) Conform with or avoid the pattern of traffic formed by other aircraft in

operation;

.'

c) Make all turns to the left, when approaching for a landing and after takmg off unless otherwise instructed;

d) Land and take offinto the wind unless safety, the runway configuration, or air traffic considerations determine that a different direction is preferable.

When an aerodrome control tower is in operation at an aerodrome the Pilot-in- command shall also,

a) Maintain a continuous listening watch on the appropriate radio freque~cy of the aerodrome con+col tower unless under approach control service furnished by another Air Traffic Control unit and if this is not possible, keep a watch for such instructions as may be issued by visual signals, and

b) Obtain either by radio or by visual signals prior authorization for any manoeuvre preparatory to or associated with taxiing, landing or take off.

115

the

the

in~ended point of entry into a control area o~ advisory area' or '

point of crossing an airway or advisory route,

Contents of a Flight Plan

A flight plan shall comprise informatio considered relevant by the appropriate ATS aU~~;i~;~

di

ng

such of the items as are

Completion of a Flight Plan

Whatever the purpose for which it is

on r I

bmi

d

'

information, as applicable

t

it su mitte , a flight plan shall contain

I ems up, to and including "Alternate

plan is submitted, It shall in additi rou e or, t~e portlO~ thereof fo: which the flight

items when so prescribed by the al I~~, ~r~:a~;~format~on, as applicable, ~n all other necessary by the person submitti:: th~ flight Pla:,uthonty or when otherwise deemed

Changes to a Flight Plan

aerodrome(s)" regarding th~ wholee ev~n

All changes to a flight plan submitted for an IFR flight, or a VFR flight operated

116

traffic services unit in charge of the flight information region in which the aircraft is operated,

Arrival reports made by aircraft shall contain the following elements of information:

a) aircraft identification;

b) departure aerodrome;

c) destination aerodrome (only in the case of a diversionary landing);

d) arrival aerodrome;

e) time of arrival.

TIME

Co-ordinated Universal Time (UTC)shall be used and shall be expressed in hours and minutes and, when required, seconds of the 24-hour day beginning at midnight,

A time check shall be obtained prior to operating a controlled flight and at such other times during the flight as may be necessary.

117

has been made and clearance obtained from the appropriate air traffic control unit, or unless an emergency situation arises which necessitates immediate action by the aircraft, in which event as soon as circumstances permit, after such emergency

authority is exercised, the appropriate air

action taken and that this action has been taken under emergency authority.

traffic services unit shall be notified of the

Unless otherwise authorized by the appropriate ATS authority, or directed by the appropriate air traffic control unit, controlled flights shall, in so far as practicable:

a) that when route; on an or established ATS route, operate along the defined centre line of

b) when on any other route, operate directly between the navigation facilities and/or points defining that route.

An aircraft operating along an ATS route segment defined by reference to very high frequency omnidirectional radio ranges shall change over for its primary navigation guidance from the facility behind the aircraft to that ahead of it at, or as close as operationally feasible to, the change-over point, where established.

Inadvertent Changes. In the event that a controlled flight inadvertently

118

d: aircraft identification; flight rules;

(1) Ddest~nt~t:~f n::c r:~!eoi flight including related flight plan ~ata

t d change of route ISto

. h

b

. Destination changed: aircraft identific~tio~; flight rules; ~sc;IPd~on

commence; reVIse

escrip . . 10 egmnmg

with the position from w IC reques e

,

hi h

.

. d time estimates' any other pertinent information.

descri ti

(2)

of revised route of flight to revis~d des~matIOnaer_o~ro~e me ~h~~~

related fldighhtplanofd::~te b:g~~n~~~;~~~e~hr:v1;:~tl~:e r~:imates;

requeste c ange

alternate aerodrome(s); any other pertme~t in orma IO~ t that flight

.

.

£

ti

.

b I

the VMC When It becomes eVI en

in VMC in accordance WIthIts curren

operated as a controlled flight shall:

Weather deterio~at~on

e o~ fl' ht pla~ will not be practicable, a VFR flight

ig

.

.

nabling the aircraft to contmue in VMC to

a) request ~n amended cllteara~~eeeaerodrome ' or to leave the airspace within

, , ATC clearance is required; vi . h a) can be obtained, continue to operate m

b) VMC if no clearance and notify m the accordance appropriate .WltATC

destination or to an a erna IV.

hi h W IC an.

.

um it of the action being taken either

COMMUNICATIONS

An aircraft operated as a controlled flight shall maintain continuous air-ground voice communication watch on the appropriate communication channel and establish two-way communication as necessary with, the appropriate air traffic control unit, except as may be prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority in respect of aircraft forming part of aerodrome traffic at a controlled aerodrome.

SELCAL or similar automatic signalling devices satisfy the requirement to maintain an air-ground voice communication watch.

The requirement for an aircraft to maintain air-ground voice communication watch remains in effect after CPDLC has been established.

Communication Failure. Aircraft shall comply with the communication failure procedures of Annex 10, Volume II, and with such of the following procedures as are appropriate. The aircraft shall attempt to establish communications with the appropriate air traffic control unit using all other available means. In addition, the aircraft, when forming part of the aerodrome traffic at a controlled aerodrome, shall keep a watch for such instructions as may be issued by visual signals.

120

offset using area navigation (RNAV) without ~ s~ecified h~mt, reJ,om,t e current flight plan route no later than th~ next s~gmficantpoint, takmg mto

consideration the applicable minimum flight altitude;

,

d) roceed according to the current flight plan ro~te ,to the appropriate

~esi nated navigation aid or fix serving the destination aero~ro~e an~,

when required to ensure compliance with until commencement of descent;

c) above, hold over this aid or fIX

e) mence descent from the navigation aid or fix specifiedin c) at, or as close

com

, ~~':s ~lose as possible to, the estimated time of arrival resultmg from the

current fli5:·: plan;

ible to the expected approach time last received and acknowledged;

as POSSI

if 0 expected , approach time has been receive . an ac n~w e ge,

,

h

d

d

knowled d at

f) complete a normal instrument approach procedure as specified for t e

designated navigation aid or fix; and

",

g) land, if possible, within thirty minutes after the estimated ,tIme of,arnval specified in c) or the last acknowledged expected approach time, whichever

is later,

121

a) flight visibilities reduced to not less than 3 000

1)

2)

III cIrcumstances in which the

normally be low, e.g. in areas off:o a II ity

.

.

0 avoi

b bT

b) HELICOPTERSmay be permitt d to

b m may e permItted for flights operating:

.

co ISlOn' or

'

. at speeds that, IIIthe prevailing visibilit will .

. other traffic or any obstacles in time t y"d gIII~e.adequate opportumty to observe

f 0 ~~counters wit.h other traffic would

w vo ume tra ICan~ for aerial work at lowlevels.

a.ta speed that will give adequa~ opp~~:~~::U:t\1500 m flight visibility, if manoeuvred

time to avoidcollision.

y 0 Q serve other traffic or any obstaclesin

***The VMC "

not imply acceptance of VFR fli, ht . Cl

.

19

s m

m~mma m ass A airspace are incl d d tor oui

ass A mrspace. . u e tor

. Cl

guidance to pilots . and do

VISUAL FLIGHT RULES

. f'vi ibilit: t, VFR flights shall be conducted

or greater than those specified in Ta~:~ 0 VISI I ity and distance from clouds equal to

so that the aircraft is flown in conditi

Except when operating as a special VFR fli h

Except when a clearance is obtained from an air traffic control unit, VFR flights

122

appropriate ATS authority, shall be conducted at a cruising level appropriate to the

track

VFR flights shall comply with these provisions:

as specified in the Tables of cruising levels.

a) when operated within Class D airspace;

b) when forming part of aerodrome traffic at controlled aerodromes; or

c) when operated as special VFR flights.

A VFR flight operating within or into areas, or along routes, designated by the appropriate ATS authority shall maintain continuous air-ground voice communication watch on the appropriate communication channel of, and report its position as necessary to, the air traffic services unit providing flight information service.

An aircraft operated in accordance with the visual flight rules which wishes to

change to compliance with the instrument

a) if a flight plan was submitted, communicate the necessary changes to be effected to its current flight plan, or

b) when sorequired, submit a flight plan to the appropriate air trafficservicesunit and obtain a clearance prior to proceedingIFR when in controlledairspace.

flight rules shall:

123

overflown, or, where no such minimum flight altitude has been established:

a) over high terrain or in mountainous areas, at a level which is at least 600 m (2000 ft) above the highest obstacle located within 8 km of the estimated position of the aircraft;

b) elsewhere than as specified in a), at a level which is at least 300m (1000 ft) above the highest obstacle located within 8 km of the estimated position of the aircraft.

Change from IFR flight to VFR flight

An aircraft electing to change the conduct of its flight from compliance with the instrumen~ flight rules to compliance with the visual flight rules shall, if a flight plan ~as s~bmitted, notify the appropriate air traffic services unit specifically that the IFR flight IScancelled and communicate thereto the changes to be made to its current flight plan. When an aircraft operating under the instrument flight rules is flown in or ~ncou~~ers visual ~eteorological conditions it shall not cancel its IFR flight unless it I~anticipated, and mte~ded, that the flight will be continued for a reasonable period of time in