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Conversation with

Last year, the editor of MEJ visited the Copland: I don’t think it’s the s a m e today be-
campus of West Virginia University in Mor- cause jazz has been around so long now. Ev-
gantown, where composer Aaron Copland erybody has heard it. In the Twenties it was
was in residence for three days to speak to a novelty, and people w e r e saying that it was
students and participate in concerts of his all right as long as it stayed in its own place-
music at the n e w Creative Arts Center. The that it didn’t belong in Carnegie Hall. To
occasion was one of numerous concert and make use of jazz then was rather daring and
guest-artist programs sponsored by the Uni- definitely American. But it’s a completely
versi ty. different situation today. Composers don’t do
Mr. Copland’s schedule was filled with a that anymore. I suppose today i t might sound
lecture, convocation, rehearsals, and recit- more American to use rock in a composition.
als-activities captured in some of the photo- Bessom: Do you listen to jazz very much?
graphs on the following pages. Between Copland: No, I don’t. I would b e more likely
events, the seventy-two-year-old Brooklyn- to listen to rock-some recent examples of
born musician, whom many have called the rock music.
“Dean of American Composers,” found time Bessom: Why is that?
to chat informally about his own works, other Copland: Well, it just seems fresher. It’s
composers, teaching, and American music as more inventive, and I suppose more contem-
a whole. porary.
Bessom: In what way is rock more inventive?
Bessom: Mr. Copland, in 1925, following the Copland: The jazz idiom is very familiar,
premiere of your organ symphony, you set and while I can easily imagine somebody
about composing a work for a concert of the doing something very fresh within the idiom,
League of Composers to b e conducted by the idiom is, in a way, more settled. In rock
Serge Koussevitzky. You later stated that i t bands you might get any kind of a com-
h a d been your intention to write a work that bination-some weird collection of in-
would “immediately be recognized as Amer- struments that would change the sound. It
ican in character.” At that time, what was it just seems more wide open for possible de-
that you felt might characterize a com- velopment than the jazz field.
position as “American”? Bessom: What a r e your thoughts on what
Copland: Well, of course, we had jazz then. Gunther Schuller termed “third stream mu-
What could be more American than jazz? At sic,’’in which some composers have tried to
that time it was something new, and I be- integrate two different types of music-the
came interested in it. So I wrote a work so-called classical a n d jazz, or even rock-
called Music for the Theatre, for a small or- but have tried to create a hybrid form quite
chestra, in which I adopted the jazz idiom. different from and more unified than the ap-
T h e use of jazz rhythms gave it an American proach taken in the Twenties?
character. I tried to develop this further in Copland: I don’t think there is as much talk
my Concerto for piano. about third stream music as there was sev-
Bessom: What might a composer do today to eral years ago. It seemed to have been a pos-
create a sound that would seem character- sible idea at the time, but as far as I know
istically American? there hasn’t been much picking up of the

40 mej/mar ’73
idea and the creating of actual works. I t is
difficult to combine two such idioms a n d get
away with it-to compose a piece in which
the two make sense together.
Bessom: What a r e some of the problems in-
volved in combining two types of music?
Copland: They a r e so different stylistically.
It is as if you w e r e trying to combine the sen-
timents of two different worlds. You might
contrast them, but it would b e rather h a r d to
mix them in any successful way.
Bessom: You were a prominent figure in
what I would call the first major school of
American composers, in the 1920s. Looking
back, what do you see as important devel- Photos on pages
41-44 courtesy of
opments in American music that came out of West Virginia
the 1920s and 1930s? University.
Copland: The main development that sug-
gests itself is the number of composers who
are writing today as compared to forty or
fifty years ago. I would say there a r e twenty
of them now to one who was writing in the
Twenties. They have increased in a very im-
pressive way. There is also the fact that
there a r e now so many more places where
you can study music. In the Twenties, the
typical college music department rarely con-
cerned itself with practical music; it existed
for the study of the theory of music, a n d har-
mony a n d counterpoint. What w e have now
amounts to having music conservatories in
the larger universities. And the kind of
teacher one meets now is very different from
the teacher of the Twenties. At that time they
tended to be rather stuffy, elderly gentlemen
with very conservative musical tastes. Stra-
vinsky shocked the wits out of them, and you
wouldn't have thought of the college music
department as a lively place to produce com-
posers. All that has now changed.
Bessom: In the late 1930s, you wrote that "the
great young American composer will not ap-

mej/mar '73 41
pear suddenly out of the West with an im- a n atmosphere, rather than thematic mate-
mortal masterpiece under his arm. H e will rial alone?
come out of a long line of lesser men.” Out of Copland: I think i t has been both. Obviously
the line that has developed in the past thirty it is easier to suggest a local atmosphere if
years, would you have any candidates now you do make a quotation from a known or
for the position of “great American com- unknown typical American theme. But I
poser ”? haven’t found i t essential to do that. I have
Copland: (Laughing) That’s not fair. Really, I written music that I think is recognizably
was trying to express dramatically the notion that of an American composer without bas-
that you don’t just sit around and wait for a ing i t on such materials. It depends on what
great genius to suddenly spring up before you a r e writing for. If you a r e writing ballets,
you. An important musical movement is the operas, or film music-things with dramatic
result of a combined effort on the part of content-it’s a help, naturally, to draw upon
many different people and different situa- a background of folk music that suggests par-
tions, which in the end-if everything goes ticular periods and times in our own country.
well-should produce composers of first- But by now I think I’m quite capable of writ-
class stature. ing a piece suggesting the American land-
Bessom: Has your own approach to com- scape without having to quote from anything
position changed over the years? Or have specific.
just the ideas changed? Bessom: The film music you mentioned in-
Copland: I don’t have any sense of it’s having terests me because of the way in which i t is
changed, basically. I think i t has been fairly created. You’ve done several scores for that
consistent. I have worked with various medium, haven’t you?
media, of course, and I have worked in more Copland: Six or seven.
than one style. My twelve-tone music might Bessom: When you wrote the score for Our
be considered different from music based on Town or North Star or The Heiress, for
American folk themes. But when I write i t I which you won a n Academy Award, you ob-
feel the same; i t comes from the same viously had to write music to accompany cer-
source. I t feels natural, and I wouldn’t want tain scenes that lasted for just so many sec-
to be stuck with doing the same thing over onds. Did you find that limiting on your
and over again. Some composers a r e lucky creative ideas?
enough to write a first symphony and then Copland: It is more limiting in the sense that
just go on right up to number thirteen or the main business of the picture is to tell a
fourteen, and they think nothing of i t . I’ve story, alid your music will always be, so to
never been able to do that. speak, in second place. But it’s also very
Bessom: I recall that in one of your books stimulating. You should try it some time. It’s
you said you would like to write a work en- quite a lot of fun to have someone show you
titled “Extravaganza. ” a picture and say, “Now add some music to
Copland: Did I? I’ve forgotten that. this that will make the scene more effective,
Bessom: I gather, then, that it hasn’t been more expressive, more meaningful.” That’s a
written or isn’t in progress. challenge, and you hope you’re going to be a
Copland: No. I vaguely remember having real help to the combined efforts of all the
written that statement, but I no longer re- people working on the film by adding to it
member just why I wanted to write a piece music that will make the story more poi-
with that title. It still seems like a pretty good gnant, or more exciting, or more contempo-
idea, even though I haven’t written it. rary in feeling-whatever i t happens to be.
Bessom: Is there any particular type of work T h e problem is never exactly the same. Of
that you would like to write but haven’t got- course, you don’t have to accept every pic-
ten around to yet? ture that is offered you. You should pick and
Copland: Actually, I’d like to do a string choose-if you have the luxury of doing that.
quartet. I even went so far as to promise the So, I remember my experiences in writing
Juilliard Quartet one and then had to renege film music with a considerable amount of
for a while. I might pick i t up again. It seems pleasure.
like a serious and challenging thing to do, to Bessom: When did you start composing?
write a proper string quartet. Copland: I don’t really remember. I was as-
Bessom: It has often been said that much of tonished to s e e a letter that my sister-in-law
your music, particularly that of the late 1930s showed me; I had sent i t to her when I was
and the 1940s-the period of Billy the Kid, eight years old. She had sent me a present
Appalachian Spring, and Rodeo-has been because I was sick at the time, and I said in
based largely on American folk material. the letter that I was making u p a song to
Yet, what few folk themes a r e used seem to thank her for the present. Now, that came as
be transformed considerably. Wouldn’t you a n utter surprise because I had no recollec-
say that what you have drawn from Ameri- tion of being interested in music until I was
can folk music is more importantly a feeling, about eleven years old, and I can’t remem-

42 mej/mar ’73
ber jotting anything down until I was fifteen,
which is comparatively late.
Bessom: Has that song been lost?
Copland: No, it's not lost. (Laughing) I have
hidden i t away in my personal belongings.
Bessom: What was it that really got you inter-
ested in composing seriously?
Copland: I don't know. It was just a natural
instinct-fiddling around the piano a n d mak-
ing up my own tunes and harmonies. Then
getting more a n d more fascinated. I don't
come from a musical family. As far as I
know, there were no musicians in the family,
which was a very large one, nor anyone in
any of the other arts. It must have been
something inborn that I h a d no control of and
can take no credit for.
Bessom: Have you ever thought of writing
anything in the way of aleatoric music?
Copland: No, I haven't. It would b e a curious
thing for me to do because I've worked all
my life to get the right note in the right place,
a n d then to leave all that to chance would
s e e m to go against the grain. But I can s e e
that you can get effects through chance meth-
ods that you couldn't possibly get by putting
all the notes in their "right" place. If you in-
troduce the element of chance, why then
you're taking a chance and i t might o r might
not work out. In any event, i t will never b e
the s a m e twice. Aleatoric music is just sort of
a bright idea that John Cage propagandized,
and i t undoubtedly has a certain charm. But I
would think it's limited in that each time you
h e a r i t you a r e taking a chance.
Bessom: What about electronic music? Have
you ever wanted to do any composing in that
Copland: No. I have no talent at all with me-
chanical things. I feel lucky i f I turn a switch
a n d the light goes on. I wouldn't know what
to do with an electronic-magnetic band, or
whatever i t is they work with when they pro-
duce these sounds. They a r e obviously add-
ing something to the language of music, but
at the mpment I think they're very limited by
the fact that i t all has to be put on tape. You
rarely have i t made live for you. Once it's
put on tape, it's always the same, which I
think is a built-in limitation. In music we de-
pend on the art of interpretation so much to
keep i t alive. You may h e a r some piece over
and over again, but even the s a m e performer
never does i t twice in exactly the same way.
That element in music is lost when you're
forced to put something on tape.
Bessom: Do you believe that American mu-
sic is receiving a fair share of programing
Copland: No, I certainly don't. In fact, I think
it's rather shocking that there has not been
more progress made in that direction, con-
sidering the number of years now repre-
sented by the American music effort-espe-

cially if I date it back to my own time,
starting in the Twenties. We’ve h a d fifty
years of it now, and I can’t s e e any great
progress in the symphonic field. Occasion-
ally you do find a n orchestra whose con-
ductor is interested and curious, but by and
large not a great deal has been accom-
plished. If anything, I think that in New York
it’s more discouraging now. Either the con-
ductors a r e too lazy to really examine music
or the audiences a r e too resistent, or both. I
don’t know what the reason is. But I don’t
think we’re in a good period from that stand-
point. In the days when Serge Koussevitzky
was around, and Stokowski in his younger
days, they were rivals for the first perform-
ance of certain composers’ works. It seems to
me that the number of foreign conductors we
continue to have is, in itself, a deterrent. If
you invite somebody from abroad, it’s only
natural that h e bring with him repertoire
that h e knew abroad, and it would b e the ex-
ception to find a conductor who took a n in-
terest in the creations of American com-
posers i n a way that would produce more
than just an occasional performance. Not
that all American conductors a r e interested
in American music; but at least you have a
fighting chance there.
Bessom: Are there any particular composers
who you feel have been overlooked by not
only orchestras but opera houses, record
companies, and so on?
Copland: The opera house production is a
rather special case. I wouldn’t know that so
well. I can think of some young composers
who have not been played yet that I think
will be played. I think particularly of a
young composer in his early thirties whose
name is David Del Tredici. I don’t know if
you know him.
Bessom: No, I don’t.
Copland: He’s from the Coast-born in Cali-
fornia of a German mother and a n Italian fa-
ther. But he’s an American all right. I think
h e is especially gifted, and I feel pretty con-
fident that his music will catch on. [Ed. note:
Three of Del Tredici’s works a r e available
on recordings: Fantasy Pieces (Desto 7110),
Night Conjure-Verse (CRI, S-243), and Sy-
zygy (Columbia, MS-7281) .]
Bessom: How would you evaluate the posi-
tion of Carl Ruggles? Do you think there
might b e a greater interest in his music
emerging, possibly in the way that the enthu-
siasm for Ives has developed on a large scale
only during the past fifteen years or so?
Copland: I knew Ruggles slightly. I once vis-
ited him in his schoolhouse studio in Ver-
mont. H e was an interesting old codger-a
real character in the American sense. And
h e wrote works that a r e suprisingly personal
and passionate and very convincing. But the
great pity with Ruggles is that h e h a d so

44 rnej/rnar ’73
small a production. If you add u p the num- time for even something like the Impression-
ber of his works, there a r e about six or seven ists of Paris to join the ranks of the great men
playable orchestral pieces, many of which of the past. Debussy, I can remember, used
express basically the same emotions. It is not to be thought of as a wild radical in 1918.
a very wide and varied emotional landscape When h e died in that year, h e was consid-
that h e presents in his music. His work is ered the latest thing in music. It is only grad-
comparatively limited from this standpoint ually that so-called avant-garde composers
as well as in number. It makes him a n inter- enter the mainstream. I don’t know how
esting character, but not a very rich and full long i t is going to take before today’s music
composer in the sense that Ives is extraordi- is thoroughly acceptable. It isn’t too bad
narily rich and varied. I was very surprised that there is a certain amount of time lag.
that Virgil Thomson, in his recent book There always should be compositions that
American Music Since 1910, tries to put Ives a r e thought to be challenging and differ-
down to the advantage of Ruggles. H e tries to ent and h a r d to grasp. Sometimes those a r e
make a case for Ruggles being a more impor- the pieces that last best. If they a r e too easy,
tant figure in American music, but I think you listen and say “that’s nice,” and that’s
that’s a lost cause. You simply cannot build a the end of i t .
man u p if h e doesn’t have something in the Bessom: But must everything we program b e
way of actual accomplishment to build on. I proven timeless?
have conducted some of the Ruggles pieces, Copland: No, it needn’t b e timeless. But com-
and I enjoyed working them out with a n or- posers like to think that the music they write
chestra. They a r e very convincing. H e cer- is going to last forever. From the audience’s
tainly believed in everything h e wrote, and it standpoint, there a r e pieces that do get used
comes over that way to the listener. But there up. I remember pieces that were very popu-
isn’t very much of it, so what a r e you going to lar when I was eighteen, and now they’re
do? You can only regret it. forgotten.
Bessom: Speaking of Virgil Thomson, you Bessom: What about forgotten composers?
once said that his approach to composition Earlier you spoke about how long it takes to
derived from the conviction that modern mu- know whether a composer has made his
sic had forgotten its audience. How do you mark or not. Were there any composers back
view the relationship today between con- in the Twenties-possibly in the same group
temporary American music and audiences? with you and Roy Harris and Virgil Thom-
Copland: Well, I think there is a consid- son-who at the time seemed very promis-
erable amount of resistance still around on ing, but whom we no longer h e a r about?
the part of audiences. You have to convince Copland: The name of Leo Ornstein occurs
them that the stuff is worth listening to. to me. Do you know that name at all?
They’re not ready to take it all on faith. Just Bessom: I have h e a r d his name, but I’ve
because it’s American doesn’t mean you never h e a r d any of his music.
have to love it. On the contrary, if it is Amer- Copland: I remember h e was the young ge-
ican there is a tendency to b e a little suspi- nius when I was twenty. H e couldn’t have
cious of it, I think. I may b e exaggerating a been very much older. I believe he’s still
bit, but just think how much more there is to alive and living in Philadelphia. H e was mak-
choose from now. There is a great variety of ing a big noise. H e was writing music for the
styles, all the way from the John Cage school piano, which h e played himself, and it was
to a much more conservative aspect of Amer- considered way out, very far out. [Ed. note:
ican music. There is plenty of material there, Following Ornstein’s New York debut, one
but most of it gets played to rather small au- critic described his music as “four separate
diences, more often than not within college spasms of anguish too great to be borne.”]
or university walls. It really hasn’t gotten Wild Man’s Dance, I remember, was the title
into the mainstream of classical music, in the of one of them, Yes, h e made a considerable
usual sense of the term. The big audiences, stir in the classical music field. Who else was
the record buyers, really feel attached a n d around? The names a r e gone now, but his I
passionately interested in what’s coming out. remember. We also h a d a critic in those days
But at live concerts, w e lack that feeling of who was a great help; h e was very aware of
real conviction about it. everything that was going on. That was Paul
Bessom: Do you feel that in both educational Rosenfeld. Do you know the name?
and performance circles, w e a r e perhaps too Bessom: Yes. A collection of his essays,
obsessed by the masterpieces of music liter- called Musical Impressions, was published
ature? just a couple of years ago. H e was an inter-
Copland: O h , definitely. That’s been a dis- esting critic. In fact, that book contains one
ease in music since-I don’t know when. It of Rosenfeld’s early appraisals of your mu-
has always been a mystery why the art of sic.
music depends so overwhelmingly on the Copland: I think that his best writings a r e
music of the past and why it takes so long a very sound. H e was rather wordy a n d not al-

rnej/rnar ’73 45
ways at his best, but when h e hit on some-
thing h e was really very perceptive. It is im-
portant that we have men like that in every
period who a r e passionately interested in
what is going on, a n d who a r e sensitive
enough to sort out the good from the bad,
what’s likely to b e essential and what you
can forget about.
Bessom: A number of years ago-I believe it
was in 1921-you began studying in Paris
with Nadia Boulanger, who of course has a
great reputation for being a master teacher.
From that experience, and any others since
then, do you have any thoughts on what it is
that makes a n outstanding music teacher?
Copland: Yes, I have certainly thought about
it. I believe the great thing that Bqulanger
has [as you know, s h e is still teaching, fifty
years later) is her basic sensitivity to music.
It isn’t just the basic sensitivity, but the sen-
sitivity of a person who knows everything
there is to know about music technically. It’s
a combination of the complete training she
Above: Nadia Boulanger herself has h a d , a n d can impart, and h e r nat-
ural, instinctive, subjective response to any
Top of page: Young American composers during their
stay in Paris in 1926 as students of Nadia Boulanger. From kind of music you would put in front of h e r .
left to right: Virgil Thomson, Walter Piston, Herbert You sometimes get good teachers who know
Elwell, and Aaron Copland. their stuff very well, but who a r e a little
bored with music, or who lack understand-
Opposite page: American composers at the home of ing of the more contemporary forms because
Virgil Thomson. Seated (left to right): Thomson, Cian
Carlo Menotti, and William Schuman. Standing: Samuel their interest in them is mild or even resis-
Barber and Aaron Copland. (Photos, The Bettmann tant. That was true of my first teacher, Rubin
Archive, Inc.) Goldmark. H e was a very good musician, but

46 mej/mar ’73
h e h a d no interest in the latest devel- Copland: Gosh, I don’t believe that’s my
opments, which happened at that time to be business to do. In the first place, it can never
Ravel, Scriabin, and Stravinsky, and which seem the same to somebody else as it does to
interested m e passionately. In my mind, that oneself, and secondly there is no per-
limited him as a teacher. The really good manence about it. Whatever you may think
teacher has a continuing enthusiasm about of your music now, or your place now, is no
music, the possibilities of music, and the guarantee of what it’s going to be like fifty
newest forms of music, always based on years from now. One always hopes for the
solid background training. It isn’t enough best, of course. But history proves that many
just to say, “Oh, I love that,” but have no composers who were thought of as very im-
idea why it is you love it-not if you’re going portant in their time a r e not recognized as
to teach somebody about it. O n the other such any longer; a n d others who were ne-
hand, it isn’t enough to know everything and glected and not played, such as Ives, have
then be sort of dumb in front of some n e w everyone’s interest. So it’s a very chancy
manifestation of music that nobody ever has game to play-to try to estimate your own
heard before. That was the great thing about role. I believe I can safely say this: that it was
Boulanger. very important that a group of composers
Bessom: I’d say those thoughts apply to came on the scene at about the same time in
teachers in any type of music instruction, at the Twenties. I’m thinking of Roy Harris,
all levels. Roger Sessions, Virgil Thomson, and Walter
Copland: We certainly need the music Piston; and I include myself with those men
educators, I can tell you that. They can do a as a group that really did a great deal to es-
great deal to arouse the interests of the tablish the fact that we h a d a school of Amer-
youngsters they deal with, to be completely ican composers who knew each other and
aware of the field of American music as one were often played by the same performers. I
part of the history of music in general. They think that group has left a mark on American
can keep in front of young minds the fact that music. How important a mark, nobody
we do have such a school now and that we knows. What it will seem like a hundred
have composers who a r e well worth the years from now, I don’t know. But certainly it
trouble a n d the interest of young people. was necessary that such a thing should have
Bessom: In closing, I wonder if you could de- happened. There h a d to b e a group of com-
scribe what you think your own position is in posers who imposed themselves. I think in
the story of American music? that sense, it was a success. We propagan-

rnej/rnar ’73 47
dized for American music; we got our music the opera (RCA, LSC-24011, Boston
played by organizations that h a d not been Symphony Orchestra.
thinking about playing American music. In Two Pieces for String Orchestra(Columbia,
that sense, we opened up roads for younger MS-73751, London Symphony Orchestra.
men to develop. a
The following recordings feature Aaron
The following recordings feature Aaron Copland as pianist in performances of his
Copland in the role of conductor, as an inter- own com p osi t i ons .
preter of his own compositions.
Concerto for Piano and Orchestra (Colum-
Las Agachadas (Columbia, M-303751, The bia, MS-66981, Leonard Bernstein and the
New England Conservatory Chorus. New York Philharmonic.
Appalachian Spring, suite (RCA, LCS-2401), Quartet for Piano and Strings(Columbia, M-
Boston Symphony Orchestra. 303761, members of the Juilliard String
Billy the Kid, suite (Everest 30151, London Quartet.
Symphony Orchestra. Sextet for Clarinet, Piano, and String Quar-
Concerto for Clarinet and String Orches- tet, arranged from Short Symphony (Co-
tra(Columbia, MS-6497), Columbia Sym- lumbia, M-303761, the Juilliard String
phony Orchestra: Benny Goodman. Quartet; Harold Wright, clarinet.
Concerto for Piano and Orchestra (Van- Twelve Poems o f Emily Dickinson (Colum-
guard, VSD-2094), Symphony of the Air; bia, M-30375), Adele Addison, soprano.
Earl Wild, piano. Vitebsk, Study on a Jewish Theme (Colum-
Dance Symphony (Columbia, MS-72231, Lon- bia, M-303761, members of the Juilliard
don Symphony Orchestra. String Quartet.
Fanfare f o r the Common Man (Columbia, M-
30649), London Symphony Orchestra. OTHER SELECTED RECORDINGS
In the Beginning (Columbia, M-303751, The
New England Conservatory Chorus: Mil- The following recordings a r e of com-
dred Miller, mezzo-soprano. positions not represented in the preceding
Lark (Columbia, M-30375), The New England lists.
Conservatory Chorus.
Lincoln Portrait (Columbia, M-30649), Lon- Appalachian Spring, complete (Columbia,
don Symphony Orchestra; Henry Fonda, ML-51571, Eugene Ormandy and The
narrator. Philadelphia Orchestra.
Music for a Great City (Columbia, M-304741, Cat and the Mouse (Orion 72801, Robert Sil-
London Symphony Orchestra. verman, piano.
Orchestral Variations (Columbia, M-317141, Connotations for Orchestra (Columbia, MS-
London Symphony Orchestra. 74311, Leonard Bernstein and the New
Old American Songs (Columbia, MS-6497), York Philharmonic.
Columbia Symphony Orchestra; William Danzbn Cubano (Columbia, MS-68711,
Warfield, bass. Leonard Bernstein and the New York Phil-
Our Town, suite (Columbia, MS-7375), Lon- harmonic.
don Symphony Orchestra. Emblems (Cornell University 11, Cornell
An Outdoor Overture [Columbia, MS-7375), Wind Ensemble.
London Symphony Orchestra. Four Piano Blues (Orion 72801, Robert Sil-
Preamble for a Solemn Occasion (Columbia, verman.
M-317141, London Symphony Orchestra. Inscape (Columbia, MS-74311, Leonard Bern-
Quiet City (Columbia, MS-73751, London stein and the New York Philharmonic.
Symphony Orchestra. Music for the Theatre (Columbia, MS-6698),
Rodeo (Columbia, M-301141, London Sym- Leonard Bernstein and the New York Phil-
phony Orchestra. harmonic.
Short Symphony (Symphony No. 2 ) (Colum- Passacaglia (Lyrichord 104),Webster Aitken,
bia, MS-7223), London Symphony Orches- piano: and (Orion 7280), Robert Silver-
tra. man, piano.
Statements for Orchestra (Everest 3015), Piano Fantasy (Odyssey 32160040), William
London Symphony Orchestra. Masselos.
Symphonic Ode (Columbia, M-317141, Lon- Piano Variations (Lyrichord 104), Webster
don Symphony Orchestra. Aitken.
Symphony No. 3 (Everest 30181, London The Red Pony (Odyssey, Y-310611, Andre
Symphony Orchestra. Previn and the St. Louis Symphony Or-
The Tender Land, complete (Columbia, MS- chestra.
68141, New York Philharmonic; suite from El Salbn M6xico (Columbia, MS-6441),

48 mej/mar '73
Leonard Bernstein a n d the N e w York Phil-
The Second H u r r i c a n e (Columbia, MS-6181),
Leonard Bernstein, the N e w York Philhar-
monic, a n d the N e w York City High School
of Music a n d Art Chorus.
Sonatu f o r Piano [Orion 72801, Robert Silver-
m a n ; a n d (Lyrichord 1041, LVebster Aitken.
Sonata for Violin a n d Piano (CRI 1 7 1 ) , Car-
roll Glenn, violin; Hilde S o m e r , piano.
Symphony for Organ a n d Orchestra (Colum-
bia, MS-7058), E. Power Biggs, organ:
Leonard Bernstein a n d the N e w York Phil-
Variations on a S h a k e r Melody, from Ap-
palachian Spring (Cornell University 6 ) ,
Cornell LVind Ensemble.


T h e following a r e published works by Aaron

Copland that a r e not currently available on
recordings. Not included a r e arrangements
of compositions in the preceding lists for
other m e d i a , nor sections of larger works that
h a v e b e e n published separately.

A s It Fell Upon a Day (soprano, flute, clari-

Canticle o f Freedom (mixed chorus a n d or-
Dance Panels [ b a l l e t ) .
Dirge in Woods (voice a n d piano). Aaron Copland during the 1930s composing in his studio.
Down a Country L a n e [ o r c h e s t r a ) . (The Bettmann Archive, Inc.)
Iohn H e n r y ( o r c h e s t r a ) .
Letter from H o m e (orchestra).
Music for Movies (orchestra].
Music for Radio (“Saga of the Prairie”) (or-
Nonet for Strings
Song [voice a n d piano).
Song o f the Guerrillas, from North Slur
(chorus a n d orchestra).
Vocalise [voice a n d piano).
What Do We Plan[? [soprano, alto, a n d pidno).
The Younger Generation, from North Star
(chorus a n d piano).


Copland on Music. N e w York: Doubleday &
Company, Inc., 1960; N e w York: W.W.
Norton & Company, Inc., 1963, paperback.
Music a n d Imagination. Cambridge: H a r -
v a r d University Press, 1952; p a p e r b a c k ,
The N e w Music, Revised Edition. N e w York:
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.. 1968;
N e w York: W.W. Norton 8r Company, Inc.,
1969, paperback.
What To Listen For in Music, Revised Edi-
tion. N e w York: McGraw-Hill Book Com-
pany, Inc., 1957; h e w York: Mentor Books.
1957, paperback.

mei/mar ’73 49