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THEORGANIZATIONOFESSAY

AdvancedReadingandWriting(A)

THEORGANIZATIONOFESSAY AdvancedReadingandWriting(A) Members: RahmiatulYusraA. 1810731018 MulyaniRaisyaAzzahra

Members:

RahmiatulYusraA.

1810731018

MulyaniRaisyaAzzahra

1810731013

EfrinaYuni

1810733003

NiaApriliaS.

1810731011

AyuMutiaAli

1810731025

Lecturer:

NovaLindaS.S,.M.Hum

EnglishLiterature

HumanitiesFaculty

AndalasUniversity

2019

TheOrganizationofEssay

In this paper we want to discuss about parts of essay that include title, introduction,body,andconclusion.Specifically,ineachpartswegotoflatten meaning,howtowrite,function,contain,andsometimeshowmanywordsthey canuse.

1. Title

Atitleisaphrasegiventoatext(anessay,article,chapter,report,orother work)toidentifythesubject,attractthereader’sattention,andforecastthetone andsubstanceofthewritingtofollow.Agoodtitleforaresearchpaperistypical

around10to12wordslong.Alengthytitlemayseemunfocusedandtakethe

reader’sattentionawayfromanimportantpoint.

Howtowriteapropertitle:

Itmusthaveacatchyhook.Ensurethetitlegrabsyourreader’sattention.Be thatasitmay,donotworkhardindevelopingagreattitlewithcontentdoes notreflectcreativityorhardworkinvestedinit.

It requires topic keywords. The “what” of your essay. This component identifiesconceptsyouwillbeexploring.

Focus keywords. The “where/when” of your essay. Together with topic keywords,thesearevitalforyourheadlineandprovidemoreinfothatmakeit professional.

Thefunctionsare:

Itpredictscontent.

Itcatchesthereader’sinterest.

Itreflectsthetoneorslantofthepieceofwriting.

Itcontainskeywordsthatwillmakeiteasytoaccessbyacomputersearch.

2. Introduction

An introduction is the opening of an essay or speech, which typically identifiesthetopic,arousesinterest,andpreparestheaudiencefordevelopmentof thethesis.Thelengthoftheintroductionisneverlongerthanfivesentences(one

paragraph).Ifyourpaperistypical500wordsessay,devoteabout3-5sentences

fortheintro.

Hereareafewpossiblewaystoopenanessayeffectively:

Stateyourcentralidea,orthesis,perhapsshowingwhyyoucareaboutit.

Presentstartlingfactsaboutyoursubject.

Tellanillustrativeanecdote.

Give background information that will help your readers understand your subject,orseewhyitisimportant.

Beginwithanarrestingquotation.

Askachallengingquestion.(Inyouressay,youwillgoontoanswerit).

Thefunctionare:

Itgetsreader’sattentiondrawsthemintotheessay.

Itssetthetonefortheessay,persuadingreadersthatyourvoiceisintelligent

andinformed.

Itprovidesbackgroundinthespecifictopictoorientthereaderswiththe

particularcontextandpurposeofyouressay

Itdefinesyourtopicandthescopeofyouressaytoshowyourargumentfits

intothebiggerpictureofthesubject.

Itpresentsyourthesisinawaythatindicatetheorganizingstructureofyour

essay,givingreadersamapofthejourneyahead.

3. Body

Abodyparagraphisagroupofrelatedsentencesaboutaparticulartopicor

ideadirectlyrelatingtothethesis.Thelengthofthebodyisneverlongerthanfive

sentences(oneparagraph).

Thefollowingimportantaspectsofallbodyparagraph:

Acleartopicsentence.Atopicsentenceislikeaminithesissentenceofeach

paragraphandservestounifythecontentsoftheparagraph.

Specificevidenceorsupportingdetails.

Unityandcohesion.

Transitionbetweensentencesandparagraph.

Aconcludingsentencetiestheevidenceordetailsbacktothemainpointand

bringstheparagraphtoaclose.

Thecomponentofbodyare:

Topicsentence.Thetopicsentenceisthefirstsentenceofaparagraph,and statesthemainideatobediscussedintheparagraph.Inabodyparagraph,the topicsentenceisalwaysabouttheevidencegiveninthethesisstatementof theessay.Itcouldbeaclaim,andassertion,oraffectneedingexplanation.It isgenerallyastatementoradeclarativesentence.

Explanationorexample.Thetopicsentenceisfollowedbyanexplanation and/oranexample.Whateveritis,itgenerallystartwith“inotherword”or “it means” or “for example”, or “for instance”, etc. This is called “metacommentary”ortellingofthesamethingindifferentwordtoexplainit further,sothatreaderscanunderstand.

Supportingdetails.Supportingdetailsincludeconcreteexamples,ratherthan explanationormetacommentary.Incommonessay,orfiveparagraphessay, thisisjustonesentenceexamplefromeverydaylife.However,inthecaseof researchessays,theseareusuallyquotesandstatisticfromresearchstudies.

Thefunctionoftheessay’sbodyistofullydeveloptheargumentoutlinedin

theintroduction.Eachparagraphwithinthebodyoftheessayelaborateonone

majorpointinthedevelopmentoftheoverallargument(althoughsomepoints

mayconsistofanumbersub-points,eachofwhichwillneedaparagraph).

4. Conclusion

Aconclusionisthelastparagraphofyouressay,or,ifyouarewritingareally

longessay,youmightneedtwoorthreeparagraphtoconclude.Aconclusion

typicallydoesoneoftwothings,or,ofcourse,itcandoboth:

1) Summarizes the argument. If you have made a long and complicated argument,itusefulltorestateyourminepointsforyourridersbythetime youhavegottentoyourconclusion.Ifyouopttodosokeepinmindthatyou shouldusedifferentlanguagethanyouusedinyourintroductionandyour bodyparagraph. 2) Explains the significance of the argument. Some instructors want you to avoid restating your main points; they instead want you to explain your argument’ssignificance.Inotherwords,theywantyoutoanswerthe“so what”questionbygivingyourreadersaclearersenseofwhyyourargument matters.

Forexample,yourargumentmightbesignificanttostudiesofacertain timeperiod.

Alternately,itmightbesignificanttoacertaingeographicalregion.

Alternately still, it might influence how your readers think about the future.Youmightevenopttospeculateaboutthefutureand/orcallyour readerstoactioninyourconclusion.

5. Reference

Thereareseveraldifferentstylesofreferencing:

APA

MLA

Oxford

Harvard

Chicago

Eachstylehasitsownrulerforproperlycitingsources.

Author-date styles(e.g.,APA,MLA,andHarvard)puttheauthor’sname insidethetextoftheassignment.

Documentary-notestyles(e.gChicagoandOxford)puttheauthor’snamein thefootnoteatthebottomofeachpage,orinanendnoteattheendofthe assignment.Thestylesdifferinformat.Forexample:

1. An APA in-text citation incorporate the author’s name, the year of publication,andsometimesthepagenumber,separatedbycommas:

(Lazar,2006,p.52)

2. AnMLAin-textcitationontheotherhanddoesnotincludetheyearor

commas:

(Lazar52)

3. Likewise,anAPAreferencelistentryputstheyearinbracketsafterthe

author’sname:

Lazar,J.(2006).Webusability:Auser-centereddesignapproach.

Boston,MA:PearsonAddisonWesley.

4. AnMLAworkscitedentryputstheyearnearertheendofentry:

Lazar,Jonathan.WebUsability:Auser-centereddesignapproach.

PearsonAddisonWesley,2006.

There are other differences between these two styles. For instance, APA includesfirstinitialswhereasMLAusesfullfirstnames.Whenformattinga reference,followthestyleyouhavebeensetclosely.

APA style is the most common referencing style, but different schools, departments,andlecturersmayhavetheirownrequirements.

APA style is commonly used in Education, Business, and some Social SciencesandHumanitiesdisciplines.

MLAstyleisoftenusedinEnglishandMediaStudies.

OxfordstyleisoftenusedinHistory,Philosophy,andClassics.

HarvardandChicagostylesareusedbysomeindividualdisciplines.

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com/insights/3-basic-tips-on-writing-a-good-research-paper-title.

Richard Nordquist. 2019, Feb 11. In ThoughtCo What Is a Compelling Introduction?. Retrieved August 31, 2019, from https://www.thoughtco.com

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