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Research Methodology: Sample Design, Statistical Analysis, and Hypothesis Testing

1) Explain the meaning and significance of the concept of “Standard Error’ in sampling analysis.
2) Explain the meaning of the following sampling fundamentals:
(a) Sampling frame;
(b) Sampling error;
(c) Central limit theorem;
(d) Student’s t distribution;
(e) Finite population multiplier.
3) Distinguish between the following:
(a) Statistic and parameter;
(b) Confidence level and significance level;
(c) Random sampling and non-random sampling;
(d) Sampling of attributes and sampling of variables;
(e) Point estimate and interval estimation.
4) 500 articles were selected at random out of a batch containing 10000 articles and 30 were
found defective. How many defective articles would you reasonably expect to find in the
whole batch?
5) A random sample of 500 pineapples was taken from a large consignment and 65 were found to
be bad. Show that the standard error of the population of bad ones in a sample of this size is
0.015 and also show that the percentage of bad pineapples in the consignment almost certainly
lies between 8.5 and 17.5.

1) A survey result of 1600 Playboy readers indicates that 44% finished at least three years of
college. Set 98% confidence limits on the true proportion of all Playboy readers with this
2) Given is the following information:
(i) Universe with N =10,000.
(ii) Variance of weight of the cereal containers on the basis of past records = 8 kg.
Determine the size of the sample for estimating the true weight of the containers if the
estimate should be within 0.4 kg. of the true average weight with 95% probability.
3) Mr. Alok is a purchasing agent of electronic calculators. He is interested in determining at a
confidence level of 95% what proportion (within plus or minus 4%), is defective.
Conservatively, how many calculators should be tested to find the proportion defective?
4) Mr. Kishore wants to determine the average time required to complete a job with which he is
concerned. As per the last studies, the population standard deviation is 8 days. How large
should the sample be so that Mr. Kishore may be 99% confident that the sample average may
remain within ±2 days of the average?

Dr. P.J.Gundaliya, Professor in Civil Engineering Department, LDCE, Ahmedabad

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Research Methodology: Sample Design, Statistical Analysis, and Hypothesis Testing

3(Testing of Hypotheses)
1. What Is A Hypothesis? Write Characteristics of Hypothesis
2. Explain Basic Concepts Concerning Testing of Hypotheses
3. Draw Flow Diagram For Hypothesis Testing
4. Briefly describe the important parametric tests used in context of testing hypotheses. How
such tests differ from non-parametric tests? Explain
5. There are 100 students in a university college and in the whole university, inclusive of this
college, the number of students is 2000. In a random sample study 20 were found smokers
in the college and the proportion of smokers in the university is 0.05. Is there a significant
difference between the proportion of smokers in the college and university? Test at 5 per
cent level.
6. The means of the two random samples of 1000 and 2000 are 67.5 and 68.0 inches
respectively. Can the samples be regarded to have been drawn from the same population of
standard deviation 9.5 inches? Test at 5% level of significance.
7. A sample of 600 persons selected at random from a large city gives the result that males are
53%. Is there reason to doubt the hypothesis that males and females are in equal numbers in
the city? Use 1% level of significance

Dr. P.J.Gundaliya, Professor in Civil Engineering Department, LDCE, Ahmedabad

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