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VOLUME-I Final Report

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for


Expansion of 2x600 MW TPP of Udupi Power Corporation
Ltd. to 2800 MW by Addition of 2x800 MW Units at
Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

For
Udupi Power Corporation Ltd.
(A Subsidiary of Adani Power Limited), Padubidri, Udupi, Karnataka

CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute,


Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440 020

December 2016

(QCI/NABET Accreditation letter no. NABET/EIA/RA086/107 dated Feb. 1, 2016)


Environmental Impact Assessment Study for
Expansion of 2x600 MW TPP of Udupi Power
Corporation Ltd. to 2800 MW by Addition of 2x800
MW Units at Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

For
Udupi Power Corporation Ltd.
(A Subsidiary of Adani Power Limited), Padubidri, Udupi, Karnataka

CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute,


Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440 020

December 2016
Project Personnel - NEERI
Component Functional Area Expert Team Member/
(QCI/NABET) / Project Assistants
Scientific Staff
Air Environment
Meteorology, Air Quality Dr. S.K. Goyal Mr. Pradip Jadhao
Monitoring & Prediction (AQ) Ms. Poonam Mandape
Mr. Sunny Sahare
Air Pollution Monitoring Dr. S.K. Goyal Ms. Snehal Bhagwat
Prevention and Control (AP) Mr. Ankur Khare
Mr. Amey Panke
Noise Environment
Noise & Vibration (NV) Dr. Parikshit Verma Mr. Shubhankar Khare
Water Environment
Water Pollution Monitoring, Dr. Sunita Shastry Ms. Mayuri Shivankar
Prevention Control (WP) Mr. Y.J. Baseshankar Ms. Ashwini Wankhede
Mr. Kiran Bawaskar
Ms. Rupa Roy
Mr. Pradip Jadhao
Land Environment
Land-use (LU) Dr. Harshvardhan Singh Mr. Amit Mishra
Mr. Ritesh Vijay Mr. Padeep Jadhao
Dr. Raghuvanshi Ram Ms. Rama Prajapati
Ms. Rakhi Nikhade Ms. Rupa Roy
Solid Hazardous Waste Dr. M.P. Patil Mr. Pradip Jadhao
Management (SHW) Dr. Ganesh Kale

Biological Environment
Ecology and Biodiversity (EB) Dr. L.N. Sangolkar Ms. Pooja Fulwadhani
Dr. Kanchan Kumari
Dr. Shalini Dhyani
Dr. Sharda Kosankar
Socio-economic
Socio-economic Aspects (SE) Dr. S.K. Goyal Mr. Anil Shende
Mr. Sanjay Bodhale
Risk Assessment (RA) Dr. S.K. Goyal Mr. Sagar Karande
Project Leader/ EIA Dr. S.K. Goyal
Coordinator

Overall Guidance Dr. S.R. Wate


Former Director
Dr. Rakesh Kumar
Director
Project Personnel

M/s. Udupi Power Corporation Limited (UPCL)


(A Subsidiary of Adani Power Limited)

Mr. Santosh Singh, Vice Presdient, Environment

Mr. Praveen Anant, Dy. General Manager - Environment

Mr. Channabassavana.A, Senior Manager - Environment

Mr. N. Rajesh, Asst. Manager, Environment

Mr. S.RaviKumar, Senior Officer, Environment


Contents

Item Page No.

List of Plates (xi)


List of Figures (xii)
List of Tables (xiv)
List of Annexures (xix)
Executive Summary E-1-E-16
1.0 Introduction 1.1-1.8
1.1 National Electricity Policy 1.2
1.2 Importance of the Project 1.3
1.3 Justification of Project 1.4
1.4 Objectives of Study 1.5
1.5 Scope of the Study 1.5

1.5.1 Details of the Study 1.5


1.5.2 Methodology of the Study 1.5

1.6 Study Area Details 1.6


1.7 Structure of the EIA Report 1.7

2.0 Project Description 2.1-2.27


2.1 Introduction 2.1
2.2 Salient Features of the Project 2.1
2.3 Project Location and Layout 2.2
2.4 Infrastructure and Resources Requirement 2.7

2.4.1 Land Requirement 2.7

2.4.1.1 Land Availability Details 2.8


2.4.1.2 Details of Cutting and Filling 2.9

2.4.2 Water Requirement Details 2.9

2.4.2.1 Water Requirement and Source 2.9


2.4.2.2 Optimization of Cycles of Concentration 2.10
2.4.2.3 Wastewater Generation, Treatment and Disposal 2.10

2.5.3 Fuel Requirement 2.11

2.5.3.1 Coal Characteristics 2.11


2.5.3.2 Coal Transport Facilities 2.12
2.5.3.3 Start-up Fuel 2.12
Item Page No.

2.5.4 Power Evacuation 2.13


2.5.5 Manpower 2.13
2.5.6 Township 2.13
2.5.7 Health and Sanitation 2.14
2.5.8 Drainage 2.14
2.5.9 Internal Roads 2.15
2.5.10 Lightning Protection System 2.15
2.5.11 Fire Protection System 2.16
2.5.12 Infrastructure Facilities 2.16

2.6 Technology and Process Description 2.16

2.6.1 Power Plant Technology 2.16


2.6.2 Main Plant Equipment 2.17

2.6.2.1 Coal Handling System 2.17


2.6.2.2 Coal Storage Stockyard 2.18

2.6.3 Ash Handling System 2.19


2.6.4 Plant Auxiliary Systems 2.23

2.6.4.1 Plant Water System 2.23


2.6.4.2 DM Plant 2.25
2.6.4.3 Air Conditioning System 2.25
2.6.4.4 Ventilation System 2.25

2.6.5 Infrastructure Facilities for Labour Force 2.26


2.6.6 Pollution Control Systems 2.27

2.7 Proposed Schedule for Approval and Implementation 2.27

3.0 Description of the Environment


3.1 Air Environment 3.1.1

3.1.1 Air Quality Monitoring Details 3.1.1


3.1.2 Micro-meteorology 3.1.1
3.1.2 Baseline Air Quality Status 3.1.2

3.2 Noise Environment 3.2.1


3.3 Water Environment 3.3.1

3.3.1 Methodology of Water Quality Assessment 3.3.1

ii
Item Page No.

3.3.2 Water Quality Status 3.3.1

3.3.2.1 Water Quality of River Mulki and Papanashini 3.3.2


3.3.2.2 Groundwater Quality within 5 km radius of UPCL
Plant 3.3.2
3.3.2.3 Ground Water Quality within 5-10 km radius of
UPCL Plant 3.3.3
3.3.2.4 Water Quality of Samples Collected within the
Plant and Ash Pond Area 3.3.3
3.3.2.5 Overall Water Quality Status 3.3.4

3.3.3 Biological Parameters 3.3.4

3.3.3.1 Assessment Methodology 3.3.4


3.3.3.2 Status of Biological Parameters 3.3.6

3.4 Land Environment 3.4.1

3.4.1 Soil Quality Assessment 3.4.1

3.4.1.1 Soil Characteristics 3.4.1

3.4.2 Heavy Metals in Bottom and Fly Ash 3.4.2


3.4.3 Land Use Pattern of the Study Area 3.4.10

3.4.3.1 Land use as per Census Records 3.4.10


3.4.3.2 Landuse Landcover Claasification Remote
Sensing Data Used 3.4.13

3.5 Biological Environment 3.5.1

3.5.1 Sampling Locations 3.5.1


3.5.2 Floral Assessment 3.5.2

3.5.2.1 Study Methodology 3.5.2


3.5.2.2 Terrestrial Flora in Pilarkhan Reserve Forest 3.5.2
3.5.2.3 Structure and Composition of Vegetation in the
Study Area 3.5.3
3.5.2.4 Medicinal Plants in Coastal Karnataka 3.5.3

3.5.3 Faunal Assessment 3.5.4

3.5.3.1 Study Methodology 3.5.4

iii
Item Page No.

3.5.3.2 Faunal Diversity in Study area 3.5.4

3.5.3.2.1 Mammals, Ungulates, Rodents and


Herpeto- Fauna 3.5.4
3.5.3.2.2 Avifauna 3.5.4
3.5.3.2.3 Insect Diversity 3.5.5
3.5.3.2.4 Livestock Holding 3.5.5

3.5.4 Ecologically Sensitive Areas 3.5.6

3.5.4.1 Wetlands 3.5.6


3.5.4.2 Sacred Groves 3.5.6

3.5.5 Agriculture 3.5.6

3.6 Socio-economic Environment 3.6.1

3.6.1 Baseline Status 3.6.1


3.6.2 Administrative Setup 3.6.1
3.6.3 Demographic Structure 3.6.2
3.6.4 Infrastructure Resource Base 3.6.4
3.6.5 Socio-economic Survey 3.6.4
3.6.6 Quality of Life Assessment 3.6.6

4.0 Anticipated Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures 4.0-4.43

4.1 Impact Identification 4.1


4.2 Anticipated Impacts during Construction Phase 4.6

4.2.1 Impact on Topography and Land Use 4.6


4.2.2 Impact on Soil 4.7
4.2.3 Impact on Air Quality 4.7
4.2.4 Impact on Water Resources and Water Quality 4.7
4.2.5 Impact on Noise Levels 4.7
4.2.6 Impact on Terrestrial Ecology 4.8
4.2.7 Impact on Socio-Economics 4.8

4.3 Mitigation Measures during Construction Phase 4.8

4.3.1 Environmental Management during Construction 4.8


4.3.2 Water Quality 4.9

iv
Item Page No.

4.3.3 Air Quality 4.9


4.3.4 Noise Levels 4.9
4.3.5 Ecological Aspects 4.10
4.3.6 Site Security 4.10
4.3.7 Migrant Workforce 4.10

4.4 Anticipated Impacts during Operation Phase 4.10

4.4.1 Air Environment 4.10

4.4.1.1 Point Sources 4.11


4.4.1.2 Meteorology 4.14
4.4.1.3 Air Quality Modelling 4.15

4.4.2 Noise Environment 4.19

4.4.2.1 Impact due to Noise Levels in the UPCL 4.19


4.4.2.2 Impact due to Transportation 4.19

4.4.3 Water Environment 4.21

4.4.3.1 Proposed Schemes for Wastewater Management 4.23

4.4.4 Land Environment 4.23

4.4.4.1 Land Use 4.24


4.4.4.2 Solid Waste / Fly Ash Disposal 4.24

4.4.5 Biological Environment 4.26


4.4.6 Socio-economic Environment 4.26

4.5 Mitigation Measures during Operation Phase 4.28

4.5.1 Environmental Protection 4.28

4.5.1.1 Air Pollution Control System 4.29


4.5.1.2 Water Pollution Control System 4.33
4.5.1.3 Control of Thermal Pollution 4.35
4.5.1.4 Control of Noise Pollution 4.36
4.5.1.5 Pollution Monitoring and Surveillance Systems 4.38

4.6 Storm Water Management 4.38

v
Item Page No.

4.7 Solid Waste Management 4.38

4.7.1 Bottom Ash 4.38


4.7.2 Fly Ash 4.39
4.7.3 Gypsum 4.39

4.8 Summary of environmental impacts and mitigation


measures during construction and operation phase 4.40
4.9 Budgetary Allocation for Environmental Protection 4.43

5.0 Analysis of Alternatives (Technology and Site) 5.1-5.7

5.1 Site Alternatives and Analysis 5.1

5.1.1 Site Selection Criteria 5.1

5.2 Power Plant Technology and Alternatives 5.3

5.2.1 Sub-critical Units 5.3


5.2.2 Supercritical and Ultra supercritical Units 5.3
5.2.3 Efficiency Gains 5.4
5.2.4 Development of Supercritical Technology Worldwide 5.4
5.2.5 Supercritical Experience in India 5.5
5.2.6 Steam Parameters for Udupi 2 x 800 MW Plant 5.7
5.2.7 Environmental Benefits 5.7

6.0 Environmental Monitoring Program 6.1-6.5


6.1 Existing Monitoring Programme with Future Requirements 6.1
6.2 Staff Requirement for Environment Management 6.3
6.3 Operation and Maintenance of Pollution Control System 6.4
6.4 Budgetary Provisions 6.4
6.5 Submission of Monitoring Reports to MoEF 6.5

7.0 Additional Studies 7.1-7.22


7.1 Marine EIA Study conducted by CSIR-NIO, Goa 7.1

7.1.1 Salient Findings of the Study 7.2


7.1.2 Modelling Study Results 7.3
7.1.3 Potential Marine Environmental Impacts 7.4
7.1.4 Socio-economic Conditions 7.5
7.1.5 Mitigation and Precautionary Measures 7.5
7.1.6 Environmental Management Plan 7.5

vi
Item Page No.

7.2 Hydro-geology Study Conducted by Geo Engineering Services,


Vadodara 7.6

7.2.1 Summary of Hydro-Geology Study 7.6


7.2.2 Qualitative and Quantitative Impact Assessment 7.6
7.2.3 Water Resource Management Plan 7.8
7.2.4 Study Recommendations 7.8

7.3 Socio-economic Study Conducted by Mangalore University 7.9

7.3.1 CSR Initiatives of the Company 7.9

7.3.1.1 Facilitating for Primary and Elementary Education 7.10


7.3.1.2 Community Health Initiatives 7.10
7.3.1.3 Sustainable Livelihood Programmes-Towards
Improving Quality of Life 7.11
7.3.1.4 Development of Rural Infrastructure 7.11
7.3.1.5 Other Community Initiatives 7.12

7.3.2 CSR Activities Proposed 7.15

7.4 Site Specific Wild Life Study and Conservation Plan 7.17
7.5 Risk Assessment 7.17
7.6 Public Consultation / Public Hearing 7.17

8.0 Project Benefit 8.1-8.3


8.0 Introduction 8.1
8.1 Construction Phase Benefits 8.1

8.1.1 Employment 8.1


8.1.2 Community Services 8.1

8.2 Operational Phase Benefits 8.2

8.2.1 Improvement in Electricity Availability 8.2


8.2.2 Livelihood Opportunities and Direct & In Direct
Employment 8.2

8.3 Community Welfare Measures 8.2


8.4 Green Belt Development 8.3

9.0 Environmental Cost Benefit 9.1

vii
Item Page No.

10.0 Environmental Management Plan 10.1-10.18


10.1 Construction Phase 10.1
10.2 Operation Phase 10.2

10.2.1 Air Environment 10.2


10.2.2 Noise Environment 10.4

10.2.2.1 Measures for Minimizing Impacts due to Vibrations 10.4

10.2.3 Water Environment 10.5

10.2.3.1 Wastewater Management for Individual Sections 10.5


10.2.3.2 Wastewater Management for Zero Discharge 10.6
10.2.3.3 General Recommendations for Wastewater
Management 10.6

10.2.4 Land Environment 10.6

10.2.4.1 Greenbelt Development 10.6


10.2.4.2 Proposed Method of Fly Ash Collection and
Disposal for 2x800 MW unit 10.10
10.2.4.3 Use of Fly Ash and Gypsum 10.10
10.2.4.4 Domestic Solid Wastes from Canteen and
Guest House 10.11
10.2.4.5 Disposal of Hazardous Waste 10.13

10.2.5 Biological Environment 10.14


10.2.6 Socio-economic Environment 10.14

10.3 Environmental Management Cell 10.16


10.4 Budgetary Provisions for EMP 10.16
10.5 Post-project Environmental Quality Monitoring 10.17
10.6 Intent of Project Proponent for benefits under Clean
Development Mechanism 10.17

11.0 Risk Assessment Study 11.0-11.29


11.1 Introduction 11.1
11.2 MCA Analysis 11.1

11.2.1 Methodology 11.1


11.2.2 Fire and Toxic Scenarios 11.2

viii
Item Page No.

11.2.2.1 Jet Fire 11.2


11.2.2.2 Flash Fire 11.2
11.2.2.3 Pool Fire 11.2
11.2.2.4 Vapour Cloud Explosion 11.3

11.2.3 Models for the Calculation of Heat load 11.3

11.3 Past Accident Data Analysis 11.4


11.4 Hazard Identification 11.4

11.4.1 Fire and Explosion Index (FEI) 11.5

11.5 Computation of Damage Distances 11.6


11.6 Risk Mitigation Measures 11.12

11.6.1 Specific Recommendations 11.12


11.6.2 General Recommendations 11.13
11.6.3 Coal Dust-Occupational Health Hazard 11.14

11.6.3.1 Diseases Caused by Coal Dust Exposure 11.14


11.6.3.2 Progressive Massive Fibrosis (PMF) 11.15
11.6.3.3 Obstructive Lung Diseases 11.15
11.6.3.4 Skin and Eye Injuries 11.16

11.6.4 Heat Stress 11.16


11.6.5 Coal Storage & Handling System Precautions 11.16
11.6.6 Mitigation Measures against Natural Disasters 11.17

11.7 Disaster Management Plan (DMP) 11.19

11.7.1 Need of Disaster Management Plan 11.19


11.7.2 Objectives 11.19
11.7.3 Types and Likely Causes of Disaster 11.19
11.7.4 Different phases of disaster 11.20
11.7.5 Key Elements 11.21

11.7.5.1 Basis of the Plan 11.21


11.7.5.2 Accident Prevention Procedures / Measures 11.21
11.7.5.3 Emergency Planning and Response Procedures 11.22
11.7.5.4 On-site Disaster Management Plan 11.23
11.7.5.5 Off-site Disaster Management Plan 11.25

11.8 Off-site Control Room 11.28


11.9 Education 11.29

ix
Item Page No.

12.0 Summary and Conclusion 12.1

13.0 Disclosure of Consultants Engaged 13.1-13.6

13.1 NEERI Profile 13.1

13.1.1 NEERI Mission and Vision 13.1


13.1.2 Mandate of NEERI 13.2
13.1.3 NEERI Activities 13.2
13.1.4 NEERI Services & Goods 13.2
13.1.5 NEERI Human Resources 13.3
13.1.6 Organisational Chart of CSIR and NEERI 13.4
13.1.7 Financial Resources of NEERI 13.5
13.1.8 Certificate of Accreditation of QCI-NABET 13.6

x
List of Plates

Plate No. Title Page No.

2.1 Photographs of Existing Power Plant and site for Proposed


Power Plant 2.5

2.2 Photographs showing dust suppression system installed at


various places in the existing power plant 2.19

2.3 Fly Ash Management System in Existing 2X600 MW TPP 2.22

3.1.1 Photographs showing Ambient Air Quality Monitoring at Different


Locations 3.1.5

3.1.2 Automatic Wheather Station 3.1.6

3.2.1 Monitoring Location at Admar 3.2.3

3.3.1 Photographs showing Surface and Ground Water Sampling


Locations in Different Villages 3.3.8

3.3.2 Photographs showing Ground Water Sampling Locations in


Different Villages 3.3.9

3.3.3 Photographs Showing Ground Water Sampling Locations in


Different Villages 3.3.10

3.3.4 Photographs showing Water Sampling Locations from UPCL


Premises and Ash Pond Area 3.3.11

3.4.1 Soil Sampling in the Study Area 3.4.3

3.4.2 Landuse / Landcover Classification of Study Area 3.4.15

3.5.1 Photograph Showing Ecology and Biodiversity Survey in the


Study Area during March 2016 3.5.8

3.5.2(A) Prominent plant species observed in the Study Area 3.5.9

3.5.2(B) Prominent plant species observed in the Study Area 3.5.10

3.5.3(A) Avifaunal observations in the Study Area 3.5.11

3.5.3(B) Avifaunal observations in the Study Area 3.5.12

3.5.4 Mangrove patches of Kandelia candel in the Study Area 3.5.13

3.5.5 Prominent Cash Crops in the Study Area 3.5.14

3.6.1 Photographs Showing Interaction with Villagers 3.6.24

7.3.1 Glimpses of Various CSR Activities undertaken by UPCL 7.13

7.3.2 Glimpses of Various CSR Activities undertaken by UPCL 7.14

xi
List of Figures

Figure No. Title Page No.

1.1 Location of Existing and Proposed Project 1.2

1.2 Study Area Map showing 5 & 10 Km radius 1.7

2.1 Location of Existing and Proposed Units of UPCL with Ash Pond
and Water Intake and Outfall Pipeline 2.3

2.2 Layout of Existing (2x600 MW) and Proposed (2x800 MW) Power
Plant 2.3

2.4 10 km radius Study Area Map showing Highways, Railway Lines,


Water Bodies and Project Site 2.6

3.1.1 Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Locations 3.1.3

3.1.2 Windrose Diagram for Winter Season (January 2016) 3.1.4

3.2.1 Noise Monitoring Locations 3.2.3

3.3.1 Sampling Locations for Water Quality Monitoring 3.3.12

3.3.2 Distribution of Groups of Phytoplanktons in Udupi Distt. during the


Study 3.3.12

3.3.3 Distribution of Groups of Zooplanktons in Udupi Distt. during the


Study 3.3.13

3.4.1 Soil Sampling Location in the Study Area 3.4.3

3.4.2 Land use Pattern under Different Categories (%) 3.4.10

3.5.1 Google Earth Map Showing Sampled Villages and Pilarkhan RF


in the Study Area within 10 km radius from the TPP 3.5.15

3.5.2 Dominance Diversity (DD) Curve of Tree Species for Pilarkhan RF


(as per quadrat survey) 3.5.15

3.5.3 Location of Project Marked on Map of Kundapara Forest Division 3.5.16

3.5.4 Map Showing Boundary of Eco-sensitive Zones in Udupi District 3.5.17

3.6.1 Study Area Map Showing Location of Villages Surveyed 3.6.9

4.1.1 Impact Network for Air Environment 4.2

4.1.2 Impact Network for Noise Environment 4.3

4.1.3 Impact Network for Land Environment 4.4

xii
Figure No. Title Page No.

4.1.4 Impact Network for Socio-economic and Cultural Environment 4.5

4.4.1 Location of Existing and Proposed Stacks on Google Map 4.13

4.4.2 Isopleths Showing Predicted Level of SO2 under Future Scenario 4.17

4.4.3 Isopleths Showing Predicted Level of NO2 under Future Scenario 4.17

4.4.4 Isopleths Showing Predicted Level of PM under Future Scenario 4.18

4.4.5 Water Balance Diagram for the Proposed Units 4.22

4.5.1 Flow Chart of ETP in Existing 2x600 MW TPP 4.35

4.5.2 Proposed Intake and Outfall Location for 2x600 MW and 2x800 MW
on Bathymetry Chart as recommended by CSIR-NIO, GOA 4.36

5.1 Curve for Efficiency Improvement 5.4

6.1 Organization Structure of Environmental Management Department


(Existing and Additional Requirement) 6.4

10.1 Existing and Proposed Greenbelt Development marked on the Plot


Plan Area of the Power Plant 10.9

11.1 Damage Contour for Pool Fire Scenario due to 10 mm Leak


at 4 kW/m2 in LDO/HSD Storage Tank 11.10

11.2 Damage Contour for Jet Fire Scenario due to 50 mm Leak in


Hydrogen Storage (Single Cylinder) for 5D Condition 11.11

11.3 Onsite DMP - Disaster Control/Management System 11.24

xiii
List of Tables
Table No. Title Page No.

1.1 Growth of installed capacity since 6th Plan 1.3


1.2 Power supply position (energy and peak) in April 2016 1.4
1.3 Peak power supply position in April 2016 1.4
2.1 Salient features of thermal power plant project 2.1
2.2 Boundary coordinates of existing and proposed main plant, ash
pond area, railway yard/marry-go round and water intake location
& outfall location 2.4
2.3 Key features of the pipe line corridor 2.7
2.4 Land requirement summary 2.8
2.5 Breakup of land for main plant facilities in existing and proposed units 2.8
2.6 Seawater intake requirement for existing and proposed power plant 2.9
2.7 Wastewater generation in existing and proposed plant 2.11
2.8 Coal characteristics for existing and proposed units 2.11
2.9 Typical characteristics of ldo and hsd 2.13
2.10 Fly ash generation and utilization in the existing plant 2.20
2.11 Expected ash generation from the proposed power plant (2x800 MW) 2.20
2.12 Time bound plan for utilization of fly ash 2.20
3.1.1 Details of Air Quality Monitoring Locations (2015 - 2016) 3.1.3
3.1.2 Techniques Used for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring 3.1.4
3.1.3 Air Quality Status within the Study Area: PM10 and PM2.5 3.1.7
3.1.4 Air Quality Status within the Study Area: SO2 and NO2 3.1.7
3.1.5 Air Quality Status within the Study Area: CO and Pb 3.1.7
3.1.6 Ambient Air Quality Status at different location and the study area
(Annual average of 104 observations) 3.1.8
3.2.1 Details of Ambient Noise Monitoring Locations along with
Measured Noise Levels in Residential and Commercial Areas 3.2.4
3.2.2 Details of Source Noise Monitoring Locations along with Measured
Noise Levels at Various Activities of UPCL 3.2.5
3.2.3 Ambient Noise Standards 3.2.6

xiv
Table No. Title Page No.

3.3.1 Details of Water Quality Sampling Locations (Winter 2016) 3.3.14


3.3.2 Water Quality – Sampling Location Details inside UPCL and Ash
Pond Area (January 2016) 3.3.15
3.3.3 Water Quality Status – Surface Water (Winter 2016) 3.3.16
3.3.4 Water Quality Status – Ground Water Sources (Dug well)
within 5 km radius of UPCL Plant (Winter 2016) 3.3.18
3.3.5 Water Quality Status – Groundwater Sources (Dug wells and
Bore well) between 5-10 km radius of UPCL Plant (Winter 2016) 3.3.20
3.3.6 Water Quality Status – Within UPCL Plant and at Ash Pond Area
(Winter 2016) 3.3.21
3.3.7 Water Quality Status – Dug Wells in the Vicinity of UPCL plant
and Ash Pond Area (Winter 2016) 3.3.23
3.3.8 Summary of Source-wise Parameters Exceeding the Drinking
Water Quality Standards (IS: 10500-2012) 3.3.24
3.3.9 Density, Diversity and Species Composition of Phytoplankton in
Surface and Ground Water Samples 3.3.25
3.3.10 Phytoplankton Species Observed in Water Samples 3.3.25
3.3.11 Density, Diversity and Species Composition of Zooplankton in .
Surface and Ground Water Samples 3.3.26
3.3.12 Zooplankton Species Observed in Water Samples 3.3.26
3.4.1 Details of Soil Sampling Locations (Winter 2016) 3.4.4
3.4.2 Methods used in Soil Quality Assessment 3.4.4
3.4.3 Textural Class of Soil 3.4.5
3.4.4 Physical Characteristic of Soil 3.4.6
3.4.5 Chemical Characteristics of Soil Extract 3.4.6
3.4.6 Cation Exchange Capacity of Soil (Winter 2016) 3.4.7
3.4.7 Relationship of CEC with Productivity 3.4.7
3.4.8 Relationship of CEC with Adsorptivity 3.4.7
3.4.9 Fertility Status of Soil in Study Area (Winter 2016) 3.4.8
3.4.10 Heavy Metals in Soil (Winter 2016) 3.4.8
3.4.11 Microbiological Characteristic of Soil (Winter 2016) 3.4.9
3.4.12 Heavy Metals in Bottom Ash and Fly Ash 3.4.11

xv
Table No. Title Page No.

3.4.13 Village wise details of landuse under different categories 3.4.11


3.4.14 Land use / Land cover: Remote Sensing Data – LISS 4
(15 February, 2016) 3.4.14
3.5.1 Details of Biological Sampling Locations 3.5.18
3.5.2 Detail List of Sampling Locations with Vegetation 3.5.19
3.5.3 Tree Frequency, Density and Basal area/ha. as observed in
Pilarkhan Forest Range, Udupi Karnataka 3.5.25
3.5.4 Plant species observed in the Study Area 3.5.26
3.5.5 List of Flora and Fauna 3.5.28
3.5.6 Checklist of Birds Diversity in Dakshina Kannada and Udupi Districts 3.5.35
3.5.7 Ant Diversity at Hejamadi Village, Udupi District, Karnataka 3.5.37
3.5.8 Livestock Diversity in Udupi District & there Number 3.5.38
3.5.9 Area, Production and Yield of Major Crop in Irrigated/Rainfed
Conditions during Kharif Season (3 year average) of Udupi taluka ,
Udupi District 3.5.38
3.5.10 Annual Production of Horticulture Crops in Udupi District, Karnataka 3.5.38
3.6.1 Summary of Demographic Structure of the Study Area 3.6.10
3.6.2 Tehsil / Village wise Details of Population 3.6.11
3.6.3 Tehsil / Village wise Details of Literacy 3.6.13
3.6.4 Tehsil / Village wise Details of Employment Pattern 3.6.14
3.6.5 Tehsil / Village wise Details of Main Workers Employment Pattern 3.6.15
3.6.6 Tehsil / Village wise Details of Population Growth Rate 3.6.16
3.6.7 Total population and density of 3 towns in study area under
Udupi Tehsil 3.6.16
3.6.8 Tehsil / Village wise Details of Infrastructure Facilities Available 3.6.17
3.6.9 Summary of facilities available in the villages 3.6.21
3.6.10 List of Surveyed Villages 3.6.21
3.6.11 Details of Interaction with Different Groups in the Study Area 3.6.22
3.6.12 Village-wise Quality of Life Index in the Study Area 3.6.23
4.2.1 Details of Typical Equipment’s & Machinery to be Used in
Construction Phase 4.6
4.4.1 Present Point Source Emissions at UPCL 4.11

xvi
Table No. Title Page No.

4.4.2 Future Point Source Emissions at UPCL 4.12


4.4.3 Emission Details 4.13
4.4.4 Micrometeorological Data Used for Prediction of Impacts
(Winter Season) 4.15
4.4.5 Predicted Incremental Maximum GLCs (Winter Season) 4.18
4.4.6 Traffic density observed at main gate of the existing power plant 4.20
4.4.7 Typical Noise Generation from Construction Equipment & Machinery 4.21
4.4.8 Summary of land requirement 4.23
4.4.9 Prediction of Qualitative Impacts on Socio-economic Environment 4.27
4.4.10 Expected Change in Subjective Quality of Life after Implementation
of EMP and Welfare Measures 4.28
4.5.1 Classification of air pollution sources of TPP 4.29
4.5.2 Emission Standards as per MOEF 4.29
4.5.3 Salient features of stack and flue gas emission 4.30
4.5.4 Collection and Treatment of Various Effluents 4.33
4.5.5 Expected Quality Of Treated Effluent From Guard Pond 4.34
4.5.6 Expected Sources of Noise Generation and Noise Levels in the
Proposed Plant 4.37
4.7.1 Limestone requirement and gypsum generation for existing
and proposed TPP 4.40
4.8.1 Summary of anticipated adverse environmental impacts and mitigation
measures during construction phase 4.40
4.8.2 Summary of anticipated adverse environmental impacts and mitigation
measures during operation phase 4.41
4.9.1 Proposed Cost Provision for Environmental Measures 4.43
5.1 Compliance to Siting Guidelines 5.2
5.2 OEM’s for Supercritical Units in India 5.6
5.3 Typical Range of Turbine Cycle Heat Rate for Supercritical (SC) /
Ultra Super Critical (USC) Parameters 5.7
6.1 Existing Environmental Monitoring Programme with Additional
Requirement for the Proposed Expansion 6.2
7.1 Qualitative and Quantitative Impact Assessment on Ground and
Surface Water 7.7

xvii
Table No. Title Page No.

7.2 Environment Impact Category 7.7


7.3 Need Based CSR Interventions and Budgetary Estimate for
Study Area (10 Km radius area form proposed project) 7.15
7.4 Summary of Key Issues and Responses 7.17
8.1 Proposed CSR expenditure of various activities 8.3
10.1 Details of Fly Ash Generation and Utilization for
Existing 2x600 MW TPP 10.10
10.2 Details of Fly Ash Utilization in Different Sectors for
Existing 2x600 MW TPP 10.10
10.3 Details of Fly Ash Generation and Utilization after Expansion
of TPP to 2800 MW (2020-2021 to 2024-25) 10.11
10.4 Estimated Limestone Consumption and Gypsum Generation after
Expansion of TPP to 2800 MW (2020-2021 to 2024-25) 10.11
10.5 Summary of the cost for 2x800 MW TPP 10.17
11.1 List of Damages Envisaged at Various Heat Loads 11.4
11.2 Degree of Hazards Based on FEI 11.5
11.3 Fire and Explosion Index 11.6
11.4 Details of Storage Tanks, Pump and H2 Storage Facility 11.6
11.5 Consequence Analysis for Jet Fire Scenario 11.7
11.6 Consequence Analysis for Flash Fire of Scenario 11.8
11.7 Consequence Analysis for Pool Fire Scenario 11.8
11.8 Consequence Analysis for Vapour Cloud Explosion Scenario 11.9

xviii
LIST OF ANNEXURES

Annexure No. Title No. of Pages


Volume-I EIA Report With TOR Compliance
Annexure-1 Terms of Reference copy and Compliance 20

Annexure-2 Compliance Certificate for Existing EC and CTO from RO-MoEF&CC and RO- 33
SPCB
Annexure-3 Status of court cases 5

Annexure-4 Reply to ERC Representation 6


Annexure-5 Vision Document 2
Annexure-6a Project Site on Topo Sheet 1
Annexure-6b IRS Satellite MAP 1
Annexure-7 Layout Plan of Existing and Proposed TPP 1
Annexure-8 Notification by State Government for Industrial Area (Front Page) 1
Annexure-9 R&R Package (Minimum for all PAF in total 730 acre land as per 21
compensation/fixation meeting in Dist. Commissioner office dated 16/12/2015
Annexure-10a NOC-Mineral Mining 1
Annexure-10b NOC-Airport Authority Of India 2
Annexure-11 List Agreements/MOU’s with Fly ash users 1
Annexure-12 Water Balance Diagram 1
Annexure-16 Ambient Air Quality Monitoring results for the period from April 2015 to March 12
2016
Annexure-17 Radio Active Analysis Report for Coal 1
Annexure-18 EHS Policy 1
Annexure-19 List of Ramsar Sites 5
Annexure-20 CRZ Map 1

Volume-II Other Studies


Annexure-13 Hydrogeology Study Report 73
Annexure-14 Marine EIA Report 141
Annexure-15 Socio Economic & CSR report 126
Annexure-21 Wildlife Study and Conservation Plan 75

Volume-III Public Hearing Proceedings, Written Representations and Project


Proponent Response
Annexure-22 Notification and Announcement for Public Hearing 20
Annexure-23 Copy of Attendance Register of Public Hearing 61
Annexure-24 Proceedings of Public Hearing in English & Kannada 26
Annexure-25 UPCL response to Issues raised in Public Hearing 41
Annexure-26 Written Representations filled by Public 1292
Annexure-27 UPCL response to written representations 78
Annexure-28 Public Hearing video in CD 1
Volume-IV Copies of Fly Ash Agreements and Land Notification
Annexure-29 Copies of Fly Ash Agreements with Fly Ash Users 126
Annexure-30 Notification by State Government for Industrial Area (Full Copy) 49

xix
Executive Summary
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Executive Summary
1.0 Introduction
M/s. Udupi Power Corporation Limited (UPCL), a subsidiary of Adani Power
Limited (APL), has established a 2x600 MW coal based power plant which is located in
notified industrial area at villages Yelluru and Santhuru, Taluk Udupi, District Udupi,
Karnataka state. These existing units of 2x600 MW of UPCL use 100% imported coal
and are in operation since November 2010 and August 2012 respectively.
Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) for expansion of existing power plant
has been signed between State Government of Karnataka and M/s UPCL. Hence the
Company has proposed expansion of 1200 MW (2x600 MW – Sub Critical units in
Phase-I) coal based power plant to 2800 MW by addition of 1600 MW (2x800 MW –
Ultra Super critical units in Phase-II) at the land adjacent to the existing power plant.
After expansion, power generated by the project is envisaged to be mainly supplied to
the Karnataka state that will support to meet the increasing power requirements for the
state.
As per the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Notification dated 14th
September 2006 read with amendments, the proposed thermal power plant project
falls under ‘Category A’ with project or activity type number ‘1(d)’, which requires prior
EIA for Environmental Clearance (EC) from the Ministry of Environment, Forest and
Climate Change (MoEF&CC), Govt. of India.
M/s. UPCL has obtained the Terms of Reference from MoEF&CC for EIA of
proposed 2x800 MW units. Hence, UPCL approached CSIR-NEERI, Nagpur to
conduct the EIA study for the purpose.
The present EIA report addresses the environmental impacts of the
proposed power plant and suggests mitigation measures, environmental management
plan along with environmental monitoring program. The EIA report is prepared based
on the ToR issued by MoEF&CC, vide letter no. J-13012/12/2015-IA (T), dated 13,
August 2015.

In line with the conditions of TOR granted by MoEF&CC, public hearing for
the proposed project was organized by Karnataka State Pollution Control Board
(KSPCB) on 10th November 2016. Response to issues raised in the public hearing
and written representations are summarized in this final EIA report.
2.0 Project Description
Existing Phase-I of 2x600 MW was developed with commissioning of I st Unit
on 11 November 2010 and 2nd Unit on 19th August 2012. In Phase II, two units of 800
th

MW each are proposed to be commissioned within a period of about 4 to 5 years after


receipt of all statutory clearances.
The capacity of the proposed power plant is 2X800 MW. Installation of
associated mechanical and electrical equipment, auxiliary units like coal and ash

E-1
Executive Summary
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

handling plants, water treatment plant, cooling water system, Electrostatic Precipitators
(ESPs), low NOx burners, Selective Catalytic Reduction, Flue Gas Desulphurization
units (FGDs) and online stack monitoring system etc. will form part of the total
installation. The estimated cost of the project is about Rs.1150000 lacs. (11500.00
Cr.)

2.1 Infrastructure and Other Requirements


2.1.1 Land Requirement
The total land requirement for the proposed project is about 730 acres
(295.4 ha) that includes 180 Acre for main plant, 278 Acre for Ash dyke and 272 acres
for railway yard/marry-go round facilities inside the plant. The area where the existing
2 x 600 MW plant is located and also where the 2 x 800 MW units expansion project is
proposed are already declared as an industrial area in 1995 and 1998 under Section
3(1) of Karnataka Industrial Area Development Act (KIADA 1966) in the gazette of
Karnataka. The existing sea water pump house and pipeline corridor will be used for
proposed power plant. Topography of the proposed site is undulated ground and
would require cutting and grading to an extent of about 2-3 m to grade the plant to the
proposed finished ground level (FGL). Levels shall be finalized in such a way that
there is balance in cutting and filling quantities of earthen material. The activity shall
not involve transport of cutting/filling material from/to the project area.
Land acquisition is being done by Karnataka Industrial Area Development
Board (KIADB) as per Karnataka Industrial Area Development Act 1966 which have
inbuilt mechanism for Resettlement and Rehabilitation (R&R). After notification of
168.10 Ac land, which is part of the total land, under 28 (4) of KIADA, Compensation
Fixation Committee chaired by District Commissioner of Udupi has fixed the
Compensation and R&R package with consent of the all project affected people of this
part of the land. Other land area is in the process of acquisition by KIADB for which
notification under section 28 (1) and 28 (3) of KIADA has been completed and R&R
package shall be fixed in similar manner by Compensation Fixation Committee. M/s
UPCL offers same Compensation and R&R package for all project affected people
from total 730 Ac land proposed for this project.
2.1.2 Water Requirement
The total water requirement for the proposed project is 14381 m3/hr. The
water demand for the proposed plant is through Arabian Sea. Due to operational
constraints faced in the sea water intake system in the existing Phase-I, sea water
intake system will be designed to cater for both Phase-I and Phase-II up to the sea
water intake pump house. The sea water intake and outfall locations are finalized by
CSIR-NIO, Goa.
2.1.3 Coal Requirement
The coal requirement for the proposed 2x800 MW thermal power plant
(TPP) is 6.20 MTPA at a Plant Load Factor (PLF) of 85%. The primary fuel for the
proposed project will be blended coal in ratio of 70% Imported coal and 30% domestic
coal. Project proponent will bid for allocation or allotment of domestic coal for this
project as per new policy of Ministry of Coal. Till the allocation of domestic coal is

E-2
Executive Summary
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

received from Ministry of Coal, imported coal mainly from Australia and Indonesia will
be used for 2x800 MW units. In either case, Ash content in the coal mix shall be
maximum 25 percent and Sulphur content maximum 0.5 percent. The company is
already having dedicated railway siding connected with Konkan railway from Nandikur
railway station to plant. For existing 2x600 MW units, coal is handled at dedicated
berth at New Mangalore Port Trust (NMPT) Mangalore. From NMPT, it is transported
to the plant through Konkan railway line up to Nandikur railway station and then taken
into plant through dedicated railway siding from Nandikur railway station. For proposed
2x800 MW units, Coal transportation route is proposed to be the same as existing
from NMPT to Nandikur railway Station and railway siding from Nandikur railway
station to the plant. However, route of railway siding within the plant shall be extended
to cater for proposed 2x800 MW project also. For extension of the railway siding route
within plant boundary and coal yard, additional land shall be required.
The boiler will be designed for cold start-up and initial warm-up will be done
using Light Distillate Oil (LDO) and coal flame stabilization with High Speed Diesel
(HSD). HSD/LDO will be received to the proposed plant by means of the road tankers.
2.1.4 Power Evacuation
The existing Phase-I power plant has 2X600 MW units in operation and
power is being evacuated through 400 kV outdoor switchyard to Hassan Substation of
PGCIL through double circuit and also through 400/220 kV interconnecting transformer
to 220 kV switchyard to feed Kemmar substation. The existing 400 kV switchyard will
be extended at bus level to evacuate power from the proposed power plant.
As the existing lines cannot evacuate power from the proposed units, new
400 kV lines shall be planned. It is noted from the minutes of Southern Region Power
Committee that CEA, PGCIL & KPCL have plans to establish 400 kV lines from UPCL
switchyard to Kasaragod substation of PGCIL. This shall be explored further to firm up
power evacuation arrangement of the proposed units. The proposed switchyard will be
interconnected with existing 400 kV switchyard by extending the bus. Transmissions
project shall be an independent project as per approvals from State Government for
connectivity and detailed survey of line alignment.
2.1.5 Manpower
The proposed power plant will require skilled and semi-skilled personnel
during construction and operational phase. Many people in and around neighbouring
villages will get direct and indirect opportunity for employment and livelihood
generation during construction and operational phase. The total direct manpower
requirement of the project during operation period is estimated to be about 350
persons. Further, about 1500 personnel will be engaged during construction phase.

E-3
Executive Summary
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

3.0 Description of the Environment


3.1 Location and Description of the Site
The proposed plant site is located in notified Industrial Area at Village
Yelluru, Taluk Udupi, District Udupi in Karnataka state. The environmental setting of the
proposed plant site is discussed as under:
x The proposed project site is covered in toposheet No. D4 3O15
(48k/15), Udupi, Karnataka.
x The project site is located at an average elevation of 27 m above mean
sea level.
x The entire project area falls under Industrial area notified by State
Government of Karnataka.
x The National Highway, NH-66 runs at a distance of 5.0 km, W
connecting Mangalore to Udupi and State Highway SH1 connecting
NH66 from Padubirdi to Karkala runs at a distance of 2.0 km, South
from the proposed plant boundary. The site is located adjacent to new
broad gauge line of Konkan Railways connecting Mangalore to Mumbai.
x The nearest airport to the project site is located in Mangalore at a
distance of about 40 km, SE from the proposed plant site. NOC from
Airport Authority of India has obtained by Project Proponent
x Two rivers Mulki and Udayavarna are flowing at a distance of about
5 km, S and about 6 km N from the project site
x The project area falls under Seismic Zone-III as per Indian Standards,
IS:1893 (Part-1) 2002.
3.2 Baseline Environmental Monitoring Study
Baseline environmental monitoring studies have been carried out during
Winter Season (January to March, 2016). Baseline status of each environmental
component is briefly summarized here.
3.2.1 Ambient Air Quality
Predominant winds during winter season were observed from SE quadrant,
accordingly the significant impact zone in this season would be in NW quadrant. To
establish the baseline status of the ambient air quality in the study area, ambient air
quality was monitored at 8 locations during the study period. The 24 hrly maximum
concentrations of PM10 was recorded as 75 Pg/m3 at UPCL Pump House, the site
located close to National Highway, whereas maximum concentration for PM2.5 was
recorded (as 22 Pg/m3) at Kollur village. Similarly maximum concentrations of SO2 and
NO2 were recorded as 24 and 40 Pg/m3 respectively at Kollur village. A cottage food
making unit exists in the vicinity of air quality monitoring site, which uses coal/wood in
the process.

E-4
Executive Summary
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

The AAQ concentrations of various air quality parameters at all locations


were found to be below the stipulated National Ambient Air Quality Standards-2009
(NAAQS-2009) and also it infers that the air quality levels in the study area was of
fairly good quality.
3.2.2 Noise Level
Noise levels (Leq) in residential areas varied from 54-73 dB(A) in day time
and from 38-45 dB(A) during night time. The CPCB standard for day time and night
time noise levels are 55 and 45 dB(A) respectively. Higher noise levels during day
time were recorded due to traffic as well as miscellaneous activities taking place in the
vicinity of monitoring locations.
Noise levels (Leq) in commercial areas varied from 55-93 dB(A) in day time
and from 62-85 dB(A) during night time. The CPCB standard for day time and night
time noise level are 65 and 55 dB(A) respectively. High noise levels during day as well
as night time in Padubidri village was observed due to high traffic movement on NH66
and also near UPCL pump house which is close to the highway (NH 66). Similarly high
noise levels were recorded at Palimar (near railway track) and village Mudrangadi
(near market area).
3.2.3 Water Quality
The baseline groundwater quality status in the region was established by
analysing 5 ground water samples within 5 Km radius and 6 ground water samples
from 5 to 10 km radius area.
On the basis of physico-chemical characteristics all the ground water
samples conformed to the drinking water quality standards (IS-10500:2012) for most
of the parameters, except for certain heavy metals such as nickel, lead and iron in a
few samples. The water quality of Mulki river is found to be highly influenced by
coastal backwater and the other river, Papanashini, a tributary of Udayavarna river,
met drinking water quality standards, however it requires disinfection before human
consumption.
3.2.4 Soil Characteristics
Soil characteristics in the study area were analyzed by collecting 12 soils
samples within 10 km surrounding area. It has been observed that the particulate size
distribution in terms of percentage of sand, silt and clay showed dominance of sandy
loam and loamy sand nature of soil. The bulk density was observed to be varying from
1.0-1.5 g/cm3 which is considered to be moderate to high. The porosity and water
holding capacity of soils were in the range of 42-64% and 29-64% respectively. The
pH of soil was observed in the range of 4.4-7.1 indicating strongly acidic to alkaline
nature of soil.
Exchangeable sodium percentage ranged from 4.8-25.6% indicating that the
soils are non-sodic to very strongly sodic in nature. The classification of soil and their
relationship between productivity and absorptivity based on cations exchange capacity
indicated very low to low productivity and low to moderate absorptivity of the soils
(CEC) in the study area. Organic carbon, available nitrogen, available phosphorus and

E-5
Executive Summary
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

available potassium were found to be in the range of 0.1-1.6 %, 38-188 kg/ha, 4-42
kg/ha and 14-173 kg/ha respectively, which shows that the soils are poor to fertile
w.r.t. organic carbon content.
Land use Pattern
As per 2011 Census records, land use pattern in different villages falling
within 10 km radial distance from the project site has been classified under the
following categories:
x Forest Area
x Area under Non-Agricultural Uses
x Barren & Un-cultivable Land Area
x Permanent Pastures and Other Grazing Land Area
x Land under Miscellaneous Tree Crops etc. Area
x Culturable Waste Land Area
x Fallows Land other than Current Fallows
x Current Fallows Area
x Total Un-irrigated Land Area
x Area Irrigated by Source
Out of the total area, as much as 89.55% area falls under Udupi district and
remaining 10.45% in Dakshin Kannada district. Major part of the study area is
dominated by forest area (2.69%) followed by 23.63% of total unirrigated land area.
Total irrigated area and total culturable waste land area is 13.62 % and 12.03%
respectively. Barren and un-cultivable lands is confined to 3.28%, whereas area under
non agricultural uses is 10.86%. The study area is covered with 8.47% permanent
pasture and other grazing land of the total land area.
3.2.5 Flora and Fauna
As per Working Plan of Coondapur (Kundapur) Forest Division (from 2002-
03 to 2012-13), the Udupi range in Kundapur Forest Division is having 1069.35 ha
under Reserve Forest and 92.8 ha under Protected Forest Only Pilarkhan Reserve
Forest (RF) of Udupi Range of Kundapur Forest Division falls in the 10 km study area
from the proposed project. Due to the presence of various villages and habituated
roads and areas, this RF is disconnected from other RFs and PFs on Northern and
Western boundary of Kundapur Forest Division, that is touching the Western Ghats.
Total 31 locations were identified to study the ecology and biodiversity of the
area of villages and Pilarkhan Reserve Forest in 10 km radius of the proposed
expansion site. In Pilarkhan RF which is spread in an area of 124.32 ha, mammals like
Indian wild boar (Susse rofa), Indian wild dog (Cuonal pinus) and Jackal (Canis
avreus) are reported to be present as per information gathered from nearby villagers.
Leopard (Panthera pardus), Gaur or Indian Bison (Bos gaurus) are migrants or visitors

E-6
Executive Summary
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

to Pilarkhan RF as per the information gathered from Range forest officer. However,
no mammals, ungulates, rodents were observed by NEERI team during the survey in
the study area. It will be desirable to conduct a confirmatory study separately and Wild
Life Management Plan should be prepared before start of the construction of the
project in consultation with Divisional Forest Office if any Schedule – I, Schedule –II or
any endangered species is reported/found in the area.
Dakshina Kannada and Udupi districts harbors about 366 bird species (Bhat
R. Harish, 2009). The birds observed during primary data collection survey were Black
kite (Milvus migrans), Blue tailed bee eater (Merops philippinus), Pond heron (Ardeola
grayii), Greater ratchet tailed drongo (Dicrurus paradiseus), Red-Wattled Lapwing
(Vanellus indicus), Common Kingfisher (Alcedo atthis) etc.
3.2.6 Socio-Economic Details
The study was carried out with a participatory approach by involving the
stakeholders, particularly the project beneficiaries and probable affected persons
through a series of consultative process. The population groups that were consulted
include beneficiary group of people in the project influence area, particularly the
Shopkeepers, Farmers, School Teachers, Gram Panchayat Sarpanch/Members and
Village Leaders etc. This has helped to know the exact situation and views of the
people about the project.
Details regarding the existing scenario have been analysed with relevant
socio-economic data from secondary sources such as latest Census record (2011),
District Census Handbook 2011 and Town Directory 2011. There are total 32 villages
falling in the study area which include three towns. Socio-economic survey was
conducted in 16 villages. The 10 km radius study area constitutes Udupi and Dakshin
Kannada districts. This includes twenty villages (including 3 towns) of Udupi Tehsil, six
villages of Karkala tehsil under Udupi district and six villages in Mangalore tehsil under
Dakshin Kannada district fall in the study area.
As per 2011 Census, total population of the study area was 1,25,159, out of
which male population was 58,577 and female population was 66,582. overall literate
population was 103,338 (82.57%) and illiterate population was 21,821 (17.43%). Out
of total literates, male literates were 50,007 (48.39%) and female literates were 53,331
(51.61%). It is notable that nearly 90% of the houses were pakka with good
construction. Most of the villagers use LPG for cooking purpose. The principal crops
grown in agricultural farm were paddy, betelnut, arecanut and coconut. Toilet facility is
one of the most basic facilities required in a house. The findings of the survey show
that more than 90% of the households were having toilet facilities in their houses.
There was no proper drainage line in the villages, but soak-pit facilities were observed
in most of the villages surveyed. The overall condition of cleanliness was satisfactory.
Ground water is the major source of drinking water in the villages wherein hand
pumps, tap water and dug wells are installed. Most of the villages had education
facilities in the form of Anganwadi and Primary Schools. Higher education facilities
were available in the range of 5-10 km. Colleges and other diploma courses were

E-7
Executive Summary
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

available at Udupi district place. Manipal University is about 30-35 km from the
proposed site.
Quality of life (QoL) indicates overall status of socio-economic environment
in a given area. Quality of life (QoL) is defined as a function between “objective
conditions” and “subjective attitudes” involving a defined “area” of concern. Village
wise subjective, objective and cumulative quality of life index is prepared. The average
QoL index value for the study area is leaning towards satisfactory level due to good
economic status like income, employment, educational facilities, medical facility and
also availability of basic needs, viz. food, clothing, and housing. The area was lacking
in employment opportunities, social security and sanitation facilities.

4.0 Anticipated Environmental Impacts and Mitigation


Measures
4.1 Air Environment
x In the present case, ISCST-3 dispersion model is used to simulate the
effect of emissions from point sources on air quality
x Air pollution modelling carried out for proposed power plant shows that
resultant concentrations of SO2, NOx and PM due to the proposed
project for the study period will remain well within the National Ambient
Air Quality Standards;
x The absolute emission of SO2 and NOx in tons/day from stack shall
reduce from present 1200 MW (2x600 MW) scenario to 2800 MW
(2x600 MW+2x800 MW) scenario. This reduction is happening because
project proponent will install FGD for 100% flue gases and De-nox
system in future for existing 2x600 MW as well as for proposed 2x800
MW units. Hence, stack emissions concentrations of SO2 and NOx in
terms of mg/Nm3 are less in the proposed scenario compared to the
concentrations under existing scenario.
x The ground level concentrations from stack are increasing from present
scenario to future scenario because temperature of flue gases will go
down after installation of FGD for 100% of the flue gases. However,
ground level air quality after expansion would be well within the
prescribed NAAQS for Industrial, Residential and other areas.
x Modeling studies reveal that the maximum incremental short term
24 hourly ground level concentrations will be 7.9 Pg/m3 for SO2 and 7.9
Pg/m3 for NO2 and 2.4 Pg/m3 for PM10 at a distance of 1.77 Km in
WNW direction. The resultant concentrations are predicted to be well
within the standards specified by CPCB.
x Consequently the proposal is unlikely to have any major impacts on
local or regional air quality or to adversely affect human health or status
of pollution-sensitive vegetation, either locally or on nearby terrain.

E-8
Executive Summary
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

4.2 Noise Environment


The main noise generating sources are blowers from boilers and turbines.
The impact of noise emission from boilers will be minimized by acoustic enclosures
and the noise levels will be limited to 85 dB(A).
4.3 Water Environment
The total water requirement for the proposed power project is 14381 m3/hr,
is through Arabian Sea. The project will not extract any ground water for construction
and operation phase and hence there will be no impact on ground water. The treated
effluent from the plant will conform to CPCB standards. The plant will be operated on
zero discharge concept. Only cooling water blow down and RO reject will be
discharged to sea. The wastewater will be suitably treated in STP/ETP and utilized for
ash handling, dust suppression and Horticulture.
4.4 Solid Waste Generation
The solid wastes generated from the proposed 2x800 MW TPP are Fly ash,
and Gypsum. Generated ash and gypsum will be disposed to the end users like
cement manufactures, brick manufactures and RMC’s and efforts will be made for
100% utilization. However in order to meet immediate future needs, High
Concentration Slurry System (HCSD) shall be used for disposal of ash to ash pond
which is proposed to be expanded by project proponent. All the generated Bio
degradable sludge will be utilized as a compost for green belt and non-biodegradable
hazardous waste will be disposed to authorized vendors as per hazardous and other
waste management rules 2016.
4.5 Greenbelt Development
Greenbelt in 33% of the total plant area , consisting of at least 3 tiers around
plant boundary will be developed as greenbelt and green cover as per
CPCB/MoEF&CC, New Delhi guidelines. The plant density of 2500 trees per hectare
with local native species will be implemented.
4.6 Socio- Economics
The major economic impacts, which will accrue to the region, during the
construction phase and operation of the proposed power plant, will be an increased
availability of direct and indirect employment. Local people will be benefited after
commissioning of the proposed project in terms of petty to major contractual jobs and
associated business establishments.

5.0 Analysis of Alternatives


Supercritical (SC) technology and steam parameters are considered for this
project in order to have increased efficiency and to reduce the emissions per kWh of
power generation. Steam parameters at steam turbine inlet for Supercritical are: 270
bar (a), 600/600°C. Most of the leading OEMs are having proven design / operating
experience with the above parameters. Most turbine suppliers can meet the above
norms at 270 bar (a) steam pressure with 600°C main steam and 600°C reheat steam
temperatures. Gains in efficiency will result in the environmental benefits, i.e. reduced

E-9
Executive Summary
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

specific coal consumption and hence lower amount of CO 2, NOx, SO2 emission per
kWh of power generated using efficient supercritical plants.

6.0 Environmental Monitoring Programme


Post project environmental monitoring is important in terms of evaluating the
performance of pollution control equipment installed in the project. The sampling and
analysis of the environmental attributes will be as per the guidelines of CPCB/KSPCB.
Following attributes will be covered in the post project environmental monitoring in and
around the project site:
x Ambient air quality monitoring would be carried out as per CPCB /
SPCB guidelines, meeting NAAQS standards
x Source emissions would be monitored once in fifteen days every month
as per new MoEF&CC notification 2015
x Automatic continuous online monitoring system shall be installed in the
stacks for PM, SO2, NOx, CO and Hg
x Surface water quality monitoring will be carried out once in a month at 2
locations
x Ground water quality monitoring will be carried out once in a month at 9
locations
x Ambient noise monitoring will be carried out once in a month at 8
locations
x Soil quality monitoring will be carried out once in six months at 10
locations
x Ecology study will be carried out annually
x All the treated effluents and discharge effluents will be analysed on
weekly basis
x Ground water quality monitoring in surrounding area of ash pond will
be monitored by 4 existing test wells and by installing 4 additional test
wells on monthly basis
x Ground water quality monitoring will be carried out along the pipeline
corridor by installing 6 test wells on monthly basis
x Online ambient air quality monitoring will be carried out in the plant area
x Online discharge effluent monitoring system will be installed at the
discharge outlet.
x Soil quality around ash pond area will be monitored on six monthly
basis for the fertility of the soil in nearby agriculture fields
The results of environmental quality data will be reported on monthly basis
to the KSPCB and six monthly basis to Regional Office of MoEF&CC.

E-10
Executive Summary
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

7.0 Additional Studies


M/s Udupi Power Corporation Limited (UPCL) a subsidiary of Adani Power
Limited, is proposing for expansion of existing 1200 MW (2x600 MW – Phase -1) to
2800 MW by addition of 1600 MW (2x800 MW – Phase -2) in notified industrial area in
village Yelluru and Santhuru, Taluka Udupi, Dist. Udupi in Karnataka state. The
following studies have been carried out by various organizations:
1. EIA Studies for the Seawater Intake & outfall and identification of
suitable intake location by CSIR-NIO, Goa (June 2016)
2. Hydrogeological study by Geo Engineering Services, Vadodara,
Gujarat (June 2016)
3. Socio-economic study, need assessment and CSR Plan by
Department of Social Work, Mangalore University, Mangalore (June
2016)
7.1 Marine EIA Study conducted by CSIR-NIO, Goa
x Surface meteorological parameters showed diurnal variation during the
study period (December 3-5, 2015). Tide was mixed semidiurnal in
nature with maximum amplitude of 1.6 m in spring and minimum
amplitude of 0.4 m in neap phase. Current during this period was
predominantly driven by tides that change direction from north to south
with an average intensity of 0.25 m/s. Warm sea surface (~29.5°C) was
observed in the study region, where the Hydrographic observation
revealed a warm, low saline patch of water close to the shore stations.
x The hydrographic parameters and total petroleum hydrocarbons were
within the normal range of values that reported from unpolluted coastal
areas. The water column exhibited slightly alkaline pH in the entire
study region. Well oxygenated conditions prevailed in the entire study
region. The observed low BOD indicated that this region was devoid of
organic matter pollution.
x The nutrient elements such as N, P and Si were present only in µM
levels and are comparable with reported values from other coastal
areas of the Arabian Sea. The PHC values in water column and
sediments were well below the threshold levels so that they cannot
exert adverse biological effects.
x Heavy metals in the study area remained below effective range - low
levels (ER-L) indicating that it may not pose harmful effects to the biota.
x The bacteriological investigation in the study area showed that the
water quality sustains a good biodiversity. Heterotrophic bacterial
abundance varied from 0.024-3.19 x104 cfu/ml. The total and fecal
coliform counts were less indicating a minimum human induced
bacterial contamination. Though there were variations in the total
counts (0.28-2.53 x105 cells/ml at surface waters and 0.20 -1.48 x105

E-11
Executive Summary
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

cells/ml at bottom waters) the spatial variations in the abundances were


not significant.
x The distribution of phytoplankton biomass, abundance, composition and
species diversity did not show any significant spatial variation. Majority
of the sampling locations showed chlorophyll a content less than
1 mg/m3, which indicates the normal condition of tropical coastal waters
in terms phytoplankton biomass. The dominance of diatoms (40-60%)
over other phytoplankton groups also showed the normal characteristic
feature of tropical coastal waters.
x The meso-zooplankton community in the vicinity and surrounding areas
of the seawater inlet & outfall, other sampling locations and the
reference station did not show any major variations. The general
composition of zooplankton at all the stations remained more or less
similar to that of the reference station.
x In case of the macrobenthic community, the density in the inlet, outfall,
other sampling locations and reference station did not show much
variation. The biomass in the reference station remained more or less
similar to the other stations.
x The observed medium lethal temperature (35.9°C and 39.81ºC) of both
Prawn post larvae and artemia nauplii is far higher than the observed
ambient water temperature (i.e. 29.0°C and 32.0ºC). Hence, we may
not anticipate any major impact on the organisms residing in the area
due to the discharge of coolant water from the power plant.
To conclude, the prevailing environmental and ecological features in the
vicinity and surrounding area of the power plant seawater inlet and outfall points did
not exhibit any adverse conditions that may affect the survival and propagation of the
biota in the region. However, precaution may be taken to maintain similar conditions in
the future too.
7.2 Hydro-geology Study Conducted by Geo Engineering Services,
Vadodara
The recommendations of the hydrogeological study are as follows :
x Sea water pipelines should be of adequate strength and material as per
applicable IS standards to avoid any leakage chances.
x Test-wells along the sea water pipeline to be monitored on monthly
basis.
x To the possible extent water is saved at each point of use by taking
proper care in maintenance.
x Use recycled water, if possible, in cleaning of toilets or gardening after
proper treatment and testing for its intended use.
x Use sprinkler or drip irrigation method in irrigation for Green Belt.

E-12
Executive Summary
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

x Develop rainwater harvesting for the purpose of utilizing rain water


within plant along with de-salined water.
7.3 Socio-economic Study Conducted by Mangalore University

Detailed Socio Economic study and CSR need identification was carried out
by the Mangalore University and the suggestions made have been incorporated by
UPCL in their CSR plan with appropriate budget.

8.0 Project Benefits


The proposed project by UPCL would enable to meet part of the growing
power demand in the Karnataka State which is due to rapid industrialization and also
due to large scale use of electricity for irrigation, domestic and commercial purposes.
Further, the proposed power plant will result in improvement of infrastructure as well
up-liftment of social structure in the area. It is anticipated that the proposed power
plant will provide benefits for the locals in two phases i.e. during construction phase as
well as during operational stage.
8.1 CSR Activities
UPCL will implement a Community Development Plan in phased manner.. It
is proposed to invest an estimated amount of Rs.35.0 crores as a capital expenditure
and Rs.8.0 Crores as Recurring expenditure every year for various community
development activities, in following thematic and focus areas.
1. Education - especially primary and elementary education development.
2. Community Health - Reaching out with basic health care to all (bridging
the gap).
3. Sustainable Livelihood Projects – Holding hands of all marginalized
groups to improve livelihood opportunity, thus improving their quality of
life.
4. Rural Infrastructure Development- Need based quality infrastructure to
improve quality of life.
5. Community Environment Development - Large scale plantation support
scheme (One Lac Surviving Tree) beyond green belt within 10 Km. area
of the project within project phase in participatory approach by including
stakeholders, schools and community based organizations. Organization
of Eco-clubs in schools with over 1,000 students and teachers as
members of the Eco Club in the area focused on creating awareness
among children and harnessing their strength for environment protection
activities including waste management and plantation.
The CSR activities are being executed in the villages falling under the
following Grama Panchayat limits:
x Yelluru
x Mudarangady
x Tenka

E-13
Executive Summary
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

x Bada
x Padubidri
x Belapu
x Palimar
Welfare measures under CSR shall be extended to all the villages coming
under 10 km radius from the proposed power plant.

9.0 Environment Cost Benefit


Environment protection will be monitored and executed by an environmental
management cell. The monetary estimates have been arrived for the proposed activity
and are presented. It is proposed to invest Rs. 1888.55 Crores on pollution control,
treatment and monitoring systems. In addition to these Rs 828.51 Crores per annum
will be spent on recurring cost. Besides, activities for community environment planned
under CSR initiatives with annual fund of Rs. 8.0 Cr. towards capital expenditure and
Rs. 2.0 Cr. as recurring expenditure shall be executed.

10.0 Environment Management Plan


During operation phase, the impacts on the various environmental attributes
would be mitigated using appropriate pollution control equipment. The Environment
Management Plan prepared for the proposed project aims at minimizing the pollution
at source as summarized here.
10.1 Air Pollution Management
Fugitive and stack emissions from the power plant will contribute to increase
in concentrations of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants, viz., SO2 and NOx. The
mitigative measures proposed in the plant are:
x Installation of ESPs of >99.99% efficiency to limit the PM
concentrations below 30 mg/Nm3
x Provision of 275 m high stack for wider dispersion of gaseous
emissions
x Providing Flue Gas Desulphurisation units for 100% flue gas treatment
to reduce SO2 emissions
x Providing De-nox system to reduce the NOx emissions
x Dust extraction system will be provided at transfer points
x Provision of water sprinkling system at material handling and storage
yard
x Asphalting of the roads within the plant area; and
x Development of Greenbelt around the plant to arrest the fugitive
emissions.

E-14
Executive Summary
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

10.2 Noise Pollution Management


In the process, various equipment’s like pumps, cooling tower, compressors
etc. generate noise. The proposed means to mitigate higher noise levels are:
x Equipment will conform to noise levels prescribed by regulatory
authorities;
x Provision of acoustic enclosures to noise generating equipment’s like
pumps;
x Provision of thick greenbelt to attenuate the noise levels; and
x Provision of earplugs to the workers working in high noise level area.

10.3 Water Pollution Management


The effluents generated from the power plant during operations will be
collected stream-wise for various treatments as envisaged in the wastewater treatment
scheme. The wastewater recovery, as practiced, will considerably reduce the impact
on the surface water quality. The recovered wastewaters will be collected in a central
monitoring basin which will be reused within plant premises and greenbelt
development and dust suppression and during monsoon the water will be utilized for
cooling towers. Cooling water blow down and RO rejects will be discharged back to
sea.
The measures proposed to minimise the impacts are:
x Provision of sewage treatment plant to treat domestic sewage from
plant
x Utilization of treated domestic wastewater for greenbelt development;
x HDPE liners will be provided to the ash pond in order to arrest any
seepage of ash pond water into groundwater;
x Provision of separate storm water system to collect and store run-off
water during rainy season and utilization of the same in the cooling
towers to reduce the water requirement.
10.4 Solid Waste Management
The main solid waste from the proposed power plant will be ash (fly ash and
bottom ash). Considering the expected coal quality with hourly coal firing rate of
832 TPH , a maximum amount of 208 TPH of ash will be generated from the proposed
power plant. Out of this, the bottom ash will be about 20% of the total ash generated
i.e. 41.6 TPH and the fly ash will be remaining 80% of total ash i.e., 166.4 TPH.
It is proposed to utilize 100% of the fly ash generated from the project as per
applicable Fly ash utilization notification form MoEF&CC. All efforts will be made to
utilize bottom ash for various purposes. Unused bottom ash will be disposed in the ash
pond through High Concentration Slurry Disposal. After the ash pond is abandoned, its

E-15
Executive Summary
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

area will be reclaimed through tree plantation. HDPE liners will be provided in the ash
pond in order to arrest any leaching and seepage of ash pond water into groundwater.

11.0 Risk Assessment


Damage distances for the accidental release of hazardous materials
(LDO/HSD, H2 cylinder) have been computed. Weather conditions have been selected
to accommodate worst case scenarios to get maximum effective distances. DNV
based PHAST V.6.51 software has been used to carry out consequence analysis.

LDO/HSD Storage Tank Risk Assessment


The pool fire scenario was visualized by considering different leak sizes of
10 mm, 25 mm and 50 mm and catastrophic rupture for various heat loads of
37.5 kW/m2, 12.5 k W/m2 & 4 kW/m2 under different weather conditions. The damage
distance due to 10 mm leak for the heat load of 4kW/m2 were found to be 34 m under
worst case weather conditions with wind velocity of 5 m/s and stability clases D (5D
weather condition)..
H2 Cylinder Storage Risk Assessment
The scenario of jet fire was visualized by considering different leak sizes of
10 mm, 25 mm and 50 mm and catastrophic rupture for various heat loads of 37.5
kW/m2, 12.5 kW/m2 & 4 kW/m2 under three scenario of velocity and weather
conditions. The damage distance due to 50 mm leak for the heat load of 4 kW/m2 was
found to be 55 m under 5D weather condition.
Risk Mitigation Measures have been suggested for hazards of heat radiation
and toxicity. Further mitigation measures of natural disaster and offsite and onsite
disaster management plan have been suggested.

12.0 Conclusion
The proposed power plant may have certain level of marginal impacts on
the local environment. However, with the implementation of the proposed pollution
control and environment management measures, even the minor impacts anticipated
due to construction and operation of the proposed power plant will be mitigated.
Further, development of this project will have certain beneficial impact/effects in terms
of bridging the electrical power demand and supply gap. This will also provides
employment opportunities during construction as well as operation phase of the
project.
Thus, in view of considerable benefits from the project without any adverse
environmental impact, the proposed project is most advantageous to the region as well
as to the nation.

E-16
Chapter 1 : Introduction
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Chapter 1
Introduction
M/s. Udupi Power Corporation Limited (UPCL), a subsidiary of Adani Power
Limited (APL), has established a 2x600 MW coal based power plant which is located in
notified industrial area at villages Yelluru and Santhuru, Taluka Udupi, Dist. Udupi in
Karnataka State. These existing units of 2x600 MW of UPCL use 100% imported coal
and both the units are in operation since November 2010 and August, 2012
respectively.

Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) for expansion of existing power plant


has been signed between State Government of Karnataka and M/s UPCL. Hence the
company has proposed expansion of existing 1200 MW (2x600 MW – sub critical units
in Phase-I) coal based power plant at village Yelluru to 2800 MW by addition of 1600
MW (2x800 MW – ultra super critical units in Phase-II) in the land adjacent to the
existing power plant. After expansion, power generated by the project is envisaged to
be mainly supplied to the Karnataka state that will support to meet the increasing
power requirements. Location of existing and proposed project is shown in Fig 1.1.

As per the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Notification dated 14 th


September 2006 read with amendments, the proposed thermal power plant project
falls under ‘Category A’ with project or activity type number ‘1(d)’, which requires prior
EIA for Environmental Clearance (EC) from the Ministry of Environment, Forest and
Climate Change (MoEF&CC), Govt. of India.

M/s. UPCL has obtained the Terms of Reference (ToR) from MoEF&CC for
EIA of proposed 2x800 MW units. Hence, UPCL approached CSIR-NEERI, Nagpur to
conduct EIA study for the purpose.

The present EIA report addresses the environmental impacts of the


proposed power plant and suggests mitigation measures, environmental management
plan along with environmental monitoring program. The EIA report is prepared based
on the ToR issued by MoEF&CC, vide letter no. J-13012/12/2015-IA (T), dated 13,
August 2015. A copy of the ToR letter, along with compliance status is enclosed as
Annexure-I.
In line with the conditions of TOR granted by MoEF&CC, Public hearing for the
proposed project was organized by Karnataka State Pollution Control Board (KSPCB)
on 10th November 2016. Response to issues raised in the public hearing and written
representations are summarized in this final EIA report.

1.1
Chapter 1 : Introduction
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Fig. 1.1 : Location of Existing and Proposed Project

1.1 National Electricity Policy


The Central Government has prepared National Electricity Policy in
February 2005 for development of the power system based on optimal utilization of
resources. It is one of the key instruments for providing policy guideline to the
Electricity Regulatory Commission (ERC) and to the Central Electricity Authority (CEA)
for preparation of the National Electricity Plan. The Policy aims at accelerated
development of the power sector, providing supply of electricity to all areas and

1.2
Chapter 1 : Introduction
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

protecting interests of consumers and other stakeholders. The policy has been framed
keeping in view availability of energy resources, technology available to exploit these
resources, economics of generation using different resources and energy security
issues. The policy also aims at overcoming the energy and peaking shortages and
ensuring the commercial viability of the electricity sector. The key development
objective of the power sector is supply of electricity to all areas including rural areas as
mandated in section 6 of the Electricity Act. Both the central government and state
government would jointly endeavor to achieve this objective at the earliest.
Consumers, particularly those who are ready to pay a tariff which reflects efficient
costs have the right to get uninterrupted twenty four hours supply of power.

1.2 Importance of the Project


Power is among the key infrastructures that contributes towards the
economic development of any nation. Since liberalization of the Indian economy in the
early 1990s, the power sector in India has witnessed significant growth. Considering
the positive change in policy matters, the country’s growth is expected to follow an
upward trend. India has witnessed phenomenal growth in power sector starting from
the 6th Five Year Plan 1980–1985 which is given in Table 1.1.

Table 1.1 Growth of Installed Capacity Since 6th Plan


(In MW)
Thermal
Plan
Coal Gas Diesel Total
th
End of 6 Plan 26310.83 541.50 177.37 27029.70
th
End of 7 Plan 41237.48 2343.00 165.09 43745.57
th
End of 8 Plan 54154.48 6561.90 293.9 61010.28
th
End of 9 Plan 62130.88 1163.10 1134.83 74428.81
th
End of 10 Plan 71121.38 13691.71 1201.75 86014.84
th
End of 11 Plan 112022.38 18381.05 1199.75 131603.18
End of March 2016 185172.88 24508.63 993.53 210675.04

Captive Generation Capacity in Industries having demand of 1MW and above, grid interactive (as on 31-
03-13) =40726 MW
Source: Executive Summary of Power Sector – March 2016 Ministry of Power, Government of India
(http://www.cea.nic.in/reports/monthly/executivesummary/2016/exe_summary-03.pdf )

One of the reasons for setting up capital intensive industries is to promote


self-reliance in the production of essential raw materials, such as steel, cement,
petroleum products, fertilizers, etc., which sustain downstream industrialization,
creating employment potential and national growth. Hence, demand for electrical
power is expected to outpace the supply for a considerable period of time. Recent
trends also show that India is facing power deficits in almost all regions which is given
in Table 1.2 & Table 1.3 respectively.

1.3
Chapter 1 : Introduction
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 1.2: Power Supply Position (Energy) in April 2016


Region Energy (MU) Deficit (%)
Requirement Availability
Apr’15 Apr’16 Apr’15 Apr’16 Apr’15 Apr’16
Northern 23626 27412 22499 26590 -4.8 -3.0
Western 27123 30727 27044 30714 -0.3 0.0
Southern 24220 27671 23702 27385 -2.1 -1.0
Eastern 9747 11278 9647 11244 -1.0 -0.3
North Eastern 1038 1102 960 1036 -7.5 -6.0
All India 85754 98190 83852 96969 -2.2 -1.2
Table 1.3: Peak Power Supply Position in April 2016
Region Power (MW) Deficit (%)
Peak Demand Peak Supply
Apr’15 Apr’16 Apr’15 Apr’16 Apr’15 Apr’16
Northern 41540 45353 40003 43600 -3.7 -3.9
Western 43135 44952 42690 44870 -1.0 -0.2
Southern 37801 41082 36786 40472 -2.7 -1.5
Eastern 17368 18681 17304 18634 -0.4 -0.3
North Eastern 2220 2497 2114 2358 -4.8 -5.6
All India 136884 145103 132119 142618 -3.5 -1.7
Source: Executive Summary of Power Sector –April 2016, Ministry of Power, Government of
India
(http://www.cea.nic.in/reports/monthly/executivesummary/2016/exe_summary-
04.pdf)

1.3 Justification of Project


In the recent past, the state's GDP growth rate has improved significantly,
with an expected increase in investment and several initiatives taken by the
government of Karnataka, the state is likely to register sustained moderate growth.
This process of industrialization is expected to further boost the demand for power in
the state. Moreover, open access provision of transmission system provided in the
Electricity Act, 2003 enables a power generating station to wheel the generated power
to any parts of India.

Keeping in view the growth in demand and the gap between demand and
supply, there is a need for power generation capacity addition. With a reheat and
regenerative machine of 800 MW set size and assured availability of sufficient fuel at a
competitive price, UPCL expects to generate power at an attractive price. The
profitability can be assured if there is adequate demand for the next 25/30 years and if
power can be transmitted to potential buyers or consumers at a reasonable cost.
Energy from the proposed station shall be evacuated to the state/national grid through
400 kV / 765 kV substations within a reasonable distance from the site.

In order to narrow down the bridging gap between supply and demand,
the proposed capacity addition by 2x800 MW TPP gets justified due to projected
deficit in the Southern region.

1.4
Chapter 1 : Introduction
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

1.4 Objectives of Study


Environmental Impact Assessment incorporating baseline environmental
quality data of one season leading to identification, prediction and evaluation of
impacts for proposed expansion project as per approved ToR. Environmental Impact
Statements (EIS) will also be delineated based on the above.

1.5 Scope of the Study


With a view to assess the environmental impacts arising due to the
proposed power plant project, UPCL has approached CSIR-NEERI to prepare the EIA
report and suggest an Environment Management Plan (EMP) for mitigating adverse
impacts from the proposed project.

Environmental baseline monitoring has been carried out during winter


season 2015-16. Various modeling exercises have been carried out to predict and
evaluate the impacts due to the proposed project. The scope of the present study is in
line with the ToR as granted by MoEF&CC.

1.5.1 Details of the Study


The scope of study broadly includes:
x To conduct literature review and collect data relevant to the study area;
x To undertake environmental monitoring so as to establish the baseline
environmental status of the study area;
x To predict incremental levels of pollutants in the terrestrial study area
due to the proposed plant activities;
x To evaluate the predicted impacts on the various environmental
attributes in the study area by using scientifically developed and widely
accepted environmental impact assessment methodologies;
x To prepare an EMP outlining the measures for improving the
environmental quality and scope for future expansions for
environmentally sustainable development; and
x To identify critical environmental attributes required to be monitored
suggesting a post-project monitoring programme.

The literature review includes identification of relevant articles from various


publications, collection of data from various government agencies and other sources.

1.5.2 Methodology of the Study


Reconnaissance was conducted by the NEERI team and concerned officials
from the project proponent. Sampling locations were identified by considering the
below factors:

1.5
Chapter 1 : Introduction
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

x Predominant wind directions based on the metrological data generated


at metrological station at existing 2x600 MW TPP of UPCL.
x Existing topography, drainage pattern and location of surface water
bodies like ponds, canals, rivers and sea;
x Location of villages/towns/sensitive areas;
x Areas which represent baseline conditions; and
x Collection, collation and analysis of baseline data for various
environmental attributes.

The field observations are used to:


x Identify extent of negative impacts on community/natural resources; and
x Identify mitigation measures and monitoring requirements.

The study also provides framework and institutional strengthening for


implementing the mitigation measures.

1.6 Study Area Details


The study area for the present EIA study is the area covered within the 10
km radius from the proposed plant boundary. The study area map showing 5 km and
10 km radius is shown in Fig. 1.2.

The site is located on the Western coast at a distance of about 6.0 km from
the sea front with latitude 13°09’35” N and longitude 74°48’00” E. The site is situated
at Yelluru village which is about 3 km from Padubidri off National Highway, NH 66
(previously known as NH 17), which connects Mangalore and Mumbai via Goa running
along the western coastline of India. The project site can be approached by state
highway connecting SH1 to Karkala town. The site is located adjacent to the new
broad gauge line of Konkan Railways connecting Mangalore to Mumbai.

The nearest airport is at Mangalore, which is about 35 km from the site. The
nearest sea port is New Mangalore Port Trust (NMPT), which is about 30 km from the
site and the nearest Railway Station is Padubidri, which is about 3 km from the site.

1.6
Chapter 1 : Introduction
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

5 km
10 km
Fig. 1.2 : Study Area Map showing 5 & 10 Km radius

As per 2011 census, there are total 29 villages and 3 town falling with in the
study area with a total population of 1,25,159, and population density of 502 persons
per sq km. Overall literacy rate is about 82.57%.

1.7 Structure of the EIA Report


EIA study has been conducted as per the approved ToR and presented in
the following Chapters.

Executive Summary
Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 2: Project Description
Chapter 3: Description of the Environment
Chapter 4: Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
Chapter 5: Analysis of Alternatives (Technology and Sites)

1.7
Chapter 1 : Introduction
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Chapter 6: Environmental Monitoring Programme


Chapter 7: Additional Studies
Chapter 8: Project Benefit
Chapter 9: Environmental Cost Benefit Analysis
Chapter 10: Environmental Management Plan
Chapter 11: Risk assessment
Chapter 12: Summary and Conclusions
Chapter 13: Disclosure of Consultants Engaged

1.8
Chapter 2 : Project Description
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Chapter 2
Project Description

2.1 Introduction
The chapter highlights the features of the proposed 1600 MW (2x800 MW)
power plant, its layout, infrastructural facilities details of the process, fuel requirement,
utilities and services. And also sources of waste generation, their quantity and pollution
control measures are highlighted.

The total project at UPCL comprises of two phases. Phase-I of 2x600 MW


was developed with commissioning of Ist Unit on 11th November 2010 and 2nd Unit on
19th Aug 2012. In Phase-II, two units of 800 MW each are proposed to be
commissioned within a period of about 4 to 5 years after receipt of all statutory
clearances.

2.2 Salient Features of the Project


The configuration of the proposed power plant is 2X800 MW. Installation of
associated mechanical and electrical equipment, auxiliary units like coal and ash
handling plants, water treatment plant, cooling water system, Electrostatic Precipitators
(ESPs), low NOx burners, Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), Flue Gas
Desulphurization (FGDs), online emission monitoring system etc. will form part of the
total installation. The salient features of the power plant project are given in Table 2.1.

Table 2.1 : Salient Features of Thermal Power Plant Project


Sr. Features Existing TPP* Proposed expansion TPP**
No.
1 Capacity 1200 MW (2 X 600 MW) 1600 MW (2 X 800 MW)
st
2 Estimated Project 518789 lacs as on 31 ~ 1150000 Lacs
Cost March 2015)
3 Total Main Plant 458 acres (185.3 Ha) 180 acres (72.84 ha)
Area (including main plant, (No additional land is required for
corridor for seawater intake sea water pipeline corridor.
and outfall) Existing corridor shall be used)
4 Ash pond Area 132 acres (53.46 ha) 278 acres (112.59 ha)
(including corridor
connecting ash dyke with
main plant).
5 Power evacuation 400 KV and 220 KV New 400 KV transmission line is
transmission lines are envisaged for evacuation of
evacuating the power additional power generated
generated.

2.1
Chapter 2 : Project Description
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Sr. Features Existing TPP* Proposed expansion TPP**


No.
6 Coal requirement 3.421 MMTPA of coal is 6.20 MMTPA of coal shall be
and transportation required at 80% PLF. required at 85% PLF.
Existing 2x600 MW units Units shall be designed to use
are designed to use 100% blended coal having 70%
imported coal with imported coal & 30% domestic
maximum ash content of coal having maximum ash
12% and sulphur content of content of 25% and sulphur
0.8%. content of 0.5%. Till the domestic
Coal is being sourced coal allocation from MoC is
through NMPT, Mangalore received, 100% imported coal
and then transported from from Australia and Indonesia can
NMPT to the plant through be used.
Konkan railway line upto Coal shall be sourced through
Nandikur railway station and NMPT, Mangalore and existing
taken into plant through railway line will be used to
dedicated railway siding transport the coal from NMPT to
from Nandikur railway Nandikur railway station. Railway
station. siding to plant is already
connected from Nandikur railway
station.
a) Station Heat Rate 2400 Kcal/kWh 2081 Kcal/kWh
b) Gross Calorific 5900 Kcal/kg 4000 Kcal/kg
Value
c) Sulphur Content in 0.8 % (max) 0.5% (max)
Coal
d) Ash Generation 0.411 MMTPA (12% ash 1.60 MMTPA (25% ash content
content in coal) in blended coal.
7 ESP Efficiency Over 99.76% Over 99.99%
8 Stack details Twin-flue stack of 275 m Twin-flue stack of 275 m height
height
9 Water Requirement 2,40,000 KLD (87.6 3,45,144 KLD (126 MCM/Year)
MCM/Year)
10 Source of water Arabian Sea Arabian Sea

Source: *EIA Report 2009; **DPR

2.3 Project Location and Layout


The proposed power plant will be located adjacent to the existing plant of
UPCL in notified industrial area in villages Yelluru and Santhuru, Tehsil Udupi, District
Udupi in Karnataka state. The project location map is shown earlier in Fig. 1.1.

Location of existing and proposed power plant units with water intake &
outfall locations and ash pond area towards North-Eastern side of the plant is shown
on google map in Fig. 2.1.

2.2
Chapter 2 : Project Description
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Ash pond
Main Plant
Inatke& Outfall

Existing Boundary Proposed Boundary

Fig. 2.1 : Location of Existing and Proposed Units of UPCL with Ash Pond and
Water Intake and Outfall Pipeline

Plant layout of the existing power plant along with the proposed expansion
is shown in Fig. 2.2.

Fig. 2.2: Layout of Existing (2x600 MW) and Proposed (2x800 MW) Power Plant
(Also provided in A2 as Annexure 7)

2.3
Chapter 2 : Project Description
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Boundary coordinates of existing and proposed main plant, ash pond area,
railway yard/marry-go round and water intake location & outfall location are given in
Table 2.2.

Table. 2.2 : Boundary Coordinates of Existing and Proposed Main Plant, Ash
Pond Area, Railway yard/Marry-go round and Water Intake Location & Outfall
Location

Sr. Existing Plant (2x600 MW) Proposed Plant (2x800 MW)


No.
Latitude Longitude Latitude Longitude
A. Main Plant Boundary
1. 13° 9'18.80"N 74°47'40.09"E 13° 9'46.40"N 74°47'50.02"E
2. 13° 9'28.39"N 74°47'43.70"E 13° 10'02.12"N 74°48'09.30"E
3. 13° 9'54.74"N 74°48'28.23"E 13° 10'11.09"N 74°48'09.11"E
4. 13° 9'48.21"N 74°48'48.52"E 13° 10'05.00"N 74°48'38.72"E
5. 13° 9'30.60"N 74°48'25.58"E 13° 09'54.29"N 74°48'15.08"E
6. 13° 9'12.35"N 74°47'55.65"E 13° 09'48.77"N 74°48'11.18"E
B Ash Pond
1. 13° 09'58.68"N 74°49'37.92"E 13° 09'50.93"N 74°49'06.88"E
2. 13° 10'04.09"N 74°49'29.78"E 13° 10'18.67"N 74°49'29.49"E
3. 13° 10'08.51"N 74°49'49.22"E 13° 10'32.06"N 74°49'53.23"E
4. 13° 09'50.31"N 74°49'57.97"E 13° 10'25.85"N 74°49'55.92"E
5. 13° 09'47.79"N 74°49'45.03"E 13° 10'12.85"N 74°49'55.47"E
6. 13° 09'51.82"N 74°49'36.30"E 13° 09'50.45"N 74°49'58.19"E
C. Railway yard/Marry-go round
1. - - 13° 10'5.13"N 74°47'17.59"E
2. - - 13°9'33.51"N 74°47'0.80"E
3. - - 13°9'9.03"N 74°47'36.61"E
4. - - 13°9'43.79"N 74°47'45.19"E
D. Water Intake Location
5. 13° 9'55.18"N 74°44'28.51"E 13°10'3.78"N 74°44'48.23"E
E. Outfall Location
1. 13° 9'53.11"N 74°44'53.34"E 13°10'3.75"N 74°44'13.38"E

Photographs showing existing power plant and site for proposed power
plant are given in Plate 2.1.

2.4
Chapter 2 : Project Description
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Existing Power Plant

Site for Proposed Power Plant

Plate 2.1: Photographs of Existing Power Plant and site for Proposed Power
Plant

2.5
Chapter 2 : Project Description
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

The 10 km radius study area map showing highways, railway lines and
water bodies in the vicinity to the project site is given in Fig. 2.4. The figure indicates
that the proposed project site conforms to the prescribed guidelines in terms of
distance of 500 m from High Flood Level (HFL) of the river, highways and railway line.

Fig. 2.4: 10 km radius Study Area Map showing Highways, Railway Lines, Water
Bodies and Project Site

2.6
Chapter 2 : Project Description
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Location of Intake Water Point


The water requirement for the power plant is through Arabian sea due to
non-availability of sweet water either from surface water sources or underground
sources on a sustained basis. Due to operational constraints faced in the sea water
intake system of the existing Phase-I, sea water intake system will be designed to
cater to both Phase-I and Phase-II water requirements up to sea water intake pump
house. Sea water will be drawn from the intake system by submarine pipeline buried in
the sea bed up to the onshore sea water intake pump house.

Sea water intake pump and pump house for Phase-II units will be located
adjacent to the existing sea water intake pump house by suitable extension of existing
facilities. Space is available for the extension of existing sea water intake pump house
facility.

Existing pipe line corridor will be used for routing sea water pipe lines from
sea water intake pump house to the proposed power plant. Key features of the pipeline
corridor are given in Table 2.3.

Table 2.3 : Key Features of the Pipe Line Corridor


Sr. Features Existing Pipe line corridor Proposed Pipe line corridor
No.
3 3
1 Water 10,000 m /hr 14,381 m /hr
requirement
2 Distance 4.5 km 4.5 km
3 Head(net head) 40 m 40 m
4 Gross Head 40 m + Losses due to 40 m + Losses due to friction,
friction, bend, horizontal and bend, horizontal and vertical
vertical bends bends
5 Accessibility Pipeline corridor In the Pipeline corridor already
used in Phase-I
6 Crossing Existing NH 66 and Railway Track NH 66 and Railway Track

Note: The existing pipe line corridor shall be used for laying the additional
pipeline for proposed expansion by 2x800 MW units. No additional land shall be
required for water pipeline corridor for expansion.

2.4 Infrastructure and Resources Requirement


2.4.1 Land Requirement
The total additional land required for the proposed project is about 730
acres (295.65 ha) that includes 180 acres (72.9 ha) for main plant, 278 acres (112.59
ha) for Ash dyke and 272 acres (110.16 ha) for railway yard/marry-go round facilities
inside the plant. The land requirement for different facilities for expansion by 2x800
MW is summarized given in Table 2.4.

2.7
Chapter 2 : Project Description
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 2.4 : Land Requirement Summary


Sr. Description Land for Existing Additional Land for
No. Plant (2x600 MW) Proposed Plant
(Acres) (2x800 MW) (Acres)
1. Main plant 420.25 (170.25 ha) 180 (72.9 ha)
(including 30% green belt)
2. Ash disposal area (including 30% 112.32 (45.48 ha) 278 (112.59 ha)
green belt)
3. Corridor between Main plant and 20.14 (8.15 ha) Nil
Ash disposal area
4. Sea water pump house and 36.90 (14.94 ha) Nil
seawater pipe line corridor
5. Railway Yard/marry-go round - 272 (110.16 ha)
inside the plant (including 30%
green belt)
Total land 589.61 (238.79 ha) 730 (295.65 ha)

Note : Besides, 57.09 acres has been already acquired separately by KIADB for
R&R of 2x600 MW and the vacant land available within this area shall be utilized
for R&R of proposed 2x800 MW Units.

Breakup of land utilization for main plant facilities in existing and proposed
units is given in Table 2.5.

Table 2.5 : Breakup of Land for Main Plant Facilities in Existing and Proposed
Units
Sr. Description of land for facilities in Area for existing Area for proposed
No. Main Plant area 2 x 600 MW 2 x 800 MW (Acres)
(Acres)
1 BTG area 21 (8.5 ha) 33 (13.36 ha)
2 Transformer & Switchyard 30 (12.15 ha) 20 (8.1 ha)
3 Coal Yard Facility 60 (24.3 ha) 22 (8.9 ha)
4 Water System 10 (4.05 ha) 10 (4.05 ha)
5 CW System 15 (607 ha) 25 (10.12 ha)
6 Miscellaneous Buildings 148 (59.94 ha) 6 (2.43 ha)
7 Green belt 136 (55.08 ha) 54 (21.87 ha)
Total 420 (170.25 ha) 180 (72.9 ha)
Greenbelt area shall be 1/3 (440 acres (178.2 ha)) of the total plant area of
existing and proposed plant.

2.4.1.1 Land Availability Details


The area where the existing 2 x 600 MW plant is located and also where the
2 x 800 MW units expansion project is proposed is declared as an industrial area
under Section 3(1) of Karnataka Industrial Area Development Act (KIADA 1966) in the
gazette of Karnataka.

Land acquisition is being done by Karnataka Industrial Area Development


Board (KIADB) as per Karnataka Industrial Area Development Act 1966 which have
inbuilt mechanism for Resettlement and Rehabilitation (R&R). After notification of

2.8
Chapter 2 : Project Description
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

168.10 Ac land, which is part of the total land, under 28 (4) of KIADA, Compensation
Fixation Committee chaired by District Commissioner of Udupi has fixed the
Compensation and R&R package with consent of the all project affected people of this
part of the land. Other land area is in the process of acquisition by KIADB for which
notification under section 28 (1) and 28 (3) of KIADA has been completed and R&R
package shall be fixed in similar manner by Compensation Fixation Committee. M/s
UPCL offers same Compensation and R&R package for all project affected people
from total 730 Ac land proposed for this project.

2.4.1.2 Details of Cutting and Filling


Topography of the proposed site is undulated and ground work would
require cutting and grading to an extent of about 2-3 m to grade the plant to the
proposed finished ground level (FGL). Levels shall be finalized in such a way that
there is balance in cutting and filling quantities of earthen material. The activity shall
not involve transport of cutting/filling material from/to the project area.

2.4.2 Water Requirement Details


2.4.2.1 Water Requirement and Source
In a thermal power project, major quantum of water is required for
condensing low pressure steam in condenser which is the heat sink of thermodynamic
cycle. In addition cooling water is also required for cooling of various coolers of
auxiliaries of steam turbine and steam generators. Total water requirement of Phase-II
project will be 14,381 m3/hr, which includes the requirement of desalination plant,
cooling water makeup and electro chlorination.

The seawater intake requirement as well as specific water consumption for


existing and proposed plant are given below in Table 2.6.

Table 2.6 : Seawater Intake Requirement for Existing and Proposed Power Plant
Description Unit Existing 2x600 MW TPP Proposed Expansion by
2x800MW TPP
Total sea water m³/hr 10000 14381
requirement
¾ This includes water ¾ This includes water
requirement for requirement for
Desalination Plant-1900 Desalination Plant-1960
3
m /hr, Cooling water make m³/hr, Cooling water make
3
up-8091 m /hr, Electro up-12412 m³/hr, Electro
3
chlorination-9 m /hr chlorination-9 m³/hr
3
Specific water m /MWh
8.33 8.9
consumption
These units have Natural draft These units are proposed with
cooling towers Induced draft cooling tower for
optimization of land
requirement (15-25% less) in
cooling tower

2.9
Chapter 2 : Project Description
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

2.4.2.2 Optimization of Cycles of Concentration


Evaporation of water from Cooling Water (CW) system in cooling tower
results build-up of dissolved solids in circulating water. To keep the water chemistry
within control, portion of circulating water need to be bled down and fresh water is to
be supplied as makeup. Thus makeup water is required to compensate for the
evaporation & drift loss and water bled (CW blow down) from the system. Amount of
CW blow down depends on acceptable limit of chemical parameters of circulating
water. This is measured by “Cycle of Concentration”(CoC).

Lower COC results higher CW blow down which results in more water
requirement. Adopting higher COC results lower blow down and less makeup water.
However, COC cannot be increased beyond a certain practical limit as water chemistry
would be difficult to manage/control. Adopting a COC of 1.3 and above, shall increase
the dissolved solids level 1.3 times that of CW makeup water and hence, circulating
water shall be more scale forming or corrosive depending on value of pH, temperature,
alkalinity, calcium etc. in the makeup water.

As per general design standards, constituents such as calcium, alkalinity,


micro-organism etc. need to be limited to certain design values for trouble free
operation of CW system equipment such as cooling towers, condensers, pumps etc.
Hence, chemical treatment programme shall be adopted to facilitate operation of CW
system at COC of 1.3 and above.

With due consideration of the above issues, it is proposed to adopt an


optimum COC of 1.3 for this project so that:

i) CW system chemistry can be controlled with the aid of suitable


chemical treatment programme during operation stage;
ii) Water requirement of the project is optimum; and
iii) Blow down from CW system is optimum so that effluent from the plant
can be less.
2.4.2.3 Wastewater Generation, Treatment and Disposal
The blow down from cooling water system and reject from RO & DM plant
will fed to guard pond for final disposal to sea. The other wastewater generated from
the process shall be treated in Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) suitability for usage in
horticulture or dust suppression as per the guidelines of the Karnataka State Pollution
Control Board (KSPCB)/ Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and other statutory
authorities.

The wastewater generated from domestic sources are treated in Sewage


Treatment Plant (STP) suitably for usage of horticulture and dust suppression. Details
of wastewater generation in existing and proposed plant are given in Table 2.7.

2.10
Chapter 2 : Project Description
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 2.7 : Wastewater Generation in Existing and Proposed Plant


Description Unit Existing Proposed Disposal Scheme
Plant Plant
Outfall to sea through
Blow down from CW system m³/hr 7200 9106
guard pond
Reject from RO and DM Outfall to sea through
m³/hr 650 1633
Plant guard pond
Total outfall to sea m³/hr 7850 10739 18589
Zero discharge by
Domestic Waster Water
utilization after treatment
through STP and Other Bio-
m³/hr 65 98 within plant for
degradable Wastewater
horticulture, ash handling
through ETP
and dust suppression

2.5.3 Fuel Requirement


2.5.3.1 Coal Characteristics
Coal is the primary fuel of the proposed plant. For the proposed 2X800 MW
about 6.20 MMTPA of coal is required at 85% PLF. It is proposed to use blended coal.

UPCL proposes to establish a power station of 1600 MW (2X800 MW)


capacity, which will be fired on blended coal in ratio of 70% Imported coal and 30%
domestic coal. Project proponent shall bid for allocation or allotment of domestic coal
for this project as per new policy of Ministry of Coal. Till the allocation of domestic coal
is received from Ministry of Coal, imported coal mainly from Australia and Indonesia
shall be used for 2x800 MW units. In either case, maximum Ash content of 25% and
Sulphur content of 0.5%. Characteristics of coal being used in existing unit and coal to
be used in proposed unit is given in Table 2.8.

Table 2.8: Coal Characteristics for Existing and Proposed Units


Existing Units Proposed Units
Parameters Unit
(2 x600 MW) (2 x 800 MW)
Imported +
Coal Source Imported
Indigenous
Proximate Analysis
Total Moisture % 18.0 - 20.6 16.0 - 18.0
Volatile Matter % 12.0 - 14.4 20.0 – 23.0
Fixed Carbon % 39.0 - 42.4 31.0 - 33.0
Ash % 5.0 – 11.5 23.0 - 25.0
Sulphur % < 0.8 < 0.5
GCV Kcal/kg 4800 - 5490 3900 - 4000
Ultimate Analysis
Carbon % 51.5 – 69.9 38.0 - 40.7
Hydrogen % 4.5 – 5.5 2.5 – 3.0
Nitrogen % 1.35 - 1.39 1.5 - 1.8
Oxygen % 14.5 - 15.7 9.0 - 10.1

Vide Office Memorandum No. J-13015/31/2015-IA.I (T) dated 2nd November


2015, Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC), the Ministry
has allowed to UMPPs to use imported coal with ash content of maximum 25%,

2.11
Chapter 2 : Project Description
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

whereas for power plant less than 4000 MW (below UMPP) are required to comply
with 34% ash content condition.

The company is already having dedicated railway siding connected with


Konkan railway from Nandikur railway station. For existing 2x600 MW units, coal is
handled at dedicated berth at New Mangalore Port Trust (NMPT) Mangalore. Coal is
transported from NMPT to the plant through Konkan railway line upto Nandikur railway
station and then taken into plant through dedicated railway siding from Nandikur
railway station.

For proposed 2x800 MW units, Coal transportation route is proposed to be


the same as per existing 2x600 MW units.

2.5.3.2 Coal Transport Facilities


For proposed expansion of power plant, enhancement of unloading facilities
at existing berth, conveying facilities, stacking and reclaiming& rack loading facilities
shall be implemented at NMPT.

For proposed plant, 6 Nos. of rake per day will be required. Total 9 nos. of
rake will be required after expansion. This will necessitate existing rapid loading
system to be operated throughout the day to meet 9 rake requirements for daily
consumption. Any breakdown in this system will interrupt coal supply to the existing
and proposed plant for regular operation. Normally, working hours and business hours
of all railway terminals are from 06:00 to 22:00 hours (reference: No. TC-
I/2005/301/7Pt.D dated 16.05.2014), working hours beyond the mentioned period will
need to be confirmed by railways. General Manager of zonal railways is empowered to
introduce the round the clock working on case to case basis after analyzing traffic
handled at railway terminal and possible improvement in wagon turn-round.

Considering above, additional loading facility along with yard will be required
at existing NMPT yard. Feasibility study to load and transport additional coal for
expansion will need to be carried out to finalize number of dedicated rakes required for
Phase-I and II together considering the traffic in the existing railway route.

2.5.3.3 Start-up Fuel


The boiler will be designed for start-up, coal flame stabilization and low load
operation using Light Distillate Oil (LDO)/ High Speed Diesel Oil (HSD). LDO/HSD is
being received to plant by means of the road tankers.

The annual requirement of secondary fuel by way of LDO and HFD used for
start-up and coal flame stabilization is estimated to be around 13,000 KL/annum. The
typical characteristics of LDO and HFD are given in Table 2.9.

2.12
Chapter 2 : Project Description
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 2.9: Typical Characteristics of LDO and HSD


Sr. HSD (IS: 1460,
Characteristics LDO (IS: 1460)
No. Amendment-2, 2010)
1 Ash, percent by mass, Max 0.02 0.01
Carbon residue percent residue, by
2 1.5 0.3
mass, Max
3
3 Density at 15 Deg.C, kg/m 850 820-860
4 Total sulphur, percent by mass, Max 1.8 0.05
5 Gross calorific value, kcal/kg 10500 10900

2.5.4 Power Evacuation


The total power generated from the generators will be 1600MW (2x800MW).
Considering 7.5% of auxiliary power consumption for super critical unit with FGD and
SCR, the power available for evacuation will be about 1480 MW.

The existing Phase-I power plant has 2X600 MW units in operation and
power is being evacuated through 400 kV outdoor switchyard to Hassan Substation of
PGCIL through double circuit and also through 400/220 kV interconnecting transformer
to 220 kV switchyard to feed Kemmar substation.

The existing 400 kV switchyard will be extended at bus level to evacuate


power from the proposed power plant. As the existing lines cannot evacuate 1480 MW
power from the proposed units, new 400 kV lines need to be planned.

It is noted from the minutes of Southern region power committee that CEA,
PGCIL & KPCL have plans to establish 400 kV lines from UPCL switchyard to
Kasaragod substation of PGCIL. This shall be explored further to firm up power
evacuation arrangement of the proposed units.

The proposed switchyard will be interconnected with existing 400 kV


Switchyard by extending the bus. Transmission project shall be an independent project
as per approvals from state government for connectivity and detailed survey of line
alignment.

2.5.5 Manpower
The proposed power plant will require skilled and semi-skilled personnel
during construction and operational phase. Many people in and around neighbouring
villages will get opportunity for employment during construction and operational phase
based on suitability. The total direct manpower requirement for Operation and
Maintenance (O&M) of the power plant during operation period is estimated to be
about 350 persons. Further, about 1500 personnel will be engaged during construction
period.

2.5.6 Township
The proposed project will be located adjacent to the existing plant, which is
located in Udupi district, about 35 km north of Mangalore city and 30 km south of
Udupi city in Karnataka State. The site is situated at Yelluru village which is about 3

2.13
Chapter 2 : Project Description
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

km from Padubidri off National Highway NH-66 which connects Mangalore and
Mumbai. The site is located adjacent to the new broad gauge line of Konkan railway
connecting Mangalore to Mumbai. Mangalore, Udupi and the areas surrounding the
Plant are well developed so no township is proposed for this project.

During construction phase all the necessary arrangements for contractor


labors will be made at the site itself. Facilities such as temporary stay arrangements,
toilets with septic tanks, canteen, medical, transportation and crèche for children, if any
shall be provided by the project proponent/contractor.

2.5.7 Health and Sanitation


The existing TPP has full time dispensary with doctor and round the clock
availability of paramedical staff. Apart from this it is ensured that optimum hygienic
conditions in the plant area, proper drainage network is provided to avoid water
logging and outflow. Well-equipped safety and environment department is available for
ensuring good practices during the Operations.

The proposed TPP will continue to have the full time dispensary with Doctor
and round the clock availability of paramedical staff. Adequate health related
measures and a well-equipped safety and environment department will be provided to
ensure clean and healthy environment.

2.5.8 Drainage
The rain water collected from the roof of buildings is channelized through
the rain water down comers and routed to the garland drain around the buildings.
These garland drains are connected to the plant storm water drainage network system
all around the plant. The proposed drainage system will be linked to the existing storm
water drain system where ever required. Also where modification /extension of existing
facilities are made the required modification to the drainage system will be made such
that it does not affect the overall system.

Several recharge wells will be located at strategic locations within the plant
and will be interconnected to the storm water drain network system. This will ensure
recharging of the ground water table.

The surface water run-off from the coal handling plant would be led to a
sump for settling and necessary treatment will be done at ETP to meet MoEF&CC
norms. The treated water will be used for horticulture and dust suppression. This drain
is considered as part of process drainage and will not be connected to the surface
drainage system.

Surface drains will be open type of random rubble masonry rectangular


drains in section. All drains in the power block area and around buildings will be
covered drains.

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Chapter 2 : Project Description
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Wherever drains or other underground facilities cross the roads hume pipe
culverts or RCC box culverts will be provided. Culverts will be designed for loads,
CLASS A-A as per Indian Road Congress.

The main storm water drains will be connected to a rain harvesting ponds
and will have provisions to avoid back flow from the pond to the surface drainage
system.

The design rainfall intensity per hour will be arrived at based on the analysis
of statistical meteorological data. However a minimum intensity of 50 mm/hour will be
considered for design of storm water drainage system.

Run off coefficients for paved areas and unpaved areas for design of storm
water drainage system will be 1.0 and 0.7 respectively.

Rain Water Harvesting Structures and Facilities


Udupi area receives heavy rainfall (average 4000 mm/yr.) which is
concentrated during 4 months of monsoon. Heavy rainfall renders high moisture
content in soil during monsoon. Considering this, it is proposed to do rainwater
harvesting and use rainwater for partial makeup in cooling towers during monsoon.
The necessary structures and facilities shall be worked out during detailed
engineering.

2.5.9 Internal Roads


All plant roads will be of bitumen and their widths & shoulders will match
with the existing plant. Accordingly the main plant road will be 7m, 5m and 3.5m wide
with 1.5 m wide shoulders on both sides of the 7m and 1m wide shoulders for both 5m
and 3.5m wide road. Access roads to building/facilities will generally be single lane
roads without shoulders. All culverts will be designed for the Class – AA loading
conditions.

Precast concrete kerb stone will be provided for all roads. Necessary
gradient will be provided both in longitudinal and transverse direction for smooth flow
to drains. Top of all roads will be maintained 200mm above the respective area
finished ground level.

Extra width would be provided on either side of the road for tree plantation,
foot path and storm water drains. It is also considered to provide RCC pavement
around station generators and transformers.

2.5.10 Lightning Protection System


Adequate lightning protection facilities shall be provided as per the
applicable Indian codes of practice.

2.15
Chapter 2 : Project Description
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

2.5.11 Fire Protection System


Firefighting booster pump house building will be a framed RCC structure
with infilled brick work.

Fire hydrants will be planned for the entire proposed extension plant with
necessary house / cabinet for holding the hydrants in easy accessible locations in
each area.

2.5.12 Infrastructure Facilities


The proposed coal based project is a brown field project. Adequate
mobilisation of construction facilities will be organized at various stages for timely and
unhindered implementation of the project. Adequate construction office space and
covered storage space will be built to be utilized for construction activities, which may
be retained as offices, stores, and workshop after the power station is constructed.

In addition to the above, facilities like open storage space, pre-assembly


yard for construction period will also be provided. For the construction workers, staff
canteen, garage, yard toilets etc. will also be constructed.

2.6 Technology and Process Description


2.6.1 Power Plant Technology
The technology available for large coal fired power plants are;
x Sub-critical
x Supercritical & Ultra Supercritical

In order to increase the thermodynamic cycle efficiency and resulting


reduction in power plant emissions including greenhouse gases, Coal fired thermal
power plants are now moving towards supercritical steam parameters in India.

Steam Parameters for Udupi 2 x 800 MW


Supercritical (SC) / Ultra-supercritical (USC) technology and steam
parameters are considered for this project in order to have increased efficiency and to
reduce the emissions per kWh power generation.

Most of the leading OEMs are having proven design / operating experience
with the above parameters. Many utilities in India have started gaining operating
experience with the above supercritical parameters. Proven materials for boiler
pressure parts, critical piping, and steam turbine parts are available.

CERC/CEA have stipulated operating norms which requires turbine cycle


heat rate of 1850 kCal/kWh with turbine driven boiler feed pumps and 1810 kCal/kWh
for motor driven boiler feed pump.

2.16
Chapter 2 : Project Description
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

2.6.2 Main Plant Equipment


The parameters of the main plant for the project capacity of 2x800 MW has
been reviewed considering the international trend during the past few years, feedback
from operating plants, commercial competitiveness etc. Based on the above, steam
parameters in the following range have been considered:
Main steam pressure at turbine inlet : 270 bar
Main steam temperature : 600-610 °C
Hot Reheat steam temperature : 600 °C

The electrostatic precipitator will be designed to limit the particulate matters


in flue gas to a maximum of 30 mg/Nm3.

The chimney height for all the units of the proposed power plant would be
275 m above finished grade level of main plant area for effective dispersion of the
gaseous pollutants as per the MoEF&CC/CPCB guidelines. The chimney would be
RCC structure with twin steel flue. The chimney will be provided with the aviation
lamps and lightning conductors. Online and remote emission monitoring systems as
per MoEF&CC/CPCB requirements will be provided to monitor the gaseous pollutants
from chimney.

Based on the sulphur content in the Indian coal, the sulphur dioxide
concentration level for this power plant will be low. However, wet-lime flue gas
desulphurization is proven technology used worldwide for the control of SO 2 emissions
from utility power plants for high sulphur coal. It is proposed to install FGD system
downstream of ID fans for each 800 MW unit. FGD system is based on forced
oxidation wet lime stone process with SO2 removal efficiency more than 95%.

2.6.2.1 Coal Handling System


The existing Coal Handling System consists of an external coal handling
system and internal coal handling system. The external coal handling system is
located at New Mangalore Port Trust (NMPT) and involves unloading the imported
coal from the ships, conveying it either to the stockyard at the jetty or directly to the
wagon loading station or conveying from stock yard to the wagon loading station for
loading on to the railway wagons.

The internal coal handling system includes unloading the coal at power plant
site and conveying it either to the bunkers of the steam generators or to the stock yard.
The existing system consists of belt conveyors, paddle feeders (2 per conveyor), belt
scales, magnetic separators, metal detectors, coal sampling units, stacker cum
reclaimer, traveling tripper, dust suppression system, dust extraction system in
enclosed areas like transfer point, bunker etc., Control and Instrumentation and
in-motion weigh bridge near track hopper.

The coal for the proposed power plant would be received through railway
siding connected with Konkan railway at Nandikur railway station. Coal handling facility

2.17
Chapter 2 : Project Description
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

will comprise of unloading by track-hoppers with online crushing and stacking by


stacker-cum-reclaimer in the coal yard and finally feeding the bunker level conveyors.
In-plant total stockpiles capacity has been considered for 8 days, to take care of any
contingencies in receipt of coal. Suitable stacking and reclaiming arrangement will be
provided to transport and handle the coal from the in-plant stockpile.

The coal handling plant will be provided with the facility for recording the
quantity and analysis of the raw coal received in the station and fed to the bunkers. In-
line magnetic separators, bunker level indicators, flap gates in bifurcating chutes,
chute vibrators, sump pumps (for underground areas) will be provided, where-ever
necessary, to make the system efficient and trouble free.

Suitable pollution control measures like dust extraction and dust


suppression systems shall be provided at different transfer points and crusher houses
and ventilation system to supply fresh air in underground tunnels will be provided. In
addition, roof extraction fans will be provided in essential areas like crusher house and
boiler bunker floors. Air conditioning for control room and pressurized ventilation with
unitary air filter unit for MCC buildings of coal handling plant will be provided.

Stockpile areas shall be provided with automatic garden type sprinklers for
dust suppression as well as to reduce spontaneous ignition of the coal stockpiles.
Plant effluent is used in ash handling system for equipment sealing and cooling and
the same will be reused for coal dust suppression system. Necessary water
distribution network for drinking and service water with pumps, piping, tanks, valves
etc. will be provided for distributing water at all transfer points, crusher house, control
rooms etc.

A centralized control room with microprocessor based control system (DCS)


has been envisaged for operation of the coal handling plant. Except locally controlled
equipment like, dust extraction/ dust suppression / ventilation equipment, sump
pumps, water distribution system etc., all other in-line equipment will be controlled from
the centralized coal handling control room but will have provision for local control as
well. All necessary interlocks, control panels, MCC’s, mimic diagrams etc. will be
provided for safe and reliable operation of the thermal power plant.

2.6.2.2 Coal Storage Stockyard


A complete, fully operational and safe working coal storage stockyard with
all associated equipment and environmental controls shall be provided. The facilities of
the coal storage stockyard shall include:
x Fully automatic stacking and reclaiming facilities;
x Dust suppression system.

Dust suppression systems installed at various places in the existing power


plant are shown in Plate 2.2.

2.18
Chapter 2 : Project Description
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Wagons covered with Tarpaulin Dust Extraction System

Dry Fog Dust Suppression System Rain Guns in Coal Yard

Plate 2.2 : Photographs showing dust suppression system installed at various


places in the existing power plant

2.6.3 Ash Handling System


The existing ash handling system consists of generation, collection and
disposal for both fly ash and bottom ash. The pneumatic dry ash handling system is
adopted in the plant for collection of fly ash in large dedicated silos from ESP as
suggested by CPCB in “Charter of Corporate Responsibility for Environment
Protection (CREP)” and the system is totally closed system without any exposure to
atmosphere. From the silos the fly ash is transported to various industries like Cement,
RMC and Brick manufacturing etc., through closed bunkers. Bottom ash collected from
the bottom of the furnace and coarse ash from the economizer hoppers is transported
to Ash pond through trucks.

Fly ash generated from existing 2x600 MW TPP is being utilized efficiently
(to the tune of 73-78%) as given in Table 2.10.

2.19
Chapter 2 : Project Description
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 2.10 : Fly Ash Generation and Utilization in the Existing Plant

Sr. Year Ash Generated Ash Overall Quantity of Bottom


No. (MT) Utilization Utilization Ash Disposed to
(MT) (%) Ash Pond (MT)
1 2015-16 154757.67 121586.41 78.56 33171.29
2 2014-15 139664.71 103,143.39 73.85 36521.42
3 2013-14 160177.82 122,349.04 76.38 37828.78
4 2012-13 139065.98 107,535.84 77.30 31530.14

UPCL has MoU with various bulk users of flyash. Details of the factories
with whom the company is having the agreements for fly ash utilization is given in
Annexure 11.

For proposed expansion by 2x800 MW units, Ash Handling System is


designed by considering the coal quality with hourly coal firing rate of 832 TPH, a
maximum of about 216 TPH of ash will be generated from the proposed power plant.
Out of this, the Fly Ash will be about 80% of the total ash generated i.e., about 175
TPH. The bottom ash will be remaining 20% of the total Ash generated i.e. 41 TPH.
Bottom ash will be collected in wet form and will be disposed to the ash pond.
Expected ash generation from proposed power plant is given in Table 2.11.

Table 2.11 : Expected ash generation from the proposed power plant (2x800 MW)

Description Ash Generation Ash Generation


(Worst Coal) (Design Coal)
Hourly Ash generation for two units 216.0 TPH 166.5 TPH
Annual Bottom ash generation 0.32 million tons 0.25 million tons
Annual Fly Ash generation 1.29 million tons 0.99 million tons
Note : Annual ash generation at 85% PLF.

Fly ash will be collected in dry form through vacuum-cum-pressure type


pneumatic system. Fly ash will be handled in dry / semi wet mode from silos. Fly ash
will be transported in dry / semi dry mode by trucks to facilitate selling of fly ash for
utilization of brick manufacturers, cement manufacturers, land filling, road making and
other ash utilizing industries. As per the MoEF&CC notification on 3rd November 2009
and amendments, fly ash shall be utilized in time bound plan as given in
Table 2.12.

Table 2.12 : Time bound plan for utilization of fly ash

Sr. Fly Ash Utilization Level Target Date


No.
1 At least 50% of fly ash generation One year from the date of commissioning
2 At least 75% of fly ash generation Two years from the date of commissioning
3 At least 90% of fly ash generation Three years from the date of commissioning
4 100% of fly ash generation Four years from the date of commissioning

2.20
Chapter 2 : Project Description
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

As per flyash utilization notification, the unutilized fly ash in relation to the
target during a year, if any, shall be utilized within next two years in addition to the
targets stipulated for these years. The unutilized fly ash accumulated during first three
years (the difference between the generation and utilization target) shall be utilized
progressively over next five years in addition to 100% utilization of current generation
of fly ash.

Appropriate design of ash handling system will be ensured from each unit,
bottom ash will be collected in wet form; while fly ash will be collected in dry form to
facilitate utilization and un-utilized fly ash and bottom ash will be disposed in wet form
to the ash pond. Ash extraction system is unitized, whereas basis ash disposal system
will be common for all units.

The fly ash system will have provision to dispose the dry ash for ash
utilization as well as dispose to ash pond area through high concentration slurry
disposal (HCSD) pumps. Hence, there shall be no requirement for recycling of the
water from the ash ponds as HCSD system is being used in place of lean slurry
disposal system. However, as second line of arrangement, the existing pipeline shall
be maintained for water recycling from the ash tank.

The fly ash will be collected in the dry form and transported to silos for
discharging to the cement and brick manufacturing industries in vicinity. Bottom ash
along with unutilized fly ash shall be disposed through HCSD system to ash pond. Fly
ash generated will be fully utilized from 4th year as per MoEF guidelines. Unutilized
bottom ash will be dumped in ash pond for 25 years. The required ash pond area
alongwith bunds and greenbelt works out to be about 278 acres (112.59 ha).

Photographs of the existing (2x600 MW TPP) fly ash management system


are shown in Plate 2.3.

2.21
Chapter 2 : Project Description
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Fly ash silos Transfer of ash from silos to adjacent


cement blending unit of Ashtech through
closed conduit

Transfer of ash from silos to other end-user Ash dyke for disposal of ash to ash pond
through closed bulkers

Ash pond covered with water layer

Plate 2.3 : Fly ash management system in existing 2X600 MW TPP

2.22
Chapter 2 : Project Description
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

2.6.4 Plant Auxiliary Systems


2.6.4.1 Plant Water System
i) Water Intake System
The water requirement for the power plant is through Arabian sea due to
non-availability of sweet water either from surface water sources or underground
sources on a sustained basis. The sea water Intake system will be designed
considering the requirement of both Phase-I and Phase-II up to sea water intake pump
house. Existing onshore pump house of 2 x 600 MW will continue to exist and a new
pump house is envisaged to cater the requirements of 2 x 800 MW.

ii) Water Treatment Plant


Water treatment plant comprises of pre-treatment and demineralisation
plant. In the water pre-treatment plant, suspended solids shall be removed by clarifiers
to the extent required to produce clarified water. The silt removed in the water
treatment plant shall be disposed off in the ash dyke. The ash dyke will be lined with
HDPE/LDPE to prevent any seepage or leachate. Major portion of clarified water shall
be supplied to makeup for CW system and HVAC makeup. Portion of clarified water
shall be filtered to produce filtered water. Filtered water shall be supplied to potable
water system and to DM plant as feed water.

The DM plant consists of ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis and mixed bed to


produce demineralised water which shall be supplied to steam cycle makeup,
hydrogen generation plant and to compensate losses if any in DM water cooling
system.

Open re-circulating CW system using Induced Draft Cooling Towers (IDCT)


is proposed to implement in this project. Water loss due to drift & evaporation from
cooling towers and CW blow down shall be made up by adding fresh clarified water to
the system as stated above.

iii) Circulating and Auxiliary Cooling Water System


The cooling water system will comprise of induced draft counter flow type
cooling towers suitable for sea water recirculation with cooling tower basin, circulating
water pumps and cooling water piping. Evaporative cooling tower using sea water, due
to presence of dissolved salts acting as vapour pressure depressant necessitate lower
cycle of concentration, and selection of appropriate materials of construction.

The system is designed for COC 1.3; the makeup water will be met by the
sea water intake system.

The cooling water blow down is envisaged for the proposed power plant.
The blow down pumps is proposed to be located in the CW sump itself.

Appropriately rated independent CW pumps of configuration 2 x 50 % for


each unit will be provided for pumping water to condenser. Since sea water is used for

2.23
Chapter 2 : Project Description
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

cooling water system “Concrete volute” type is considered. The CW pumps will be
located in a cooling water sump which will receive cooled return water from the cooling
tower basin. The CW pumps will circulate the cooling water through the condenser,
extracting heat therein and return the hot water back to the cooling tower through C.W.
supply & return pipes.

It is proposed to install two Induced draft cooling towers, each of around


1,00,000 m3/hr capacity. The cooling tower would be designed for a continuous duty to
cool the hot water received from the condenser and the auxiliary cooling water system
at the required design parameters. The hot water enters the tower at a suitable height
and falls downward over type fills of PVC construction and the cooled water exits from
the cooling tower basin for further transportation to the condenser and the auxiliary
cooling water system. Temperature rise across the condenser has been considered as
9˚C. The cooling tower would be designed for a cooling range of 10°C. The design hot
and cold water temperatures of the cooling towers would be 43°C and 33°C
respectively. Tower construction would be of RCC material with PVC type fill.

In order to prevent /minimize growth of algae in the CW system, Electro-


chlorination dosing system is envisaged.

Makeup water for the cooling tower will be taken from a tap-off from the
seawater intake pump discharge pipe.

Closed Cooling Water (CCW) system will circulate passivated demineralized


water to supply cooling water to the steam generator auxiliaries, steam turbine
generator auxiliaries and other auxiliary system coolers. Return hot water from these
auxiliaries will reject heat in plate heat exchanger (PHE), which is cooled by Auxiliary
Cooling Water (ACW) system.

ACW system will supply cooling water (sea water) to the plate heat
exchanger and the return water will join in the CW return header from the Condenser
at suitable location. Auxiliary cooling water system consist 3 nos. of pumps (1 working
for each unit + 1 common standby). These pumps will be located in the cooling water
pump house along with CW Pumps. The operating temperature of the auxiliary cooling
waterside of the PHE will be the same as the condenser circulating water inlet
temperature.

A closed loop system using passivated DM water is proposed for the CCW
system.

The CCW system for each 800 MW unit is conceptualized as given below:

a. CCW system for SG, TG and common BOP auxiliaries will consist of
3x50% capacity plate type heat exchangers and 3x50% capacity CCW
pumps.

2.24
Chapter 2 : Project Description
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

An overhead expansion tank of adequate capacity is proposed to ensure


positive suction to the CCW pumps and also serves as the source of make-up to the
CCW system for each unit. Normal make-up to the CCW expansion tank is provided
from the condensate extraction pump discharge.

2.6.4.2 DM Plant
Water requirement for the proposed 2 X 800 MW TPP is through Arabian
Sea. Desalinated water from desalination plant will be the source for fresh water,
which will be used for power cycle make up, DM water, service water, portable water
etc., The water treatment plant consists of clarifiers and RO/DM plant.

2.6.4.3 Air Conditioning System


Various control rooms in power station, house a group of sophisticated and
precision control panel and desks, which call for controlled environments for proper
functioning. The objective of air-conditioning for control room is to maintain conditions
suitable for satisfactory functioning of sophisticated equipment, accessories and
controls and also for personnel comfort. Besides these, the service areas viz.
instrument and relay testing laboratories, chemical laboratory and a few offices are
envisaged, which will be air-conditioned. Inside design condition of 240C dry bulb
temperature for occupied area and 210C dry bulb temperature for equipment room
area and relative humidity not exceeding 50% ± 5% is proposed to be maintained in all
air-conditioned areas of main power house, service building, miscellaneous building
etc.

The following areas are proposed to be air conditioned:

Central control rooms, Computer room, Control equipment room, UPS room,
Battery charger room, SWAS room (dry panel area only) in the power house building.
x Service Building
x ESP control room
x Switchyard (GIS) control room
x Ash Handling Plant control room
x Coal Handling Plant control room
x Air compressor control room
x Desalination & DM plant control room
x All other control rooms in ancillary buildings

2.6.4.4 Ventilation System


Ventilation system shall be designed to supply fresh outdoor air and shall be
selected for maintaining interiors of those areas which do not require close control of
temperature, but nevertheless have a stipulated maximum temperature.

2.25
Chapter 2 : Project Description
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

The ventilation system envisaged for the plant will achieve the followings:

 Dust-free comfortable working environment

 Scavenging out structural heat gain and heat load from various
equipment, hot pipes, lighting etc.

 Dilution of polluted air due to generation of obnoxious gaseous/aerosol


contaminants like acid fumes, dusts etc.

The following areas are proposed to be ventilated:


x Power house building and tripper floor
x Electrical rooms (Cable spreader room and MCC room) of all buildings
x All pump houses
x Air compressor building
x Emergency DG building
x AC plant room
x GIS Building
x Desalination and DM building
x CPU regeneration building
x Dozer shed
x Electro chlorination building
x Battery and battery charger room
x Elevator machine room
x Workshop and stores
x All toilets, Pantry and Lockers.

2.6.5 Infrastructure Facilities for Labour Force


During construction of the project, work force of about 1500 workers need to
be deployed, which consists of skilled and un-skilled workers. All the workers will be
housed in labour colony, which will be located near the project site. The colony which
will be temporary in nature will have the following amenities:
x Drinking water facility – drinking water will be supplied through water
tankers;
x Community kitchen will be provided for the workers;
x Sanitation facilities will be constructed which will include adequate
number of separate toilets for men and women. Sewage treatment plant

2.26
Chapter 2 : Project Description
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

will be installed and treated wastewater will be utilized in greenbelt


development;
x Bins will be installed to collect municipal waste from the colony;
x Small playground and child care centres will be developed in the
colony; and
x Fuel (kerosene/LPG) will be supplied to the labours for cooking to
prevent tree felling.

During operation phase, following facilities will be provided to the marginal


workers/casual workers and truck drivers.
x Canteen will be provided and food will be made available on chargeable
basis;
x Rest rooms with proper sanitary facilities and drinking water will be
provided and
x Medical facilities in the plant will be extended to the marginal workers
and drivers.

2.6.6 Pollution Control Systems


Special precaution will be taken for pollution control in different transfer
points and stockpile areas to suppress dust under adverse wind condition. Each and
every transfer point and storage will have adequate ventilation and dust extraction and
suppression (DE/DS) system.

Environmental controls on the coal storage stockyard shall comprise of dust


suppression sprays, good housekeeping techniques including compaction to prevent
spontaneous combustion and surface water run-off treatment and recirculation.

2.7 Proposed Schedule for Approval and Implementation


The first unit of the proposed plant will be put in commercial operation in 46
months from the date of financial closure (zero date). Second unit will be brought into
commercial operation in 6 months thereafter.

2.27
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Chapter 3

Description of the Environment

3.1 Air Environment


3.1.1 Air Quality Monitoring Details

Ambient air quality was monitored at eight locations within the 10 km radius
study area. The sampling locations were selected based on guidelines of network
siting criteria such as :
x Topography of the study area
x Representation of regional background
x Populated and sensitive areas
x Screening of maximum ground level concentrations and distances of
their likely occurrences as per climatological normals
x Representation of valid cross sectional distribution in downwind
direction

Monitoring locations with respect to the UPCL are depicted in Fig. 3.1.1 and
details of these locations are given in Table 3.1.1. Four locations were within 5 km
radius from the plant, whereas 4 locations were between 5 & 10 km radius from the
plant.

As per NAAQS, the pollutants viz., Particulate Matters (PM10 and PM2.5),
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Carbon monoxide (CO) were dentified
as parameters for air quality monitoring. All the parameters were monitored on 24
hourly basis, except CO, which was monitored on 8 hourly basis. Further, particulate
matter associated metals (As, Ni & Pb) including mercury (Hg) were analysed.
Standard analytical procedures were used for collection of samples, analysis and
quantification of air quality parameters and are given in Table 3.1.2.

Photographs of the sampling stations/locations are given in Plate 3.1.1.

3.1.2 Micro-meteorology

An automatic wheather station is installed within the existing plant, which


records all micro-meteorological parameters like wind speed, wind direction, ambient
temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, sunshine duration and atmospheric pressure
(Plate 3.1.2). Micro-meteorological data for the winter season (2016) has been
analysed and windrose diagram is drawn as shown in Fig. 3.1.2.

3.1.1
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

The predominant wind direction as per the meteorological data collected at


project site was from SE direction with wind speed varying upto <2.0 m/s during winter
season.

3.1.2 Baseline Air Quality Status

The ambient air quality data with respect to different parameters is given in
Tables 3.1.3 to 3.1.5.

Air Quality Status (Winter 2016)

24 hourly average concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were found in the range of
27-44 Pg/m3 and 12-15 Pg/m3 respectively. Average concentrations of SO2, NO2 and
CO were in the range of 5-7 Pg/m3, 7-11 Pg/m3 and 0.2-0.9 mg/m3 respectively.

The 98th percentile values of 24 hourly concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, SO2


and NO2 ranged from 37-73 Pg/m3, 14-20 Pg/m3, 5-23 Pg/m3 and 8-37 Pg/m3
respectively.

Highest concentration of PM10 (75 Pg/m3) was recorded at Pump house,


PM2.5 (22 Pg/m3) at Kollur Village, SO2 (24 Pg/m3) at Kollur village and NO2 (40 Pg/m3)
at Kollur village. High concentrations of PM2.5, SO2 and NO2 recorded at Kollur village
are due to the fact that air quality monitoring site was in close proximity to the chapati
making unit, which uses wood/coal in the unit.

Pb concentration was found to be in the range of 0.01-0.15 Pg/m3, highest


being at Pump house site, which is close to National Highway. Concentration of As, Ni
and Hg was found below detectable limit at all the locations.

The observed concentrations at all locations were found to be below the


stipulated National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS 2009)

Air Quality Data (2015-16)

Summary of air quality data collected for major parameters like PM10, PM2.5,
SO2, NO2 and CO during the year 2015-16 by UPCL is given in Table 3.1.6. Analysis
of data indicates that annual average concentration of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO
at four different locations were well within the National Ambient Quality Standards.
Annual average concentration of these parameters varied from 26-33 µg/m 3, 11-14
µg/m3, 5-6 µg/m3, 7-8 µg/m3, 0.3-0.9 mg/m3 respectively. The respective CPCB
standards are 60, 40, 50, 40 µg/m3 and 2 mg/m3 respectively.

3.1.2
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

6
2 7

8 1

4 5

5 km
10 km
Fig. 3.1.1: Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Locations

Table 3.1.1 : Details of Air Quality Monitoring Locations (2015 - 2016)


Sr. Sampling location Approx. Direction Distance Sampling
(km) height
No.
Latitude Longitude With respect to above
stack ground
level (m)
1. Plant Site (A1) 13° 9'43.00"N 74°48'29.09"E E 0.8 3.5
2. Admar Village (A2) 13° 10'22.07"N 74°46'19.79"E NW 3.4 1.5
3. Inna Village (A3) 13°7'43.30"N 74°51'27.65"E SE 7.1 1.5
4. Hejmady village (A4) 13°6'27.43"N 74°46'41.72"E SW 6.4 3.5
5. Kollur Village (A5) 13°06'08.3"N 74°51'43.5"E SEE 9.3 4.5
6. Jantra Village (A6) 13°11'01.96"N 74°51'42.34"E NEE 7.1 4.5
7. Mudarangadi Village
13°10'24.9"N 74°49'15.3"E NE 2.6 7.0
(A7)
8. Adani Pump house
13°09'51.3"N 74°45'43.10"E W 4.3 1.5
(A8)

3.1.3
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 3.1.2 : Techniques used for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring


Sr. Parameter Unit Monitoring technique NAAQS
No. (Duration)
1. Particulate Matter size < Pg/m³ Gravimetric 100 (24 hours)
10 microns or PM10
2. Particulate Matter size Pg/m³ Gravimetric 60 (24 hours)
less than 2.5 microns or
PM2.5
3. Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) Pg/m³ EPA Improved West and 80 (24 hours)
Gaeke Method
4. Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Pg/m³ Modified Jacobs-Hachheiser 80 (24 hours)
Method
3
5. Carbon Monoxide mg/m Non Dispersive infra red
(NDIR) Spectroscopy
6. Lead (Pb) Pg/m³ AAS/ICP method for sampling
on EPM 2000
7. Arsenic (As) ng/ m³ AAS/ICP method for sampling
on EPM 2000 or equivalent
filter paper
8. Nickel (Ni) ng/ m³ AAS/ICP method for sampling
on EPM 2000 or equivalent
filter paper

Fig. 3.1.2: Windrose diagram for winter season (January 2016)

3.1.4
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

UPCL Plant Site Admar Village

Inna Village Hejmady Village

Kollur Village Janthra Village

Mudrangadi Village Adani Pump House

Plate 3.1.1: Photographs showing Ambient Air Quality Monitoring at different Locations

3.1.5
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Plate 3.1.2 : Automatic Weather Station

3.1.6
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 3.1.3 : Air Quality Status within the Study Area: PM10 and PM2.5

Unit: Pg/m³ Average: 24 hrs.


Sr. Sampling PM10 PM2.5
No. Locations Min Max Avg± SD
th
98 % Min Max Avg± SD 98 %
th

1 Plant Site 27 57 37±6 50 12 20 15±2 19


2 Admar Village 22 59 33±7 46 8 20 14±3 19
3 Inna Village 23 45 31±6 43 8 17 12±2 17
4 Hejmady village 23 51 31±6 45 8 17 12±2 17
5 Kollur Village 19 55 28±8 53 7 22 11±3 20
6 Jantra Village 20 43 27±5 37 7 14 10±6 14
Mudarangadi
7 32 50 40±5 49 8 18 14±2 18
Village
8 Adani Pump house 29 75 44±12 73 8 18 14±2 17
CPCB Standard 100 60

Table 3.1.4 : Air Quality Status within the Study Area: SO2 and NO2
Unit: Pg/m³ Average: 24 hrs.
Sr. Sampling Locations SO2 NO2
No. Min Max Avg± SD 98 %
th
Min Max Avg± SD
th
98 %
1 Plant Site 5 8 7±1 8 7 11 9±1 11
2 Admar Village 4 8 6±1 8 6 10 8±1 10
3 Inna Village 4 7 5±1 7 6 12 8±1 11
4 Hejmady village 4 8 5±2 7 6 11 8±1 10
5 Kollur Village 4 24 6±5 23 6 40 11±7 37
6 Jantra Village 4 5 5±0.4 5 6 9 7±1 8
7 Mudarangadi Village 4 7 5±1 7 6 9 8±1 9
8 Adani Pump house 5 8 6±1 8 7 11 9±1 11
CPCB Standard 80 80

Table 3.1.5 : Air Quality Status within the Study Area: CO and Pb
Sr. Sampling Locations 8 hrs Average CO (mg/m³) 24 hrs average
3
No. th Pb (µg/m )
Min Max Avg± SD 98 %
1 Plant Site 0.7 1.1 0.9±0.1 1.1 0.02
2 Admar Village 0.3 0.7 0.5±0.1 0.6 0.07
3 Inna Village 0.2 0.6 0.3±0.1 0.6 0.05
4 Hejmady village 0.2 0.6 0.4±0.1 0.6 0.03
5 Kollur Village 0.1 1.2 0.3±0.2 1.2 0.04
6 Jantra Village 0.1 0.6 0.2±0.1 0.5 0.02
7 Mudarangadi Village 0.3 0.7 0.5±0.1 0.7 0.01
8 Adani Pump house 0.4 0.9 0.6±0.1 0.8 0.15
CPCB Standard 4.0 1.0
Note : Ni, As, Hg were found below detectable limit

3.1.7
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 3.1.6: Ambient Air Quality Status at different location and the study area
(Annual average of 104 observations)

Sr. AQM Location/ PM10 PM2.5 SO2 NO2 CO


No. Parameters (µg/m )
3
(µg/m )
3
(µg/m )
3
(µg/m )
3
(mg/m )
3

1 Plant Site
Minimum 19 9 4 6 0.6
Maximum 57 20 8 11 1.2
Average 33 14 6 8 0.9
98percentile 46 19 8 10 1.1
2 Admar Village
Minimum 17 8 4 6 0.3
Maximum 59 20 8 10 0.7
Average 30 12 5 7 0.5
98percentile 42 18 7 10 0.7
3 Inna Village
Minimum 16 8 4 5 0.2
Maximum 45 17 7 12 0.6
Average 26 11 5 7 0.3
98percentile 41 16 7 10 0.6
4 Hejmady Village
Minimum 16 7 4 6 0.2
Maximum 52 17 8 11 0.6
Average 28 12 5 7 0.4
98percentile 40 15 7 10 0.6
CPCB Standards
60 40 50 40 2.0
(Annual)

3.1.8
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

3.2 Noise Environment


The noise problem is said to exist when the sound level in the air causes
interference in human activities such as disturbance in sleep, work and speech
communication leading to annoyance. Perception of noise by individuals varies
depending on number of factors such as natural sensitivity/hearing ability, level of
exposure, time of the day, socio-cultural activities etc. at the time of exposure to
sound. The impact of noise at community level can have different effects varying from
aesthetic impairment such as annoyance, frequent hypertension to as high as loss of
hearing. The health impact of noise on individual depends on several factors, viz.,
physical dose (intensity of sound pressure level and duration of exposure), frequency
spectrum, intermittency etc., as well as human factors like sex, age, health condition,
occupational exposure etc.
Assessment of noise impacts and the significance of any impact as a result of
development is dependent upon the number of factors such as the ambient or
background noise levels in the vicinity of the site, the type of development and its
operating characteristics. Therefore noise monitoring was carried out to identify and
quantify so far as reasonably possible the ambient condition to predict the increase in
noise levels and causes of variability of noise levels as a result of the proposed
development.
Noise monitoring was carried out at eight residential areas near the air quality
monitoring stations, near noise sources within the existing plant, along the railway line
(since the coal is being transported from harbor to the plant by railway) and
commercial places within 10km radius zone.
Equivalent noise levels (Leq) were recorded at each monitoring location
during day time and night time for a period of about 60 minutes (Plate 3.2.1). The
noise monitoring was done at 24 locations, which included 8 residential, 3 commercial
and 13 locations within the plant premises, as shown in Fig. 3.2.1. Details of noise
monitoring locations along with recorded noise levels are given in Tables 3.2.1 and
3.2.2. CPCB standard for ambient noise level is given in Table 3.2.3.
Noise Levels in Residential Zone
Noise levels (Leq) in residential areas varied from 54-73 dB(A) in day time
and from 38-45 dB(A) during night time. The CPCB standard for day time and night
time noise level are 55 and 45 dB(A) respectively. Higher noise level during day time
were recorded due to traffic as well as miscellaneous activities taking place in the
vicinity of monitoring locations.
Noise Levels in Commercial Zone
Noise levels (Leq) in commercial areas varied from 55-93 dB(A) in day time
and from 62-85 dB(A) during night time. The CPCB standard for day time and night
time noise level are 65 and 55 dB(A) respectively. High noise levels during day as well
as night time in Padubidri village was observed due to high traffic movement on NH66
and also near Adani pump house close to the highway (NH17). Similarly high noise

3.2.1
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

levels were recorded at Palimar (near railway track) and village Mudrangadi (near
market area).
Noise Levels in the Plant
Noise levels (Leq) near various locations within the premises were also
recorded during day time. The noise level varied from 70-98 dB(A) in day time.

3.2.2
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Plate 3.2.1: Monitoring Location at Admar

2 1 3
10
7

12 11
9
6 4
8

5 km
10 km
Fig. 3.2.1: Noise Monitoring Locations

3.2.3
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 3.2.1: Details of ambient noise monitoring locations along with measured
noise levels in Residential and Commercial areas
Noise Level (Leq), Remarks
Sr. dB(A)
Sampling Location Coordinates (Distance from
No. Day time Night time source)
Residential Area
0
1 Yellur 13 10.355’N 66 -
0
74 48.688’E
0
2 Admar (near AQM 13 10.303N 54 40
0
Site) 74 47.211E
0
3 Jantra (near AQM 13 11.045N 57 42 20m -(running
0
Site) 74 51.707E station)
0
4 Inna (near AQM 13 07.979N 61 45 Close to village
0
Site) 74 50.257E Main junction
0
5 Kollur (near AQM 13 06’8”N 73 38 Near a house hold
0
Site) 74 47’43.3”E small scale industry
operating in day
time
0
6 Hezamadi (near 13 07.68’N 58 - 3 m high from
0
AQM Site) 74 46.295’E ground level

Commercial Area
0
7 Adani Pump house 13 09’51.39”N 79 79 10 m (running AAQ
0
(near AQM Site) 74 45’ 42.7”E station)
25 m-(road)
0
8 Palimar (near 13 07’34.1”N 76 - 15 m-(train
0
railway track) 74 48’27.9”E passing)
0
9 Padubidri 13 08.411’N 93 85 2 m (road
0
74 46.299’E boundary) near
NH66
0
10 Mudrangadi (near 13 10.393’N 72 62 100 m (road), near
0
AQM Site) 74 49.281’E market area
0
11 Nandikur (near 13 09’0.3”N 55 -
0
74 47’55.1”E
railway track)

3.2.4
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 3.2.2: Details of source noise monitoring locations along with measured
noise levels at various activities of UPCL

Sr. Sampling location Latitude Longitude Day time Noise Remarks


No. Level (Leq), Distance in m
dB(A) (Away from
source)
Day time
0
1. Outside Pump house area 13 09.866’N 8m-(pump
0
74 45.634’E 71 house)
2. Inside Pump house area ------ 91 3m-(pump)
3. Pump house (Operator ------
81
Room)
0
4. Crusher House area (Not 13 09.509’N
Operating)
0
74 47.845’E 73
0
5. Cooling Tower Pump 13 09.589’N
House
0
74 47.940’E 87
0
6. Cooling Tower area 13 09.670’N
0
74 47.902’E 89
0
7. Compressor House area 13 09.584’N 4m
0
74 48.037E 97
0
8. Near Induced Draft Fan 13 09.627N
0
74 47.993E 95
0
9. Boiler field Pump + 13 09.540N
0
Generator / Turbine and 74 48.130E 89
construction activity
0
10. Turbine area 13 09.584N
0
74 48.091E 98

11. Control Room area ------ 70


0
12. Inside Demineralization 13 09.733N
0 96
Plant area 74 48.407E
0
13. Outside Demineralization 13 09.716N
0 75
Plant area 74 48.405E

3.2.5
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 3.2.3 : Ambient Noise Standards

Area Code Category of Area/Zone Limits in dB(A) Leq*


----------------------------------------
Day Time Night Time

(A) Industrial Area 75 70

(B) Commercial Area 65 55

(C) Residential Area 55 45

(D) Silence Zone 50 40

Notes :
1. Day time shall mean from 6.00 a.m. to 10.00 p.m.
2. Night time shall mean from 10.00 p.m. to 6.00 a.m.
3. Silence zone is defined as an area comprising not less than 100
meters around Hospitals, Educational Institutions and courts. The
silence zones are zones which are declared as such by the
competent authority.
4. Mixed categories of areas may be declared as one of the four
abovementioned categories by the competent authority.
* dB(A) Leq denotes the time weighted average of the level of sound in decibels on
scale A which is related to human hearing
"A", in dB(A) Leq, denotes the frequency weighting in the
measurement of noise and corresponds to frequency response
characteristics of human ear
Leq : It is an energy mean of the noise level over a specified period

3.2.6
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

3.3 Water Environment


3.3.1 Methodology of Water Quality Assessment

A survey was undertaken to identify sampling locations to establish baseline


status of water quality in the study area. Mulki river and Udyaverna river are the two
major rivers passing through the study area. There are no significant lakes or ponds in
study area. Based on the type of water bodies and their relative importance with
respect to the project site, water sampling locations were identified and samples were
collected in January 2016. Surface water samples were collected from Mulki river near
village Karnire; where it was found to be saline in nature due to influence of coastal
backwater. One fresh water sample was collected from river Papanashini which is a
tributary of Udyaverna river. The sample was collected near village Sooda.
Dug wells are the major source of water used for drinking purpose as well
as for other domestic uses. Groundwater samples were collected from twelve dug
wells of different villages within the study area. One sample was collected from
borewell in village Uchalla.
Water quality monitoring locations for surface and groundwater sources are
given in Table 3.3.1. Water samples were also collected from few locations inside the
plant and from ash pond area, are given in Table 3.3.2. All the sampling locations are
shown in Fig. 3.3.1. Photographs showing surface and groundwater sampling
locations in different villages, within the plant premises and near ash pond area are
shown in Plates 3.3.1 – 3.3.4.
Sampling, preservation and transport of water samples from the field was
done as per standard methods. Samples were analyzed for various physico-chemical
characteristics comprising physical, inorganic, organic, nutrient & demand, heavy
metals, bacteriological and biological (Phytoplankton & Zooplankton) parameters.
Samples were analyzed as per Standard Methods for Examination of Water and
Wastewater (APHA 22nd edition, 2012) / IS 3025.
Bacteriological parameters in terms of total coliforms and fecal coliforms
were determined in surface as well as ground water samples. The coliform group of
bacteria are significant as a principal indicator of degree of pollution of water. The
coliform group belongs to the family of Enterobacteriaceae and includes all aerobic
and facultative anaerobic, gram-negative, nonspore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria that
ferment lactose with gas and acid formation within 48 hrs at 35°C. The standard test
for the coliform group was carried out by the membrane filter (MF) technique. The MF
technique involves direct plating for detection and estimation of total coliform and fecal
coliform densities.
3.3.2 Water Quality Status

Water quality status in terms of various physico-chemical parameters, heavy


metals and bacteriological parameters have been assessed for surface water and
ground water sources. The results are briefly summarized below:

3.3.1
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

3.3.2.1 Water Quality of River Mulki and Papanashini

Water quality status of surface water samples collected from Mulki river and
Papanashini river is presented in Table 3.3.3.
Mulki River (Influenced by Coastal Backwater)

The physico-chemical parameters of river Mulki showed moderate water


quality in terms of various parameters as turbidity: 36 NTU and total suspended solids:
13 mg/l. Buffering capacity in terms of alkalinity was found 70 mg/l, whereas pH was
8.0. Chlorides were reported as 9447 mg/l and salinity was found to be 17 ‰. Nutrient
load in terms of Nitrates (as NO3) was 0.55 mg/l, whereas total phosphates were
0.11 mg/l. Fluoride was found to be 0.05 mg/l; whereas oil and grease was reported as
2.8 mg/l. Heavy metals were found as nickel: 0.050 mg/l, chromium: 0.001 mg/l,
copper: 0.02 mg/l, iron: 2.53 mg/l, manganese: 0.067 mg/l, aluminum: 0.06 mg/l,
arsenic: 0.004 mg/l, selenium: 0.018 mg/l, and mercury: 0.009 mg/l; whereas
cadmium, lead, zinc, cobalt, barium and molybdenum were found below detectable
limit. Presence of high levels of chloride and salinity indicates that the river is highly
influence by coastal backwater.
River Papanashini- Tributary of Udyaverna river
Various water quality parameters were recorded as : pH 7.0, turbidity 1
NTU, total dissolved solids 50 mg/l, chlorides 4 mg/l and sulphate 4 mg/l.
Nutrients in terms of nitrates (as NO3) and total phosphate were found to be
0.05 mg/l and 0.92 mg/l respectively. Dissolved Oxygen was found to be 8.8 mg/l and
Fluoride was found to be 0.05 mg/l. Heavy metals concentration were found below
detectable limit for cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, iron, manganese, zinc, cobalt,
aluminum, arsenic, barium, selenium, silver, molybdenum and mercury; except for
Nickel which was found 0.015 mg/l.
Total coliforms were found (30 CFU/100 ml) whereas fecal coliforms were
not detected. As per CPCB classification for inland surface water, this surface water
body could be classified under Class A, i.e. drinking water source without conventional
treatment but after disinfection.
3.3.2.2 Groundwater Quality within 5 km radius of UPCL Plant

Samples from five dug wells from different villages were collected and
analyzed for various parameters. The results are presented in Table 3.3.4.
Variations in different parameters were observed as: pH: 7.0-7.5; turbidity:
<1 NTU; total dissolved solids: 64-102 mg/l; chlorides: 8-20 mg/l; sulphate: 3-6 mg/l;
total alkalinity: 40-60 mg/l and total hardness: 40-55 mg/l. Nutrients (as nitrate-NO3)
and total phosphates were observed in the range 0.3-13.4 mg/l and 0.1-1.5 mg/l
respectively. Fluoride was found to be 0.05-0.10 mg/l. Dissolved oxygen was in the
range of 3.2-7.8 mg/l.

3.3.2
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

The concentration of heavy metals was found in the range as: Nickel: BDL-
0.016, chromium: BDL -0.001 mg/l, copper: BDL -0.003 mg/l, manganese: BDL-0.999
mg/l, aluminum: BDL-0.047, barium: BDL-0.037, selenium: BDL-0.007, silver: BDL-
0.006, molybdenum: BDL-0.895 and mercury: BDL-0.007 mg/l; whereas cadmium,
lead, iron, zinc, cobalt and arsenic were below detectable limit in all the samples.
On the basis of physico-chemical characteristics, the groundwater samples
conformed to the drinking water standards (IS-10500:2012) for most of the parameters
at all locations except for mercury and aluminum. Total coliforms were observed in all
the samples, which varied from 10 to 130 CFU/100 ml, whereas fecal coliform were
not detected.
3.3.2.3 Ground Water Quality within 5-10 km radius of UPCL Plant

Samples from five dug wells and one bore well were also collected in the
zone between 5-10 km radius from the industry. Samples were analysed for various
parameters and the results are given in Table 3.3.5.
In this region of study area, turbidity was found to be in the range of <1 to
49 NTU while corresponding total suspended solids were in the range of <1-22 mg/l.
The alkalinity (as CaCO3) was found to be in the range of 30-140 mg/l, whereas pH
was in the range of 6.5-8.0. DO levels were in the range of 2.8-6.2 mg/l; whereas COD
was found in the range of 2.8-25.6 mg/l. High concentration of certain parameters at
village Hejamadi-1 sample was observed, which may be attributed to geological strata
of that region.
Heavy metals concentration was found as: nickel: BDL-0.039 mg/l,
cadmium: BDL-0.003 mg/l, chromium: BDL-0.022 mg/l, copper: BDL-0.016 mg/l, lead:
BDL-0.035 mg/l, iron: BDL-16.859 mg/l, manganese: 0.004-0.031 mg/l, cobalt: BDL-
0.001 mg/l, aluminum: BDL-0.037 mg/l, selenium: BDL-0.007 mg/l, silver: BDL-0.011
mg/l, molybdenum: BDL-0.895 mg/l and mercury: BDL-0.002; whereas zinc, arsenic
and barium were found below detectable limit.
The ground water quality in this region fall within drinking water standards
(IS-10500:2012) for most of the physico-chemical parameters except for certain heavy
metals such as nickel, lead, iron and molybdenum. Total coliforms were observed in all
the samples, which varied from 10 to 50 CFU/100 ml, whereas fecal coliform were not
detected.
3.3.2.4 Water Quality of Samples Collected within the Plant and Ash Pond
Area
Six water samples were collected from various sources within the plant
premises (raw water, guard pond, ETP inlet and outlet) and near ash pond area (Test
Well – hand pump 1 and 2). Water quality status of dug well located (at village Ullure)
within 1 km from plant and dug well (at village Santhoor) near ash pond area was also
assessed. The water quality status of these samples are given in Tables 3.3.6 and
3.3.7 respectively.

3.3.3
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Sea water is used in cooling tower and after cooling it is discharged to guard
pond. Characteristics of water both in inlet and outlet of cooling tower was found
comparable, however few parameters like sodium, potassium and heavy metals were
found in less concentration in the guard pond sample.
Analysis of water collected from Ullure village indicated all the parameters
within the limit except mercury and total coliforms.
Water quality of dug well from Santhoor village was found to be within the
acceptable limits of drinking water quality except for certain heavy metals like nickel,
cadmium, lead, iron, aluminium, arsenic and mercury & total coliforms.
3.3.2.5 Overall Water Quality Status

Source-wise summary of physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters


exceeding the drinking water quality standards are given in Table 3.3.8. Most of the
physico-chemical parameters were found within the limits of drinking water quality,
however few metals were found exceeding the acceptable limit. Further most of the
samples were found to be bacteriologically contaminated due to presence of total
coliforms, however fecal coliforms were not found in any of the samples. In view of the
presence of total coliforms there is water needs disinfection before human
consumption.

3.3.3 Biological Parameters


Biological indicators of surface and ground water quality in terms of
Phytoplankton, Zooplankton and Shannon Wiener Diversity Index (SWDI) were also
assessed.
3.3.3.1 Assessment Methodology

Phytoplankton Analysis

The Lackey Drop (Micro transect) Count Method (Lackey, 1938; Edmonson,
1963) is a simple method for obtaining counts of phytoplankton with considerable
accuracy. Organisms were counted under microscope in strips on slide from a drop of
centrifuged, decanted and concentrated volume of sample and number of individuals
of each organism was counted in 40 × magnification. Phytoplankton count (No./ml) is
determined as :
Y×S×D×X
Phytoplankton count = -------------------
V
Where,

Y = is average number of each organism per strip; it is the number


of organisms divided by total number of strips observed for a
sample

3.3.4
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

S = is number of microscopic strips in 18 mm length of cover slip


D = is number of drops making up for 1 ml in a pipette (number
can vary according to type of pipette used)
X = is volume of concentrated sample after centrifuging and
decanting supernatant water
V = is the volume in ml of water used for centrifugation
Zooplankton Analysis

Zooplankton density is always lesser than phytoplankton density; therefore


around 20-50 L of water is passed through plankton net (mesh size 50 µm) to
concentrate zooplankton. The entire water is centrifuged, decanted and concentrated
to make 2 ml volume for observation in S-R (Sedgwick-Rafter) counting cell. The
zooplankton is counted in 10 × magnification. Zooplankton count (No./m3) is
determined as:
C ×V2
Zooplankton count = --------------
V1 × V3
Where,

C = Total number of counted individuals of species in a sample

V1 = Volume of concentrated sample through plankton net

V2 = Centrifuged, decanted and contrasted volume of sample in ml

V3 = Volume of grab sample in m3 i.e. 20 L/1000

SWDI Calculation

For studying community structure, the species are grouped in taxonomic


classes and percentages of groups are calculated from total counts of sample. The
diversity is calculated for each community by Shannon Wiener Diversity Index (SWDI)
as:
n
SWDI = -∑ (ni/N).log2 (ni/N)
Where,

n Number of species
N Total number of individuals of all species
Ni Number of individuals of “i”th species

Where proportion is obtained by dividing the number of individuals of a


species by total number of individuals of all species for which log2 proportion is
obtained by Index table (Shannon, 1968).

3.3.5
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

3.3.3.2 Status of Biological Parameters

Phytoplankton

Samples were collected at the surface of water column using a clean


polythene bucket for analysis of phytoplankton. Samples were fixed in Lugol’s iodine
solution and preserved in 2% foramalin. The results of number of phytoplankton and
species identified are given in Tables 3.3.9 and 3.3.10 respectively.
A total of 12 species from 4 families were found in the samples. The overall
communities of the Phytoplankton’s were represented mainly by four groups i.e.
Chlorophyceae, Bacilleriophyceae, Euglenophyceae and Rhodophyceae. The different
genera present in different families were Chlorophyceae (5), Bacilleriophyceae (4)
Euglenophyceae (2) and Rhodophyceae (1).
Five different species of Chlorophyceae belonging to different genera (Ulva,
Botryoccocus, Chlorella, Scenedesmus and Chlorococcum) were found, contributing
42% of the total plankton population in the overall water samples. The second most
abundant group was found to be of family Bacilleriophyceae. Four different species of
the family Bacilleriophyceae that belong to four different genera (Nitzschia, Navicula,
Cyclotella and Diatoma) were found in the water bodies which contributed 33% of the
total plankton community. The family euglenophyceae accounted 17% of the total
group in which species like Euglena and Phagus were found. Only one species i.e.
Porphyra representing the family Rhodophyceae was found accounting, 8% of the total
planktons observed (Fig. 3.3.2).
Shannon Weiner Diversity index was found to be less than 1 only at one
location (i.e. Village Shirva) that shows less species diversity while at other sampling
locations, it was found to be between 1.3 & 1.9 showing more species diversity except
at two locations (Mulki river and village Soda) where it was more than 2 representing
maximum species diversity as the water bodies are tributary of river and backwater.
Zooplankton

Zooplankton standing stock and population indicate a wide variation are


given in Table 3.3.11. Less population density was observed in the study area with the
predominance of Copepoda, Cladosera and Rotifera. The species diversity is given in
Table 3.3.12.
Total of 9 species belonging to three different groups Rotifera (4 species),
Cladosera (3 species), Copepoda (2 species) were found. The rotifer group was the
most abundant group with 4 species showing 45% of the Zooplanktons community.
Other groups like Cladosera having 33%, Copepods with 22% were reported during
the study period (Fig. 3.3.3).
The group Rotifera contributed 45% of the total community of the
zooplanktons with members belonging to four different genera (Keratella, Filinia,
Rotaria and Rotifers). Copepoda group was represented with species like Calanus and
Cyclopus which totally accounted 22% of the zooplanktons community. Group

3.3.6
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Cladosera was represented with 3 members viz. Bosmina, Daphnia and Moina species
which totally accounted 33% of the population.
Shannon Weiner Diversity Index was found to be less than 1 at six locations
showing less species diversity while it was >1 at the remaining locations with
maximum SWDI value of 1.5 (Village Padubidri) showing species richness in
comparison to other locations.
Zooplanktons as Bioindicators

The zooplanktons form major link in the energy transfer at secondary level
in aquatic biotopes. They occupy an intermediate position in aquatic food webs
between autotrophs and heterotrophs. The distribution and diversity of zooplankton in
aquatic ecosystems depends mainly on the physico-chemical proportion of water.
Zooplankton indicator metrics such as diversity-based indices (e.g. total
number of taxa, % contribution of dominant taxon, Shannon diversity), indicator taxa
(e.g. Rotifera and Nematoda assemblages) are especially powerful, because they
integrate numerous water quality parameters (e.g. nutrients, salinity, temperature,
oxygen concentration) and are relatively easy to sample (Arora, 1966a,b; Amjad &
Gray, 1983; Bianchi & Colwell,1985; Bratkovich, 1988).
For understanding the health of water bodies, zooplanktons are useful as
these are very sensitive to pollutants and act as bio indicator of water bodies. Among
the indicator taxa, Rotifera is a group that is particularly well suited to survive in
transient environments. Also, they can survive in some environments where there is a
substantial amount of suspended material, with detritical origin (Doohan, 1975).
The species belonging to Rotifera, Cladocera and Copepoda are used as
suitable indicator species to determine the quality of aquatic ecosystem. At Udupi
district, all identified species from the Rotifera group are largely detritivores, and
feeding on suspended and flocculated organic matter, or phytoplankton. Where the
nutrients levels are maintained by an external supply, the rotifer populations will
increase in proportions. Maximum population of the group rotifers are found from the
water samples collected from mainly of dug well or underground water, (Village
Hejamadi I-II, Ullure). Also, it was found during the field observation that the water
appeared red in colour due to high nutrient content, while clothes washing was also
seen at some locations increasing the nutrient content in the water bodies that
correlates the presence of rotifers.
The genus Cladoserans and copepods that are known bioindicators of water
with high pH were found to be in abundance in the water samples collected from dug
wells with increased depth (<40 feet), that may be due to leaching of salts and
sediments into the ground water aquifers which also correlates with the values of pH.

3.3.7
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Mulki River near Village Kerner Papanashini River near Village Sooda

Dug Well Water from Village Ullure Dug Well Water from Village Santhoor

Dug Well Water from Village Yellure Dug Well Water from Village Pillar

Plate 3.3.1: Photographs showing Surface and Ground Water Sampling


Locations in Different Villages

3.3.8
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Dug Well Water from Village Paniyar Dug Well Water from Village Nandikur

Dug Well Water from Village Padubidri Dug Well Water from Village Hejamadi-I

Dug Well Water from Village Hejamadi-II Dug Well Water from Village Kavathar

Plate 3.3.2 : Photographs showing Ground Water Sampling Locations in


Different Villages

3.3.9
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Dug Well Water from Village Kaup Dug Well Water from Village Shirva

Borewell Water from Village Uchhala

Plate 3.3.3: Photographs Showing Ground Water Sampling Locations in


Different Villages

3.3.10
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Raw Water from UPCL Plant Discharge Water from Guard Pond

ETP Inlet Water ETP Outlet Water

Test Well-I near Ash Pond Test Well-II near Ash Pond

Plate 3.3.4: Photographs showing Water Sampling Locations from UPCL


Premises and Ash Pond Area

3.3.11
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

12

13
2
14 7 6

5
15 9 20
19
18
21
16
6 17 4
8
9
1

10

11

Fig. 3.3.1: Sampling Locations for Water Quality Monitoring

Distribution of groups of phytoplanktons


8%

17%

42%

33%

Chlorophyceae Bacillariophyceae Euglenophyceae Rhodophyceae

Fig. 3.3.2 : Distribution of Groups of Phytoplanktons in Udupi Distt. during the


Study

3.3.12
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Distribution of groups of Zooplanktons

22%
45%

33%

Rotifera Cladosera Copepoda

Fig. 3.3.3 : Distribution of Groups of Zooplanktons in Udupi Distt. during the


Study

3.3.13
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 3.3.1 : Details of Water Quality Sampling Locations (Winter 2016)


Sr. Sampling Locations Geographical Field observations
No. Position
Surface water
0
1. Mulki river near village N 13 07’22.4” Saline backwater. Good water flow
0
Kerner (influenced by E 74 49’11.1” quantity
coastal backwater)
0
2 River Papanashini- N 13 12’20.9” Less water flow quantity. Clothes
0
(Tributary of Udyaverna E 74 51’56.8” washing observed.
river) Near village Sooda

Ground Water
Dug Well
0
3. Village Ulluru N 13 09’34.1” Water reported to be bad in quality by
0
E 74 47’27.0” the owner; still used for drinking in
absence of alternate source. Dug well is
12 ft. deep. About 1.0 km from UPCL
plant
0
4. Village Santhoor N 13 09’43.1” Water is used for drinking purpose. Dug
0
E 74 49’48.0” well is 24 ft. deep
0
5. Village Yellure N 13 10’21.1” Water is used for drinking purpose. Dug
0
E 74 48’40.8” well is 45 ft. deep
0
6. Village Pillar N 13 11’18.4” Water is used for drinking purpose. Dug
0
E 74 49’49.0” well is 35 ft. deep
0
7. Village Paniyar N 13 11’17.2” Water is used for drinking purpose. Dug
0
E 74 46’49.6” well is 50 ft. deep
0
8. Village Nandikoor N 13 08’41.2” Water is used for drinking purpose. Dug
0
E 74 48’05.4” well is 75 ft. deep
0
9. Village Padubidri N 13 08’12.7” Water is used for drinking purpose. Dug
0
E 74 46’17.7” well is 25 ft. deep
0
10. Village Hejamadi I N 13 07’04.0” Water is Not used for drinking. Red in
0
E 74 46’18.6” color. Dug well is 35 ft. deep. Large no.
of wells in that area show red water
0
II N 13 07’03.0” Water is used for drinking purpose. Dug
0
E 74 46’17.5” well is 15 ft. deep
0
11. Village Kavathar N 13 06’00.6” Water is used for drinking purpose. Dug
0
E 74 49’31.7” well is 40 ft. deep
0
12. Village Kaup N 13 13’38.3” Water is used for drinking purpose. Dug
0
E 74 45’10.4” well is 30 ft. deep. Weeds grown on dug
well wall.
0
13. Village Shirva N 13 12’47.1” Water is used for drinking purpose. Dug
0
E 74 49’25.6” well is 60 ft. deep
Bore Well
0
14. Village Uchalla N 13 11’30.6” Salty water. 380 ft deep. Used for
0
E 74 45’12.9” drinking after boiling or passing through
water filter. Village is 1 km from coast.

3.3.14
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 3.3.2: Water Quality – Sampling Location Details inside UPCL and Ash
Pond Area (January 2016)
Sr. Sampling Locations Geographical Field observations
No. Position
Inside UPCL
0
1. Raw water N 13 09’41.5” Saline water used in industry for cooling
0
E 74 47’54.1” towers. Sample taken from balancing sump
0
2. Discharge water- N 13 09’32.8” Discharge water from cooling towers,
0
guard pond E 74 47’47.1” boilers, RO reject etc. collected to guard
pond for discharge into the sea
0
3. ETP outlet N 13 09’27.7” water used for plantation purpose inside
0
E 74 48’12.9” the plant
0
4. ETP Inlet N 13 09’27.4” -
0
E 74 48’10.2”
Ash Pond Area
0
5. Test Well (Hand N 13 09’51.9” Test wells (4 nos.) are constructed around
0
Pump 1) E 74 49’38.4” ash pond for water testing purpose. Depth
is about 25-35 ft
0
6. Test Well (Hand N 13 09’48.8” Hand pump is near AAQM station. Located
0
Pump 2) E 74 49’44.5” in the vicinity of ash pond area.

3.3.15
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 3.3.3 : Water Quality Status – Surface Water (Winter 2016)


Sr. Parameters Units Acceptable/ Mulki river near Papanashini
No. Permissible Village Kerner river (Tributary
Limit (influenced by of Udyaverna
(IS 10500:2012) Coastal river) near
Backwater) Village Soda
Physical Parameters
6.5 - 8.5 / 7.0
1. pH 8.0
No relaxation
0
2. Temperature ( C) - 31 30
3. Turbidity (NTU) 1 /5 36 1
Total suspended <1
4. (mg/l) - 13
solids
5. Total Dissolved Solids (mg/l) 500/2000 - 50
6. Conductivity (PS/cm) - - 80
Inorganic Parameters
Total Alkalinity (as 45
7. mg/l 200/600 70
CaCO3)
Total Hardness (as mg/l 40
8. 200/600 1600
CaCO3)
Calcium Hardness mg/l 20
9. 75/200 250
(as CaCO3)
10. Chloride mg/l 250/1000 9447 4
11. Sulphate mg/l 200/400 133 4
12. Sodium mg/l - 5474 6
13. Potassium mg/l - 183 1
14. Salinity ‰ - 17 -
Nutrient and Demand Parameters
45/ 0.05
15. Nitrate as NO3 mg/l 0.55
No relaxation
16. Total Phosphates mg/l - 0.11 0.92
17. DO mg/l - - 8.8
18. Oil & Grease mg/l - 2.8 2.0
19. Fluoride mg/l 1.0 / 1.5 0.05 0.05
Heavy Metals
0.02/ 0.015
20. Nickel mg/l 0.050
No relaxation
0.003/
21. Cadmium mg/l BDL BDL
No relaxation
0.05/
22. Chromium mg/l 0.001 BDL
No relaxation
23. Copper mg/l 0.05/ 1.5 0.02 BDL
0.01/
24. Lead mg/l BDL BDL
No relaxation
0.3/
25. Iron mg/l 2.53 BDL
No relaxation
26. Manganese mg/l 0.1 / 0.3 0.067 BDL
27. Zinc mg/l 5 / 15 BDL BDL
28. Cobalt mg/l - BDL BDL
29. Aluminum mg/l 0.03 / 0.2 0.06 BDL
30. Arsenic mg/l 0.01 / 0.05 0.004 BDL

3.3.16
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Sr. Parameters Units Acceptable/ Mulki river near Papanashini


No. Permissible Village Kerner river (Tributary
Limit (influenced by of Udyaverna
(IS 10500:2012) Coastal river) near
Backwater) Village Soda
0.7 /
31. Barium mg/l BDL BDL
No relaxation
0.01 /
32. Selenium mg/l 0.018 BDL
No relaxation
0.1 /
33. Silver mg/l 0.036 BDL
No relaxation
0.07 /
34. Molybdenum mg/l BDL BDL
No relaxation
0.001 / BDL
35. Mercury mg/l 0.009
No relaxation
Bacteriological Parameters
CFU/ 30
36. Total Coliforms Nil -
100 ml
CFU/ -
37. Fecal Coliforms Nil -
100 ml
BDL: Below Detectable Limit; CFU: Colony Forming Unit

3.3.17
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 3.3.4 : Water Quality Status – Ground Water Sources (Dug well) within
5 km radius of UPCL Plant (Winter 2016)

Sr. Parameters Units Acceptable/ Village Village Village Village Village


No. Permissible Nandi- Padubi Yellure Pillar Paniyar
Limit koor dri
(IS 10500:2012)
Physical Parameters

6.5 - 8.5/ No
1. pH 7.0 7.5 7.5 7.0 7.0
relaxation
0
2. Temperature ( C) - 28 29 28 28 28
3. Turbidity (NTU) 1 /5 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1
Total
4. suspended (mg/l) - 56 <1 29 <1 <1
solids
Total
5. Dissolved (mg/l) 500/2000 102 85 94 84 64
Solids
6. Conductivity (PS/cm) - 180 140 138 157 96
Inorganic Parameters

Total
7. Alkalinity (as mg/l 200/600 60 40 50 40 40
CaCO3)
Total mg/l
8. Hardness (as 200/600 50 50 55 40 45
CaCO3)
Calcium mg/l
9. Hardness (as - 30 35 30 20 25
CaCO3)
10. Chloride mg/l 250/1000 20 13 8 10 13
11. Sulphate mg/l 200/400 3 3 6 4 3
12. Sodium mg/l - 16 10 12 9 5
13. Potassium mg/l - 6 1 1 6 1
Nutrient and Demand Parameters

Nitrate as 45 / No 7.8 1.4 13.4 0.3


14. mg/l 4.6
NO3 relaxation
Total 0.3 0.4 0.1 0.1
15. mg/l - 1.5
Phosphates
16. DO mg/l - 5.2 3.2 5.6 7.8 5.6
17. COD mg/l - 14 4 6 12 4
18. Fluoride mg/l 1.0/1.5 0.10 0.06 0.05 0.06 0.06
Heavy Metals

0.02/ No BDL
19. Nickel mg/l BDL BDL 0.016 0.010
relaxation
0.003/ No BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL
20. Cadmium mg/l
relaxation
0.05 / No BDL
21. Chromium mg/l BDL 0.001 BDL 0.001
relaxation
22. Copper mg/l 0.05/1.5 BDL BDL 0.003 BDL BDL
0.01/ No BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL
23. Lead mg/l
relaxation
0.3/ No BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL
24. Iron mg/l
relaxation

3.3.18
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Sr. Parameters Units Acceptable/ Village Village Village Village Village


No. Permissible Nandi- Padubi Yellure Pillar Paniyar
Limit koor dri
(IS 10500:2012)
25. Manganese mg/l 0.1/0.3 BDL 0.009 0.002 0.999 BDL
26. Zinc mg/l 5/15 BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL
27. Cobalt mg/l - BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL
28. Aluminum mg/l 0.03/0.2 BDL 0.047 0.037 BDL BDL
29. Arsenic mg/l 0.01/0.05 BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL
0.7/ No BDL
30. Barium mg/l 0.037 0.012 BDL 0.007
relaxation
0.01/ No BDL BDL
31. Selenium mg/l BDL 0.007 BDL
relaxation
0.1/ No BDL BDL
32. Silver mg/l 0.006 0.001 0.002
relaxation
0.07/ No BDL BDL
33. Molybdenum mg/l BDL 0.895 BDL
relaxation
0.001/ No
34. Mercury mg/l 0.003 0.002 0.007 0.002 BDL
relaxation
Bacteriological Parameters

Total CFU/10
35. Nil 10 10 130 10 20
Coliforms 0 ml
Fecal CFU/10 - - - - -
36. Nil
Coliforms 0 ml
BDL: Below Detectable Limit; CFU: Colony Forming Unit

3.3.19
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 3.3.5 : Water Quality Status – Groundwater Sources (Dug wells and Bore
well) between 5-10 km radius of UPCL Plant (Winter 2016)
Sr. Parameters Units Acceptable/ Village Village Village Village Village Village
No. Permissible Kavathar Kaup Shirva Hejam Hejam Uchhala
Limit adi-I adi-II (Bore
(IS 10500:2012) well)
Physical Parameters
6.5 - 8.5/ No
1. pH 7.0 7.0 7.0 6.5 7.0 8.0
relaxation
0
2. Temperature ( C) - 26 26 28 29 27 30
3. Turbidity (NTU) 1 /5 <1 <1 <1 49 1 1
Total
4. suspended (mg/l) - 3.2 <1 1 22 <1 <1
solids
Total Dissolved
5. (mg/l) 500/2000 88 114 74 96 72 175
Solids
6. Conductivity (PS/cm) - 129 179 118 140 125 337
Inorganic Parameters
Total Alkalinity
7. mg/l 200/600 60 50 30 55 40 140
(as CaCO3)
Total Hardness mg/l
8. 200/600 50 70 40 65 50 150
(as CaCO3)
Calcium mg/l
9. Hardness(as - 20 10 20 50 40 60
CaCO3)
10. Chloride mg/l 250/1000 7 13 13 10 13 13
11. Sulphate mg/l 200/400 3 4 3 14 6 4
12. Sodium mg/l - 13 12 10 6 9 8
13. Potassium mg/l - 1 1 2 1 1 3
Nutrient and Demand Parameters
45 / No
14. Nitrate as NO3 mg/l 1.8 6.1 15.4 0.1 0.5 0.2
relaxation
Total
15. mg/l - 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.2
Phosphates
16. DO mg/l - 4.6 6.2 4.6 2.8 3.6 -
17. COD mg/l - 8.4 2.8 7.6 15 - -
18. Fluoride mg/l 1.0/1.5 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.07 0.04 0.27
Heavy Metals
0.02/ No
19. Nickel mg/l BDL BDL 0.012 0.039 0.023 0.034
relaxation
0.003/ No
20. Cadmium mg/l 0.003 BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL
relaxation
0.05 / No
21. Chromium mg/l 0.022 BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL
relaxation
22. Copper mg/l 0.05/1.5 0.016 BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL
0.01/ No
23. Lead mg/l 0.035 BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL
relaxation
0.3/ No
24. Iron mg/l 0.075 BDL 16.9 10.9 BDL BDL
relaxation
25. Manganese mg/l 0.1/0.3 0.01 0.03 <0.01 0.02 <0.01 0.02
26. Zinc mg/l 5/15 BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL
27. Cobalt mg/l - 0.001 BDL 0.001 0.001 BDL BDL
28. Aluminum mg/l 0.03/0.2 0.037 BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL
29. Arsenic mg/l 0.01/0.05 BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL

3.3.20
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Sr. Parameters Units Acceptable/ Village Village Village Village Village Village
No. Permissible Kavathar Kaup Shirva Hejam Hejam Uchhala
Limit adi-I adi-II (Bore
(IS 10500:2012) well)
0.7/ No
30. Barium mg/l BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL
relaxation
0.01/ No
31. Selenium mg/l 0.007 BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL
relaxation
0.1/ No
32. Silver mg/l 0.001 BDL BDL BDL BDL 0.011
relaxation
Molybdenu 0.07/ No
33. mg/l 0.895 BDL BDL BDL 0.013 BDL
m relaxation
0.001/ No
34. Mercury mg/l BDL 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.001
relaxation
Bacteriological Parameters
Total CFU/
35. Nil 10 - 25 50 20 -
Coliforms 100 ml
Fecal CFU/
36. Nil - - - - - -
Coliforms 100 ml
BDL: Below Detectable Limit; CFU: Colony Forming Unit

Table 3.3.6 : Water Quality Status – Within UPCL Plant and at Ash Pond Area
(Winter 2016)

Sr. Parameters Units Raw Final ETP Inlet ETP Test Well Test Well
No. Water for Discharge outlet (Hand (Hand
Cooling Water from Pump 1) Pump 2)
Towers Guard near Ash near Ash
Pond Pond Pond
Physical Parameters

1. pH 7.5 7.5 7.0 8.0 7.0 7.0


0
2. Temperature ( C) 30 33 31 36 31 30
3. Turbidity (NTU) <1 2 41 6 233 72
Total suspended 29 24
4. (mg/l) 16 34 3289 23
solids
Total Dissolved 334 106
5. (mg/l) 48334 49156 472 802
Solids
6. Conductivity (PS/cm) - - 1656 2080 558 201
Inorganic Parameters

Total Alkalinity 50 70
7. mg/l 90 100 30 40
(as CaCO3)
Total Hardness mg/l 140 70
8. 6100 8200 60 110
(as CaCO3)
Calcium Hardness mg/l 60 30
9. 700 1350 50 30
(as CaCO3)
10. Chloride mg/l 19551 18814 90 127 114 12
11. Sulphate mg/l 153 156 25 56 49 3
12. Sodium mg/l 1415 886 440 272 56 8
13. Potassium mg/l 464 28 3 8 3 3
14. Salinity ‰ 35.3 34.0 - -

3.3.21
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Sr. Parameters Units Raw Final ETP Inlet ETP Test Well Test Well
No. Water for Discharge outlet (Hand (Hand
Cooling Water from Pump 1) Pump 2)
Towers Guard near Ash near Ash
Pond Pond Pond
Nutrient and Demand Parameters

15. Nitrate as NO3 mg/l 0.05 0.04 0.01 0.03 1.6 0.3
16. Total Phosphates mg/l 0.05 0.12 0.39 0.10 6.9 0.2
17. DO mg/l 12.6 9.4 - - - -
18. COD mg/l - - 100 56 44 44
19. Oil & Grease mg/l 2.4 1.2 3.2 1.2 1.2 0.8
20. Fluoride mg/l 0.54 0.62 0.10 0.76 0.11 0.13
Heavy Metals
21. Nickel mg/l 0.001 BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL
22. Cadmium mg/l BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL
23. Chromium mg/l BDL BDL 0.005 0.013 BDL BDL
24. Copper mg/l 0.066 0.033 BDL BDL BDL BDL
25. Lead mg/l BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL
26. Iron mg/l 1.4 BDL 24.4 12.9 89.8 29.1
27. Manganese mg/l 0.003 BDL 0.042 0.059 0.296 0.109
28. Zinc mg/l BDL BDL 0.74 0.30 106.7 32.4
29. Cobalt mg/l BDL BDL BDL 0.001 0.005 0.002
30. Aluminum mg/l 0.135 0.010 4.047 0.245 BDL BDL
31. Arsenic mg/l BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL
32. Barium mg/l BDL BDL 0.015 BDL 0.013 BDL
33. Selenium mg/l BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL
34. Silver mg/l 0.10 0.07 0.02 0.05 0.012 0.003
35. Molybdenum mg/l 0.704 BDL 0.233 0.465 - -
36. Mercury mg/l 0.006 0.004 0.001 BDL 0.003 BDL
Bacteriological Parameters

CFU/ - - - - - -
37. Total Coliforms
100 ml
CFU/ - - - - - -
38. Fecal Coliforms
100 ml
BDL: Below Detectable Limit; CFU: Colony Forming Unit

3.3.22
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 3.3.7 : Water Quality Status – Dug Wells in the Vicinity of


UPCL plant and Ash Pond Area
(Winter 2016)
Sr. Parameters Units Acceptable/ Village Ullure Dug Well Water
No. Permissible Limit (Dug well) in from Village
(IS 10500:2012) the proximity Santhoor in the
of UPCL proximity of Ash
Pond Area
Physical Parameters
6.5 - 8.5/ No 7.0
1. pH 7.0
relaxation
0
2. Temperature ( C) - 28 26
3. Turbidity (NTU) 1 /5 0.39 <1
4. Total suspended solids (mg/l) - 3.2 20
5. Total Dissolved Solids (mg/l) 500/2000 298 92
6. Conductivity (PS/cm) - 543 158
Inorganic Parameters
Total Alkalinity (as 50
7. mg/l 200/600 92
CaCO3)
Total Hardness (as mg/l 50
8. 200/600 130
CaCO3)
Calcium Hardness(as mg/l 20
9. - 70
CaCO3)
10. Chloride mg/l 250/1000 105 13
11. Sulphate mg/l 200/400 3 2
12. Sodium mg/l - 54 13
13. Potassium mg/l - 1 1
Nutrient and Demand Parameters
14. Nitrate as NO3 mg/l 45/ No relaxation 0.13 6.8
15. Total Phosphates mg/l - 0.76 3.6
16. DO mg/l - 4.6 4.0
17. COD mg/l - 4.8 19
18. Oil & Grease mg/l - - -
19. Fluoride mg/l 1.0/1.5 0.059 0.10
Heavy Metals
20. Nickel mg/l 0.02/ No relaxation BDL 0.053
21. Cadmium mg/l 0.003/ No relaxation BDL 0.004
22. Chromium mg/l 0.05 / No relaxation BDL 0.030
23. Copper mg/l 0.05/1.5 BDL 0.024
24. Lead mg/l 0.01/ No relaxation BDL 0.053
25. Iron mg/l 0.3/ No relaxation BDL 0.7
26. Manganese mg/l 0.1/0.3 0.042 0.009
27. Zinc mg/l 5/15 BDL 4.9
28. Cobalt mg/l - BDL BDL
29. Aluminum mg/l 0.03/0.2 BDL 0.510
30. Arsenic mg/l 0.01/0.05 BDL 0.046
31. Barium mg/l 0.7/ No relaxation 0.066 0.058
32. Selenium mg/l 0.01/ No relaxation BDL BDL
33. Silver mg/l 0.1/ No relaxation 0.01 0.002
34. Molybdenum mg/l 0.07/ No relaxation BDL 0.127
35. Mercury mg/l 0.001/ No relaxation 0.005 0.003
Bacteriological Parameters
CFU/
36. Total Coliform Nil 180 10
100 ml
CFU/ -
37. Fecal Coliform Nil -
100 ml
BDL: Below Detectable Limit; CFU: Colony Forming Unit

3.3.23
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 3.3.8 : Summary of Source-wise Parameters Exceeding the Drinking Water


Quality Standards (IS: 10500-2012)
Sr. Sampling Locations Parameters Exceeding Drinking Water
No. Quality Standards
Surface water
1. Mulki river near village Kerner Turbidity, Total hardness, Chlorides, Nickel,
(influenced by Coastal Backwater) Iron, Aluminum, Selenium, Mercury
2. Papanashini river (Tributary of Total coliforms
Udyaverna river) Near village Soda
Ground Water – Dug Well
3. Village Ullure Mercury, Total Coliforms
4. Village Santhoor Nickel, Cadmium, Lead, Iron, Aluminum,
Arsenic, Molybdenum, Mercury
5. Village Yellure Molybdenum, Mercury, Total coliforms
6. Village Pillar Mercury, Total coliforms
7. Village Paniyar --
8. Village Nandikoor Mercury, Total coliforms
9. Village Padubidri Mercury, Total coliforms
10. Village Hejamadi I Turbidity, Nickel, Iron, Mercury
II Nickel
11. Village Kavathar Lead, Molybdenum
12. Village Kaup
13. Village Shirva Iron, Mercury
Bore Well
14. Village Uchhala Nickel

3.3.24
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 3.3.9 : Density, Diversity and Species Composition of Phytoplankton in


Surface and Ground Water Samples
Sr. Sampling Phyto- Percentage Composition of Algal Group (%) Shannon
No. Locations plankt Chlo Bacillario- Myxop Chrysop Eugl Rhodo- Weiner
on rop- phyceae hy- -hyceae eno- phycae Diversity
No/ml hyce ceae phyc Index
ae eae
Surface / Coastal backwater
1. Mulki river near 24 76 18 - - 6 -
2.2
village Kerner
River water
2. Near village Soda 21 73 27 - - - - 2.2
Ground water/ Dug well
3. Village Santhoor 15 73 27 - - - - 1.5
4. Village Nandikoor 13 55 45 - - - - 1.4
5. Village Padubidri 13 22 45 - - - 33 1.5
6. Village Hejamadi-I 11 50 - - - 50 - 1.5
7. Village Kavathar 9 55 27 - - 18 - 1.9
8. Village Yellure 14 20 80 - - - - 1.4
9. Village Ullure 13 66 44 - - - - 1.6
10. Village Pillar 11 25 50 - - 25 - 1.5
11. Village Paniyar 11 37 63 - - - - 1.6
12. Village Kaup 9 73 27 - - - - 1.9
13. Village Shirva 4 100 - - - - - 0.9
14. Village Hejamadi-II 11 50 50 - - - - 1.4

*Ranges of Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index:


<1: indicate maximum impact of pollution or adverse factor
1-2: indicate medium impact of pollution or adverse factor
>2: indicate minimum impact of pollution or adverse factor

Table 3.3.10 : Phytoplankton Species Observed in Water Samples

Family Species
Botryococcus sp.
Chlorella sp.
Chlorophyceae Ulva sp.
Chlorococcum sp.
Scenedesmus sp.
Cyclotella sp.
Nevicula sp.
Bacillariophyceae Diatoma sp.
Nitzschia sp.
Euglenophyceae Euglena sp.
Phagus sp.
Rhodophyceae Porphyra sp.

3.3.25
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 3.3.11 : Density, Diversity and Species Composition of Zooplankton in


Surface and Ground Water Samples
Sr. Sampling Zoo Percentage Organism in Groups (%) Shannon
No. Location plank- Winer
ton Rotifer Coelent- Cladoce- Copep- Protoz- Diversity
3
Sp/m erate ra od oa Index
Surface water/ Coastal backwater
1. Mulki river near 1300 39 - 46 15 -
village Kerner 1.5

River water
2. Near village Soda 1100 18 - 27 55 - 1.4
Ground water/ Dug well
3. Village Santhoor 600 33 - 50 17 - 1.5
4. Village Nandikoor 600 - - 33 67 - 0.9
5. Village Padubidri 800 37 - 25 38 - 1.6
6. Village Hejamadi-I 600 50 - 17 33 - 1.5
7. Village Kavathar 800 - - 63 37 - 1.0
8. Village Yellure 500 - - 20 80 - 0.7
9. Village Ullure 400 75 - 25 - - 0.8
10. Village Pillar 500 40 - 60 - - 1.0
11. Village Paniyar 500 - - 40 60 - 1.0
12. Village Kaup 500 20 - 20 60 - 1.4
13. Village Shirva 600 17 - 50 33 - 1.5
14. Village Hejamadi-II 600 50 - 17 33 - 1.4

Ranges of Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index:


<1: indicate maximum impact of pollution or adverse factor
1-2: indicate medium impact of pollution or adverse factor
>2: indicate minimum impact of pollution or adverse factor

Table 3.3.12 : Zooplankton Species Observed in Water Samples


Groups Species
Kertella sp.
Fillinia sp.
Rotifera Rotaria sp.
Rotifer sp.
Daphnia sp.
Moina sp.
Cladocera Bosmina sp.
Calanus sp.
Copepoda Cyclops sp.

3.3.26
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

References:-

x Amjad, S. and J.S.Gray (1983). The use of nematode-copepod ratio as


an index of organic pollution. Marine pollution bulletin.14: 178-181.
x Arora, H.C. (1996a). Response of rotifer to variation in some ecological
factors. Proc. Indian Acad.Sci.63: 57-66.
x Arora, H.C. (1996b). Response as indicator of trophic nature of
environments.hydrobiologia.27 (1-2); 146-159.
x Bianchi, M.; Colwell, R.R. (1985). Microbial indicators of environmental
water quality: the role of microorganisms in the assessment and
prediction of changes in the marine environment induced by human
activities. In: Salanki, J. (ed.). Biological monitoring of the state of the
environment: Bioindicators. IRL Press, Oxford, Uk. p. 5-15.
x Bratkovich, A. (1988). The use of planktonic organism distribution as an
indicator of physical variability in marine environments. In: SOULE, D.
F.; KLEPPEL, G. S. (eds.). Marine Organisms as Indicators. Spriger-
Verlag. N.Y. p. 13-34.
x Doohan, M. (1975). Ecological aspects of used water treatment: Vol. 1.
Rotifera. The organisms and their ecology. Academic Press, London.
234 p.

3.3.27
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

3.4 Land Environment

3.4.1 Soil Quality Assessment

The impacts of any projects on land environment generally depend on


type/category of project. The impacts on land environment would be in the form of
permanent change in landuse pattern as well as direct and indirect impacts on
surrounding land due to pollution discharge if any, in the form of flue gases, fugitive
emission, liquid and solid wastes. Apart from the above, the importance of impacts on
land environment also depends on several factors like the project location, landuse /
land cover in surrounding area, ecological or otherwise sensitivity of the surrounding
regions etc.

Udupi district is essentially an agriculture district wherein more than 80% of


population depends on agriculture for their livelihood, whereas only 40% of the
available land is used for agriculture. Rest is either forest land or land unsuitable for
agriculture. Paddy is the main crop raised in 75% of the cultivated area in Kharif
season. The other crops are chillies, sweet potato, ginger and vegetables. In Rabi
season, paddy, chilies, black gram and green gram are raised. Pulses are raised
during dry season. The crops raised during summer are limited with chief crop being
sugarcane, groundnut, paddy and sweet potato. Plantation crops include coconut,
cashew nut, areca nut and pepper. Cardamom is also grown in valley areas.

A survey was conducted to identify sampling locations to establish baseline


status of soil quality in the study area. Soil samples from agricultural fields were
collected from twelve (12) villages as shown in Fig. 3.4.1 and listed in Table 3.4.1.
Representative soil samples were collected from depth upto 15 cm. Samples were
analysed for various physico-chemical parameters, heavy metals and microbiological
characteristics, following the Standard methods, as given in Table 3.4.2.

3.4.1.1 Soil Characteristics

For physico-chemical characterisation of soil, the samples were air dried


and then passed through 2 mm sieve and were stored in HDPE bottles for further
analysis. Heavy metals were determined by extracting soil with conc. H2SO4 and conc.
HNO3 followed by analysis on ICP or AAS (APHA, 1995).

Physical and chemical characteristics of the soils are given in


Tables 3.4.4 - 3.4.10. The particle size distribution in terms of percentage of sand, silt
and clay showed dominance of sandy loam and loamy sand nature of soil. The bulk
density was observed to be varying from 1.0-1.5 g/cm3 which is considered to be
moderate to high. The porosity and water holding capacity of soils are in the range of
42-64 and 29-64 % respectively. The pH of soil was observed to be in the range of
4.4-7.1 indicates strongly acidic to alkaline in nature. Electrical conductivity is in the
range from 0.03-0.23 dS/m.

3.4.1
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

The most important cations present in soluble state in the soil is calcium and
magnesium. It was observed that calcium and magnesium are in the range of 1.2-10
meq/l and 0.7-8.6 meq/l respectively. The sodium and potassium are in the range of
0.3-0.7 meq/l and 0.1-1.0 meq/l respectively. In general, the soil in the region has low
to moderate adsorption capacity as evident from the cations exchange capacity to be
in the range of 2.4-18.0 cmol(p+) kg-1. Amongst the exchangeable cations, Ca+2 and
Mg+2 were observed in the range of 5-18 and 1-3 cmol(p+) kg-1 whereas sodium and
potassium are in the range of 0.5-3.3 and 0.3-2.51 cmol(p+)kg-1 respectively.

Exchangeable sodium percentage ranged from 4.8-25.6% indicating that the


soils are non-sodic to very strongly sodic in nature. The classification of soil and their
relationship between productivity and absorptivity based on cations exchange capacity
which indicate very low to low productivity and low to moderate adsorptivity in the
study area. Organic carbon, available nitrogen, available phosphorus and available
potassium are found to be in the range of 0.1-1.6 %, 38-188 kg/ha, 4-42 kg/ha and 14-
173 kg/ha respectively which shows that the soils are poor to fertile in organic carbon
content.

Soil samples as well as industrial samples were analysed for heavy metals
such as Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd) Chromium (Cr), Cobalt (Co), Copper (Cu), Iron
(Fe), Lead (Pb), Manganese (Mn), Mercury (Hg), Nickel (Ni), Zinc (Zn) and their
concentrations are given in Table 3.4.11. The concentration of heavy metals viz. Cr,
Fe, Ni, and Pb are found in high concentration. Out of 12 villages chromium
concentration found high in 6 villages, nickel concentration found high in 5 villages and
lead concentration found in 2 villages.

Azotobactors are non-symbiotic nitrogen fixing microorganisms and improve


soil fertility by fixing nitrogen in the soil. Fungi also constitute an important part of the
micro-flora of normal soil. They are active in initial stages of decomposition of plant
residues and actively participate in the process of soil aggregation. Microorganisms
present in soil samples are presented in the Table 3.4.12. Total viable microbial
population per gram of soil varied from 3-25 x 106 CFU. Different microflora observed
per gram of soil samples were fungi (ND-4 x 104 CFU), Actinomycetes (ND-7 x 104
CFU), Rhizobium (ND-14 x 104) and Azotobacter (ND-2 x 104 CFU).

3.4.2 Heavy Metals in Bottom and Fly Ash

Samples of bottom ash from hopper and fly ash from industry and from ash
pond were collected and were analysed for various heavy metal contents, as given in
Table 3.4.13. Heavy metal contents (arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, iron,
manganese, nickel) were found more in bottom ash compared to fly ash samples. Iron
content in bottom ash was 20859 mg/kg, whereas fly ash samples it was in the range
of 15046 -15369 mg/kg.

3.4.2
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Plate 3.4.1: Soil sampling in the study area

11

12

9
10 8

1
7

3 2

5 km
10 km

Fig. 3.4.1: Soil sampling location in the study area

3.4.3
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 3.4.1 : Details of soil sampling locations (Winter 2016)

Sr. Location/ Coordinates Soil / Sample


No. Village Source
0 0
1 Santhoor village N 13 09’43.5’’ E 74 49’48.2’’ Agri land
0 0
2 Nandikoor village N 13 08’10.8’’ E 74 48’07.3’’ Agri land
0 0
3 Padubidri N 13 08’12.6’’ E 74 46’19.2’’ Agri land
0 0
4 Hejamadi village N 13 07’02.9’’ E 74 46’16.5’’ Agri land
0 0
5 Kavathar village N 13 05’59.3’’ E 74 49’32.1’’ Agri land
0 0
6 Yellure village N 13 10’20.7’’ E 74 48’39.5’’ Agri land
0 0
7 Ullure village N 13 09’34.3’’ E 74 47’27.3’’ Agri land
0 0
8 Pillar village N 13 11’19.0’’ E 74 49’49.2’’ Agri land
0 0
9 Uchhala village N 13 11’26.0’’ E 74 45’12.9’’ Agri land
0 0
10 Paniyor village N 13 11’17.7’’ E 74 46’49.0’’ Agri land
0 0
11 Kaup village N 13 13’38.3’’ E 74 45’10.4’’ Agri land
0 0
12 Shirva village N 13 12’47.1’’ E 74 49’25.6’’ Agri land

Table 3.4.2 : Methods used in soil quality assessment

Sr.
Parameter Technique
No.
1 pH pH meter
2 Conductivity Conductivity meter
3 Particle Size Distribution Hydrometer method
4 Bulk Density KR Box Method
5 Porosity KR Box Method
6 Water Holding Capacity KR Box Method
7 Calcium Titrimetric method
8 Magnesium Titrimetric method
9 Sodium Flame Photometry
10 Potassium Flame Photometry
11 Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) Acetate extract
12 Organic Carbon Walky and Black method
13 Available N Kjeldahl method
14 Available P2O5 Spectrophotometry
15 Available K Flame photometer
16 Heavy Metals AAS/ICP
17 Microbiology Pour Plate Method

3.4.4
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 3.4.3 : Textural class of soil

Sr. No. Sampling Location Particle Size Distribution (%) Textural Class
Sand Silt Clay
1 Santhoor village 78 18 4 Loamy Sand
2 Nandikoor village 74 18 8 Sandy Loam
3 Padubidri 86 10 4 Loamy Sand
4 Hejamadi village 98 0 2 Sand
5 Kavathar village 80 8 12 Sandy Loam
6 Yellure village 68 12 20 Sandy Loam
7 Ullure village 84 12 4 Loamy Sand
8 Pillar village 64 26 10 Sandy Loam
9 Uchhala village 90 6 4 Sand
10 Paniyor village 82 14 4 Loamy Sand
11 Kaup village 88 8 4 Sand
12 Shirva village 90 6 4 Sand

Texural Class of Soil (USDA)

3.4.5
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 3.4.4 : Physical characteristic of soil

Sr. Sampling Location Bulk Density Porosity Water Holding


3
No. (gm/cm ) (%) Capacity (%)
1 Santhoor village 1.3 55 42
2 Nandikoor village 1.1 58 46
3 Padubidri 1.3 48 36
4 Hejamadi village 1.5 43 29
5 Kavathar village 1.2 56 43
6 Yellure village 1.3 52 39
7 Ullure village 1.3 46 34
8 Pillar village 1.0 64 64
9 Uchhala village 1.4 42 29
10 Paniyor village 1.2 59 53
11 Kaup village 1.1 55 49
12 Shirva village 1.2 52 41

Table 3.4.5 : Chemical characteristics of soil extract

Sr. Sampling pH EC Calcium Magnesium Sodium Potassium


No. Location (1:2) (dS/m) (meq/l)
1 Santhoor village 4.9 0.06 2.0 1.4 0.6 0.1
2 Nandikoor village 4.4 0.05 1.2 0.7 0.6 0.1
3 Padubidri 5.3 0.04 1.3 0.9 0.5 0.2
4 Hejamadi village 5.6 0.03 1.2 1.0 0.5 0.3
5 Kavathar village 5.4 0.06 1.8 1.6 0.7 0.3
6 Yellure village 4.9 0.04 2.2 1.8 0.3 0.1
7 Ullure village 5.2 0.06 1.3 1.2 0.5 0.1
8 Pillar village 5.0 0.05 2.8 2.0 0.4 0.2
9 Uchhala village 4.9 0.06 2.4 2.2 0.5 1.0
10 Paniyor village 7.1 0.23 10 8.6 0.6 0.5
11 Kaup village 6.1 0.06 8.8 7.8 0.4 0.3
12 Shirva village 5.9 0.05 7.4 6.6 0.3 0.1

Table 3.4.6 : Cation exchange capacity of soil (Winter 2016)

Sr. Sampling Location Ca++ Mg++ K+ Na+ CEC ESP


+ -1
No. cmol(p ) kg
1 Santhoor village 7.0 1.0 0.8 2.9 14.5 20.1
2 Nandikoor village 5.0 2.0 0.7 3.3 13.0 25.6
3 Padubidri 5.0 3.0 1.1 1.1 10.0 11.4
4 Hejamadi village 5.0 3.0 0.5 0.5 2.4 20.6
5 Kavathar village 6.0 2.0 1.8 0.8 11.4 6.9
6 Yellure village 7.0 2.0 1.4 1.1 10.2 11.2
7 Ullure village 5.0 3.0 0.8 1.3 9.4 14.1
8 Pillar village 8.0 1.0 2.1 1.0 14.5 6.5
9 Uchhala village 7.0 1.0 1.2 0.6 5.7 10.8
10 Paniyor village 18.0 3.0 0.3 1.3 12.7 11.0
11 Kaup village 13.0 1.8 2.5 0.9 18.0 4.8
12 Shirva village 10.0 1.6 1.5 0.9 17.4 5.2

3.4.6
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 3.4.7: Relationship of CEC with productivity

CEC Value CEC Productivity Location Sr. Nos.


-1
(cmol (p+) Kg ) Category
<10 Very low Very low 4,7,9
10-20 Low Low 1,2,3,5,6,8,10,11,12
20-50 Moderate Moderate
>50 High High

Table 3.4.8 : Relationship of CEC with adsorptivity

CEC Value CEC Adsorptivity Location Sr. Nos.


-1
(cmol (p+) Kg ) Category
<10 Limited or Low Limited or Low 4,7,9
10-20 Moderate Moderate 1,2,3,5,6,8,10,11,12
20-30 High High
>30 Very High Very High

Table 3.4.9 : Fertility status of soil in study area (Winter 2016)

Sr. Sampling Locations Organic Carbon N P2O5 K2O


No. (%) (Kg/ha)
1 Santhoor village 1.2 63 20 22
2 Nandikoor village 0.7 188 18 16
3 Padubidri 0.7 138 28 25
4 Hejamadi village 0.1 38 33 14
5 Kavathar village 1.2 100 42 49
6 Yellure village 1.2 88 7 29
7 Ullure village 1.4 176 40 17
8 Pillar village 1.4 137 19 38
9 Uchhala village 1.3 88 14 25
10 Paniyor village 1.4 138 16 173
11 Kaup village 1.4 113 27 57
12 Shirva village 1.6 113 4 29
Level in poor soil <0.5 <280 <23 <133
Level of medium Soil 0.5-0.75 280-560 23-57 133-337
Level in fertile soil >0.75 >560 >57 >337

3.4.7
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 3.4.10 : Heavy Metals in soil (Winter 2016)

Sr. Location/ As Cd Co Cr Cu Fe Mn Ni Pb Zn Hg
No. Village (µg/kg)
(mg/kg)
1 Santhoor BDL 1.9 BDL 55 10747 89 24 17 46 16
19
village
2 Nandikoor BDL 5.6 BDL 325 22730 194 56 8 37 13
32
village
3 Padubidri BDL 2.3 BDL 53 25 12182 82 34 85 49 12
4 Hejamadi BDL 0.4 BDL 18 1978 26 4 BDL 7 12
2
village
5 Kavathar BDL 5.0 BDL 82 21281 290 65 16 48 12
14
village
6 Yellure BDL 5.4 0.1 63 22239 788 70 9 64 35
33
village
7 Ullure BDL 1.5 BDL 37 9089 52 18 7 28 3
15
village
8 Pillar village BDL 7.9 0.1 114 61 26237 167 46 18 62 7
9 Uchhala BDL 1.2 BDL 67 7834 45 24 8 21 1
12
village
10 Paniyor BDL 4.7 BDL 110 20311 722 109 125 88 5
42
village
11 Kaup village BDL 10.2 0.1 307 61 27960 563 93 9 92 9
12 Shirva BDL 4.8 BDL 62 20260 463 39 2 72 ND
26
village
Canadian
Soil
Quality 12 10 - 64 63 - - 50 70 200 -
Guidelines
(ppm)

Table 3.4.11 : Microbiological characteristic of soil (Winter 2016)

Sr. Sampling Location TVC Fungi Actinomycetes Rhizobium Azotobacter


6
No. 10
4
CFU/g of soil (x10 )
1 Santhoor village 11 ND 7 1 1
2 Nandikoor village 10 ND ND 8 1
3 Padubidri 25 4 1 13 2
4 Hejamadi village 6 1 1 1 1
5 Kavathar village 3 1 2 1 ND
6 Yellure village 9 ND 1 ND ND
7 Ullure village 18 ND 2 14 ND
8 Pillar village 10 2 3 1 ND
9 Uchhala village 3 2 ND 1 1
10 Paniyor village 8 1 2 ND ND
11 Kaup village 10 ND 3 ND ND
12 Shirva village 15 1 2 2 2

3.4.8
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 3.4.12: Heavy Metals in Bottom Ash and Fly Ash

Sr. Parameters Unit Bottom Ash Fly ash from Fly Ash from
No. Collected from Industry Ash Pond
Hopper
1. Arsenic (As ) mg/kg 10.0 BDL 5.0
2. Cadmium (Cd) mg/kg 5.1 3.0 3.1
3. Cobalt (Co) mg/kg 14.1 8.4 BDL
4. Chromium (Cr) mg/kg 29.1 3.6 22.5
5. Copper (Cu) mg/kg 11.0 14.0 13.0
6. Iron (Fe) mg/kg 20859 15046 15369
7. Manganese (Mn) mg/kg 250 178 138
8. Nickel (Ni) mg/kg 38 37 26
9. Lead (Pb) mg/kg BDL 58 BDL
10. Zinc (Zn) mg/kg 50 61 0.5
11. Mercury (Hg) µg/kg 17 41 16
0 0 0
Sampling location N 13 09’37.2’’ N 13 09’36.4’’ N 13 09’49.0’’
0 0 0
coordinates E 74 48’03.0’’ E 74 48’03.5’’ E 74 49’44.3’’

3.4.9
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

3.4.3 Land Use Pattern of the Study Area

3.4.3.1 Land use as per Census Records

As per 2011 Census records, land use pattern in different villages falling
within 10 km radial distance from the project site has been classified under the
following categories:

x Forest Area
x Area under Non-Agricultural Uses
x Barren & Un-cultivable Land Area
x Permanent Pastures and Other Grazing Land Area
x Land under Miscellaneous Tree Crops etc. Area
x Culturable Waste Land Area
x Fallows Land other than Current Fallows
x Current Fallows Area
x Total Un-irrigated Land Area
x Area Irrigated by Source
Village-wise details of landuse are given in Table 3.4.13. Out of the total
area, as much as 89.55% area falls under Udupi district and remaining 10.45% in
Dakshin Kannada district. Major part of the study area is dominated by Barren & Un-
cultivable land area followed by fallows land, total irrigated area, total culturable waste
land area and forest area. The study area is covered with under non agricultural uses,
permanent pasture and other grazing land of the total land area The percentage
distribution of land under different categories is depicted in Fig. 3.4.2.

Fig. 3.4.2 : Land use Pattern under Different Categories (%)

3.4.10
Table 3.4.13 : Village-wise Details of Landuse under Different Categories (ha)

Sr. Village Gram Forest Area under Barren & Perman- Land Under Cultura- Fallows Current Total Area Total
No. Name Panchayat Area Non- Un- ent Miscellaneous ble Land Fallows Un- Irrigated Geographical
Name Agricultural cultivable Pastures Tree Crops Waste other Area irrigated by Area
Uses Land and etc. Area Land than Land Source
Area Other Area Current Area
Grazing Fallows
Land
Area
District Udupi
1 Yellur Yellur 0 233 12 108.8 476 400 61 4 282.98 180.02 1757.8
2 Santhoor Mudarangadi 0 107 11 117 401.06 153 22 2 151.2 63.8 1028.06
3 Pilar Mudarangadi 127 117 24 127 227.67 105 28 2 170.6 91.4 1019.67
4 Nandicoor Palimar 0 87 8 20 236.36 90 52 2 124.97 95.03 715.36
5 Palimar Palimar 0 83 6 50 80.4 75 35 2 164.41 143.59 639.4
6 108 Kalthur Kuthyar 70 72 6 20 248.86 0.61 28 3 199.73 45.27 693.47
7 Kuthyar Kuthyar 0 106 9 54 134.89 161 17 2 203.39 71.61 758.89
8 Padebettu Padubidri 0 75 5 40 33.25 60 20 2 92.05 32.95 360.25

3.4.11
9 Tenka Tenka 0 86 5 60 98.07 33 39 2 156.33 115.67 595.07
10 Belpu Belpu 0 74 5 67 82 43 25 3 254.6 16.4 570
11 Hejamadi Hejamadi 0 130 6 90 54.64 92 18 2 213.3 121.7 727.64
12 Padu Kaup 0 86 0 2 35.08 43 3 2 71.62 105.38 348.08
13 Padoor Majur 0 72 14 51.24 83 73 18 2 192 47 552.24
14 92 Heroor Majur 0 26 2 1 8.07 7 2 1 129.14 50.86 227.07
15 Shirva Shirva 0 255 158 676.13 730 406 22 4 626.64 338.36 3216.13
16 Inna Inna 0 90.12 13.6 54.3 290.6 52.49 90.78 10.78 226.27 193.79 1022.73
17 Belman Belman 0 102 77.42 20.19 403.27 236.18 101.72 6.02 307.24 192.87 1446.91
18 Sooda Belman 80.13 79.65 53.66 38.53 254.36 42.53 109.01 11.91 193.98 127.95 991.71
19 Nandalike Belman 156.21 146.76 33.14 83.22 266.29 68.26 84.84 9.83 209.29 135.58 1193.42
20 Mundkuru Mundkuru 60.44 119.95 72.95 20.28 198.69 281.28 73.92 10.7 344.91 222.56 1405.68
21 Mulladka Mundkuru 16.19 60.53 34.56 1.63 80.87 45.83 53.42 10.64 109.64 116.96 530.27
23 Muloor Mallaru 0 58 15 0.2 44.82 19 4 1 90.1 72.9 305.02
Sr. Village Gram Forest Area under Barren & Perman- Land Under Cultura- Fallows Current Total Area Total
No. Name Panchayat Area Non- Un- ent Miscellaneous ble Land Fallows Un- Irrigated Geographical
Name Agricultural cultivable Pastures Tree Crops Waste other Area irrigated by Area
Uses Land and etc. Area Land than Land Source
Area Other Area Current Area
Grazing Fallows
Land
Area
24 Majoor Majoor 0 6 4 0 9 2 25.25 0 159.1 36.9 242.25
Sub Total 509.97 2272.01 575.33 1702.52 4477.25 2489.18 932.94 95.88 4673.49 2618.55 20347.12
Dakshin Kannada, Teh- Manglore
22 Kollur Balkunje 0 15.95 30.36 0 49.88 22.48 1.4 0.7 116.47 79.49 316.73
25 Kavathar Balkunje 60.97 20.58 2.42 190.19 0 0 0 12.2 115.72 91.25 493.33
26 Karnire Balkunje 40.8 2.08 1.2 32.09 0 0 0 6.89 51.58 55.96 190.6
27 AthikariBettu Kilpady 0 53.3 68.53 0 89.14 91.26 0 7.89 154.68 58.4 523.2
28 Ulipady Aikala 0 85.34 32.49 0 51.33 82.48 2.45 1.76 121.26 88.47 465.58
29 Balkunje Balkunje 0 18.4 34.41 0 42.94 47.36 2.3 1.4 135.28 102.47 384.56
Sub Total 101.77 195.65 169.41 222.28 233.29 243.58 6.15 30.84 694.99 476.04 2374
Grand Total 611.74 2467.66 744.74 1924.8 4710.54 2732.76 939.09 126.72 5368.48 3094.59 22721.12

3.4.12
Source: District Census Handbook 2011, District Udupi & Dakshin Kannada, Karnataka
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of 2x800 MW (Phase II)
Udupi Thermal Power Project, Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka
Draft Report – July 2016

3.4.3.2 Landuse Landcover Classification using Remote Sensing Data

Remote sensing technology has emerged as a powerful tool in providing


reliable information on various natural resources at different levels of details in a
spatial format. It has played an important role in effective mapping and periodic
monitoring of natural resources including environment. In order to strengthen the
baseline information on existing landuse pattern the following data covering approx.
13º09′0″-13010′30″ N Latitude and 74º47′0″-74048′40″ E Longitude are used:

Imagery Details for UPCL (Udupi) Karnataka

x IRS (Resource Sat – II) LISS IV


x Path: 097, Row: 064
x Date of Pass: 15 February 2016

The steps involved in procurement and analysis of remote sensing data are:

x Acquisition of Satellite data


x Data loading
x Data processing
x Geo-referencing image
x Rectification
x Supervised Classification of Landuse / Landcover
x Ground Truth / field checks using Global Positioning System
x Masking

For mapping different agro-climatic zones, the landuse/ landcover


classification system has been standardized by Department of Space.

Landuse/Landcover distribution in the study area has been estimated using


the above classification system and digital analysis techniques.

Landuse / Landcover Classification

Plate 3.4.2 represents the Pseudo-color coding of the FCC of the study
area, which has been assigned 7 major classes, including sea, which is identified by
different copors as given in the legend. The image also highlights patches of sand and
wetland/submerged area along the coast and bank of the river.

The landuse / landcover classification is given along with description of


category as per NRSA guidelines given in Table 3.4.14. The land-use/ land-cover
classification of the 10 km radius study area reveals that as much as 22.83% area is
occupied by sea and 0.32% area by Sand in the form of other waste land on landside,

3.4.13
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of 2x800 MW (Phase II)
Udupi Thermal Power Project, Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka
Draft Report – July 2016

the land-use classification is: Builtup land 1.88%, Agriculture Land 25.70%, Plantation
14.20%, Forest 33.58% and water bodies 1.49%
Table 3.4.14 : Landuse / Landcover: Remote Sensing Data – LISS 4
(15 February’ 2016)

Sr. Main Sub Description (As per the Area occupied


No. Category Category National land use and land within 10 km
cover mapping guidelines by radius Study Area
National Remote Sensing (Sq. Area (%)
Agency 2004-05) Km.)
1. Built Up Roads, It is an area of human habitation 5.90 1.88
Land Industries, developed due to non-
Settlements agricultural use and that has a
and Other cover of buildings, transport and
waste land communication, utilities in
association with water,
vegetation and vacant lands
2. Agriculture Rabi Crop These are areas synonymous 80.70 25.70
Land with cropping season extending
between November/December-
February/March. It is associated
with areas under assured
irrigation irrespective of the
source of irrigation

3. Plantation Plantation/ These are the areas under tree 44.59 14.20
orchid with crop (agricultural/ non-
settlement agricultural) planted adopting
certain management techniques
4. Forest Scrub Forest These are the forest areas 105.46 33.59
where the crown density is less
than 10% of the canopy cover
generally seen at the fringes of
dense forest cover and
settlements, where there is
biotic and abiotic interference
5. Other Sandy Area It includes all other categories 1.01 0.32
wastelands (Beaches of wasteland (like sandy area,
along Sea) salt-affected area, barren rocky
waste etc.), which were not
considered for individual
identification under this project.

Water Inland Water This category comprises area 4.66 1.48


6. Bodies bodies and with surface water,either
Rivers impounded in the form of
ponds, lakes and reservoirs or
flowing as streams, rivers,
canals etc.
7. Sea Sea water The land which is fully occupied 71.68 22.83
body by sea water
Total 314.00 100

3.4.14
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of 2x800 MW (Phase II)
Udupi Thermal Power Project, Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka
Draft Report – July 2016

Plate 3.4.2: Landuse / Landcover classification of study area


(February 15, 2016) (Also provided in A3 as Annexure 6b)

3.4.15
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

3.5 Biological Environment


Present study was carried out to understand the baseline Ecology and
Biodiversity of the study area with special reference to floral & faunal characteristics in
10 km radius of the proposed expansion project. Study was also to understand the
impact of upcoming expansion of TPP on Ecology and Biodiversity of 10 km area with
following objectives:

x Assessment of baseline of flora and fauna within the study area i.e. 10
km radius

x Identification of rare plants of economic importance including medicinal


plants and wildlife species in 10 km radius

x Identification measures for protection and conservation of flora


(rare and endangered species, medicinal plants) and fauna (wildlife,
migratory avi-fauna, reptiles, mammals and insects) etc.

x Secondary data survey followed by primary observations related to


agriculture and horticulture activity in 10 km radius of the study area

x To identify possible impacts and biological stress due to proposed


activities on terrestrial biota

x To delineate mitigation measures with effective EMP to reduce the


pressures and probable negative impacts on Terrestrial biota

A field based primary data collection survey was carried out in March 2016
related to Ecology and Biodiversity of the study area in 10 km radius of proposed
expansion of UPCL Thermal Power Plant at Udupi, Karnataka.

3.5.1 Sampling Locations

According to the working plan for the forest of Kundapur Division period
2002-03 to 2012-13 total forest area of Kundapur forest division was 114621.35 ha out
of which 57,5333.78 ha area was handed over to wildlife wing. The remaining
57,085.57 ha of forest area is only covered by the plan. 7,154.88 ha has been handed
over to Karnataka Cashew Departrment (KCDC) and KCDC is maintaining these
platations by themselves.
The Udupi range in Kundapura division is having 1069.35 ha under Reserve
Forest and 92.8 ha under protected forest Working plan Coondapur (Kundapur) Forest
Division, from 2002-03 to 2012-13. Total 31 locations were identified to study the
ecology and biodiversity of the area of villages and Pilarkhan Reserve Forest in 10 km
radius of the proposed expansion site. Sampling locations are shown in Fig. 3.5.1 and
details are given in Table 3.5.1. Location wise vegetation observed alongwith the
fauna is given in Table 3.5.2.

3.5.1
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

3.5.2 Floral Assessment

3.5.2.1 Study Methodology


Qualitative assessment was carried out for vegetation around villages and
Pilarkhan Reserve Forest (RF) and same was followed for faunal components too.
Quadrat sampling (Stratified Random) was carried out in Pilarkhan Reserve Forest
located approx. 6 km in north east direction from proposed site and 2.5 km from
proposed ash dykes. Primary observations for flora and fauna from study area
included different villages covering their patches of forest, agricultural fields, marshy
lands, waste lands, grazing lands, and also coastal vegetation.
Quantitative study was carried out to understand the diversity of Southern
Tropical Semi Evergreen Forests present near project site. Stratified random quadrat
survey was conducted in the Pilarkhan Reserve forest. Quadrat size of 10m x 10m
was laid down to determine Frequency, Density, Abundance, Important Value Index
(IVI) and species diversity of trees (Misra, 1968; Muller Dombois and Ellenberg H.,
1974) that reflects the dominance and distribution of species in Pilarkhan RF. The
identification of the flora in the radius of 10 km was done primarily based on personal
observations, management plan of Kundapur Forest Division, authentic secondary
literature, and in-depth exploration of the entire area (Plate 3.5.1). The structure and
composition of vegetation was studied by taking observations on diverse plant species
and their numerical composition at each sampling site in RF.

3.5.2.2 Terrestrial Flora in Pilarkhan Reserve Forest

The high stand density and straight boles of Shorea sp. were remarkable for
Pilarkhan RF which lies in north-east direction of proposed site. The top canopy had
Hopea parviflora, Shorea robusta, Gmelina arborea as dominant species. The crowns
of trees were comparatively small. Canopy was not fully closed and the ground is
partly covered with leaf litter, also devoid of humus while, the roots were exposed. At
some places, the forest was thickly covered with herbs and shrubs whereas at others,
it was open. Canopy characters of Pilarkhan Reserve Forest had a gradual change in
the forest composition towards east. Shrubs Allamanda cathartica, Mussaenda
frondosa, Nerium indicum, Ixora coccinea, Plumeria alba were common in occurence.
Many Hopea parviflora was also a dominant tree in Pilarkhan RF but few trees were
observed dead. Pilarkhan Reserve Forest (RF) has dominance of Shorea robusta and
Shorea sp. (unidentified other Shorea species) and and co-dominance of Hopea
parviflora (Bou mara). Details are presented in Dominance Diversity curve that shows
dominace of few species that have major resource sharing and later associated
species that have competition among themselves for resources (Fig. 3.5.2).
Frequency, Density and Basal Area for different tree species is given in Table 3.5.3.
RF forest was also high in species diversity and this has been also confirmed through
data analysis by NEERI team.

The common agro-forestry observed near Sooda, Shirva, Pillar villages


were Bargad (Ficus bengalensis), Pipal (Ficus religiosa), Neem (Azadirachta indica),

3.5.2
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Mango (Mangifera indica), Jamun (Syzygium cumini), Nariyal (Cocos nucifera), Chikoo
(Manikara zapota) and Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus). Some plantation of
Coconut (Cocus nucifera), areca nut (Areca catechu), Banana (Musa paradisiaca) and
Cashew (Anacardium occidentale) were also observed near homesteads, road sides
and agroforests.

3.5.2.3 Structure and Composition of Vegetation in the Study Area

Evergreen, semi-evergreen, deciduous, scrub forests, bamboo brakes,


mangroves, plantations of Areca nut, Coconut, Rubber, Cashew, variety of Acacia
species and cropfields interspersed with human habitation makes the main landscape
of study area.

The vegetations were dominated by plantation of cashew, areca nut in


Yelluru village. However, some unclassified patches of forest were observed in the
Shirva, Sooda and Belman villages’. The costal vegetation observed in Hejamadi,
Mallar, Padu and Nadsal villages had coconut (Cocos nucifera), noni (Morinda
citrifolia), jungle saru (casuarinas equisetifolia), fishtail palm (Caryo taurens), and tari
palm (Borassus flabellifer) as dominant floral elements. Dominant trees along the
coastal sands commonly known as psammophytes (Mangroves) were also present in
respective habitats (Plate 3.5.2 A & B) and Kandelia candel was dominat species.

Near NH 66, Mullur, Bada, Padubidri villages were surveyed and they were
observed to have dominant vegetation of gulmohar (Delonix regia), chiku (Manilkara
zapota), quickstick (Gliricidia sepium), Pipal (Ficus religiosa), Mahaneem (Ailanthus
excelsa), Singapore Cheery (Muntingia calabura), tamarind (Tamarindus indica) etc.
Many of these plants are of natural origin and presence of recently planted trees of
exotic nature were also observed. Area is rich in vegetation in forests, around
villages/human habitations and road sides. Checklist of dominantly observed floral
components in and around different villages in 10 km radius of the proposed project
site as observed during primary data survey are given in Table 3.5.2 & 3.5.4
respectively.

3.5.2.4 Medicinal Plants in Coastal Karnataka

Being rich in vegetation the area harbors a variety of medicinal and aromatic
plants. A few of them are Areca catechu, Aristolochia indica, Coscinium fenestratum,
Croton roxburghii, Curcuma longa, Cycleapeltata, Indigo feratinctoria, Ixora coccinea,
Memecylon malabaricum, Rauvolfia serpentina and Zanthoxylumr hetsa etc. that are
widely used by locals. These plants are used for treating a variety of ailments by as
single herb and also in combination with other plants, as per traditional methods of
coastal Karnataka (Bhandary & Chandrashekar, 2011).

3.5.3
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

3.5.3 Faunal Assessment


3.5.3.1 Study Methodology

The assessment of fauna was carried out with the help of field observations
by NEERI team and available secondary data from Kundapur Forest Division, Udupi.
Field survey was carried out in the month of March, 2016. The morning hours between
5:00 to 9:00 am were selected for avifaunal observation. Tools used for this study
were, Olympus binocular (model number 10 X50 DPS), Canon DSLR 600 D Camera
and identification guide for birds (Grimmet et al., 1998).

3.5.3.2 Faunal diversity in Study area


As discussed in section 3.5.1 above, only Pilarkhan Reserve Forest (RF) of
Udupi Range of Kundapur Forest Division falls in the 10 km study area from the
proposed project. Due to the presence of various villages and habituated roads and
areas, this RF is disconnected from other RFs and PFs on Northern and Western
boundary of Kundapur Forest Division that is touching the western Ghats (Fig. 3.5.3).

3.5.3.2.1 Mammals, Ungulates, Rodents and Herpeto- Fauna


The study area of 10 km covers only a smaller part of Kundapur forest
division. As per management plan of Kundapur forest division ungulates found in entire
Kundapur forest division (10 km study area is part of this division) were Spotted deer
(Axis axis), Sambar (Cervus unicolor), Barking deer (Muntiacus muntjac), Mouse deer
(Tragulus meminna). Common mammals like Indian wild boar (Susse rofa), Indian wild
dog (Cuonal pinus) and Jackal (Canis avreus) are also reported to be present in the
Pilarkhan RF area as per information gathered from villagers in 10 km vicinity of the
proposed project. As per the authenticated list collected from Range forest officer –
Udupi, Leopard (Panthera pardus), Gaur or Indian Bison (Bos gaurus) are migrants or
visitors to Pilarkhan RF. List of the flora and fauna collected from Range forest officer
is given in Table 3.5.5. Common arboreal species reported are Common Langur
(Semnopithecus entellus), Bonnet macaque (Macaca radiate), and Giant squirrel
(Ratufa indica). Rodent species include Indian porcupine (Hystrix indica) and Indian
hare (Lepus nigricelis), [Working Plan Kundapur (Kundapur Forest Division, 2001)].
Only reptile species observed during primary data collection was Oriental garden lizard
(Calotes versicolor), however no mammals, ungulates, rodents were observed by
NEERI team during the survey in the study area. Wildlife study conservation plan is
prepared by Dr. Bharat Jethva, a senior Wildlife Ecologist and Category-A, accredited
(QCI) expert of Ecology and Biodiversity.The study report is enclosed as Annexure-21
3.5.3.2.2 Avifauna
Birds are very specific to their respective habitats and are also key
indicators of environment being susceptible to any change. Dakshina Kannada and
Udupi districts harbors about 366 bird species (Bhat R. Harish, 2009). The birds
observed during primary data collection survey were Black kite (Milvus migrans), Blue
tailed bee eater (Merops philippinus), Pond heron (Ardeola grayii), Greater ratchet
tailed drongo (Dicrurus paradiseus), Red-Wattled Lapwing (Vanellus indicus),

3.5.4
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Common Kingfisher (Alcedo atthis) etc. Checklist of avifauna as per available


secondary literature and personal observations is reported in Table 3.5.6.
Mangroves are present in study area on the banks of Mulki river/Mulki creek
near village Hejmadi that constitutes unique habitat for birds by offering rich feeding
grounds to many aquatic as well as tree dwelling birds (Kumar K.M Vijaya & Kumara
Vijaya, 2014). It is found that coastal area which is directly facing to the sea is not
having the mangrove presence within the study area. For conservation of mangroves,
UPCL proposes a conservation fund of Rs 1 Cr for execution of action plan starting
from beginning of the construction of the project. action plan for conservation of
mangrove includes:

x Awareness and Training to local for conservation of mangroves,

x Identification of further area on the bank of Mulki river where


mangroves can grow, and plantation of mangrove,

x Yearly monitoring of mangroves,

x Review of the plan after 5 years and extend the plan for next 5
years, if needed.

Observations for avifauna were also made in Pilarkhan Reserve forest and
near Mulki river. Some of the birds observed by NEERI Team and reported from the
study area as per literature are shown in Plates 3.5.3 A & B.

3.5.3.2.3 Insect Diversity

The coastal habitats are characteristically recognised to harbor rich


biodiversity of insects. Insects plays an important role in soil turnover and nutrient
recycling. A study in the coastal village of Hejmadi reported ant species belonging to
the families Formicinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae, Dolichoderinae and
Pseudomyrmecinae (Cunha & Nair, 2013.). Detailed list of the ant species as per the
secondary literature survey is presented in Table 3.5.7. Prominent insects present in
the project site are variety of Anisoptera (Dragonflies), Zygoptera (Damselflies),
Lepidoptera (Butterflies), Coleoptera (Dung beetles) etc. The insect species observed
by NEERI team during field visit were Termites (Isoptera), Red ant (Solenopsis
mandibularis) and Common crow (Euploea core).

3.5.3.2.4 Livestock Holding

Livestock are the integral part of economy and village ecosystems of any
area. Diversity of poultry is high along the foothill regions of Udupi district. They feed
on agricultural remains and open scrubland. Every farmer owns buffalos and cows in
the study area. Other animals reared in the study area include Goat, Ox, Cat and Dog,
hens etc. (Table 3.5.8). Cattle, dogs and chicken are the three animal groups
maintained under domestication by significant proportion of people since many
generations. Diversity and density of Malnad gidda is very high in the region. Variability

3.5.5
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

among the breed is very high with distinct characters namely Varshagandhi etc
(Karnataka Biodiversity Board, 2010).

3.5.4 Ecologically Sensitive Areas


“An ecological sensitive area (ESA) is a bio-climatic unit (as demarcated by
entire landscapes in the Western Ghats) where human impacts have locally caused
irreversible changes in the structure of biological communities (as evident in number/
composition of species and their relative abundances) and their natural habitats”
(MoEF&CC). Boundaries of two Western Ghat ESZ (Eco-Sensitive Zones) i.e.WG-
ESZ-KK-31 &WG-ESZ-KK-30 lies around 30 km away from the proposed expansion of
UPCL (Western Ghats Draft Notification, 2015) as shown in Fig. 3.5.4.

3.5.4.1 Wetlands
A wetland is a transition zone between water body and land. The
assessment of impacts on wetlands is a concern because they are one of the most
productive habitats. They support high population of animals including mammals,
birds, fish, invertebrates and serve as nurseries for many of these species. Being an
important component, conservation of wetland is needed hence in the same context,
Ramsar Convention is important, to appropriate spatial scale at which wetland should
be conserved and protected.
There are no ramsar sites in Karnataka. Being coastal district of Karnataka,
Udupi is having 409 ha wetlands, which have been delineated including 157 wetlands
smaller than 2.25 ha. Area under wetland is estimated to be 12226 ha. The major
wetland types are River/Stream (8727 ha), natural waterlogged areas (702 ha),
Riverine wetlands (605 ha), Sand/Beach (543 ha) and Mangroves (501 ha) (Shetty
Deepika, 2012). However, the nearest surface water present around study site are
Karnire River (Tributary of Mulki River) situated near Palimar Village at a distance of
4.8 km to the south direction of UPCL plant and Udyaverna river about 6.5 km to North
direction. Mangrove species observed in the study area was Kandelia candel as a
dominant mangrove species (Plate 3.5.4). Though, the pipeline that fetches water for
the thermal power plant is far from the proposed project site hence, they are not going
to have any significant impact as long as the recommended mitigation measures are
adopted.

3.5.4.2 Sacred Groves


A patch of forest that is preserved for cultural or religious reasons is known
as sacred grove. These patches are important ecological centers to study the
undisturbed natural vegetation of the area. Studies indicated that some Dipterocarps
species are present at Nadikur, Udupi Districts of Karnataka which is about 2.8 km
from plant in south west direction. However, sacred groves have not been properly
documented from Udupi district of Karnataka. Vateria indica L, Hopea parviflora
Beddome, Artocarpus hirsutus are some of the sacred trees observed during the
study.

3.5.5 Agriculture
3.5.6
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Though cultivation is confined to only 13% of the land surface of Udupi


district there are variety of crops that include rice, coconut and areca nut; spices like
pepper, cardamom, ginger and nutmeg; fruit trees of cocoa, cashew, mango,
jack, chiku, banana pineapple, and a variety of vegetables that include cucurbits,
brinjal, lady’s finger, onion, amaranthus, basella, radish, cauliflower, knolkol, tuber
crops of Sweet potato etc. (Table 3.5.9 & 3.5.10). Groundnut and other legumes are
also popular cultivation in the area along with millets and cotton

Udupi district has three talukas viz. Udupi, Karkala and Kundapur. Cashew
is grown in all the three talukas but briskly traded in Karkala taluka. Cashew nut is the
major revenue earner for the district. Facts reveal that 80% of the exports are sent to
U.S.A, 15% to the United Kingdom and the remaining 5% to Canada and Australia.
District also thrives in cultivation of rice, coconut powder and arecanut gardens. Being
essentially an agricultural district, South Kanadda (that includes Udupi) has about
54.16% of its working population dependent on land for its livelihood. Paddy is grown
on an extensive scale all over the well-watered valleys and low-lying areas (Plate
3.5.5). The district is not strictly surplus in coconuts, yet small quantities are exported
to the northern parts of the state. Pepper is an important spice crop in the district. It
can be grown as a mixed crop using arecanut palms as standards. Sugarcane is
another important agricultural crop. The main centers of manufacture of jaggery out of
sugarcane are Kuloor, Ullal and Udupi.

Vegetables are also cultivated in the district. A major vegetable crop


indigenous in nature grown in Udupi district in terms of production is a variety of Brinjal
named “Matti Gulla‟ or “Udupi Brinjal” It is cultivated by around 200 small farmers in a
place called Mattu near Udupi and is most popular vegetable crop. Fruit shoot borers,
an insect pest is the most common threat to the crops, especially to the Brinjal, (Baliga
& Joshi. 2015). The farm community in Udupi district mainly comprises of small and
marginal farmers (90 percent) with land holding less than 2 ha. The average size of
land holding works out to 0.83 ha.

3.5.7
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Ecology and biodiversity survey at UPCL, Quadrat sampling in Pilarkhan RF


Udupi

Discussion and identification of trees with forest guard at Pilarkhan RF

Plate 3.5.1 : Photograph showing ecology and biodiversity survey in the study
area during March 2016

3.5.8
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Karimara (Hopea parvifolia) Fishtail Palm (Caryota urens)

Quickstick (Gliricidia sepium) Ukshi (Calycopteris floribunda)

Noni (Morinda citrifolia) Jungle Jack, Peja (Artocarpus


hirsutus)

Plate 3.5.2(A). Prominent plant species observed in the study area

3.5.9
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Wild Guava (Careya arborea) Purple Passionflower


(Passiflora incarnata)

Khirni (Sapium insigne) Earleaf Acacia


(Acacia auriculiformis)

Ambadi (Hibiscus sabdariffa) Tari Palm (Borassus flabellifer)

Plate 3.5.2(B) : Prominent plant species observed in the study area

3.5.10
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Oriental Honey buzzard (Pernis ptilorhyncus) White browed Wagtail


(Motacilla maderaspatensis)

Brahminy Kite (Haliastur indus) Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis)

Asian Openbill Stork (Anastomus oscitans) Pond Heron (Ardeola grayii)

Plate 3.5.3(A) : Avifaunal observations in the study area

3.5.11
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Red-Wattled lapwing (Vanellus indicus) Blue-tailed bee-eater


(Merops philippinus)

Little stint (Calidris minuta) Rock Pigeon (Columba livia)

Black kite (Milvus migrans) Common crow (Euploea core)

Plate 3.5.3(B) : Avifaunal observations in the study area

3.5.12
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Kandelia Candel (Mangrove plant habit and habitat)

Mangroves providing shelter to Avifauna (Red and Yellow Wattled Lapwing) as observed
in the study area on the banks of Mulki river/Mulki creek near village Hejmadi

Plate 3.5.4 : Mangrove patches of Kandelia candel in the study area

3.5.13
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Areca nut (Areca catechu) plantataion Paddy (Oryza sativa) field

Coconut (Cocos nucifera) Plantation Cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale)

Plate 3.5.5 : Prominent cash crops in the study area

3.5.14
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

5 km
10 km
Fig. 3.5.1 : Google earth map showing sampled villages and pilarkhan RF in the
study area within 10 km radius from the TPP

Fig. 3.5.2 : Dominance Diversity (DD) curve of tree species for Pilarkhan RF
(as per quadrat survey)

3.5.15
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Fig. 3.5.3 : Location of project marked on map of Kundapara forest division

3.5.16
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Fig. 3.5.4 : Map showing boundary of eco-sensitive zones in Udupi district


(Source: MOEF & CC (2015) Western Ghats Draft Ecosenstive Area Notification 04-09- 2015)

3.5.17
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 3.5.1: Details of biological sampling locations

Sr. Location Name Latitude/ Longitude Elevation


No. (m)
1. UPCL Guest House N-13°09’55.8” E074°48,32.3” 22
2. Near Ash Dykes N-13°10’03.5” E074°49’42.7” 29
N-13°09’52.0” E074°49’38.8”
3. Mundragadi N-13°10’25.3” E074°49’15.7” 52
4. Admar Village (R& R colony) N-13°10’06.4” E074°47’06.5” 33
5. Admar N-13°10’23.0” E074°46’35.7” 30
6. Tenka Village N-13°10’11.1” E074°45’41.6” 23
7. Padubidri Village N-13°08’38.9” E074°46’22.3” 22
8. Shirva Village N-13°13’01.4” E074°49’29.5” 37
9. Pillar Khan Reserved forest N13°12’12.1” E074°51’13.4” 64
N13°12’37.5” E074°51’44.7” 22
N13°12’52.2” E074°51’44.2” 23
N13°13’28.0” E074°51’39.7” 56
10. Ninjur Village N-13°15’03.1” E074°51’52.5” 71
11. Palimar Village (Breakwater) N-13°07’16.4” E074°48’47.9” 16
12. Padebettu N-13°08’46.0” E074°46’54.9” 23
13. Hejamadi N-13°06’31.3” E074°46’30.8” 8
14. Mulki Village N-13°05’41.1” E074°47’40.9” 17
15. Kollur N-13°06’01.8” E074°50’49.5” 51
16. Mundkuru N-13°07’34.8” E074°52’08.3” 15
17. Sooda N-13°12’36.9” E074°51’45.4” 14
18. Kuthyar N-13°12’11.3” E074°48’50.2” 41
19. Nandalike N-13°10’46.6” E074°53’28.3” 42
20. Jantra N-13°11’15.6” E074°51’59.6” 81
21. Pilar N-13°12’17.9” E074°50’49.3” 68
22. Kalthur N-13°11’48.7” E074°47’56.3” 48
23. Belpu N-13°12’11.8” E074°46’34.9” 39
24. Mallar N-13°12’54.1” E074°46’08.2” 36
25. Mullur N-13°12’07.9” E074°45’07.7” 16
26. Yelluru N-13°10’54.7” E074°47’52.3” 30
27. Bada N-13°10’09.2” E074°45’42.0” 15
28. Padu N-13°10’27.1” E074°45’06.8” 8
29. Nadsal N-13°08’02.1” E074°47’02.3” 52
30. Nandikur N-13°08’41.4” E074°47’44.5” 23
31. Santharu N-13°09’39.9” E074°49’07.9” 25

3.5.18
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 3.5.2 : Detail list of sampling locations with vegetation


Sr. Location Floral observations Faunal observations Any other
No. Name observation
1. UPCL Guest Bambusa vulgaris,(Common bamboo) Euploea core (Common Flora
House Ligerstomiea speciosa (Jarul), crow), Bubulcus ibis observed
Terminalia mantaly (Umbrella tree) (Cattle egret), Spilopelia was planted
senegalensis (Laughing inside the
Dove) premises of
TPP
2. Near Ash Acacia melanoxylon ( Australian Brahminy kite (Haliastur Borewell,
Dykes blackwood),Cocos nucifera indus), Redmud,
(Coconut),Vernonia cinerea (Sadodi) , Rock Pigeon (Columba Restoration
Casuarina equisetifolia (Jungle saru), livia) Activity of
Mangifera indica (Mango) ash dyke
was under
process.
3. Mundragadi Mangifera indica (Mango), Terminalia No avifaunal
cattapa (Desi Badam), Artocarpus observations
heterophyllus (Jackfruit), Ficus
benghalensis ( Indian Banyan), Musa
paradisiaca (Banana), Tamarindus
indica (Imli), Albizia julibrissin, ‘Rosea’(
Pink silk tree), Calotropis procera(
Kapok), Polyalthia longifolia (False
Ashoka), Carica papaya (Papaya),
Anacardium occidentale (Cashew),
Acacia melanoxylon (Australian
blackwood), Moringa olerifera
(Drumstick), Gmelina arborea
(Gamhar), Tectona grandis (Teak),
Casuarina equisetifolia (Jungle saru)
4. Admar Village Alstonia scholaris (Saptparni), Cassiea Euploea core (Common
(R& R colony) Siamea (Kasod), Anacardium Crow), Bubulcus ibis
occidentale (Cashew), Tectona grandis (Cattle egret)
(Teak), Azardirachta indica (Neem),
Grevillea robusta (Silver oak), Bambusa
vulgaris( Common bamboo), Delonix
regia (Gulmohar), Cocos nucifera
(Coconut), Sapium insigne (Quickstick)
, Hibiscus species
5. Admar Peltophorum pterocarpum (Copperpod),
Albizia julibrissin - ‘Rosea’ ( Pink silk
tree), Polyalthia longifolia( False
Ashoka)
6. Tenka Village Borassus flabellifer (Tari Palm), Cocos
nucifera (Coconut), Polyalthia longifolia
(False ashoka), Ficus religiosa (Pipal),
Pisidium Guava (Common guava),
Mangifera indica (Mango), Nerium
indicum,(Kaner) Delonix regia
(Gulmohar), Syzygium cumini (Jamun),
Dalbergia sisso, Areca catechu (Areca
nut)
7. Padubidri Albizia julibrissin - ‘Rosea ( Pink silk
Village tree), Carica papaya (Papaya),
Mangifera indica (Mango), Terminalia
cattapa (Desi Badam), Cocos nucifera
(Coconut), Gliricidia sepium
(Quickstick), Delonix regia (Gulmohar),
Ficus benghalensis (Indian Banyan),
Tabernae montana divaricata (Pin
wheel flower)

3.5.19
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Sr. Location Floral observations Faunal observations Any other


No. Name observation
8. Shirva Village Polyalthia longifolia (False Ashoka),
Bahunia species, Cocos nucifera
(Coconut), Ficus religiosa (Pipal),
Azardirachta indica (Neem), Musa
paradisiaca (Banana), Delonix regia
(Gulmohar), Pisidium Guava (Common
guava), Plumeria species, Mangifera
indica (Mango), Phyllanthus emblica
(Awla), Areca catechu (Areca nut),
Boungivilleas, Datura stramonium,
Tamarindus indica (Imli), Ravenala
madagascariensis (Travelers tree),
Annaoa squamosa (Sitaphal), Hevea
brasiliensis (Rubber tree), Calotropis
procera (Kapok)
9. Pillar Khan Peltophorum pterocarpum (Copperpod), Dicrurus paradiseus
Reserved Acacia auriculiformis (Earleaf acacia), (Greater ratchet tailed
forest Eupatorium, Swietenia Mahagoni ( drongo),
Mahogony), Caryota urens (Fishtail Halcyon smyrnensis
palm), Gmelina arborea (Gamhar), (white-throated
Syzygium cumini (Jamun), Agertaum, kingfisher),
Pisidium Guava (Common guava), Pernis ptilorhyncus
Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit), (Oriental Honey buzzard)
Acacia melanoxylon (Australian
blackwood),Tectona grandis (Teak),
Zizihipus species (wild ber), Ipoemea,
Bambusa vulgaris (Common Bamboo),
Latana sp. Manilkara zapota (Chiku),
Caselpinanea pulchirema, Vateria
indica (Dhoopa), Anacardium
occidentale (Cashew)
10. Ninjur Village Terminalia cattapa (Desi Badam)
Nerium indicum (Kaner), Cocos nucifera
(Coconut), Hibiscus Rosa sinesis
(China Rose), Bougenvillieas, Musa
paradisiaca (Banana), Gliricidia sepium
(Quickstick), Allamanda cathartica L.
(Golden-Trumpet), Anacardium
occidentale (Cashew) Plantation
11. Palimar Adathoda Varcina, Tectona grandis Merops philippinus (Blue Kandelia
Village (Teak), Cocos nucifera (Coconut), Musa tailed bee eater) candel
Break-water paradisiaca (Banana), Mangifera indica Red-wattled lapwing Mangrove
(Mango), Butea monospermea (Vanellus indicus), species
(Palash), Carica papaya (Papaya), Bubulcus ibis (Cattle
Datura, Gliricidia sepium (Quickstick), egret), Columba
Bamboo, Mussunda sp., Tari Palm, livia(Rock pigeon),
Cletoria, Syzygium cumini (Jamun), Pycnonotus cafer (Red
Acacia auriculiformis (Earleaf acacia), vented bulbul), Little stint
Muntingia calabura (Singapur Cheery) (Calidrisminuta)
Passiflora incarnata (Purple passion
flower), Euphorbia hirta

3.5.20
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Sr. Location Floral observations Faunal observations Any other


No. Name observation
12. Padebettu Cocos nucifera (Coconut), Gliricidia Anastomus oscitans
sepium (Quickstick), Acacia (Asian Openbill Stork)
auriculiformis (Earleaf acacia), Cebia Ardeola grayii ( Pond
pentandra, (Jack fruit), Tamarindus Heron)
indica (Imli), Anacardium occidentale
(Cashew), Psidium guajava (Guava),
Tectona grandis (Teak), Caryota urens
(Fishtail palm), Acacia melanoxylon
(Australian blackwood), Terminalia
cattapa (Desi Badam), China rose,
Drum stick, Ambda (Spondius
mangifera/pinnata), Gmelina arborea
(Gamhar), Mangifera indica (Mango),
Michelia champa, Cassia alata,
Tamrindus indica, (Imli) Ixora coccinea,
Nerium Indicum
13. Hejamadi Polyalthia longifolia (False Ashoka), Burrerfly: Euploea core Near sea
Musa paradisiaca (Banana), Cocos (common Crow) and bird: shore
nucifera (Coconut), Ficus religiosa Haliastur indus,
(Pipal), Carica papaya, Calotropis (Brahminy kite )
procera (Kapok), Annoa reticulate
(Ramphal), Ziziphus species, Acacia
melanoxylon (Australian Blackwood)
Casuarina equisetifolia (Jungle saru),
Borassus flabellifer (Tari Palm),
Anacardium occidentale (Cashew),
Tecoma stans, Carica papaya (Papaya)
14. Mulki Village Tectona grandis (Teak), Mangifera Bubulcus ibis (Cattle
indica(Mango), Cocos nucifera egret), Haliastur indus
(Coconut), Musa paradisiaca (Banana), (Brahminy kite),
Albizia julibrissin - ‘Rosea’ (Pink silk
tree), Leucaena leucocephala
(Subabool), Spondias pinnata (Ambda),
Melia dubia (Malabar Neemwood),
Gliricidia sepium (Quickstick), Caryota
urens (Fish tail palm), Araucaria
columnaris (Christmas tree), Tamrindus
indica, (Imli) Polyalthia longifolia, Acacia
auriculiformis (Earleaf acacia), Acacia
melanoxylon (Australian Blackwood)
Allamanda cathartica L. (Golden-
Trumpet), Anacardium occidentale
(Cashew), Quiscalis indicum
15. Kollur Acacia auriculiformis (Earleaf acacia), Bubulcus ibis (Cattle
Gliricidia sepium (Quickstick), Hibiscus egret),
rosa sinesis, Musa paradisiaca Ardeola grayii (Pond
(Banana), Cocos nucifera (Coconut), Heron)
Gmelina arborea (Gamhar), Ixora
coccinea, Allamanda cathartica
L.(Golden-Trumpet), Boungenvillia,
Terminalia cattapa (Desi Badam),Ceiba
pententra
16. Mundkuru Anacardium occidentale (Cashew), Butterfly: Euploea core
Tectona grandis (Teak), Gmelina (Common Crow),
arborea (Gamhar), Borassus flabellifer Haliastur indus,
(Tari Palm), Cocos nucifera (Coconut), (Brahminy kite )
Gliricidia sepium (Quickstick), Annoa
reticulate (Ramphal), Acacia
melanoxylon (Australian Blackwood)

3.5.21
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Sr. Location Floral observations Faunal observations Any other


No. Name observation
17. Sooda Cassia alata, Cocos nucifera (Coconut), Halcyon smyrnensis
Syzygium cumini (Jamun), Acacia (white-throated
melanoxylon (Australian blackwood), kingfisher), Euploea core
Michelia champaca, Ficus benzamia, (Common crow butterfly)
Swietenia Mahagoni (Mahogony),
Shaving brush tree, Borassus flabellifer
(Tari Palm), Ficus pamata, Mimosa
pudica (Touch me not), Piper nigrum,
Piper longum, Spondias pinnata
18. Kuthyar Musa paradisiaca (Banana), Hen, Cow,
Anacardium occidentale (Cashew), livestock
Cocos nucifera (Coconut), Nerium
indicum, Calotropis procera (Kapok),
Ficus benghalensis (Indian Banyan),
Allamanda cathartica (Golden-
Trumpet), Muntingia calabura
(Singapore Cheery), Gmelina arborea
(Gamhar), Gliricidia sepium
(Quickstick), Ficus religiosa, Acaia
melanoxylon (Australian blackwood),
Tamirandus indica (Imli), Mangifera
indica (Mango), Tectona grandis (Teak),
Hopea parviflora (Karimara), Alianthus
excelasa (Mahaneem)
19. Nandalike Acacia auriculiformis (Earleaf acacia),
Mangifera indica (Mango), Mimosa
pudica (Shy plant), Bambusa vulgaris
(Common bamboo), Tectona grandis
(Teak), Gliricidia sepium (Quickstick),
Hopea parviflora Beddome (Karimara),
Vateria indica, (Dhoopa) Hibiscus sp.,
Pisidium Guajava (Common guava),
Cocos nucifera (Coconut), Areca
catechu (Areca nut), Ixora coccinea
20. Jantra Acacia auriculiformis (Earleaf acacia),
Peltophorum (Copperpod), Terminalia
cattapa (Desi Badam), Anacardium
occidentale (Cashew), Cocos nucifera
(Coconut), Polyalthia longifolia (False
Ashoka), Muntingia calabura (Singapur
Cheery), Gliricidia sepium (Quickstick)
Peltophorum pterocarpum (Copperpod),
Mangifera indica (Mango),
Tabernaemontana divaricata (Pinwheel
Flower), Delonix regia (Gulmohar),
Acacia melanoxylon (Australian
Blackwood)

3.5.22
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Sr. Location Floral observations Faunal observations Any other


No. Name observation
21. Pilar Shorea robusta (Saal), Syzygium
cumini (Jamun), Anacardium
occidentale (Cashew), Gliricidia sepium
(Quickstick), Alsotonia scoloris
(Saptparni), Allamanda cathartica (
Golden-Trumpet), Acacia auriculiformis
(Earleaf acacia), Holigarna beddomei,
Manilkara zapota (Chiku), Mangifera
indica (Mango), Phyllanthus emblica
(Anwla), Areca catechu (Areca nut),
Cocos nucifera (Coconut), Artocarpus
heterophyllus (Jackfruit), Ficus
benghalensis (Indian Banyan), Cocos
nucifera (Coconut), Polyalthia longifolia
(False Ashoka), Alianths excelsa,
(Mahaneem) Shorea sp.
22. Kalthur Mangifera indica (Mango), Anacardium
occidentale (Cashew), Hopea parviflora,
Acaia auriculiformis (Earleaf acacia),
Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit),
Bouginvilleas, Pisidium Guajava
(Common guava)
23. Belpu Acacia auriculiformis (Earleaf acacia),
Borassus flabellifer (Tari Palm), Hopea
parviflora (Karimara), Gmelina arborea
(Gamhar), Spondias pinnata (Wild
mango), Swietenia Mahagoni
(Mahogony), Calotropis procera
(Kapok)
24. Mallar Gliricidia sepium (Quickstick), Gmelina Bubulcus ibis (Cattle
arborea (Gamhar), Calotropis procera egret), Haliastur indus,
(Kapok), Syzygium jambolana, (Brahminy kite )
Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit),
Annona racemosa (Ramphal), Mimosa
pudica (touch me not), Terminalia
cattapa (Desi Badam), Pisidium
Guajava (Common guava), Spathodea
campanulata (African Tulip Tree),
Acacia auriculiformis (Earleaf acacia)
Peltophorum pterocarpum (Copperpod),
Tectona grandis (Teak), Artocarpus
hirsutus (Peja), Ziziphus species (Wild
ber).
25. Mullur Anacardium occidentale (Cashew), Plantation
Bougivilleas, Delonix regia (Gulmohar), done by
Manilkara zapota (Chiku), Cocos social
nucifera (Coconut), Plumeria alba forestry on
(Fragpani), Gliricidia sepium highway
(Quickstick), Anthocepahlus kadamba,
Acacia melanoxylon (Australian
Blackwood), Nerium indicum, Tabernae
montana divaricata (Pinwheel Flower),
Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit),
Albizia julibrissin - ‘Rosea’sp (Pink silk
tree), Ficus benghalensis (Indian
Banyan), Casuarina equisetifolia
(Jungle saru), Alinathus excelsa
(Mahaneem), Tectona grandis (Teak).

3.5.23
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Sr. Location Floral observations Faunal observations Any other


No. Name observation
26. Yelluru Acacia auriculiformis (Earleaf acacia),
Gliricidia sepium (Quickstick), Caryota
urens (Fishtail palm), Tamirandus indica
(Imli), Casurinia equistifolia (Jungle
Saru), Anacardium occidentale
(Cashew), Alinathus excelsa
(Mahaneem), Ixora coccinea , Gmelina
arborea (Gamhar), Syzygium cumini
(Jamun), Hopea parviflora (Karimara),
Manilkara zapota (Chiku), Shorea
species, Terminalia cattapa (Desi
Badam), Musa paradisiaca (Banana)
27. Bada Tecoma stans, Alamanda, Araucaria Near Adani
columnaris (Christmas tree), Cocos Pump House
nucifera (Coconut), Artocarpus
heterophyllus (Jackfruit), Manilkara
zapota (Chiku), Acacia auriculiformis
(Earleaf acacia), Bougivlilleas,
Tamarindus indica (Imli), Bombusa
vulgaris (Common Bamboo), Alsotonia
scoloris, (Saptparni) Ziziphus species
(Wild Ber), Spondias pinnata, Polyalthia
longifolia (False Ashoka), Carica
papaya (Papaya), Moringa olerifera
(Drumstick) , Shorea robusta.
28. Padu Acacia auriculiformis ( Earleaf acacia), Haliastur indus, Near Sea
Gliricidia sepium (Quickstick), Borassus (Brahminy kite ) shore
flabellifer (Tari Palm), Cocos nucifera
(Coconut), Casuriniea equistifolia
(Jungle saru), spider lilly, Morinda
citrifolia (Noni)
29. Nadsal Acacaia sp., Casurina equistifolia
(jungle Saru), Spondias mangifera,
Adathoda vasica, Musa paradisiaca
(Banana), Gliricidia sepium (Quickstick),
Shorea sp., Hopea parviflora
(Karimara), Ficus exasperata (Forest
sandpaper fig)
30. Nandikur Ficus benghalensis (Indian Banyan), Merops philippinus
Anacardium occidentale (Cashew), (Blue tailed bee eater)
Gliricidia sepium (Quickstick), Cocos
nucifera (Coconut), Swietenia Mahagoni
(Mahogony), Borassus flabellifer (Tari
Palm), Areca catechu (Areca nut),
Polyalthia longifolia (False Ashoka),
Carica papaya (Papaya), Tectona
grandis (Teak), Mangifera indica
(Mango), Caryota urens (Fishtail palm)
31. Santharu Acacia auriculiformis (Earleaf acacia),
Anacardium occidentale (Cashew),
Hopea parviflora Beddome (Karimara),
Shorea species, Gmelina arborea
(Gamhar), Gliricidia sepium
(Quickstick), Cocos nucifera (Coconut),
Syzygium cumini (Jamun)

3.5.24
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 3.5.3 : Tree frequency, density and basal area as observed in Pilarkhan
forest range, Udupi Karnataka
Sr. Frequency Density Basal Area
No. Botanical Name (nos./ha) (nos./ha) (nos./ha)
1. Acacia auriculiformis 3.00 4.75 420.41
2. Acacia melanoxylon 1.75 3.25 461.73
3. Albizia julibrissin - 'Rosea' 1.75 1.75 220.93
4. Alianthus excelsa 1.25 1.25 146.78
5. Alstonia scholoris 1.50 1.50 67.03
6. Anacardium occidentale 2.25 3.25 363.53
7. Areca catechu 0.50 0.50 35.22
8. Artocarpus heterophyllus 1.25 1.25 358.47
9. Bombax ceiba 2.00 2.00 138.37
10. Borassus flabellifer 1.25 1.25 68.56
11. Calycopteris floribunda 1.00 1.00 25.21
12. Caryota urens 1.25 1.25 84.02
13. Cocos nucifera 1.75 2.75 443.05
14. Ficus benghalensis 1.25 1.25 310.11
15. Gliricidia sepium 2.25 2.50 184.21
16. Gmelina arborea 2.00 2.50 601.25
17. Hopea parviflora 2.50 3.25 474.58
18. mangifera indica 1.50 1.50 284.55
19. Melia dubia 1.25 1.25 77.70
20. Musa paradisa 1.00 1.00 39.26
21. Sapium insigne 0.50 0.50 32.11
22. Shorea robusta 2.25 2.50 926.16
23. Shorea species 2.25 4.75 2223.66
24. Spondias pinnata 0.75 1.50 148.73
25. Swietenia Mahagoni 1.50 1.50 150.43
26. Syzygium cumini 1.50 1.50 147.52
27. Tamrindus indicum 1.25 1.25 269.89
28. Tectona grandis 1.00 1.00 88.64
29. Terminalia cattapa 1.25 1.25 126.49
30. Terminalia mantly 1.00 1.00 35.35
31. Vateria indica 2.75 3.00 266.37
TOTAL 48.25 58.75 4816.85

3.5.25
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 3.5.4 : Plant species observed in the study area


Sr. Botanical name Common name Family
No.
1. Acacia auriculiformis Earleaf Acacia Fabaceae
2. Acacia melanoxylon Australian Blackwood Fabaceae
3. Ageratum conyzoides Goatweed Asteraceae
4. Ailanthus excelsa Mahaneem Simaroubaceae
5. Albizia julibrissin - 'Rosea' Pink Silk Tree Mimosaceae
6. Allamanda cathartica L. . Allamanda, Golden-Trumpet Apocynaceae
7. Alstonia scholaris Devil Tree Apocynaceae
8. Anacardium occidentale Cashew Anacardiaceae
9. Annona reticulata Ramphal Annonaceae
10. Annona squamosa Custard Apple/Sitaphal Annonaceae
11. Anthocephalus cadamba Kadam Rubiaceae
12. Antigonon leptopus Coral Vine Polygonaceae
13. Araucaria columnaris Christmas Tree Araucariaceae
14. Areca catechu Areca Nut / Bettle Nut Arecaceae
15. Artocarpus heterophyllus Jackfruit Tree Moraceae
16. Artocarpus hirsutus Jungle Jack, Peja Moraceae
17. Azardirachta indica Neem Meliaceae
18. Bambusa vulgaris Common Bamboo Poaceae
19. Bauhinia racemosa Kachnar Fabaceae
20. Borassus flabellifer Tari Palm Arecaceae
21. Bougainvillea glabra Buganvilla Nyctaginaceae
22. Butea monosperma Palash Fabaceae
23. Caesalpinia pulcherrima Peacock Flower Fabaceae
24. Calliandra haematocephala Powder Puff Tree Fabaceae
25. Calotropis procera Kapok Apocynaceae
26. Calycopteris floribunda Ukshi Combretaceae
27. Careya arborea Wild Guava Lecythidaceae
28. Carica papaya Papaya Caricaceae
29. Caryota urens Fishtail Palm Arecaceae
30. cassia alata Candle Bush Fabaceae
31. Cassia Siamea Kassod Tree Fabaceae
32. casuarina equisetifolia Saru Casuarinaceae
33. Ceiba pentandra Kapok Tree Malvaceae
34. Chromolaena odorata Bitterbush Asteraceae
35. Clitoria ternatea Butterfly Pea Fabaceae
36. Cocos nucifera Coconut Arecaceae
37. Combretum indicum Rangoon Creeper Combretaceae
38. Dalbergia sissoo Sheesham Fabaceae
39. Datura stramonium Datura/Thornapple Solanaceae
40. Delonix regia Gulmohar Fabaceae
41. Euphorbia hirta Asthma Weed Euphorbiaceae
42. Ficus benghalensis Indian Banyan Moraceae
43. Ficus exasperata Forest sandpaper fig Moraceae
44. Ficus religiosa Pipal Moraceae
45. Gliricidia sepium Quickstick Fabaceae
46. Gmelina arborea Shivani/ Gamhar Lamiaceae
47. Grevillea robusta Silver Oak Proteaceae
48. Hevea brasiliensis Rubber Tree Euphorbiaceae
49. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Rose Mallow Malvaceae
50. Holigarna beddomei Kattucheru Anacardiaceae
51. Hopea parviflora Beddome Karimara Dipterocarpaceae

3.5.26
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Sr. Botanical name Common name Family


No.
52. Hopea ponga Karimara Dipterocarpaceae
53. Hymenocallis speciosa Spider Lilly Amaryllidaceae
54. Ipomea purpurea Morning Glory Convolvulaceae
55. Ixora coccinea Jungle Flame Rubiaceae
56. Ixora duffi. Pink Ixora Rubiaceae
57. Justicia adhatoda Adhatoda Acanthaceae
58. Lagerstroemia speciosa Jarul Lythraceae
59. Lantana camara Wild-Sage Verbenaceae
60. Leucaena leucocephala Subabool Fabaceae
61. Mangifera indica Mango Anacardiaceae
62. Manilkara zapota Chiku Sapotaceae
63. Melia dubia Malabar Neemwood Meliaceae
64. Mimosa pudica Shy Plant Fabaceae
65. Morinda citrifolia Noni Rubiaceae
66. Moringa olerifera, Drumstick Moringaceae
67. Muntingia calabura Singapore Cheery Muntingiaceae
68. Musa paradisiaca Banana / Kela Musaceae
69. Mussaenda frondosa Dhobi Tree Rubiaceae
70. Nerium indicum Oleander Apocynaceae
71. Passiflora incarnata Purple Passion Flower Passifloraceae
72. Peltophorum pterocarpum Copper Pod Fabaceae
73. Phyllanthus emblica Awla Phyllanthaceae
74. Piper nigrum Black Pepper Piperaceae
75. Pisidium Guava Common Guava Myrtaceae
76. Plumeria alba Fragipani Apocynaceae
77. Plumeria rubra Red Frangipani Apocynaceae
78. Polyalthia longifolia False Ashok Annonaceae)
79. Populus tremula Poplar Salicaceae
80. Ravenala madagascariensis Travelers Tree Strelitziaceae
81. Sapium insigne Khirni Euphorbiaceae
82. Shorea robusta Sal/Bhogimara Dipterocarpaceae
83. Spathodea campanulata African Tulip Tree Bignoniaceae
84. Spondias mangifera willd Ambari Anacardiaceae
85. Swietenia Mahagoni Mahogony Meliaceae.
86. Syzygium cumini Jamun Myrtaceae.
87. Tabernaemontana divaricata Pinwheelflower Apocynaceae
88. Tamirandus indica Imli Fabaceae
89. Tecoma stans Yellow Trumpetbush Bignoniaceae
90. Tectona grandis Teak Lamiaceae
91. Terminalia cattapa Badam Combretaceae
92. Terminalia mantaly Umbrella Tree, Madagascar Combretaceae
Almond
93. Vateria indica Dhoopa Dipterocarpaceae
94. vernonia cinerea Sadodi Asteraceae
95. Zizyphus sps. Wild Ber Rhamnaceae

Source: Observed by NEERI tem and data collected from Forest Management Plan, Kundapur Forest
Division, 2001

3.5.27
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 3.5.5 : List of Flora and Fauna

3.5.28
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

3.5.29
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

3.5.30
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

3.5.31
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

3.5.32
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

3.5.33
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

3.5.34
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 3.5.6 : Checklist of birds diversity in Dakshina Kannada and Udupi districts
Sr. Common name Scientific name
No.
1. Asian Openbill-Stork Anastomus oscitans
2. Black Drongo Dicrurus adsimilis
3. Black Kite Milvus migrans
4. Black-Crowned Night-Heron Nycticorax nycticorax
5. Blackheaded Babbler Rhopocichla atriceps
6. Blackheaded Oriole Oriolus xanthornus
7. Black-Shouldered Kite Elanus caeruleus
8. Black-Winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus
9. Blossom Headed Parakeet Psittacula cyanocephala
10. Blue Rock Pigeon Columba livia
11. Brahminy Kite Haliastur Indus
12. Brahminy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea
13. Bronzed Drongo Dicrurus aeneus
14. Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis
15. Chestnut-Headed Bee-Eater Merops leschenaulti
16. Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus
17. Common Myna Acridotheres leschenaulti
18. Common Pochard Aythya farina
19. Common Sandpiper Tringa hypoleucos
20. Common Swallow Hirundo rustica
21. Common Treepie Dendrocitta vagabunda
22. Coppersmith Megalaima haemacephala
23. Crested Lark Galerida cristata
24. Crested Serpent Eagle Spilornis cheela
25. Crow Pheasant Centropus sinensis
26. Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia
27. Golden Oriole Oriolus oriolus
28. Goldenbacked Woodpecker Dinopium benghalense
29. Goldmantled Chloropsis Chloropsis cochinsinensis
30. Great Horned Owl Bubo bubo
31. Greater Cormorant Phalocrocorax carbo
32. Green Pigeon Treron phoenicoptera
33. Grey Heron Ardea cinerea
34. Grey Junglefowl Gallus sonneratii
35. Grey Tit Parus major
36. Grey Wagtail Motacilla caspica
37. House Crow Corvus splendens
38. House Sparrow Passer domesticus Corvus splendens
39. Indian Moorhen Gallinula chloropus
40. Indian Robin Saxicoloides fulicata
41. Iora Aegithina tiphia
42. Jungle Babbler Turdoides striatus
43. Jungle Crow Corvus macrorhynchos
44. Koel Eudynamys scolopacea
45. Malabar Whistling Thrush Myiophonus horsfieldii
46. Malabar Whistling Thrush Myiophonus horsfieldii
47. Marsh Sandpiper Tringa stagnatilis
48. Marsh Sandpiper Tringa stagnatilis
49. Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax
50. Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax
51. Openbilled Stork Anastomus oscitans

3.5.35
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Sr. Common name Scientific name


No.
52. Oriental Pratincole Glareola maldivarum
53. Oriental Turtle-Dove Streptopelia orientalis
54. Oriental White Ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus
55. Pacific Golden-Plover Pluvialis fulva
56. Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala
57. Pallid Harrier Circus macrourus
58. Palm Swift Cypsiurus parvus
59. Paradise Flycatcher Terpisphone paradisii
60. Pariah Kite Milvus migrans
61. Peafowl Pavo cristatus
62. Pond Heron Ardeola grayii
63. Purple Rumped Sunbird Nectarinia zeylonica
64. Purple Sunbird Nectarinia asiatica
65. Racket Tailed Drongo Dicrurus paradiseus
66. Red-Wattled Lapwing Vanellus indicus
67. Redwhiskered Bulbul Pycnonotus jocosus
68. River Tern Sterna aurantia
69. Roseringed Parakeet Psittacula krameri
70. Ruby Throated Bulbul Pycnonotus melanicterus
71. Scarlet Minivet Pericrocotus cinnamomeus
72. Shikra Accipiter badius
73. Small Blue Kingfisher Alcedo atthis
74. Small Green Barbet Megalaima viridis
75. Small Green Bee-Eater Merops orientalis
76. Spot-Billed Duck Anas poecilorhyncha
77. Spotted Dove Streptopelia chinensis
78. Spotted Owlet Athene brama
79. Storkbilled Kingfisher Pelargopsis capensis
80. Tailor Bird Ortotomus sutorius
81. Tickell's Flowerpecker Dicaeum erythrorhynchos
82. Western Marsh-Harrier Circus aeruginosus
83. White Throated Ground Thrush Zoothera citrina
84. Whitebreasted Kingfisher Halcyon smyrnensis
85. Whitebreasted Waterhen Amourornis waterhen
86. White-Eye Zosterops palpebrosa
87. White-Necked Stork Ciconia episcopus
88. Yellow-Wattled Lapwing Vanellus malabaricus

Source: Bhat R. Harish (2009) Coastal Bird diversity and their management. Proceeding of the workshop
on coastal biodiversity with reference to coastal management zone.

3.5.36
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 3.5.7 : Ant diversity at hejamadi village, Udupi district, Karnataka


Sr. No. Family Species
1) Formicinae Anoplolepis gracilipes (Smith, 1857)
2) Camponotus compressus (Fabricius, 1787)
3) Camponotus oblongus (Smith, 1858)
4) Camponotus sericeus (Fabricius, 1798)
5) Oecophylla smaragdina (Fabricius, 1775)
6) Paratrechina longicornis (Latreille, 1802)
7) Nylanderia sp.
8) Nylanderia sp.
9) Plagiolepis jerdonii Forel, 1894
10) Myrmicinae Cardiocondyla nuda (Mayr, 1866)
11) Crematogaster subnuda (Mayr, 1879)
12) Crematogaster sp.
13) Crematogaster sp.
14) Meranoplus bicolor (Guérin-Méneville, 1844)
15) Monomorium floricola (Jerdon, 1851)
16) Monomorium orientale (Mayr, 1879)
17) Monomorium pharaonis (Linnaeus, 1857)
18) Monomorium sp.
19) Pheidole sp.
20) Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius, 1804)
21) Solenopsis nitens Bingham,1903
22) Tetramorium obesum André, 1887
23) Tetramorium smithi Mayr, 1879
24) Tetramorium walshi (Forel, 1890)
25) Tetramorium sp.
26) Tetramorium sp.
27) .Anochetus sp.
28) Anochetus sp.
29) .Diacamma sp
30) Dolichoderinae Tapinoma melanocephalum (Fabricius, 1793
31) Pseudomyrmecinae Tetraponera nigra (Jerdon, 1851)

Source: Cunha & Nair (2013). Diversity and Distribution of Ant Fauna in Hejamadi Kodi Sandspit, Udupi
District, Karnataka, India. HALTERES, Volume 4, 33-47, 2013 ISSN 0973-1555

3.5.37
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 3.5.8 : Livestock diversity in Udupi District & there number

Sr. No. Livestock Livestock Diversity in Udupi District Number


Coastal Inland Foothill Total (2007)
1. Cow (Malnad Gidda) 11 12 11 24 318500
2. Cow 10 9 7 13
3. Buffalo 4 4 4 5 26696
4. Goat 3 3 2 5 2730
5. Pig 2 1 2 2 1046
6. Poultry 10 10 11 15 -
7. Dog 11 12 8 16 121346
8. Other 2 2 1 2 -

Source: Goverment of India Ministry of MSME. Brief Industrial Profile of Udupi District
http://www.kbb.kar.nic.in/publications/Part%202.pdf

Table 3.5.9 : Area, production and yield of major crop in irrigated/rainfed


conditions during kharif season (3 year average) of Udupi taluka , Udupi district
Sr. Year Area (ha) Production (qlts) Yield (Q/ha)
No. Paddy Rainfed % Total Rainfed % Total Irrigated Rainfed Average
Crop
1. 2014-15 17073 100 17073 772295 100 772295 0 45.23 45.23
2. 2013-14 17857 100 17857 803029 100 803029 0 44.97 44.97
3. 2012-13 18256 100 18256 729692 100 729692 0 39.97 39.97
4. 2011-12 17729 100 17729 768339 100 768339 0 43.34 43.34

Source: Office of Joint director of Agriculture, Udupi District

Table 3.5.10 : Annual production of horticulture crops in Udupi district, Karnataka


Production
Sr. No. Crops Area (in ha)
(in tonnes)
Vegetables Crops
1. Snake gourd 933 12566
2. Ridge gourd 2910 26253
3. Mattu Brinjal 67 1655
Spice Crops
3. Clove 183 283
4. Nutmeg 219 291
5. Cinnamon 21 6
Plantation Crops
6. Orchids 5 20
7. Cashew 733386 95992
Aromatic plants
8. Vetiver 94 259

Source: Government of Karnataka” Biodiversity at glance” Baliga & Joshi. 2015. Scope for the application
of marketing strategies for vegetables in Udupi district: a farmer’s perspective. Proceedings of
International Conference on Management Finance Economics July 11-12, 2015, ISBN: 788193137307

3.5.38
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

References:

x Baliga & Joshi. (2015). Scope for the application of marketing strategies
for vegetables in udupi district: a farmer’s perspective. Proceedings of
International Conference on Management Finance Economics ISBN:
9788193137307.

x Bhandary & Chandrashekar (2011). Herbal therapy for herpes in the


ethno-medicine of Coastal Karnataka.Indian Journal of Traditional
Knowledge Vol .10(3), pp. 528-532.

x Bhandary & Chandrasekhar (2013). Sacred groves of Dakshina


Kannada and Udupi districts of Karnataka. Current science, vol. 85, no.
12

x Cunha & Nair (2013). Diversity and Distribution of Ant Fauna in


Hejamadi Kodi Sandspit, Udupi District, Karnataka, India. Halteres,
Volume 4, 33-47, ISSN 0973-1555

x Government of Karnataka (2010). Report on “Biodiversity of Karnatka at


a glance”. Karnataka biodiversity board

x Grimmett Richard, Carol Inskipp & Inskipp Tim. (1998). Pocket Guide to
Birds of The Indian Subcontinent, Oxford University Press.

x http://www.arvindguptatoys.com/arvindgupta/western-ghat-gadgil-
12.pdf assessed in March 2016

x http://www.kbb.kar.nic.in/publications/Part%202.pdf assessed in April


2016

x http://www.moef.nic.in/downloads/public-information/Annexure-VI-
ESAs.pdf accessed in April 2016

x http://www.udupipages.com/education/agriculture.php assessed in April


2016

x Kumar K.M Vijaya & Kumara Vijaya (2014).Species diversity of birds in


mangroves of Kundapura, Udupi District, Karnataka, Southwest Coast
of India. Journal of Forestry Research 25(3): 661−666 DOI
10.1007/s11676-014-0450-5

x Misra, R. (1968). Ecology Workbook. Oxford & IBH Publishing


Company, Ecology - 242 pages

x MOEF & CC (2015) Western Ghats Draft Ecosenstive Area Notification


04-09- 2015

3.5.39
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by
2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

x Muller Dombois D. and Ellenberg H., (1974). Aims and method of


vegetation Ecology, New York: John Wiley and sons.

x Shetty Deepika (2012).Report on Comprehensive plan of CRZ in Udupi


District-Part I.

x Shiva prasad et al. (2002).Studies on the structure of Pilarkhan Reserve


forest, India. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 14.1 pp71–81

x Vasanth, V.K.R., Shivprasad, P.V. and Chandrashekar, K.R. (2001).


Dipterocarps in a sacred grove at Nadikoor, Udupi Districts of
Karnataka, India. Pages 599-603

x Working plan Kundapur (Kundapur) Forest Division, 2001.

3.5.40
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

3.6 Socio-economic Environment


3.6.1 Baseline Status
The study of socio-economic component incorporates various facets related
to prevailing social and cultural conditions, and economic status of the study region.
The socio-economic study includes analysis of demographic structure, population
dynamics, infrastructure resources, status of human health and economic attributes
like employment, per-capita income, agriculture, trade, industrial development etc. in
the study region.
The aesthetic component of environmental study refers to the scenic value if
any in the study area, tourist attraction and wildlife, historic and cultural monuments.
The study of these parameters helps in identification, prediction and evaluation of likely
impacts on socio-economic and parameters of human interest due to proposed project.
To assess impact on socio-economic environment latest available data has
been compiled to delineate the baseline socio- economic profile in study area. The
database thus generated in this study includes:

x Administrative setup
x Demographic structure
x Infrastructure base in project area
x Economic attributes
x Health status
x Cultural attributes
x Awareness and opinion of people about the proposed project
x Socio economic status with reference to Quality of Life (QoL)

Details regarding the existing scenario have been analysed with relevant
socio-economic data from secondary sources such as latest Census record (2011),
District Census Handbook 2011 and Town Directory 2011.
There are total 32 villages falling in the study area which include three
towns. Socio-economic survey was conducted in 16 villages.
3.6.2 Administrative Setup
The 10 km radius study area constitutes Udupi and Dakshin Kannada
districts. This includes twenty villages (including 3 towns) of Udupi Tehsil, six villages
of Karkala tehsil under Udupi district and six villages in Mangalore tehsil under
Dakshin Kannada district fall in the study area. The information/data has been
analysed for all the 32 villages.

3.6.1
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

3.6.3 Demographic Structure


Details regarding the demographic structure of the region were collected
from Primary Census Abstract of Udupi & Dakshin Kannda District for the year 2011.
Demographic details such as number of persons per household, total area,
population density, sex ratio, SC and ST population, literacy rate and employment
pattern are given in Table 3.6.1.The salient observations are as follows:
Population Structure
x As per 2011 Census, total population of the study area was 1,25,159,
out of which male population was 58,577 and female population was
66,582
x Total number of households were 28,353 with average occupancy of
4.41 persons per household
x Total geographical area of 29 villages and 3 towns was 249.10 sq. km
and overall population density was 502 persons/sq. km
x Total child (below 6 years of age) population was 11,487 (9.18%)
x Total SC population was 8338 (6.66%) and ST population was 2363
(1.89%)
x Sex ratio (number of females per 1000 males) of total population was
1137. Among SC, ST and child population, sex ratio was 1040, 987 and
973 respectively
x Tehsil and village wise demographic details are given in Table 3.6.2.
Literacy Details
x According to census 2011, in the study area, overall literate population
was 103,338 (82.57%) and illiterate population was 21,821 (17.43%)
x Out of total literates, male literates were 50,007 (48.39%) and female
literates were 53,331 (51.61%)
x Tehsil and village wise literacy details are given in Table 3.6.3.
Employment Pattern
Economic resource base of any region mainly depends upon its
economically active group i.e. the working population involved in productive work.
Work may be defined as participation in any economically productive activity. Such
participation may be physical or mental in nature. Work not only involves actual work
but also effective supervision and direction of work. It also includes unpaid work on
farm or in family enterprise.
There are different types of workers that may be classified as - those
persons who had worked for at least six months or 183 days are treated to be Main
Workers, on the other hand if person categorized as worker has participated in any
economic or productive activity for less than six months or 183 days during the last

3.6.2
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

one year is treated as Marginal Worker. Non–workers are those who have not worked
any time at all in the year preceding the enumeration.
The workers coming under the main and marginal workers category are
those involved in activities such as cultivation, agriculture, livestock, forestry, fishing,
hunting, plantations, orchards and allied activities, mining and quarrying,
manufacturing, processing, servicing and repairs in household industry, construction,
trade and commerce, transport, storage and communication and other services.
x According to 2011 Census, total worker population in the study area
was 54,180(43.29%).Out of total workers, male workers were
33,902(62.57%) and female workers were 20,278(37.43%)
x Main workers were 48,599(38.83%) and marginal workers were
5,581(4.46%).Total non-working population was 70,979(56.71%).
x Tehsil and village wise details of employment pattern are given in Table
3.6.4.
Main Workers Employment Pattern
Main workers are classified in four categories as cultivators, agricultural
workers, household industry workers and other workers. As per 2011 Census, Out of
total 48,599 main workers in the study area, there were total 5,478 cultivators
(11.27%), 2,429 agricultural workers (5.00%), 2,096 household industry workers
(4.31%) and other workers 38,596 (79.42%). Tehsil and village wise details of main
workers employment pattern, is given in Table 3.6.5.
Population Growth Pattern
As per 2001 Census, total population of the study area was 117,480, which
increase to 121,728 by 2011. The decadal population increased. Overall 5,818
persons were added in 13 villages whereas 2348 persons decreased in 14 villages.
One village (village of Kollur) Census data of 2001 is not available Village wise
population details in 2001 and 2011 alongwith variation in population are given in
Table 3.6.6.
Town details
Bada, Nadsal and Mallar are the three towns in the study area, which come
under Udupi tehsil. As per 2011 Census, the total population of these three towns was
27493, spread over an area of 21.89 sq.km. The population density was 1258 persons
per sq.km. The details are given in the Table 3.6.7.
Cultural and Aesthetic Environment
There are no historical, culturally and aesthetically important or tourist
places in the study area. The nearest places are at Udupi which is 25 km from the
proposed site. However, there are few temples and beaches of main attraction for local
people of the villages. One famous temple (Mahalingeshwara Mahaganpathi temple) is
at village Padubidri. It is believed that Bhrigu Maharshi installed the idol of

3.6.3
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Mahalingeshwara the idol of Lord Ganapathi is about 2.5 ft. tall and has been carved
out of RudrakshiShila.
3.6.4 Infrastructure Resource Base
Village-wise status of infrastructural facilities available in the study area with
respect to education, medical facility, water supply, communication and transportation
facility and power supply, banking facilities etc. are presented in Table 3.6.8. Analysis
of data of 29 villages indicates that infrastructural facilities/basis amenities are
available in most of the villages, as given in Table 3.6.9.
3.6.5 Socio-economic Survey
The study was carried out with a participatory approach by involving the
stakeholders, particularly the project beneficiaries and probable affected persons
through a series of consultative process. The population groups that were consulted
include beneficiary group of people in the project influence area, particularly the
shopkeepers, farmers, school teachers, gram panchayat sarpanch/members and
village leaders etc. This has helped to know the exact situation and views of the
people about the project.
Out of total 32 villages coming in the study area, socio-economic survey
was conducted in 16 villages, covering all the directions.
Proportionate and purposive sampling methods were used for selecting
respondents (male and female) for household survey. For official information of village,
Sarpanch/Gram Panchayat member/Govt. school teachers were chosen. Structured
questionnaire was used for survey. For group discussion, Panchayat Bhavan,
Aanganwadi Bhavan, Community Halls were used by the survey team. Photographs
showing interaction/discussion with the various groups are shown in Plates 3.6.1 to
3.6.3. List of surveyed villages is given in Table 3.6.10 and shown in Fig. 3.6.1.
Salient Observation of the Survey/ Study Area

x House pattern: It is notable that nearly 90% of the houses were pakka
with good construction
x Employment: Main occupation of the people in the study area was
agriculture and labour work. The labours were getting daily wage in the
range of Rs. 100-250, depending on type of work involved
x Fuel: The primary source of cooking fuel is LPG. Most of the villagers
use coal powder and LPG for cooking purpose
x Main Crops: The principal crops grown in agricultural farm were paddy,
betelnut, arecanut and coconut. Average crop productivity of paddy was
8-10quintal per acre. Water from dug well and bore well was used for
irrigation
x Language: Official language is Kannada whereas mother tongue of the
people is Tulu. Most of the people understand Hindi and English also

3.6.4
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

x Migration: During survey it was found that local population were


migrating for employment purpose in Gulf Countries.
x Sanitation: Toilet facility is one of the most basic facilities required in a
house. The findings of the survey show that more than 90% of the
households were having toilet facilities in their houses. There was no
proper drainage line in the villages, but soak-pit facilities were observed
in most of the villages surveyed. The overall condition of cleanliness
was satisfactory.
x Drinking Water Facilities: Ground water is the major source of
drinking water in the villages wherein hand pumps, tap water and dug
wells are installed.
x Education Facilities: Most of the villages had education facilities in the
form of Anganwadi and Primary Schools. Higher education facilities
were available in the range of 5-10 km. Colleges and other diploma
courses were available at Udupi district. Manipal University is about 30-
35 km from the proposed site.
x Transportation Facility: For transportation purpose auto, private bus
services were available. Transportation facilities were frequently
available in the study area and connecting Udupi & Manglore city.
Private vehicles like bicycles & motor cycles were mostly used by
villagers for transportation purpose
x Road Connectivity: Most of the roads were pucca and connecting to
villages. Dambar roads were commonly seen inside the villages
x Communication Facilities: For communication purpose mainly mobile
phones, newspaper & post offices were seen in the villages.
x Medical Facilities: There were few healthcare facilities available in the
study area. In some of the villages, primary health sub centers were
available. Hospitals and other better medical facilities were available in
the range of 10-20 km at town/city place
x Electricity: All villages were availing electricity facility for all uses
x Market Facility: Study area was predominantly semi urban type. In
villages, small shops were available for daily needs. Weekly market
facility was available in some villages. Wholesale markets were
available at town place. Udupi was major hub for all type of facilities for
the study area population.
x Recreation Facilities: Temples, Samaj Bhawan, Television and Radio
were the main recreation facilities in the study area. Newspaper/
Magazine facilities were also used by villagers

3.6.5
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Awareness and Opinion of People about the Project


An attempt was made to know the awareness and opinion of the people
about Adani power plant.
x Most of the respondents were aware about the Adani power plant
x The respondents were happy to know about the proposed plans and
they opined positively because any industrial development activity
would definitely contribute to development towards improvement in the
local as well as regional economy
x Respondents also wanted better health services and better
transportation facilities
x Respondents added that due to non-availability of technical education
most of the local educated youth are not offered jobs in company.
Hence, some people expressed opinion about setting up of professional
educational and training facilities in the region.

Interaction with different village Sarpanch/Society Heads/ villagers was done


to understand the socio-economic issues of the region and their needs. Details of the
interactions and major issues identified are given in Table 3.6.11.
3.6.6 Quality of Life Assessment
Quality of life (QoL) is a term, which indicates overall status of socio-
economic environment in a given area. Quality of life (QoL) is defined as a function
between “objective conditions” and “subjective attitudes” involving a defined “area” of
concern.
The “objective conditions” are defined as numerically measurable artefacts
of a physical, sociological event or economic event. Objective conditions may be
defined as any number, which stands for a given quantity of a variable of interest so
long as it is independent of subjective opinion.
Subjective attitude” is primarily concerned with affective and cognitive
dimensions. It is specifically concerned with ‘how aspects of cognition vary as
objective conditions vary’.
Once objective measures are obtained for each factor they are transformed
to a normal scale varying from 0 to 1 (value function curve) in which 0 corresponds to
the lowest or least satisfactory measure, and 1 corresponds to the highest. The
weights are assigned to each factor by ranked-pair wise technique (by the expert
group) based on the secondary data and general observations.
For each objective measure, a corresponding subjective measure is
developed for each individual of the sample population by asking him to rate his
satisfaction scale (value function curve). It is used such that 0 corresponds to the
lowest level of attitudinal satisfaction and 1 corresponds to the highest level of

3.6.6
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

satisfaction. Weights are assigned to each factor using ranked - pair wise comparison
techniques.
The socio-economic indicators for QoL assessment are:
1 Income 9 Energy
2 Employment and 10 Transportation
Working Condition 11 Communication
3 Housing 12 Education
4 Food 13 Environment and Pollution
5 Clothing 14 Recreation
6 Water Supply 15 Social Security
7 Sanitation 16 Human Rights
8 Health

Subjective, objective and cumulative quality of life is estimated as :

Subjective Quality of Life Index

m p
QoLs = 1/p ¦¦
i 1 j 1
QIij x Wi

Where,

QoLs = Subjective quality of life index


p = No. of respondents, j = 1, ......, p
m = No. of factors, i = 1, ......, m
QIij = Subjective quality index for ith factor assigned by jth
respondent
¦Qiij = Subjective quality index for ith factor assigned by all
respondents in an area
Wi = Relative weightage of the ith factor

Objective Quality of Life Index

m
¦
QoLo = i 1 QIij x Wi

Where,

QoLo = Objective quality of life index


n = No. of QoL Factors
I = 1, ......, n
QIi = Satisfaction level (assigned by the expert group)
for the ith objective indicator
Wi = Normalized weight for ith factor

3.6.7
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Cumulative Quality of Life Index

QoLo  QoLs
ܳ‫ ܿܮ݋‬ൌ ଶ

The average QoL index values are estimated as:


QoL (S) = 0.66

QoL (O) = 0.68

QoL (C) = 0.67

Village wise subjective, objective and cumulative quality of life index is given
in Table 3.6.12. The average QoL index value for the study area is leaning towards
satisfactory level due to good economic status like income, employment, educational
facilities, medical facility and also availability of basic needs, viz. food, clothing, and
housing. The area was lacking in employment opportunities, social security and
sanitation facilities.

3.6.8
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

13
8 11 12

10

6 1
7 2

5
9 16
4
3 15

14

1. Santhoor 2. Padabettu 3. Nandicoor 4. Shirwa


5. Yellur 6. Tenka-Yermal 7. 108 Kalthoor 8. Hejamadi
9. Palimar 10. Bada 11. Kuthyar 12. Inna
13. Nadsal 14. Belpu 15. Pillar 16. Belman

5 km
10 km

Fig. 3.6.1 :Study Area Map Showing Location of Villages Surveyed

3.6.9
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 3.6.1 : Summary of Demographic structure of the study area

Dakshin
District Udupi Overall
Demographic Parameters Kannada
Total
Udupi Karkala Mangalore
20 06 32
Total No. of Villages 06
(Including 3 City)
15945 2374 24910
Total area in Hectors 6591
(Including 3 city)
1876 28353
Total No. of Households 21311 5166
8029 125159
Total Population 95589 21541
338 502
Density (persons per sq.km.) 599 327
Sex ratio (No. Females per 1199 1137
1119 1193
1000 Males)
8.48 6.66
Scheduled Castes (%) 6.25 7.79
3.85 1.89
Scheduled Tribe (%) 1.52 2.79
82.45 82.57
Literate (%) 83.06 80.41
41.49 38.83
Main workers (%) 37.77 42.56
7.83 4.46
Marginal workers (%) 4.11 4.73
50.68 56.71
Non workers (%) 58.12 52.71
Source: Primary Census Abstract 2011, Udupi & Dakshin Kannada district, Karnataka.

3.6.10
Table 3.6.2 : Tehsil / Village wise details of population
Sr. Name Town/Vi Total Total Population 0-06 Child Population SC Population ST Population
No llage House- Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female
hold
District & Tehsil Udupi
1 Yellur 608838 1265 5453 2543 2910 449 238 211 364 170 194 55 28 27
2 Santhoor 608844 609 2461 1118 1343 200 83 117 74 39 35 43 19 24
3 Nandicoor 608843 708 2987 1404 1583 269 141 128 332 160 172 59 30 29
4 Padebettu 608840 419 1865 849 1016 146 65 81 167 83 84 39 24 15
5 Tenka 608839 947 4226 1983 2243 342 174 168 410 198 212 19 9 10
6 Bada (CT) 608857 1757 8117 3789 4328 874 444 430 154 83 71 78 42 36
7 Belpu 608834 871 4127 1963 2164 457 229 228 311 157 154 26 14 12
8 108 Kalthur 608835 661 2851 1316 1535 243 123 120 116 58 58 97 40 57
9 Kuthyar 608836 621 2742 1220 1522 219 113 106 147 51 96 78 44 34
10 Palimar 608842 748 3319 1586 1733 282 142 140 218 118 100 29 15 14
11 Nadsal (CT) 608858 2447 11611 5735 5876 1129 597 532 907 463 444 106 55 51

3.6.11
12 Pilar 608837 880 3221 1412 1809 256 119 137 230 114 116 151 74 77
13 Hejamadi 608841 1739 8075 3806 4269 842 447 395 301 153 148 13 4 9
14 Padu 608832 1167 5137 2447 2690 421 231 190 246 109 137 59 37 22
15 Mallar (CT) 608856 1524 7765 3691 4074 901 463 438 749 374 375 95 46 49
16 Padoor 608827 407 1983 1033 950 141 68 73 31 16 15 41 23 18
17 Shirva 608825 3183 13396 6328 7068 1084 546 538 915 462 453 424 213 211
18 92 Heroor 608826 300 1286 578 708 122 64 58 26 16 10 17 9 8
19 Muloor 608833 667 3087 1415 1672 352 180 172 159 69 90 7 2 5
20 Majoor 608828 391 1880 888 992 203 98 105 121 63 58 18 9 9
Sub Total 21311 95589 45104 50485 8932 4565 4367 5978 2956 3022 1454 737 717
District Udupi, Teh- Karkala
21 Belman 608899 1220 5045 2341 2704 448 242 206 383 184 199 147 77 70
Sr. Name Town/Vi Total Total Population 0-06 Child Population SC Population ST Population
No llage House- Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female
hold
22 Inna 608900 865 3523 1561 1962 312 155 157 77 34 43 116 61 55
23 Sooda 608898 537 2147 983 1164 166 83 83 166 87 79 130 58 72
24 Mundkuru 608902 1340 5747 2581 3166 499 227 272 398 172 226 112 61 51
25 Mulladka 608901 310 1353 627 726 114 60 54 107 53 54 87 41 46
26 Nandalike 608897 894 3726 1728 1998 363 188 175 548 284 264 8 5 3
Sub Total 5166 21541 9821 11720 1902 955 947 1679 814 865 600 303 297
Dakshin Kannada, Tehsil Mangalore
27 Kollur 617429 184 778 369 409 68 28 40 63 30 33 59 29 30
28 Kavathar 617430 357 1529 724 805 144 68 76 258 124 134 136 59 77
29 AthikariBettu 617425 541 2219 1031 1188 152 80 72 134 77 57 20 13 7
30 Karnire 617426 204 920 420 500 73 35 38 15 8 7 21 12 9
31 Ulipady 617428 238 1032 452 580 90 38 52 92 44 48 34 17 17
32 Balkunje 617427 352 1551 656 895 126 52 74 119 34 85 39 19 20

3.6.12
Sub Total 1876 8029 3652 4377 653 301 352 681 317 364 309 149 160
Grand Total 28353 125159 58577 66582 11487 5821 5666 8338 4087 4251 2363 1189 1174

x Source: Primary Census Abstract 2011, District Udupi and Dakshin Kannada, Karnataka
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 3.6.3: Tehsil / Village wise details of literacy


Sr. Town/Village Code Literate Illiterate
No. No. Total Male Female Total Male Female
District & Tehsil Udupi
1 Yellur 608838 4466 2180 2286 987 363 624
2 Santhoor 608844 2012 963 1049 449 155 294
3 Nandicoor 608843 2319 1147 1172 668 257 411
4 Padebettu 608840 1606 757 849 259 92 167
5 Tenka 608839 3609 1752 1857 617 231 386
6 Bada (CT) 608857 6734 3212 3522 1383 577 806
7 Belpu 608834 3377 1656 1721 750 307 443
8 108 Kalthur 608835 2430 1141 1289 421 175 246
9 Kuthyar 608836 2279 1044 1235 463 176 287
10 Palimar 608842 2817 1389 1428 502 197 305
11 Nadsal (CT) 608858 9892 4987 4905 1719 748 971
12 Pilar 608837 2693 1227 1466 528 185 343
13 Hejamadi 608841 6599 3218 3381 1476 588 888
14 Padu 608832 4221 2079 2142 916 368 548
15 Mallar (CT) 608856 6357 3078 3279 1408 613 795
16 Padoor 608827 1677 916 761 306 117 189
17 Shirva 608825 11086 5419 5667 2310 909 1401
18 92 Heroor 608826 1078 496 582 208 82 126
19 Muloor 608833 2596 1205 1391 491 210 281
20 Majoor 608828 1548 761 787 332 127 205
Sub Total 79396 38627 40769 16193 6477 9716
Tehsil Karkala
21 Belman 608899 4117 1946 2171 928 395 533
22 Inna 608900 2805 1307 1498 718 254 464
23 Sooda 608898 1721 824 897 426 159 267
24 Mundkuru 608902 4664 2217 2447 1083 364 719
25 Mulladka 608901 1081 524 557 272 103 169
26 Nandalike 608897 2934 1395 1539 792 333 459
Sub Total 17322 8213 9109 4219 1608 2611
Dakshin Kannada, Tehsil Mangalore
27 Kollur 617429 649 326 323 129 43 86
28 Kavathar 617430 1187 603 584 342 121 221
29 AthikariBettu 617425 1875 908 967 344 123 221
30 Karnire 617426 772 369 403 148 51 97
31 Ulipady 617428 819 381 438 213 71 142
32 Balkunje 617427 1318 580 738 233 76 157
Sub Total 6620 3167 3453 1409 485 924
Grand Total 103338 50007 53331 21821 8570 13251

Source: Primary Census Abstract 2011, District Udupi and Dakshin Kannada,
Karnataka

3.6.13
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 3.6.4 : Tehsil / Village wise details of employment pattern

Sr. Town/ Code Total Workers Employment Pattern


No. Village No. Total Male Female Main Marginal Non-
Workers Workers Workers
District & Tehsil Udupi
1 Yellur 608838 2430 1551 879 1993 437 3023
2 Santhoor 608844 1118 699 419 920 198 1343
3 Nandicoor 608843 1398 840 558 1185 213 1589
4 Padebettu 608840 848 521 327 792 56 1017
5 Tenka 608839 1786 1163 623 1740 46 2440
6 Bada (CT) 608857 3145 2094 1051 3002 143 4972
7 Belpu 608834 1526 1010 516 1391 135 2601
8 108 Kalthur 608835 1236 751 485 1174 62 1615
9 Kuthyar 608836 1096 689 407 993 103 1646
10 Palimar 608842 1540 1001 539 1385 155 1779
11 Nadsal (CT) 608858 4746 3293 1453 3870 876 6865
12 Pilar 608837 1208 780 428 1158 50 2013
13 Hejamadi 608841 3390 2209 1181 3254 136 4685
14 Padu 608832 2383 1484 899 2200 183 2754
15 Mallar (CT) 608856 3035 2020 1015 2823 212 4730
16 Padoor 608827 1100 746 354 875 225 883
17 Shirva 608825 5719 3545 2174 5264 455 7677
18 92 Heroor 608826 517 328 189 358 159 769
19 Muloor 608833 984 694 290 943 41 2103
20 Majoor 608828 828 513 315 780 48 1052
Sub Total 40033 25931 14102 36100 3933 55556
Tehsil Karkala
21 Belman 608899 2266 1363 903 2043 223 2779
22 Inna 608900 1664 879 785 1346 318 1859
23 Sooda 608898 974 590 384 850 124 1173
24 Mundkuru 608902 2946 1555 1391 2726 220 2801
25 Mulladka 608901 659 387 272 612 47 694
26 Nandalike 608897 1678 1011 667 1591 87 2048
Sub Total 10187 5785 4402 9168 1019 11354
Dakshin Kannada, Tehsil Mangalore
27 Kollur 617429 415 233 182 349 66 363
28 Kavathar 617430 872 455 417 751 121 657
29 AthikariBettu 617425 1101 617 484 856 245 1118
30 Karnire 617426 418 242 176 401 17 502
31 Ulipady 617428 560 272 288 495 65 472
32 Balkunje 617427 594 367 227 479 115 957
Sub Total 3960 2186 1774 3331 629 4069
Grand Total 54180 33902 20278 48599 5581 70979

3.6.14
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 3.6.5 :Tehsil / Village wise details of main workers employment pattern
Sr. No. Town/Village Code No. Cultivators Agriculture Household Others
District & Tehsil Udupi
1 Yellur 608838 200 41 31 1721
2 Santhoor 608844 230 55 15 620
3 Nandicoor 608843 95 46 51 993
4 Padebettu 608840 62 11 35 684
5 Tenka 608839 93 75 23 1549
6 Bada (CT) 608857 79 11 17 2895
7 Belpu 608834 105 8 38 1240
8 108 Kalthur 608835 127 126 113 808
9 Kuthyar 608836 118 68 59 748
10 Palimar 608842 129 33 85 1138
11 Nadsal (CT) 608858 68 27 74 3701
12 Pilar 608837 264 83 9 802
13 Hejamadi 608841 156 103 106 2889
14 Padu 608832 130 43 80 1947
15 Mallar (CT) 608856 90 73 219 2441
16 Padoor 608827 158 56 45 616
17 Shirva 608825 1221 470 204 3369
18 92 Heroor 608826 62 18 9 269
19 Muloor 608833 47 18 9 869
20 Majoor 608828 86 46 2 646
Sub Total 3520 1411 1224 29945
District Udupi,Tehsil Karkala
21 Belman 608899 308 202 109 1424
22 Inna 608900 199 107 37 1003
23 Sooda 608898 243 61 2 544
24 Mundkuru 608902 436 227 64 1999
25 Mulladka 608901 94 30 37 451
26 Nandalike 608897 182 74 45 1290
Sub Total 1462 701 294 6711
Dakshin Kannada, Teh- Mangalore
27 Kollur 617429 77 17 104 151
28 Kavathar 617430 74 99 173 405
29 AthikariBettu 617425 94 21 12 729
30 Karnire 617426 50 65 91 195
31 Ulipady 617428 120 65 127 183
32 Balkunje 617427 81 50 71 277
Sub Total 496 317 578 1940
Grand Total 5478 2429 2096 38596

Source: Primary Census Abstract 2011, District Udupi & Dakshin Kannada, Karnataka

3.6.15
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 3.6.6 : Tehsil / Village wise details of population growth rate


Sr.No. Village/Town Total Total Increase Decrease
Population Population
in 2001 in 2011
1 Yellur 5844 5453 - -391
2 Santhoor 2906 2461 - -445
3 Nandicoor 2932 2987 55 -
4 Padebettu 1971 1865 - -106
5 Tenka 4453 4226 - -227
6 Bada 7300 8117 817 -
7 Belpu 3684 4127 443 -
8 108 Kalthur 3058 2851 - -207
9 Kuthyar 2656 2742 86
10 Palimar 3411 3319 - -92
11 Nadsal 10987 11611 624 -
12 Pilar 3391 3221 - -170
13 Hejamadi 8192 8075 - -117
14 Padu 4716 5137 421 -
15 Mallar (CT) 6052 7765 1713 -
16 Padoor 1858 1983 125 -
17 Shirva 13281 13396 115 -
18 92 Heroor 1248 1286 38 -
19 Muloor 2854 3087 233 -
20 Belman 4470 5045 575 -
21 Inna 3576 3523 - -53
22 Sooda 2100 2147 47 -
23 Mundkuru 5822 5747 - -75
24 Mulladka 1424 1353 - -71
25 Nandalike 3270 3726 456 -
26 Kollur * data not available 778 - -
27 Kavathar 1459 1529 70 -
28 AthikariBettu 2433 2219 - -214
29 Karnire 978 920 - -58
30 Ulipady 1154 1032 - -122
Total 117480 121728 5818 -2348

Source: Primary Census Abstract 2001 and 2011, District Udupi and Dakshin Kannada,
Karnataka

Table 3.6.7 : Total population and density of 3 towns in Study Area under Udupi
Tehsil
Town Name Total Population Class Area Population Density
(2011 Census) (sq. km.) (2011 Census)
Mallar (CT) 7765 V 4.83 1608
Bada (CT) 8117 V 8.82 920
Nadsal (CT) 11611 IV 8.24 1409
Source: Town Directory 2011, District Udupi, Karnataka

3.6.16
Table 3.6.8 : Tehsil / Village wise details of infrastructure facilities available
Bank/
Sr. Village
Education Medical Water Communication Transportation Road credit SHG Power
No Name
society
BTPR,GKR,
GP(4),GMS(4),GSS, PHSC(2), PO, SPO, P&T,
1 Yellur UW,HP,TW PBS, A, TRC WBMR,AW CB SHG PSAU
PSS, FWC(2) TP, PCO
R,FP
BTPR,GKR,
PPPS,GPS(3),GMS(3 PHSC, D, CW,UW,HP,T SPO, P&T, TP, PBS, A, T, V,
2 Santhoor WBMR,AW CB SHG PSAU
),GSS,GSSS, FWC W PCO TRC
R,FP
BTPR,GKR,
SPO, P&T, TP,
3 Nandicoor GPS(3),GMS(2) PHSC, FWC UW,HP,TW PBS, A, V, TRC WBMR,AW CB SHG PSAU
PCO
R,FP
BTPR,GKR,
PPPS,GPS,PPS, SPO, P&T, TP, PB, PBS, A, T,
4 Padebettu PHSC, FWC UW,HP,TW WBMR,AW NA SHG PSAU
GMS, PCO V, TRC
R,FP
BTPR,GKR,
GPS(2),GMS(2),GSS, PHSC, V, PO, SPO, P&T, PBS, A, T ,V,
5 Tenka UW,HP,TW,S WBMR,AW ACS SHG PSAU
GSSS,GA&SDC FWC TP, PCO TRC

3.6.17
R,FP
PHC, PHSC, BTPR,GKR,
GPS(2),PPS,GMS(2),
6 Belpu M&CWC, UW,HP,TW SPO, TP, PCO PBS, A, TRC WBMR,AW ACS SHG PSAU
PMS,GSS(2)PSS(4)
TB, D,FWC R,FP
BTPR,GKR,
GPS(2), GMS(2),
7 108 Kalthur PHSC, FWC UW,HP,TW SPO, TP, PCO PBS,TRC WBMR,AW NA SHG PSAU
GSS,
R,FP
BTPR,GKR,
8 Kuthyar GPS, GMS, PHSC, FWC UW,HP,TW SPO, TP, PCO PBS, TRC WBMR,AW NA SHG PSAU
R,FP
PHSC, D, V, PO, SPO, P&T, PBS, A, T, V,
9 Palimar GPS(2),GMS(2) UW,HP,TW CB SHG PSAU
FWC TP, PCO TRC
PPPS, GPS(3), PPS, PHC, PHSC, BTPR,GKR,
PO, SPO, P&T, PBS, A, T, V,
10 Pilar GMS(3), PMS, PSS, M&CWC, UW,HP,TW WBMR,AW CB SHG PSAU
TP, PCO TRC
GSSS, TB, V, FWC R,FP
Bank/
Sr. Village
Education Medical Water Communication Transportation Road credit SHG Power
No Name
society
PPPS, GPS (2), PPS,
BTPR,GKR,
GMS(2), PMS, PHSC(2), CW,UW,HP,T PO, SPO, P&T, PBS, A, T, V,
11 Hejamadi WBMR,AW CB SHG PSAU
GSS(2), PSS, GSSS, FWC(2) W TP, PCO TRC,S/R/F
R,NW,FP
PSSS, GO.
PHC,
PPPS, GPS(3), BTPR,GKR,
PHSC(2), PO, P&T, TP, PBS, A, T, V,
12 Padu GMS(4), GSS(2), UW,HP,TW WBMR,AW CB SHG PSAU
M&CWC, PCO TRC
GSSS, GA&SDC R,FP
TB, FWC(2)
BTPR,GKR,
GPS(6), GMS(5),
13 Padoor PHSC,FWC UW,HP,TW SPO, TP, PCO PBS, TRC WBMR,AW NA SHG PSAU
GSS,
R,FP
GPS(9), PPS(3),
GMS(8), PMS(3), CHC, BTPR,GKR,
PO, SPO, P&T, PB, PBS, A,
14 Shirva GSS(3), PSS(2), PHSC(2), V, UW,HP,TW WBMR,AW ACS SHG PSAU
TP, PCO T,TRC
GSSS(2), FWC(2) R,FP
PA&SDC(2), GO.

3.6.18
BTPR,GKR,
SPO, P&T, TP,
15 92 Heroor NA PHSC, FWC UW,HP,TW PB WBMR,AW NA SHG PSAU
PCO
R,FP
PPPS, GPS(2),
BTPR,GKR,
PPS(2), GMS(2),
16 Muloor PHSC,FWC UW,HP,TW SPO, TP, PCO PBS, A, TRC WBMR,AW CB SHG PSAU
PMS(2), GSS,
R,FP
PSS(2), PSSS,
BTPR,GKR,
PB,PBS,A,V,TR
17 Majoor GPS,GMS PHSC,FWC UW,HP,TW, SPO,TP,PCO WBMR,AW NA SHG PSAU
C
R,F
PHC,PHSC(
GPS(4), GMS(4), BTPR,GKR,
2), M&CWC, PO, P&T, TP, PBS, A, T, V,
18 Belman PMS, GSS(2)PSS, UW,HP,TW WBMR,AW CB,ACS SHG PSAU
TB, V, PCO TRC
GSSS, R,FP
FWC(2)
PHC, PHSC, BTPR,GKR,
19 Inna GPS(3), GMS, GSS M&CWC, UW,HP,T/P/L SPO, TP, PCO PBS, A, T, TRC WBMR,AW NA SHG PSAU
TB, FWC R,FP
Bank/
Sr. Village
Education Medical Water Communication Transportation Road credit SHG Power
No Name
society
PHC, PHSC, BTPR,GKR,
GPS(3), GMS(2), UW,HP,TW,R SPO, P&T, TP,
20 Sooda M&CWC, PBS, A, T, TRC WBMR,AW CB SHG PSAU
GSS, /C PCO
TB, FWC R,NWFP
PPPS, GPS(4), PPS, PHC, PHSC, BTPR,GKR,
CW,UW,HP,T PO, SPO, P&T, PBS, A, T, V,
21 Mundkuru GMS(3), PMS, GSS, M&CWC, WBMR,AW CB,ACS SHG PSAU
W,R/C TP, PCO TRC
GSSS, TB, FWC R,NWFP
BTPR,GKR,
UW,HP,TW,R
22 Mulladka PPPS, GPS, GMS, PHSC,FWC TP, PCO PBS, A, TRC WBMR,AW NA SHG PSAU
/C
R,NWFP
PHC, PHSC, BTPR,GKR,
PPPS, GPS(2)PPS,
23 Nandalike M&CWC, UW,HP,TW SPO,TP, PCO PBS, TRC WBMR,AW NA SHG PSAU
GMS(2), PSSS,
TB, FWC R,NWFP
TWT, UW, BTPR, GKR,
24 Kollur GPPS, GPS PHSC, FWC TP, PCO PB, PBS,A NA SHG PSAU
HP, TW AWR, F
BTPR,
TWT,TWU,H SPO, P&T, TP,
25 Kavathar GPS PHSC,FWC PB, V, TRC GKR,WBMR NA SHG PSAU

3.6.19
P,TW,T/P/L PCO
, AWR,FP
AthikariBett GPPS(3),GPS(3),GM TWU,CW,HP, BTPR, GKR,
26 PHSC,FWC SPO, TP, PCO PB, PBS, A, T, V CB SHG PSAU
u S,GSS TW,R/C,T/P/L AWR,FP
BTPR,
TWT,TWU,H SPO, P&T, TP, PB, RS, T, V,
27 Karnire GPS,GMS, NA GKR,WBMR NA SHG PSAU
P,TW,HP,R/C PCO TRC
,FP
TWT,
BTPR, GKR,
28 Ulipady GPPS,GPS PHSC,FWC UW,HP,TW,R TP, PCO PB, PBS, A, NA SHG PSAU
AWR,FP
/C
PHSC,V,FW UW,HP,TW,R BTPR,GKR,
29 Balkunje GPPS,PPS,PMS,PSS SPO,TP,PCO PB,PBS,A NA SHG PSAU
C /C AWR,F
Source: District Census Handbook 2011, District Udupi&Dakshin Kannada, Karnataka
Abbreviations

Education Medical facility Drinking Water Transportation Road Approach


PPPS: Private Pre - Primary CHC :Community Health S: Spring A: Auto GKR: Gravel (kuchha)
School Centre Roads
GPS: Govt. Primary School PHC: Primary Health R/C: River/Canal T:Taxi Bank
Centre
PPS: Private Primary School PHSC: Primary Health T/P/L: Tank/Pond/Lake V: Vans ACS: Agricultural credit
Sub Centre society
GMS: Govt. Middle School M&CWC: Maternity And TW: Tube Wells/Borehole TRC: Tractors CB: Commercial Bank
Child Welfare Centre
PMS: Private Middle School TB: TB Clinic Communication facility Road Approach Self - Help Group

GSS: Govt. Secondary School D: Dispensary PO : Post Office S/R/F : SHG


Sea/River/Ferry
Service
PSS: Private Secondary V: Veterinary Hospital SPO : Sub Post Office PB : Public Bus Power Supply

3.6.20
School Service
GSSS: Govt. Senior Secondary FWC: Family Welfare P&T : Post And Telegraph BTPR: Black PSAU: Power Supply
School Centre Office Topped (pucca) For All Users
Road

PSSS: Private Senior Drinking Water PCO : Public Call Office /Mobile WBMR: Water NA : Not Applicable
Secondary School Bounded
Macadam Road
GA&SDC: Govt. Arts and CW: Covered Well TP: Telephone (landlines) AWR : All
Science Degree College Weather Road
PA&SDC: Private Arts and UW :Uncovered Well Transportation facility NW: Navigable
Science Degree College Waterways
(River/Canal
GO: Government Others HP: Hand Pump PBS : Private Bus Service F : Footpath
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 3.6.9 : Summary of facilities available in the villages


Description Facilities Facilities Not
Available in Available in
Villages Villages
Education 28 1
Medical 28 1
Water 29 0
Communication 29 0
Transportation 29 0
Road 29 0
Bank/credit society 15 14
SHG 29 0
Power 29 0

Table 3.6.10 : List of surveyed villages


Name of the
Sr. No. Gram Panchayat Type
Village/town
District & Tehsil Udupi
1. Santhoor (Mudrangadi) Mudrangadi Rural
2. Yellur Yellur Rural
3. Palimar Palimar Rural
4. Nadsal Padubidri Town
5. Padabettu (Padubidri) Padubidri Rural
6. Tenka-Yermal Tenka Rural
7. Bada Bada Town
8. Belpu Bada Rural
9. Nandicoor Belpu Rural
10. 108 Kalthoor Kuthyar Rural
11. Kuthyar Kuthyar Rural
12. Pillar Mudrangadi Rural
13. Shirwa Shirwa Rural
14. Hejamadi Hejamadi Rural
District Udupi, Tehsil- Karkala
15. Inna Inna Rural
16. Belman Belman Rural

3.6.21
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 3.6.11 : Details of interaction with different groups in the study area
Sr. Village Name Main Person No. of Their Activities Major Issues
No. and Group & Contact No. persons
Present
Yermal /Tenka
1 Gram Mrs. Aruna 13 All activities of Gram Load shedding 3-
Panchayat Kumari Panchayat level 4 hour at a day,
(Sarpanch) Employment,
Yuvaka Mr. Jagannath 14 Own Building, Library, Skill Development
Mandala(R.) (VP) Musical activities, Sports, center,
Yerma lThenka Contribution for medical Employment,
(fisherman) camp, Regular service Sea water
activities(village cleaning Pollution, fishes
etc.),association with not getting
REDCROSS, and Public regular, Fish
awareness programme Market problem
2 Bada
Gram Mrs. Nagratna 18 All activities of Gram Solid waste &
Panchayat Karkera Panchayat level sanitations
(Sarpanch) problems(lack of
land) Tourism
Development,
Migration,
employment etc.
3 Yellure

Gram Mrs. Vasanti 07 All activities of Gram Transportation


Panchayat Madhwaraj Panchayat level, Mahtoo problem in
(Sarpanch) Vishweshwar temple Utsav. agriculture,
irregular water
supply.
YellureYuvakM Mr. Anudeep 13 Own Building, Library, Employment, ITI
andala(R.) (President) Musical activities, Sports, wanted
Contribution for medical
camp, Regular service
activities(village cleaning
etc.),Blood donate camp, etc.
Stri-Shakti Mrs. Reshma 08 Total 40 members, Own Employment,
Mahila Mandal (President) Building, 03 SHG, Mudra Transportation,
Yellur Yojana, Tailoring, Beauty-
parlor courses, Coconuts
export etc.
4 Santhoor
(Mudrangadi)
Stri-Shakti Mrs. Geetha 16 SHG, Dairy form, Jasmine Transportation,
Mahila Mandal, (VP) Flower Business, Cultural Not won building,
Santhoor activities, etc. Migration,
employment,
Family Insurance
5 Kuthyar
(Kalthoor)
Yuvak Mandal Mr. Dhiraj 15 More than 50 Members, Air Pollution, Gulf
(R.), Kuthyar Kular Memorial of golden jubilee migration
(President) constructed of new Won Problem,
Building, President Election Progress Relation
between two years, Library, between Public &
Mr. Dhiraj Blood donation camp, Industry, Load
Shetty Medical Camp, Sports, Shedding,
(Sarpanch) Social & Cultural activities, Employment, etc.

3.6.22
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 3.6.12 : Village-wise Quality of Life Index in the study area


Sr. Villages Quality of Life Index
No. Subjective Objective Cumulative
1. Santhoor (Mudrangadi) 0.48 0.50 0.49
2. Yellur 0.74 0.76 0.75
3. Palimar 0.66 0.66 0.66
4. Nadsal 0.52 0.54 0.53
5. Padabettu (Padubidri) 0.70 0.72 0.71
6. Tenka-Yermal 0.82 0.84 0.83
7. Bada 0.60 0.62 0.61
8. Belpu 0.72 0.74 0.73
9. Nandicoor 0.65 0.66 0.65
10. 108 Kalthoor 0.63 0.65 0.64
11. Kuthyar 0.63 0.64 0.63
12. Pillar 0.68 0.70 0.69
13. Shirwa 0.82 0.84 0.83
14. Hejamadi 0.59 0.62 0.61
15. Inna 0.50 0.52 0.51
16. Belman 0.82 0.84 0.83
Average 0.66 0.68 0.67

3.6.23
Chapter 3 : Description of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL –TPP by


2x800 MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Gram Panchayat Visit At Yermal-Tenka Focus Group Discussion at Santhoor


Village Village

Yuvak Mandal Visit at Kuthyar Village Discussion with Sarpanch at Nadsal


Village

Plate 3.6.1 : Photographs showing interaction with villagers

3.6.24
Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Chapter 4
Anticipated Environmental
Impacts and Mitigation
Measures

4.1 Impact Identification


Identification of Impacts leads to quantification and evaluation of impacts
and suggest mitigation measures. Although, in general, number of impacts have been
identified while describing existing environmental status, it is necessary at this stage to
identify the critical impacts that are likely to occur due to the proposed expansion of
Thermal Power Station at Udupi for various components of the environment.

A number of techniques are available for identification of impacts. In the


present case, for the activities proposed to be carried out for Thermal Power Plant
expansion by 2×800 MW at Udupi, 'Network Method' which involves understanding of
cause-condition-effect relationship between an activity and environmental parameters
for identification of impacts, has been found to be the most appropriate tool.

Detailed list of activities and actions described earlier in preceding write-ups


has been taken into consideration for generation of cause-condition-effect networks
(i.e. chain of events). This method has been basically advantageous in recognizing
the series of impacts that would be triggered by the proposed activities.

The first step is list the project activity and identify the types of impacts,
which would initially occur. The next step is to select each impact and identify the
secondary and tertiary impacts, which are induced as a result. This process has been
repeated until all possible impacts were identified. The greatest advantage of this
approach is that it allows for identifying the impacts by selecting and tracing out the
events as they are expected to occur.

The impact identification network for selected environmental components


viz. air, noise, land, socioeconomic and cultural, arising out of the project activities are
illustrated in Fig. 4.1.1 to 4.1.4. It is to be noted that in these illustrations, the lines are
to be read as "has an effect on".

4.1
Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

TPS Expansion Project

Construction Operational
Activity
Phase Phase

Release of Air
Pollutants Release
of Heat

Impact on Particulates
Primary Change in
Visibility Deposition on Soil, Climatic
Impacts Air Quality Water, Structures Changes

Aesthetic Impact on Impact on


Impact Agricultural Flora & Fauna
Produce

Secondary Impact on
Impacts Human Health

Impact on
Tertiary Impact on
Socio-Cultural
Impacts Economic Output
Environment

Fig. 4.1.1: Impact Network for Air Environment

4.2
Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

TPS Expansion Project

Activity Construction Phase Operational Phase

Noise Emission

Primary
Impacts Change in Ambient Noise Level

Secondary Health Risks Impact on Work Migration of Birds,


Impacts Output and Reptiles & Population
Efficiency

Impact on Impact on
Tertiary Economic socio-cultural
Impacts output Environment

Fig. 4.1.2: Impact Network for Noise Environment

4.3
Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

TPS Expansion Project

Construction Operational
Activity
Phase Phase

Primary Disturbance of Disposal of


Impacts land Wastewater, Fly ash
and Sludge on Land

Toxic Substances on
Change in soil Land, Particulates
Texture & Permeability Deposition on Land

Secondary Impact on Impact on Flora


Impacts Landscape Soil salinity & Fauna

Impact on
Live Stock
Tertiary Impact on
Agricultural Produce Population
Impacts

Impact on Economic Impact on Socio-cultural


Output Environment

Fig. 4.1.3: Impact Network for Land Environment

4.4
Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Fig.4.1.4: Impact Network for Socio-economic and Cultural Environment

4.5
Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

4.2 Anticipated Impacts during Construction Phase


Topography of the proposed site is undulated ground and would require
cutting and grading to an extent of about 2.0 to 3.0 meters to grade the plant to the
proposed finished ground level (FGL) during construction phase the activities will be
related to land de-weeding, levelling of site and construction of related structures and
installation of related equipment. However, cutting or filling soil material shall be used
within the plant premises.

Details of various equipments and machineries to be used during


construction phase are given in Table 4.2.1.

Table 4.2.1 : Details of Typical Equipment’s & Machinery to be Used in


Construction Phase
Quantity (Nos)
Diesel
During Land
Consump
Description Grading During Construction
tion in
0-6 6-12 12-18 18-24 24-36 36-48
ltr/hr
Months Months Months Months Months Months
Earth Movers
Excavator 35 to 40 6 4 3 2 3 2
Dozers 25 to 30 15 10 9 6 6 4
Trucks(10 ft to 16 ft) 10 18 12 18 12 9 6
Dumpers 16 12 8 12 8 6 4
Wheel Loaders 20 3 2 6 4 6 4
Tractors 10 6 4 6 4 0 0
Scrapers, Graders 20 9 6 3 2 0 0
Pavers 15 3 2 6 4 0 0
Material Handlers
Concrete Mixers 1.2 to 2 3 2 1 1 2 1
Cranes(Movable) 5 to 6 3 2 3 2 9 6
Construction Power 5.0 to 5.0 to
from GridSubstation - 7.0 KW 7.0 KW 7.0 Kw 7.0 Kw 7.0 Kw
Maximum work
hours per equipment
per day - 18 18 18 18 18
Diesel Consumption
in Lit per day 25758 17172 20016 13356 11952 7956

4.2.1 Impact on Topography and Land Use

Topography of the proposed site is mostly even and drains towards north of
the project area. The existing site elevation is ~ 27 m above Mean Sea Level (MSL).
The proposed plant area will be suitably elevated using the material from proposed
ash pond area. The cutting and filling will be balanced within the plant area. The major
change in the topographical feature of area would be erection of power plant structures
and ash pond. This will be a permanent change.

4.6
Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Land of the existing and proposed plant site falls in Industrial area. Apart
from the change in land use pattern within the project site there will not be any
significant adverse impact on the surrounding land use during the construction period.

4.2.2 Impact on Soil

The construction activities will result in loss of vegetation cover and topsoil
to some extent in the plant area. It is proposed to construct line drains for storm water
to minimize the soil erosion. Apart from localized construction impacts at the plant site,
no adverse impacts on soil in the surrounding area are anticipated.

4.2.3 Impact on Air Quality

The main sources of emission during the construction period are the
movement of equipment at site and dust emitted during the levelling, grading,
earthwork and foundation works. Exhaust emissions from vehicles and equipment
deployed during the construction phase is also likely to result in marginal increase in
the levels of SO2, NO2, PM and CO. The impact will be for short duration and confined
within the project boundary and is expected to be negligible outside the plant
boundaries. The impact will, however, be reversible, marginal and temporary in nature.
Proper maintenance of vehicles and construction equipment will help in controlling the
gaseous emissions. Water sprinkling on roads and construction site will prevent
fugitive dust.

4.2.4 Impact on Water Resources and Water Quality

All the water required during construction phase will draw from Arabian Sea
and no groundwater is proposed to be utilized for the project during construction and
operations and hence, no impact is envisaged on the ground water resources.

The present surface and ground water resources are likely to be


contaminated due to non-point discharges of solids from soil loss and sewage
generated from the construction work force stationed at the site. However, as the
construction will be carried out on the flat terrain, the soil losses will be negligible.
Further, the construction will be more related to mechanical fabrication, assembly and
erection; hence the water requirement would be meagre. Temporary sanitation
facilities (septic tanks and soak pits) will be set-up for disposal of sanitary sewage
generated by the work force like drivers etc. The overall impact on water environment
during construction phase due to proposed project is likely to be short term and
insignificant.

4.2.5 Impact on Noise Levels

Heavy construction traffic for loading and unloading, fabrication and


handling of equipment and materials are likely to cause an increase in the ambient
noise levels. The areas affected are those close to the site. However, the noise
generation during construction phase of the project will be temporary and will be

4.7
Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

restricted mostly to daytime. The noise control measures during construction phase
include provision of acoustic enclosures around the equipment and regular
maintenance of the equipment.

4.2.6 Impact on Terrestrial Ecology

The initial construction works at the project site involves land clearance.
During construction activities vegetation may be disturbed which can be considered
insignificant. Greenbelt will be developed during construction to improve the aesthetic
value in the area and to screen out the fugitive dust generated during construction.
The removal of vegetation from the soil and loosening of the topsoil generally causes soil
erosion. However, such impacts will be confined to the project site and will be minimized
through paving and water sprinkling. The option of transplantation of trees will also be
studied to save the existing matured trees and replant them in the area earmarked for
greenbelt development.

4.2.7 Impact on Socio-Economics

The proposed project will be in notified industrial area as per KIADA 1966 in
the gazette of Karnataka. Land acquisition is being done by Karnataka Industrial Area
Development Board (KIADB) as per Karnataka Industrial Area Development Act 1966
which have inbuilt mechanism for Resettlement and Rehabilitation (R&R). After
notification of 168.10 Ac land, which is part of the total land, under 28 (4) of KIADA,
Compensation Fixation Committee chaired by District Commissioner of Udupi has
fixed the Compensation and R&R package with consent of the all project affected
people of this part of the land. Other land area is in the process of acquisition by
KIADB for which notification under section 28 (1) and 28 (3) of KIADA has been
completed and R&R package shall be fixed in similar manner by Compensation
Fixation Committee. M/s UPCL offers same Compensation and R&R package for all
project affected people from total 730 Ac land proposed for this project.

The requirement of unskilled manpower will be met from nearby villages


during construction phase. The project will also help in generation of indirect
employment apart from direct employment. This will be a positive socio-economic
development for the region.

4.3 Mitigation Measures during Construction Phase


4.3.1 Environmental Management during Construction

The impacts during the construction phase on the environment would be


basically of transient nature and are expected to reduce gradually on completion of the
construction activity.

The project site terrain is flat and plain and therefore dozing or levelling may
only be to some extent. Vegetation on topsoil will be removed prior to commencement
of bulk earth work. During dry weather conditions, dust may be generated by activities

4.8
Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

like excavation and transportation through flexible/ rigid pavements as per functional
requirement roads. The dust suppression would be arrested by using water sprinklers.

As soon as construction is finished, the surplus earthen material shall be


utilized to fill up low lying areas, the rubbish shall be cleared and all un-built surfaces
reinstated. Appropriate vegetation shall be planted and all such areas shall be
landscaped. Hazardous materials shall be stored in proper and designated areas as
per the MoEF&CC guidelines, 2016.

4.3.2 Water Quality

During construction period, the water quality is likely to be affected due to


the construction work and loosening of topsoil. This is likely to increase the suspended
solids in the run-off during heavy precipitation. In order to reduce the impact on water
quality, temporary sedimentation tanks shall be constructed for the settlement of the
suspended matter. There is no likelihood of ground water contamination as there will
not be any process effluents during construction.

4.3.3 Air Quality

During construction period, there is likelihood of generation of dust and NO x


emissions. This can be attributed to levelling activity and vehicular movement. The
transport vehicles using petrol or diesel shall be properly maintained to minimize
smoke in the exhaust. Water sprinkling is proposed to address this issue. Since there
is likelihood of fugitive dust from the construction activity, material handling and from the
truck movement in the premises of the proposed plant, the power plant shall go for tree
plantation program along the boundaries of the proposed plant site.

4.3.4 Noise Levels

The noise impact on the surrounding population during the construction


phase will be within the acceptable limits. High noise generating equipment, if used,
shall not be operated during the night to eliminate any possible discomfort to the
nearby residents. Community noise levels are not likely to be affected because of the
vegetation and likely attenuation due to the physical barriers. The following
recommendations shall be implemented:

x Provision for insulating caps and aids at the exit of noise source on the
machinery;
x The use of damping materials such as thin rubber/lead sheet for
shielding the work places like compressors, generator shed;
x Adoption of shock absorbing techniques to reduce impact;
x Provision of inlet and outlet mufflers which are easy to design; and
x Provision of earmuffs to the workers and enforcement of its use by the
workers.

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Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

4.3.5 Ecological Aspects


During construction activities vegetation may be disturbed which can be
considered insignificant. Greenbelt will be developed during construction to improve
the aesthetic value in the area and to screen out the fugitive dust generated during
construction. The water requirement for the proposed project is through Arabian sea.
The aquatic life observed in the nearby streams/river is common in nature and these
do not harbor any endangered species. No major impact is envisaged during the
construction/operation phase of the project. The detailed study carried by NIO Goa is
summarized in Chapter 7.

4.3.6 Site Security


Adequate security arrangement shall be made to ensure that the local
inhabitants and the stray cattle are not exposed to the potential hazards due to
movement of heavy duty trucks, machinery, handling of construction activities.

4.3.7 Migrant Workforce


Safe and secure camping area shall be provided for the migrant workforce
during the construction period. Contractors shall be directed to provide adequate
arrangements for water supply, sanitation and cooking fuels.

The construction site shall be provided with sufficient and suitable toilet
facilities for workers to allow proper standards of hygiene. These facilities would be
connected to a septic tank and maintained to ensure minimum environmental impact.

4.4 Anticipated Impacts during Operation Phase


4.4.1 Air Environment
The impacts of air pollution from a coal based thermal power plant (TPP) on
neighbourhood air quality would depend upon various factors, viz. design capacity,
process technology, quality of fuel (coal) used for combustion, operation &
maintenance of process units and air pollution control equipment installed in the
individual process units. The severities of impacts on air environment from any
thermal power project are also governed by terrain conditions around the project site
and the prevailing micro-meteorological conditions in the project region. Generally, a
thermal power project besides the main units like boilers, turbines also has several
onsite and offsite facilities, viz. coal yard, conveyor system, coal crusher/pulverizes,
coal handling (loading/unloading) etc. which also contribute to air pollution in the form
of fugitive emissions.

The major air pollutants from a TPP are Particulate Matter (PM), SO2, NOX
and CO, which are emitted continuously from the stacks (point sources), attached with
coal combustion boilers. The fugitive emissions of coal dust are also contributed by
coal handling activities at storage yard, wind erosion, spillages from conveyor system,
pulverization etc.

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Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

The emissions from point sources at TPS are very important for impact
assessment as these sources are comparatively large, continuous in nature and are
released at higher elevations above ground level. The impacts on air environment
from stacks depend on the quality of coal used and can extend to far distances
depending on prevailing meteorological conditions. The fugitive emissions (mainly coal
dust) are generally less in quantity and it is released relatively closer to ground level
which cause impact in the immediate vicinity to very limited distances (about 1-3 km).
Amongst the continuous point source emissions, PM, SO2 and NOX will be of prime
concern as they are emitted in large quantity depending on the type of coal used and
efficiency of air pollution control equipment. As regards the fugitive emissions, the
main pollutant required to be considered is coal dust from different sources.

There are several air quality simulation models available for prediction of air
pollution impacts at ground level. They deal with different types of sources, variety of
topographic (terrain) conditions and predict short term, long term, and local as well as
regional impacts. In the present case multiple point source Gaussian Dispersion
Model (ISC), applicable to industrial sources located on flat as well as undulated
terrain model has been applied for prediction of impacts on air environment due to
stack emissions. This model has been widely recognized as predictive tool in impact
assessment for air environment. The Gaussian plume dispersion formulae approved
by CPCB has been incorporated in this model to meet regulatory requirements in
India.

4.4.1.1 Point Sources

The project under study is for the proposed 2x800 MW units at the existing
TPP of Udupi Power Corporation Limited (UPCL). The existing electric power
generation capacity at UPCL is 2x600 MW and after implementation of proposed
expansion it would be 2x600 + 2x800 MW. The details related to actual operation
conditions of existing power plant and the atmospheric emissions in terms of SO2, NOX
and PM were provided by UPCL. The atmospheric emissions data provided by UPCL
for the existing power plant (based on stack monitoring results) are given in
Table 4.4.1.

Table 4.4.1 : Present Point Source Emissions at UPCL


(Existing 2x600MW Scenario)
Emission Rate
Stack Flue Gas
Sr. (g/s)
Stack ID
No. Height Diameter Velocity Temperature
SO2 NOx PM
(m) (m) (m/s) (K)
1. Existing Unit 1 275 6.8 23.2 399 854 355 31
(600 MW)
2. Existing Unit 2 275 6.8 23.2 399 854 355 31
(600 MW)
*Figures as per existing EIA report where flue gases volume is normalized at NTP taking
temperature 0°C.

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Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

The estimated coal consumption for the proposed 2x800 MW is also


provided by UPCL which is about 6.20 million tonnes / annum, i.e. about 16986 tonnes
/ day. For estimating the atmospheric emissions from the proposed project, the coal
consumption rate of 19972 tonnes / day is considered along with coal ash content of
25% (wt.) and sulphur content 0.50% (wt). The atmospheric emission of PM from the
proposed expansion is derived based on the considerations like total ash content
(25%) comprising approximately 20% bottom ash and balance is fly ash.

For 2 x 800 MW units, it is proposed to install PM control equipment, i.e.


Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) having over 99.99% efficiency. The design efficiency
could be achieved only by maintaining the specific operating parameters considered
for design. The sulphur (‘S’) content of 0.50% (wt.) and installation of Flue Gas
Desulphurisation (FGD) plant is considered to derive SO2 emission rate complying with
standard of 100 mg/Nm3 for thermal power plant as per applicable standards. NOX
emission from the proposed expansion project shall be controlled by installing Low
NOx burners followed by suitable technology like Selective or Non-Selective Catalytic
Reduction to meet NOx emission standard of 100 mg/Nm3 as per applicable
standards.

During the expansion by 2x800 MW, it is proposed to upgrade the air


pollution control devices for flue gas desulphurization and installing de-NOx system in
existing 2x600 Units also. Hence, atmospheric emissions derived for existing TPP as
well as for the proposed expansion project are given along with the corresponding
stack details in Table 4.4.2. There is one RCC stacks of 275 m high with twin flue for
unit I and II of 2x600 MW TPP of UPCL. There would be separate one RCC stack with
twin flue for Unit III and IV of 2x800 MW TPP of UPCL. The locations of the existing
and proposed stacks in the layout plan of UPCL are shown in Fig. 4.4.1.

Table 4.4.2 : Future Point Source Emissions at UPCL


(Proposed Scenario from Existing 2x600MW and Proposed 2x800MW Units)
Emission Rate*
Stack Flue Gas
Sr. (g/s)
Stack ID
No. Height Diameter Velocity Temperature+
SO2 NOx PM
(m) (m) (m/s) (K)
Existing 2x600 MW
1. Unit 1 275 6.8 23.2 368 136 205 34
2. Unit 2 275 6.8 23.2 368 136 205 34
Proposed 2x800 MW
3. Unit 3 275 8.0 22 343 96 96 29
4. Unit 4 275 8.0 22 343 96 96 29

*That Flue gas volume is normalized at NTP taking temperature as 25°C

+Temperature of flue gas goes down in future scenario as FGD shall be installed to
treat 100% of flue gases

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Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Fig. 4.4.1: Location of Existing and Proposed Stacks on Google Map


(Cooling Towers also seen near Existing Stack)

Under future scenario (after expansion to 2800 MW), maximum SO2 and
NOX emissions will be 40.14 MT/day and 51.97 MT/day respectively which will be
actually less than the total SO2 and NOx emissions from existing 2x600 MW power
plant because UPCL is planning installation of FGD and advance NOx control
technology for 100% of flue gases in both existing and proposed units with this
expansion. With 99.99% control efficiency of ESP, the total PM emissions would be
10.882 MT/day. The details are given in Table 4.4.3.

Table 4.4.3 : Emission Details

Emission Load (MT/day)


Sr. A) Existing B) 2x600 MW proposed
Cumulative
No. 2x600 MW after meeting emission as C) Proposed Units
Scenario
Units at per 7 Dec 2015 2x800 MW
(B+C)
Present* Notification
3
1. SO2 147.61 23.56 TPD @ 200mg/Nm 16.60 TPD @ 100 40.16
3
mg/Nm

2. NOX 59.76 35.37 TPD @ 300 16.60 TPD @ 100 51.97


3 3
mg/Nm mg/Nm
3
3. PM 04.98 5.89 TPD @ 50 mg/Nm 04.992 TPD @ 30 10.862
3
mg/Nm
*Figures as per existing EIA report where flue gases volume is normalized at NTP taking
temperature 0°C.
The absolute emissions of SO2 and NOx (in terms of TPD) from stack shall
reduce from present 1200 MW (2x600 MW) scenario to 2800 MW (2x600 + 2 x800
MW). This reduction is happening because of installation of FGD for 100% flue gases
and De-NOx system in future for existing 2x600 MW as well as for proposed 2x800

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Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

MW units. Hence, stack emission concentrations of SO2 and NOx (in terms of mg/Nm3)
are less in the proposed scenario as compared to the concentrations under existing
scenario.

4.4.1.2 Meteorology

Hourly metrological data was obtained from metrological station installed


within the project boundary of the UPCL. This data has been used along with other
published data to derive mixing height and atmospheric stability parameters on hourly
basis. The predominant wind directions during winter season were observed to be
from S-E quadrant, accordingly the significant impact zone in this season would be in
N-W quadrant. The hourly wind speed, solar insulation and cloud cover during day
time and wind speed and total cloud cover during night time were used to determine
the hourly atmospheric stability class (Pasquill and Gifford) viz., 1(A), 2(B), 3(C), 4(D),
E(5) and 6(F). The hourly stability was determined based on the technique suggested
by Turner.

Turner’s system used for determining the stability classes is as follows:

- For day or night: If total cloud cover (TC) = 10/10 and ceiling <7000 ft
(2134 m), NR=0
- For night-time (defined as period from one hour before sunset to one
hour after sunrise):

a) If TC<4/10, use NR = -2

b) If TC>4/10, use NR = -1

- For daytime: Determine insulation class number (IN)

a) If TC<5/10, use NR=IN

b) If TC>5/10, modify IN by the sum of the following applicable


criteria

i) If ceiling<7000 ft (2134m), modification = -2

ii) If ceiling>7000 ft but <16000 ft (4877 m), modification = -1

iii) If TC=10/10 and ceiling>7000 ft, modification = -1, and


let modified value of IN=NR, except for day-time NR
cannot be <+1

The hourly meteorological data used for the prediction of ground level
concentrations (GLCs) of pollutants during winter season are given in
Table 4.4.4.

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Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 4.4.4 : Micrometeorological Data Used for Prediction of Impacts


(Winter Season)
Hour Wind Speed Wind Direction Temperature Stability Mixing Height
(m/s) (deg) (K) Class (m)
0100 0.9 165.3 296 6 100
0200 1.4 158.5 296 6 100
0300 1.2 161.2 295.8 6 100
0400 0.7 164.1 295.5 5 100
0500 0.7 99.9 294.6 5 100
0600 0.9 127.8 294 5 500
0700 0.6 140.1 293.9 2 600
0800 1.2 138.9 294 2 800
0900 0.8 123.7 296.9 2 900
1000 0.6 69.3 300.9 2 1000
1100 0.6 98.4 302.9 1 1100
1200 1.3 129 303.6 1 1200
1300 1.3 126 303.7 1 1200
1400 1.4 127.5 303 1 1000
1500 1.2 116.1 303.4 1 1000
1600 1.3 125.2 303 1 1000
1700 1.4 128.1 302.7 2 900
1800 1.4 130.7 301.8 2 500
1900 1.5 138.1 300.1 5 300
2000 1.1 140 298.5 5 300
2100 1.3 156.4 297.5 5 100
2200 1.4 159.8 297.2 6 100
2300 0.7 161.9 296 6 100
2400 0.9 163.9 296.2 6 100

4.4.1.3 Air Quality Modelling

The impact on air quality due to emissions from single source or group of
sources is evaluated by use of mathematical models. When air pollutants are emitted
into the atmosphere, they are immediately diffused into surrounding atmosphere,
transported and dispersed due to winds. The air quality models are designed to
simulate these processes mathematically and to relate emissions of primary pollutants
to the resulting downwind air quality. The inputs include emissions, meteorology and
surrounding topographic details to estimate the concentration of conservative air
pollutants.

The Industrial Source Complex – Short Term Version 3 (ISCST-3) model


has been used to simulate the effect of emissions from point sources on air quality.
The ISCST-3 model was adopted from the USEPA guideline models and routinely
used as a regulatory model to simulate plume dispersion and transport. ISCST–3 is
the state of the art model with USEPA and extensively used for predicting the Ground
Level Concentrations (GLCs) of conservative pollutants from point, area and volume
sources. The impacts of primary air pollutants are predicted using this air quality model
keeping in view of the plain terrain at the project site. The micrometeorological data
monitored at project site during study period have been used in this model.

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Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

The ISCST-3 model is, an hour-by-hour steady state Gaussian plume


dispersion model which takes into account the following:

- Terrain adjustments
- Stack-tip downwash
- Gradual plume rise
- Buoyancy-induced dispersion
- Complex terrain treatment and consideration of partial reflection
- Plume reflection off elevated terrain
- Building downwash
- Partial penetration of elevated inversions is accounted for
- Hourly source emission rate, exit velocity, and stack gas temperature
The ISCST-3 model thus provides estimates of pollutant concentrations at
various receptor locations.

The maximum ground level concentrations of SO2, NO2 and PM10 were
computed using hourly meteorological data of winter season over an area of 10 km x
10 km with a grid size of 250 m x 250 m. Ground level concentrations (GLCs) under
present (2x600 MW) and future (2x600 MW + 2x800 MW) scenario are described
below.

Prediction of Impacts

The cumulative ground level impacts of PM, SO2 and NOX due to point
sources at Udupi TPP are predicted in terms of 24 hourly averages since the baseline
status was monitored on 24 hourly bases and also the prescribed National Ambient Air
Quality Standards (NAAQS) for these pollutants are in the form of 24 hourly averages.

Prediction of ground level concentrations within the impact zone (10 km


radial distance) was carried out for winter season. The maximum GLCs of SO2, NO2
and PM for the existing scenario were <0.1 Pg/m3 for all the pollutants.

Under future scenario, the predicted maximum 24 hourly average


concentrations will be 7.9 Pg/m3 for SO2, 7.9 Pg/m3 for NOX and 2.4 Pg/m3 for PM10 at
a distance of 1.77 km in WNW direction. The isopleths showing GLCs of SO2, NOX and
PM are shown in Figs. 4.4.2- 4.4.4.

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Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

20000

18000

16000

14000

12000

North Direction
10000

8000

6000

4000

2000

0
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000
East Direction

Max GLC: 7.9 Pg/m3 occurring at 1.77 Km in WNW direction


Fig. 4.4.2: Isopleths Showing Predicted Level of SO2 under Future Scenario

20000

18000

16000

14000

12000
North Direction

10000

8000

6000

4000

2000

0
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000
East Direction

Max GLC: 7.9 Pg/m3 occurring at 1.77 Km in WNW direction


Fig. 4.4.3: Isopleths Showing Predicted Level of NO2 under Future Scenario

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Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

20000

18000

16000

14000

12000
North Direction

10000

8000

6000

4000

2000

0
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000
East Direction

Max GLC: 2.4 Pg/m3 occurring at 1.77 Km in WNW direction

Fig. 4.4.4: Isopleths Showing Predicted Level of PM under Future Scenario

Table 4.4.5 : Predicted Incremental Maximum GLCs (Winter Season)


Sr. Concentrations Distance
3 Direction
No. Pg/m )
(P (km)
1. Existing Units 1 & 2
a. SO2 <0.1 13.28 NW
b. NO2 <0.1 13.28 NW
c. PM10 <0.1 13.28 NW
2. Future Scenario (2x600 MW + 2x800 MW)
a. SO2 7.9 1.77 WNW
b. NO2 7.9 1.77 WNW
c. PM10 2.4 1.77 WNW

The ground level concentrations at 1.7 km in WNW direction from stack are
increasing from scenario to future scenario because temperature of flue gas will go
down after installation of FGD system for 100% of flue gases. However, ground level
air quality after expansion would be well within the prescribed NAAQS for industrial,
residential and other areas.

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Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

4.4.2 Noise Environment

4.4.2.1 Impact due to Noise Levels in the UPCL

The noise levels were measured at a distance of 3 m from the source inside
UPCL at various noise sources. The cumulative noise level at a particular location
within the study area due to a noise source can be computed by using the following
model:

Lp2 = Lp1 – 20 log (r2/r1) – Ae1, 2 ……..(1)

Where,

Lp2 and Lp1 are the noise levels at the distance r2 and r1 respectively from
the source and Ae1,2 is the excess attenuation along the path r2 – r1 due to
environmental absorption, scattering and other shielding effects.

Total noise level Lp (total) due to all sources can be determined by the
following equation:

Lp(total) = 10 log (10Lpa/10 + 10 Lpb/10 + 10Lpc/10 + ……) ……(2)

Where

Lpa, Lpb, Lpc are the noise levels at a sampling point due to sources, A, B,
C etc.

Using equation (1) and (2), cumulative noise level due to existing sources in
the UPCL was calculated and was found to be in the range of 42 – 43 dBA. According
to the expansion plan, at least six additional noise sources are anticipated. A
cumulative noise level due to existing noise sources and anticipated noise sources is
calculated by using the above models and the resultant noise level was found to be
around 43 – 45 dBA. Thus, after expansion, the noise levels, situated at 2 kms in SW
direction of the existing power plant will increase hardly by 1 – 2 dBA.

4.4.2.2 Impact due to Transportation

The equivalent noise level due to traffic is estimated using Federal Highway
Administration (FHWA) Noise Model as:

Leq(h)I = Loei + 10 log [Ni/(Si x Ti)] + 10 log (15/d)(1+a) + So – 13

Where,
Leq (h)i - Leq at hour h due to ith vehicle type
Loei - Reference mean energy level for ith vehicle type

Ni - Number of i type vehicles passing during time T

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Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Si - Average speed for ith vehicle type in km/hr


T - Duration for which Leq is desired
D - Perpendicular distance (in meters) from the center line of the traffic
lane to the location of the observer
a - Factor relating to absorption characteristics of ground cover between
the roadway and the observer
So - Shielding factor provided by a noise barrier

Noise levels due to movement of light, medium and heavy vehicles on the
roads have been calculated by using the above model and cumulative effect was
computed, using the following model

Lp(Total) = 10 log [10Leql/10 + 10Leqm/10 + 10Leqh/10]

Where,

Leql, Leqm and Leqh are equivalent noise levels for light, medium and
heavy vehicles respectively.

The area around the main gate of power station is traffic affected specially
during peak hours between 1600 Hrs – 1700 Hrs, when the General Shift is over. The
equivalent noise level due to traffic at the Main Gate, at a distance of 10 m from the
road was calculated by using above model and the Leq is found to be 61.43 dBA
(Leq). A traffic load of heavy, medium and light vehicles is agglomerated in front of
main gate during the peak hour. Traffic density observed at main gate of the existing
power plant is given in Table 4.4.6.
Table 4.4.6 : Traffic density observed at main gate of the existing power plant
Time Numbers of Flyash Bulkers Numbers of Numbers of
Numbers of
Intervals and other Industrial Heavy Public Light Carriage
Two/Three
Vehicles (Earth Movers/ JCB/ Transport Vehicles (LCV),
Wheelers and
Excavators etc) Heavy Vehicle Car/Jeep
Cycles/others
(Trucks, Bus)
06.00 Hrs – 30 47 120 225
09.00 Hrs
09.00 Hrs – 10 65 225 430
12.00 Hrs
12.00 Hrs – 15 140 309 384
15.00 Hrs
15.00 Hrs – 20 110 215 265
18.00 Hrs
18.00 Hrs – 15 140 167 236
21.00 Hrs
21.00 Hrs – 8 5 40 110
24.00 Hrs
00.00 Hrs – 5 3 10 15
03.00 Hrs
03.00 Hrs – 7 5 35 65
06.00 Hrs

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Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

The equivalent levels typically measured 1 m away from major construction


equipment are given in Table 4.4.7.

Table 4.4.7 :Typical noise generation from


construction equipment & machinery
Description Noise Levels dB(A) at
1 m from Source
Earth Movers
Excavator 90-95
Crane 90-95
Trucks (10t and 16t) 84-88
Dozer 85-90
Dumpers 87-91
Wheel loader 89-94
Tractors 76-96
Scrapers, Graders 80-93
Pavers 86-88
Material Handlers
Concrete mixers 75-88
Cranes (movable) 75-86
Impact Based Equipment
Pneumatic Wrenches 83-88
Cranes (derrick) 86-88
Stationary Equipment at Storage Terminals
Pumps 69-71
Generators 71-82
Compressors 74-86

4.4.3 Water Environment

Water Requirement and Wastewater Generation

Total water requirement for the existing plant is 10,000 m3/hr and for
proposed expansion water requirement is estimated to be 14,381 m3/hr. Nearly 80-
85% of the water requirement is for cooling towers. Source of water is sea for the
present as well as for future requirements.

Blow down from cooling towers for the existing units is 7200 m3/hr whereas
from the proposed units it will be 9106 m3/hr. Total outfall of water from cooling tower,
reject from RO and DM plant is 7850 m3/hr for the existing units and for proposed units
it will be 10739 m3/hr. Thus nearly 70-75% of the total water requirement is / shall be
discharged back to the sea through guard pond (after meeting the temperature norms).

Water balance diagram for the proposed expansion is given in Fig. 4.4.5.

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Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Fig. 4.4.5 : Water Balance Diagram for the Proposed Units (Also provided in A3 as Annexure 12)

4.22
Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

4.4.3.1 Proposed Schemes for Wastewater Management

Zero Discharge of Liquid Wastes from the Proposed Unit

It has been proposed by TPP to design and implement wastewater disposal


schemes so as to attain zero discharge except Cooling Tower Blow Down (CTBD) and
De-Sal Plant rejects from the expansion unit. This has been planned with a view to
conserve water and to prevent water pollution problems that are likely to arise during
operation of the Unit III and IV of 2x800 MW.

Waste water (Sewage) generated from the power plant shall be treated, this
treated sewage water will be utilized for green belt development so that there will be
zero discharge of wastewater.

A separate Marine EIA study has been conducted through National Institute
of Oceanography (NIO) to assess the impact due to drawl of sea water and discharge
into the sea. Salient findings of the study are given in Chapter 7.

4.4.4 Land Environment

The total additional land requirement for the proposed project is about 730
acres (295.65 ha) that includes 180 acres (72.9 ha) for main plant, 278 acres (112.59
ha) for Ash dyke and 272 acres (110.16 ha) for railway yard/marry-go round facilities
inside the plant. The additional land requirement for different facilities for expansion by
2x800MW is given in Table 4.4.8.

Table 4.4.8 : Summary of land requirement


Sr. Description Land for Existing Additional Land for
No. Plant (2x600 MW) Proposed Plant
(Acres) (2x800 MW) (Acres)
1. Main plant 420.25 (170.25 ha) 180 (72.9 ha)
(including 30% green belt)
2. Ash disposal area (including 30% 112.32 (45.48 ha) 278 (112.59 ha)
green belt)
3. Corridor between Main plant and 20.14 (8.15 ha) Nil
Ash disposal area
4. Sea water pump house and 36.90 (14.94 ha) Nil
seawater pipe line corridor
5. Railway Yard/marry-go round - 272 (110.16 ha)
inside the plant (including 30%
green belt)
Total land 589.61 (238.79 ha) 730 (295.65 ha)

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4.4.4.1 Land Use

Construction Phase

Additional land shall be acquired as per applicable land acquisition act.


Expansion of the main plant is proposed partly within the existing plant area and partly
in the additional land adjacent to the boundary of existing plant. Total land of existing
power plant (Unit-I and Unit-II of Phase1) as well as additional land for proposed
expansion (Unit-III and Unit-IV in Phase-2) falls in Industrial Area notified in 1995 and
1998 under KIADA Act, 1966. Total 730 acres additional land for expansion by 2x800
MW falls in notified industrial area in village Yelluru and Santhru under Karnataka
Industrial Area Development Act 1966 in Tehsil Udupi, District Udupi in Karnataka
state.

Indirect influx of labour force during the construction phase is likely to lead
to change in landuse; however, this impact will be of short-term and reversible in
nature.

Operational Phase

The landuse pattern during construction phase, which may be due to


temporary construction and makeshift arrangements, would be gradually stabilized by
itself during operational phase. The construction camps and makeshift services would
be either dismantled or realigned and will be made permanent. The area would be
developed aesthetically so that there would not be any adverse impact during
operational phase.

4.4.4.2 Solid Waste / Fly Ash Disposal

The adverse impact due to proposed 2x800 MW thermal power plant on


land environment would be due to ash disposal. A robust fly ash management system
has been proposed for disposal of fly ash and bottom ash.

Ash Handling System

The ash handling plant will be designed on the basis of daily coal
consumption and assuming the worst quality coal containing about 25% ash. It is
normally seen that the percentage of fly ash and bottom ash are 80% and 20%
respectively. UPCL is proposing to use High Concentration Slurry Disposal System.
This system envisages provision of slurry mixing tank of piston/piston diaphragm
pumps of high capacity for disposal of ash slurry. The ash concentration is expected to
be in the range of 65 – 72% by weight and the water concentration would be in the
range of 35 – 28%.

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Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
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MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Fly ash Disposal

It is proposed to remove the fly ash continuously from the hoppers to be


provided beneath the economizer, air preheaters, E.S.P. and the stack. The fly ash so
collected in these hoppers shall be conveyed to the ash silo (made of RCC), in the dry
form, with the help of pneumatic pressure created by the air compressor. In order to
collect the ash from various (ash) hoppers, the equipments, such as, ash-feed valve,
ash-transfer vessel/air-lock vessel, an inlet valve and outlet valve, etc. shall be
provided below each of the said hoppers.

Similarly, for transferring the ash to the silo, necessary piping arrangement
shall be provided. The entire ash disposal system (dense phase) shall be provided
with PLC (Programmable Logic Control) based panels to operate it automatically in a
sequential manner as per the given programme.

Bottom ash Disposal

The bottom ash disposal scheme is proposed with an intermittent operation


of one hour and a half per shift for each unit, with one pump set and associated
pipeline working and the other set as standby. The scheme will be standard one with
“W” shape hoppers, clinker grinders, feed gates, jet pumps and piping etc. The slag
ash will be disposed off through the bottom ash system.

Bottom ash and unutilised fly ash will disposed to ash pond through HCSD
system.

Ash Dyke

The ash dyke already developed for the existing power plant is
approximately 3 km away from UPCL main plant. The capacity of the existing ash dyke
is about 7,50,000 m3. Efforts shall be made for 100% utilization of ash. However, to
meet the immediate future needs, high concentrated slurry disposal system shall be
used. In addition, based on future requirement, additional land besides existing ash
disposal area can be procured. It may thus be seen that, disposal of ash produced
from the proposed unit shall not pose any problem. Land accommodating the ash
cannot be used for any agriculture purpose/vegetation unless the top soil is formed to
support plant growth. Ash utilization has to be done to the maximum possible extent so
as to reduce the adverse impact of ash on land environment.

Water level is maintained in the ash pond to ensure that fly ash does not get
air lifted. However, greenbelt development in and around ash dyke will help in
arresting the particulate matter emanating from the ash disposal site.

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Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

4.4.5 Biological Environment

Thermal power plants are considered as one of the major air pollution
emission sources which can affect local and regional air quality. Sulphur dioxide (SO2),
oxides of nitrogen (NOX), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and
particulates (which may contain trace metals) are emitted from the combustion of coal
and auxiliary fuel.

The largest wastewater streams from the thermal power plant are cooling
tower blow down which are relatively less polluted which is discharged back to sea
with minimal effects on water quality. UPCL is proposing the discharge of condenser
cooling water back to Arabian sea with delta temperature of 5 degree centigrade as
per the applicable standards and Induced Draft Cooling Towers shall be installed. The
impact of the release of the cooling water blowdown and De-Sal plant reject into the
sea has been assessed in Marine EIA study conducted by the NIO. An adverse impact
on terrestrial ecosystem is anticipated due to changes in land use and subsequently to
loss of habitat of the local fauna at the project site.

4.4.6 Socio-economic Environment

Expansion of the existing thermal power plant within the area would create
beneficial as well as adverse impacts on the socio-economic environment. These are
briefly described here as positive and negative impacts.

Positive impacts
x Increase in job opportunities for local as well as people in the region
during construction and operation phase of the project
x Increase in business opportunities for the local people, due to which
economic status of the people would increase
x Increase in infrastructural resources, by way of transport and
communication, which may further improve the quality of life of the
people in that area
x UPCL would help in bridging the gap between demand and inadequate
supply of electricity in the region
x The electricity generated in additional 2x800 MW thermal power plant
will help in electrification of the villages, development of irrigation
facilities, drinking water supply etc.
x Due to the expansion of power plant there would be an overall
development of the area and additional job opportunities would be
created which may improve the quality of life of the people in that area
x Improve power electricity availability for State Government for onward
supply to meet the increasing demands in all sectors including domestic
sector in the state
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Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
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x As such, the positive impacts would consequently lead to an upliftment


of the Quality of Life of the people in the area.

Negative Impacts

The impacts identified as adverse would go against the project activities.


These impacts can be minimized by proper follow up of environmental management
plan. The adverse impacts are:
x Influx of workers during project construction and operation phase would
put strain on the existing basic amenities in the region. This may create
situation such as shortage of accommodation, insanitation etc.
x Due to fly ash and coal dust, air pollution would be generated which
may result in severe health hazards if proper control measures are not
adopted
x Thermal discharge from condenser cooling, if let out without treatment
into surface water body, may adversely affect. The stream which may
have adverse impacts on aquatic biota if not maintained delta
temperature of 5 degree centigrade

The above impacts would be of diversified nature as primary or secondary,


adverse or beneficial, local or regional, long-term or short term and reversible or
irreversible. The impacts are classified and given in Table 4.4.9.

Prediction of expected changes in subjective and cumulative quality of life


indices is given in Table 4.4.10 respectively.

Table 4.4.9 : Prediction of Qualitative Impacts on Socio-economic Environment


Parameter Local Regional Direct Indirect Reversible Irreversible
Employment + + + + x +
Income + + + + x +
Transport + x + x x +
Education + x + x x +
Medical facilities + x + x x +
Communication + + + x x +
Availability of fuel + + + + x +
and electricity
Sanitation + x + x x +
Housing + x + x x +
Health - x - - x x
Recreation + x x + x +
Agriculture - x - x - -
Cost of living - x x - x +
Business + + + x x x
Per capita Income + + + x x x
Pollution - x - x - x
+ : Positive Impact - : Negative Impact
x : Insignificant

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Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
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Table 4.4.10 : Expected Change in Subjective Quality of Life after


Implementation of EMP and Welfare Measures
Sr. No. Villages Existing QoL (s) After Implementation
QoL(s) of EMP and Welfare Measures
1. Santhoor (Mudrangadi) 0.48 0.52
2. Yellur 0.74 0.76
3. Palimar 0.66 0.68
4. Nadsal 0.52 0.54
5. Padabettu (Padubidri) 0.7 0.72
6. Tenka-Yermal 0.82 0.85
7. Bada 0.6 0.64
8. Belpu 0.72 0.74
9. Nandicoor 0.65 0.67
10. 108 Kalthoor 0.63 0.65
11. Kuthyar 0.63 0.65
12. Pillar 0.68 0.70
13. Shirwa 0.82 0.83
14. Hejamadi 0.59 0.62
15. Inna 0.5 0.54
16. Belman 0.82 0.84
Average 0.66 0.68

4.5 Mitigation Measures during Operation Phase


Various types of pollution from the proposed power plant are categorized as
air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution and solid waste.

The major types of emissions from the power plant are gaseous emissions.
In addition, wastewater and solid waste will also be generated. The quantities and the
composition of the gaseous, liquid and solid waste that are likely to be generated in the
plant will be managed and treated in such a way that their final disposal into the
environment shall meet all the statutory requirements and thus the environmental
impacts are minimized to the extent possible.

4.5.1 Environmental Protection

The environmental impact of the proposed power station covering the


following aspects and the measures for controlling the pollution within the norms
specified by Central / State Pollution Control Board is briefly described here.
x Air pollution
x Water pollution
x Sewage disposal
x Thermal pollution
x Noise pollution monitoring and surveillance systems.

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Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
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MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

4.5.1.1 Air Pollution Control System

Air pollutants from the proposed units are classified in two types i.e., point
source pollution and non-point source pollution as given in Table 4.5.1.

Table 4.5.1: Classification of Air Pollution Sources of TPP

Point Sources Non-point Sources

x Sulphur dioxide in flue gas x Coal dust particles during


x Oxides of Nitrogen in flue gas storage/handling
x Carbon monoxide in flue gas. x Particulate Matter (Size <10µm)
x Particulate Matter (PM) in flue or PM10
gas x Particulate Matter (Size <2.5 µm)
x Mercury in flue gas or PM2.5
x Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)
x Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)
Mitigation measures to limit the above air pollutions are delineated to meet
the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS-2009).

Environment (Protection) Rules Amendment

As per the MoEF & CC notification on TPP dated 7th December 2015,
amendment in entry No:25 in Environment (Protection) Rules, 1986 is given in Table
4.5.2:

Table 4.5.2 : Emission Standards as per MOEF


S. Parameters TPP installed before TPP installed after TPP to be
st st
No. 31 December, 2003 1 January, 2004 installed after
st st
upto 31 December, 1 January
2016 2017
3 3 3
1 Particulate Matter 100 mg/Nm 50 mg/Nm 30 mg/Nm
3 3
2 Sulphur Dioxide 600 mg/Nm (Units 600 mg/Nm (Units
(SO2) Smaller than 500MW Smaller than 500 MW
capacity units) capacity units) 3
3 3 100 mg/Nm
200 mg/Nm (for units 200 mg/Nm (for units
having capacity of 500 having capacity of 500
MW and above MW and above)
3
3 Oxides of 600 mg/Nm 3 3
300 mg/Nm 100 mg/Nm
Nitrogen (NOx)
3
4 Mercury (Hg) 0.03 mg/Nm (for units
3 3
having capacity of 500 0.03 mg/Nm 0.03 mg/Nm
MW and above)

Air Quality Monitoring Programme

The purpose of air quality monitoring is acquisition of data for comparison


against prescribed standards, thereby ensuring that the quality of air is maintained
within the permissible levels of NAAQS.

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Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
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MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Control of PM Emissions - Electrostatic Precipitator

The prime air pollutant of concern from the thermal power plant is un-
arrested fly ash emitted through chimney as Particulate matter (PM). For minimizing
the PM emissions below 50 mg/Nm3, ESP of high efficiency is installed in the existing
TPP.

The proposed TPP consists of the steam generating units which will be
provided with three parallel gas path Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) for collecting fine
dust from the boiler convective system. ESP will be selected for obtaining a particulate
matter emission below 30 mg/Nm3 in the flue gas at the outlet of the ESP. The
efficiency of the ESP shall be 99.99%. The ESP would have adequate number of ash
hoppers provided with electric heaters. The control of ESP would be based on
microprocessor using semi-pulse device. The ESP unit will be complete with casing,
hoppers, gas distribution system, heating elements for hoppers and insulators,
transformers, rectifiers and controls.

Chimney

The salient physical data of stack and flue gas emissions are given in Table
4.5.3:

Table 4.5.3 : Salient features of stack and flue gas emissions


Sr. Parameters Existing TPP Proposed TPP
No. (in future with FGD) (with FGD)
1 Stack height 275 m (Twin Flue) 275 m (Twin Flue)
2 Exit diameter of each flue 6.8 m 8.0 m
6 3 6 3
3 Total flue gas quantity per flue 2.45 X 10 Nm /h 3.45 X 10 Nm /h
0 0
4 Flue gas exit temperature 95 C 70 C (in Stack after
FGD for 100% flue
gases scrubbing)
5 Flue gas exist velocity from stack 23.2 m/s 22 m/s
Control of SOx Emissions

As per the latest notification from MoEF&CC, thermal power stations


installed from January 2017 shall be able to limit the Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) to a level
of 100 mg/Nm3.

The proposed TPP of 1600 MW (2X800 MW) shall maintain the SO2
emissions from the plant by following steps:

a. Maximum sulphur content in the imported coal is 0.5%

b. Flue Gas Desulphurization Unit

c. 275 m height tall stack

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Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
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MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Flue Gas Desulphurisation unit shall be installed to reduce the concentration


of SO2 emissions. FGD is classified into three types based on the following :

1. Sea water based flue gas desulphurisation system

2. Dry Flue gas desulphurisation system

3. Wet Limestone based flue gas desulphurisation system

The existing 1200 MW (2 X 600 MW) thermal power plant consists of 2 nos.
of Wet Limestone based flue gas desulphurization system. It is proposed to use the
same type of FGD for 1600 MW (2X 800 MW) thermal power plant.

In wet limestone process, limestone in slurry form is used as reagent with


scrubber. The boiler flue gas is quenched to below saturation temperature while it
enters the scrubber where it contacts the reagent (limestone slurry) and Sulphur
dioxide and lesser amount of oxygen are simultaneously absorbed. Crystalline by-
product, known as Gypsum is generated. Generated gypsum is disposed to end user
like cement manufacturers, fertilizer industries, plasterboard manufacturers.

In order to ensure proper dispersion of SO2 emissions from thermal power


plants, stack height criteria have been adopted. As per the Schedule-1 Environment
(Protection) Rules 1986, the stack height shall be 275 m as required for thermal power
plants of 500 MW and above capacity.

Control of NOx Emissions

At present, advanced low NOx combustion technology is used in all steam


generator combustion system with low NOx burner and over fire air system. This will
reduce the NOx emission to a large extent. However, cost effective post combustion
NOx control technology such as SCR / SNCR will be required to limit the NOx level to
100 mg/Nm3 as stipulated by MoEFCC Dec 7, 2015 notification.

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) uses a catalyst and requires a system


to inject ammonia into the flue gas such that it mixes before passing through the
catalyst. The necessary spacing between the ammonia injection grid and the catalyst,
and the space needed by each, require lengthening the boiler duct work.

Vertical SCR reactor will be used for coal fired boilers, where the flue gas
flows downward through the catalyst. The reactor contains multiple layers of catalyst.
The required volume of catalyst varies with each installation. Soot blowers are installed
to remove particulates from the catalyst surfaces. For designs with honeycomb
catalyst, the catalyst pitch is typically about 7 to 9 mm to allow easy passage of
particulates and to facilitate cleaning with soot blowers. To obtain uniform gas flow and
remove particulates, high-dust SCR designs usually include turning vanes and a flow-

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Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

rectifying grid in the ductwork upstream of the reactor. A hopper may be installed at
the bottom of the SCR to collect ash and other particulates separated from the flue gas
stream. The flue gas exiting the SCR is ducted to the air heater inlet.

NOx reduction is effective in a limited temperature range. For the majority of


commercial catalysts, the optimum temperatures range from 250˚C to 425˚C,
depending on gas composition and catalyst type. Catalyst effectiveness is reduced as
the gas temperature falls below or rises above the optimum. At the design stage,
operating away from the optimum temperature increases the volume of catalyst
required to achieve a given NOx removal efficiency. At off-design, temperature
excursions reduce effectiveness and increase NOx emissions.

Features of SCR System:


1. Simple structure, easy operation
2. Less moving equipment, highly reliable
3. No by-product
4. High de-Nox efficiency, 60㸫90%
5. Widely used

Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR)

Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) uses no catalyst, but uses


aqueous ammonia or a solution of water and urea distributed in the hot flue gas to
reduce NOx in the flue gas path. Within the appropriate temperature range, the
evaporated solution decomposes into free radicals including NH3 and NH2. After a
series of reactions, these radicals come into contact with the NOx and reduce it to N2,
also producing some H2O. The global representation of these reactions is given below.

2NO + 2NH3 + ½ O2 = 2N2 + 3H2O for ammonia, or

2NO + CO (NH2) 2 + ½ O2 = 2N2 + CO2 + 2 H2O for urea

At optimal temperature range, the reaction proceeds at normal rates. At


temperatures below the optimal range, the reaction rates are slow, and there is
potential for significant amounts of ammonia exit or “slip” through the system. At
temperatures above the optimal range, the necessary reactions do not occur, and the
ammonia or urea reagent will oxidize.

The NOx reduction is effective only within a given temperature range. For
the majority of SNCR systems, the optimum temperatures ranges from 760˚C to
1100˚C. With SNCR, as the flue gas temperature approaches the optimum, the
reaction rate increases and fewer injection nozzles are required to achieve a given
NOx removal efficiency. Optimum temperature, along with the NOx removal efficiency
at design, flue gas temperature, flue gas flow and inlet NOx concentration, is used to
size the SNCR.

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Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
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SNCR denox efficiency for large coal-fired units is 25-50% with no by-
products.

In order to meet the Nox level of 100 mg/Nm3, SCR is considered for this
project.

Control of CO Emissions

Carbon monoxide (CO) another kind of pollutant hardly exists in the modern
power stations as design of combustion control equipment and the furnace eliminates,
almost completely the possibility of incomplete combustion.

4.5.1.2 Water Pollution Control System

The wastewater treatment systems will be designed to collect and treat the
various effluents from the site as given in Table 4.5.4.

Table 4.5.4 : Collection and Treatment of Various Effluents


Effluents Sources Treatment Treatment Disposal/Reuse
System for System for
existing 2x600 proposed
MW TPP expansion by
2x800 MW
units
• Transformer Oil separator Tilted Plate Treated effluents are
yard followed by interceptor, oil reused for
Parallel plate skimmer to bring horticulture and
Oily wastes • TG hall floor settler down the treated removed oil is taken
wash water oil level to offsite for disposal
• Fuel oil less than
handling area 10 ppm.
Treatment Treatment
through Parallel through Tilted
Industrial Treated effluents are
• Boiler area plate settler to Plate
waste with reused for
floor wash reduce Interceptors to
high horticulture and
• Service water suspended reduce
suspended sludge is disposed to
wastes solids within suspended solid
solid levels ash pond
PCB norms levels to within
PCB norms
Chemical DM Regeneration Neutralisation Neutralisation in Disposed to sea
contaminated waste in a neutralising a neutralising pit along with CW return
waste pit to bring the to bring the pH as the final pH of the
pH to to acceptable DM Plant effluent will
acceptable levels have a TDS of less
levels than 8000 ppm while
the sea water has a
TDS of greater than
35000 ppm. No
unacceptable
elements like arsenic
are present in the DM
Plant regeneration
wastes

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Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
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Effluents Sources Treatment Treatment Disposal/Reuse


System for System for
existing 2x600 proposed
MW TPP expansion by
2x800 MW
units
Desalination Plant Sent to No treatment is Disposed to sea
reject water sedimentation/ necessary as along with CW return.
(Brine) Guard pond the pH of brine The TDS of water will
before is higher than 7 be diluted when
discharging to mixed with CW return
the Sea which is about 7
times more in terms
of flow rate
Sewage • Canteen Screen with Oil Sewage Treated sewage is
• Toilets Trap and treatment plant reused for
followed by where that horticulture
Septic Tank sewage is large
and localized
anaerobic
treatment where
generation of
sewage is
limited

Treated Effluent

The quality of treated effluent from the plant will conform to the applicable
standards as given in Table 4.5.5 and flow chart of existing ETP for 2600 MW is given
in Fig. 4.5.1 and similar type of system shall be implemented for proposed 2x800 MW
TPP .

Table 4.5.5 : Expected Quality of Treated Effluent from Guard Pond


Parameters Unit Treated Effluent for Treated Effluent for
Existing TPP (as per Proposed TPP
Consent for (As per Environment
Operation form Protection Rule 1986
KSPCB for exiting Schedule-VI under the
units) category of General
Standards for discharge of
Effluent
pH - 5.5-9.0 5.5-9.0
0
Temperature °C Not more than 5 C Not more than 5qC higher
higher than intake than intake
Total Suspended Solids mg/l 100 100
Oil and Grease mg/l 20 20
BOD3 , 27 qC mg/l 100 <100
COD mg/l 250 250
Hexavalent Chromium mg/l 1.0 1.0
Total Chromium mg/l 2.0 3.0

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Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
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Influent Oil Skimmer

Clarifier

PE Addition Tank Treated Water

Sludge Settling Tank

Fig. 4.5.1 : Flow Chart of ETP in Existing / Proposed 2x600 MW TPP

4.5.1.3 Control of Thermal Pollution

According to the Central Pollution Control Board stipulation, the thermal


power plants using sea water should adopt suitable system to reduce water
temperature at the final discharge point so that the resultant rise in the temperature of
receiving water does not exceed 5oC over and above the ambient temperature of
receiving water bodies.

For the proposed power plant, the temperature rise across condenser will be
maintained as 9oC. However, in order to limit the temperature of seawater discharged
to sea, blow down from the plant is considered from cold side of cooling water.
Therefore the temperature of reject seawater at point of discharge will meet the
requirement of < 5 oC.

The exact location of intake and outfall has been selected based on
seawater oceanographic and recirculation study conducted by CSIR-NIO, Goa (2016).
The coordinates of intake and outfall locations are given earlier in Chapter 2.

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Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
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MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Fig. 4.5.2 : Proposed intake and outfall location for 2x600 MW and 2x800 MW on
bathymetry chart as recommended by CSIR-NIO, GOA

4.5.1.4 Control of Noise Pollution


Several noise suppression and attenuation features will be designed into the
plant for the protection of personnel at all normally accessible locations within the plant
boundary, both inside and outside the different buildings, and for the protection of the
inhabitants living in the vicinity of the power plant.

Equipment Noise
In the plant, various equipment like pumps, cooling tower, compressors etc.
generate the noise. Equipment will be designed to conform to noise levels prescribed
by regulatory authorities. The noise level ranges expected from various noise
generating sources in the proposed plant are given in Table 4.5.6

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Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
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MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 4.5.6 : Expected Sources of Noise Generation and Noise Levels in the
Proposed Plant
Sr. Unit Expected Noise Level dB(A)
No. [1 m away]
1 Turbine unit 80-85
2 Cooling tower 65-70
3 Air compressors 80-85
4 Transformer 70-75
5 Boilers 80-85
Provision of acoustic enclosures to noise generating equipment like pumps
will conform to noise levels prescribed by regulatory authorities. In Places where it is
difficult to meet the prescribed noise levels, personal protection equipment will be
provided to the workers. The wide greenbelt around the plant will attenuate the noise
level dissemination outside the plant boundary.

To achieve the noise limitations around the equipment, the main measures
taken will be as follows:
x Providing noise enclosures for equipments with unacceptable noise
levels.
x Small units like condensate and vacuum pumps, will be designed so as
to limit noise emission,
x Bypass valve, the desuperheater and the relevant piping will be covered
with acoustic insulation.
x To achieve the noise limitations in the control room, the control
equipment such as computers and its accessories (printers, etc) and
the air conditioning system will be designed so as to limit noise
emission.
x During maintenance/inspection works, the personnel will wear ear
protection devices.

Far Field Noise


To achieve the far field noise limitations, the following main measures will be
taken, as appropriate for that purpose:
x Steam vent pipes will be fitted with silencers,
x The boiler thermal insulation will be designed to limit noise emission,
x The boiler draught fans, electrostatic precipitators and air heaters will
be designed to limit noise emission,
x The main transformers will be designed to limit noise emission.

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Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

As per CPCB standards for ambient noise level for various areas /zones, the
proposed sites falls under the category of industrial area. The details of noise
standards/rules 2000 are given earlier under section 3.2 of Chapter 3.

4.5.1.5 Pollution Monitoring and Surveillance Systems


For thermal power stations, the Indian Emission Regulations stipulate the
limits for particulate matter emission and minimum stack heights to be maintained for
keeping the sulphur dioxide levels in the ambient within the air quality standards.

The characteristics of the effluent from the plant would be maintained so as


to meet the requirements of the State Pollution Control Board and the Minimum
National Standards for Thermal Power Plants stipulated by the Central Board for
Prevention and Control of Water Pollution.

4.6 Storm Water Management


Storm water management will be done by installing intercepting drains in the
plant area, and led to rainwater collection tanks, which will help in conserving the fresh
water. The surplus overflow will however be discharged into the nearby water body.
The storm water drainage will take into account the topography of the plant area,
intensity of hourly rainfall and existing drainage pattern of the area.

The storm water drainage system will consist of a network of open drains.
The run-off from plant area, open areas, buildings and installation shall be carried
through the network of open drains running all along the road system.

It is planned to use the storm water during monsoon season in the cooling
process. Storm water shall be pumped back from storm water drain to cooling tower
basin. It is estimated that during peak monsoon season about 5% of water requirement
can be met by pumping the rainwater to cooling towers.

4.7 Solid Waste Management


Solid waste in the industry is generated from two categories i.e., 1. Bottom
ash from the process and 2. Fly ash and Gypsum from the pollution control facilities
which are non-hazardous in nature.

4.7.1 Bottom Ash


Ash is generated from the process of burning coal and is collected in the
water impounding basin and the same is disposed after dewatering to ash pond which
is 3 km away from the main plant.

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Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

4.7.2 Fly Ash


Ash generated from the process is trapped in the Electro-Static Precipitators
(ESPs) in dry form and is stored in Silos. From the Silos, the fly ash is disposed to
various end users like, Cement Manufacturers, Brick manufactures, RMC works.

The main solid waste from the proposed power plant will be ash (fly ash and
bottom ash). Considering worst coal quality with 25% ash content, a maximum of
about 216 TPH of ash will be generated from the proposed power plant. The fly ash
has high pozzolonic properties and form cementaceous material when mixed with lime
and water and it is suitable for the following commercial uses:
x Cement industries
x Brick industries
x Light weight aggregates
x Road sub-base
x Grouting material
x Roads / paving used as filler in asphalt mix for roads
x Road widening and
x Land filling material

It is proposed to utilize 100% fly ash generated from the project by 4th year
to various end users like cement, RMC and brick manufacturing industries in the
vicinity. All the efforts will be made to utilize fly ash for various purposes. Only during
emergency situation the ash will be disposed in ash pond through HCSD system. To
control fugitive dust emissions from the ash pond area, water film will be maintained in
the ash pond. Liners of permeability of less than 10-6 will be provided in the ash pond
in order to arrest any seepage of ash pond water into groundwater. After the ash pond
is abandoned, the entire area will be reclaimed through tree plantation.

4.7.3 Gypsum
Gypsum is generated from the FGD (Flue Gas Desulphurization) unit as a
result of reaction of SO2 with lime stone slurry to remove sulphur dioxides in the stack
emissions. About 1.64 Lac tonnes per annum of lime shall be consumed for FGD
operation and as a result about 2.46 Lac tonnes per annum of gypsum shall be
generated from 2x800 MW units. Gypsum which is a demand and value added product
which shall be utilized to various end users like cement manufacturers, fertilizer
industries, plasterboard manufacturers etc. The details of lime stone requirement and
gypsum generation are given in Table 4.7.1.

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Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 4.7.1 : Limestone requirement and gypsum generation for existing and
proposed TPP
Description Existing 2X600 Existing 2X600 Proposed 2X800
MW TPP with MW TPP with MW TPP with FGD
FGD for 25% FGD for 100% for 100 % Flue
Flue gas Flue gas gases
Quantity of limestone 56 226 299
required (at 50% lime
purity basis as worst
case), TPD
Quantity of Gypsum 85 340 449
Generation, TPD
The list of the factories alongwith details of agreement for Fly Ash utilization
and Gypsum utilization are given in Annexure 11.

4.8 Summary of environmental impacts and mitigation


measures during construction and operation phase
Summary of environmental impacts and mitigation measures during
construction and operational phase of the Project

Table 4.8.1 : Summary of anticipated adverse environmental impacts and


mitigation measures during construction phase

Discipline Potential Probable Mitigation Measures Remarks


Negative Source
Impacts
Water Increase in Loose soil at During monsoon season _
Quality suspended construction run off from construction
solids due to site site will be routed to a
soil run-off temporary sedimentation
during heavy tank for settlement of
precipitation suspended solids.
Air Quality Increase in Leveling Sprinkling of water in the The impact will be
dust and NO2 activity and construction area and on low, as the main
concentration heavy unpaved roads. Proper approach road
vehicular maintenance of vehicles will be tarred.
movement will be done.
Noise Increase in Construction Equipment will be kept in Workers will be
noise level equipment good condition to keep the provided
noise level within 90 dB(A). necessary
protective
equipment e.g.
ear plug,
earmuffs.
Terrestrial Clearing of Soil enabling Landscaping and extensive -
Ecology vegetation activities plantation will be done.
Socio- Land oustees Land R&R study have been carried out and action
economics Acquisition plan will be taken accordingly

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Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Table 4.8.2 : Summary of Anticipated Adverse Environmental Impacts And


Mitigation Measures During Operational Phase

Discipline Potential Probable Mitigative Measures Remarks


Negative Source
Impacts
Water Quality Deterioratio Discharge Adequate treatment The plant effluent after
n of surface from various facilities will be treatment will be
water plant units provided so that the reused to maximum
quality treated effluents possible extent. All
conform to the treated effluents will be
regulatory standards. brought to the CMB for
dilution and will be
used for horticulture
and greenbelt
development
Air Quality Increase in Stack 99.99% efficient The resultant air quality
PM, SO2 emissions ESPs will be installed will conform to the
and NOx and coal to control stipulated standards.
levels in stockyards particulates. Stack of Particulate emission
ambient air. at Coal 275 m will be from stack will be kept
3
Handling provided for the below 30 mg/Nm .
Plant (CHP). proper dispersion of
pollutants. Motorable
roads in the plant
area will be paved to
reduce dust
emission.
Afforestation
programs will be
undertaken around
the plant area. Dust
suppression
measures will be
implemented in the
Coal Handling Plant
and stock yards
Solid waste Fly ash and From the Fly ash will be Dust generation in ash
bottom ash ESPs supplied to cement pond will be controlled
industries and brick by maintaining the
manufacturing units area in wet condition.
and excess will be
disposed in ash
pond.

Gypsum From FGD Gypsum will be -


supplied to cement
industries and
fertilizer industries

Ecology
a. Terrestrial Impact on Emissions Emission will be As ambient air quality
plant from stack controlled as well as will be within limits, no
species dispersed through active injury to the
appropriate design. vegetation is expected

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Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Discipline Potential Probable Mitigative Measures Remarks


Negative Source
Impacts
b. Aquatic Impact on Treated The wastewater will As all the effluents will
water waste water be provided with be treated to conform
bodies from plant adequate treatment to prescribed limits, no
and diluted in CMB significant impact on
and the treated aquatic life is expected
wastewater will be
used for horticulture
and dust suppression
Noise Increase in Equipment Equipment will be Employees working in
noise levels in main designed to conform high noise areas would
in the plant plant and to noise levels be provided earplugs/
area. auxiliaries. prescribed by earmuffs as protective
regulatory agencies. device.
Provision of green
belt and plantation
would further help in
attenuating noise.
Demography Strain on Influx of Local population will Overall socio-
and Socio- existing people of be given preference economic status of the
Economics amenities like proposed in awarding work. No area is expected to
housing, power plant significant impact is improve.
water employees envisaged. Additional
sources and as well as facilities will be
sanitation, contractor's developed by the
medical and employees/ project proponents.
infrastructure labourers.
facilities.

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Chapter 4 : Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

4.9 Budgetary Allocation for Environmental Protection


Environment protection will be monitored and executed by an environmental
management cell. The monetary estimates have been arrived for the proposed activity
and are presented. It is proposed to invest Rs. 1888.55 Crores on pollution control,
treatment and monitoring systems. In addition to these Rs. 828.51 Crores per annum
will be spent on recurring cost. A detailed budgetary allocation for Environment
Protection is presented in Table 4.9.1.

Table 4.9.1 : Proposed Budget Provision for Environmental Measures


Sr. Description of Item Cost Recurring
No. (Rs in cost/year
Crores) (Rs in crores)
1 Electrostatic Precipitators 300.50 7.15
2 Flue Gas Desulphurization units (2 Nos) 800.0 315.00
3 De Nox Technology/SCR 640.0 504.00
4 Twin flue stack 90.50 0.80
5 Effluent Treatment Plant, Sewage Collection, 10.6 0.26
Treatment and STP
6 Dust Suppression System 4.65 0.06
7 Online Monitoring system 6.4 0.06
8 Offline Environment Monitoring through 4.0 0.05
MoEF&CC and NABL approved laboratory
9 Marine water quality Monitoring - 0.03
10 Green belt Development 30.9 1.0
11 Action plan for Mangrove conservation 1.0 0.1
Total 1888.55 828.51

4.43
Chapter 5 : Analysis of Alternatives (Technology and Site)
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Chapter 5
Analysis of Alternatives
(Technology and Site)
5.1 Site Alternatives and Analysis
The state of Karnataka is poised for rapid industrial development and large
scale use of electric power for industry would be forthcoming. The demand for power
generation capacity will continue to increase that warrants need for increasing the
power generation to minimize the expanding gap between demand and supply.

In the context of the above, present proposal has been prepared for
expansion of existing 2x600 MW thermal power plant of Udupi Power Corporation
Limited (UPCL) to 2800 MW by addition of 2 x 800 MW Thermal Power Plant (TPP) at
village Yelluru and Santhru in Notified Industrial Area in Karnataka. Main plant of the
proposed (2x800 MW TPP) expansion falls partly within the existing plant area and
partly in additional contiguous land. Additional land identified for expansion by 2x800
MW falls in Notified Industrial Area in village Yelluru and Santhru in tehsil Udupi,
district Udupi. As the site is located adjacent to the existing TPP units No. 1 & 2 and it
is easily approachable/accessible from rail and road, the site selected is quite suitable
and satisfies the relevant criteria for site selection.

5.1.1 Site Selection Criteria


Area requirement for the proposed power plant has been optimized in
considering the space requirements of all the equipment, systems, buildings and
structures, coal storage area, ash silos, raw water storage tank, water treatment plant,
cooling water pump house, and chemical storage area etc. Necessary plant drainage
system would be provided at the proposed power plant site. All facilities of the plant
area laid out in close proximity to each other to the extent practicable so as to
minimize the extent of land required. The layout also facilitates movement of men and
materials between various facilities both during construction and also during
subsequent operation and maintenance.

The following factors which influence the site selection have been favorable
to select the proposed site:
x Availability of adequate unused land for erecting power plant structures;
x Already available railway line for coal transportation;
x Adequate land being available for coal storage yard;

5.1
Chapter 5 : Analysis of Alternatives (Technology and Site)
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

x Suitability of land from topography, geological and environmental


aspects;
x Proximity to highways for transport of heavy equipment;
x Facility for interconnection with transmission system for evacuation of
power;
x Environmentally suitable, absence of sensitive areas and major
settlements; and
x Availability of infrastructure facilities.

Conformation to the Guidelines for Site Selection


The site suitability as per Environment Guidelines is given in Table 5.1.
Table 5.1 : Compliance to Siting Guidelines
Sr. Terms Existing TPP Proposed TPP
No
1 Observation of the site The land is declared as The land is declared as
& vegetation Industrial Area under Industrial Area under
Karnataka Industrial Areas Karnataka Industrial Areas
Development Act, 1966 vide Development Act, 1966 vide
notification dated: notification dated: 20/01/1995
20/01/1995 & 21/05/1998 & 21/05/1998
2 Village & Population Yelluru & Santhuru of Yelluru & Santhuru of
population 5453 & 2461 population 5453 & 2461
respectively as per censes respectively as per censes
2011 2011
4 Sea Water Source Site is located about 4.5 km Site is located about 4.5 km
from the Arabian Sea. from the Arabian Sea.
5 Highway Site is located about 5 km Site is located about 5 km
from NH66 and 2 km from from NH66 and 2 km from
SH1. SH1.
6 City/Town Nearest town is Udupi and is Nearest town is Udupi and is
about 30 km from the site about 30 km from the site
towards North. towards North.
7 Biosphere No biosphere reserves / No biosphere reserves /
reserves/Habitat etc. habitat for migratory bird habitat for migratory bird
/archaeological monuments /archaeological monuments
within 10 km radius of the within 10 km radius of the
study area. study area.
8 Forests Pilarkhana RF is about 5 km Pilarkhana RF is about 5 km
from the site towards from the site towards
Northeast. Northeast.
9 Airport NOC from Airport Authority NOC from Airport Authority of
of India has obtained by India has obtained by Project
Project Proponent Proponent

Elevation of plant site and ash pond is ~27 meter above MSL. Proposed
project site conforms to the prescribed guidelines in terms of distance over 500 m from
High Flood Level (HFL) of the river, highways and railway line. The nearest water body
is Arabian sea which is 4.5 Km. Mulki and Uadayavara is flowing within 10 km radius
area. Nearest point of Mulki river is about 5.0 km in south and nearest point of
Udayavara river is 6.0 km in North from Project site.

5.2
Chapter 5 : Analysis of Alternatives (Technology and Site)
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

The required resources for implementation of the project are also available
nearby project site. Water requirement for existing and proposed power plants are
drawn from Arabian sea which is at a distance of 4.5 km. Coal requirement of the
project will be 70% imported coal & 30% domestic coal. Till the domestic allocation
form MOC is received, 100% imported coal form Australia and Indonesia can be used.
The soil at the site selected for construction of the proposed plant in also suitable.
Considering all above aspects the site selected for the project is well suited for the new
unit.

5.2 Power Plant Technology and Alternatives


The technology available for large coal fired power plants are;
x Sub-critical
x Supercritical & Ultra Supercritical

In order to increase the thermodynamic cycle efficiency and resulting


reduction in power plant emissions including greenhouse gases, Coal fired thermal
power plants are now moving towards Supercritical steam parameters in India. Key
features of both the technologies are briefly described here.
5.2.1 Sub-critical Units

Sub-critical conditions occur when the steam pressure is below 221.2 bar(a)
where mixture of steam and water co-exists. Typical steam pressures for sub critical
units will be about 170 kg/cm²(a).

Subcritical power plant units in India operate at steam conditions


170 kg/cm²(a) main steam pressure and at 540°C main steam and reheat steam
parameters at turbine inlet.
5.2.2 Supercritical and Ultra supercritical Units

Supercritical conditions occur when the boiler steam pressure increases


above the critical pressure of 221.2 bar (a). Above this point, two phase mixtures of
water and steam cease to exist and are replaced by a single supercritical fluid. This
eliminates the need for water/steam separation in drums during operation, and allows
a simpler separator to be employed during start-up conditions.

Supercritical technology operates above steam/water critical pressure of


221.2 bar (a) and 374.15°C. Steam parameters for supercritical technology are
generally classified into two major groups - ‘Supercritical’ and ‘Ultra supercritical’

a. Supercritical steam parameters:

Steam pressures up to 250 kg/cm²(a) and Steam temperatures ranging from


538°C to 593°C at turbine inlet.

5.3
Chapter 5 : Analysis of Alternatives (Technology and Site)
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

b. Ultra Supercritical steam parameters:

Steam pressures above 250 kg/cm²(a) to 300 kg/cm²(a) and steam


temperatures ranging from 600°C to 650°C at turbine inlet.

5.2.3 Efficiency Gains

The following graph shows efficiency gains that can typically be achieved
through the use of higher steam pressures and temperatures on a single reheat cycle.
From the graph, it can be noted that, as the pressure is increased, so the gains made
by increasing the steam temperatures are marginally greater.

Fig. 5.1 : Curve for Efficiency Improvement

Other factors which affect the cycle efficiency are the number of reheats,
single or double, the condenser pressure, single/dual condenser pressures, the
number of feed water heaters, pressure drop through the reheater, inherent steam
turbine efficiency etc.
5.2.4 Development of Supercritical Technology Worldwide

Around mid to late 1980s when the pressure from the greenhouse gas issue
began to be felt, European countries and Japan embarked on a major program of
advancing the efficiency of the steam cycle with increased steam
pressures/temperatures. High cost of fuel is another major driver for advancement in

5.4
Chapter 5 : Analysis of Alternatives (Technology and Site)
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

supercritical and ultra-supercritical pressures and temperatures for boiler and turbine
cycle.

Countries in Europe and Japan have adapted supercritical technology much


earlier and are now graduating towards ultra-supercritical units with higher steam
pressures and temperatures. There are more than 600 Supercritical units operating in
the world of varying unit sizes.

Many Ultra Supercritical units of sizes between 600 MW and 1000 MW have
also been commissioned in Germany, Japan, Italy and USA in the past 10 to 15 years.
Few Ultra supercritical Units are under execution in China. These units adapted steam
temperatures up to 610°C.

Suppliers for Supercritical / Ultra Supercritical Units are from Europe, Japan,
China and USA.

Major OEMs from Europe are GE-Alstom and Siemens for both boilers and
turbines, and Hitachi Babcock Borsig Power for boiler design. In Japan, MHI and
Hitachi offer both boiler and turbines, and Toshiba offer only turbines, IHI only boilers.
The major USA manufacturers also offer supercritical boilers of a similar design to
those offered by the German and Japanese manufactures.

Doosan from Korea offer supercritical Boilers and Turbines. Chinese


manufacturers also offer supercritical boilers under the licensees from European and
Japanese manufacturers.
5.2.5 Supercritical Experience in India

Post 2003, Government of India, Ministry of Power launched an initiative to


facilitate development of large size power plants with state-of-the art supercritical
technology and clean coal technology to accelerate pace of capacity addition in India.
Thrust was given to select higher unit sizes of capacity 660 MW, 800 MW and 1000
MW. Large capacity units were required in the country to meet the power growth plan
envisaged.

Supercritical steam parameters and technology were mandated in all the


Ultra Mega Power Projects (UMPP), which were launched during the period between
2006 and 2008 by Ministry of Power & CEA through Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV).
Subsequent period witnessed setting up of many 660 MW and 800 MW Supercritical
units by Central/ State/Private sector.

First 660 MW Supercritical Unit in India was commissioned in December


2010 by Adani Power in Mundra, Gujarat. First 800 MW Supercritical Unit in India was
commissioned in 2011 by Tata Power, also in Mundra, Gujarat as a part of 4000 MW
UMPP.

Subsequently, National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) invited Bulk


Tenders for 660 MW units and 800 MW Units in 2 phases, totaling to 20 Supercritical

5.5
Chapter 5 : Analysis of Alternatives (Technology and Site)
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Units. Localisation through phased manufacturing program, transfer of technology and


capacity building were implemented through such bulk orders and competitive
environment was created.

The above initiatives resulted in rapid capacity addition and adaption of


supercritical technology in India across the power sector industry.

11th Plan (2007-2012) witnessed commissioning of about 11 Supercritical


Units of sizes 660/800 MW. 12th Plan (2012 – till 2015) witnessed commissioning of
about 32 Supercritical Units of sizes 660/700/800 MW. In addition to the above
commissioned units, about 70 Supercritical Units are under various stages of
execution.

Apart from BHEL, private sector firms such as L&T, JSW and Barath Forge
formed JV Company with OEMs from Japan and Europe have come up to establish
design, manufacture and execution capabilities for Supercritical technology based
Power Units in India. Doosan India and TBW India has established facilities in India for
supercritical Boiler through their Technology tie-up with their respective parent
company.

In India, first Ultra Supercritical thermal power project is initiated by NTPC


and the plant is being set up in Khargone, MP state with MHI technology. The steam
conditions for this unit are:
x Main steam pressure 270 kg/cm²(a)
x Main and Reheat Steam Temperatures are 600°C/ 600°C

OEMs with manufacturing base in India for Supercritical units are given in
Table 5.2.

Table 5.2 : OEM’s for Supercritical Units in India


Supplier Equipment Technology from
GE-Alstom for Boiler
BHEL Boiler & Turbine
Siemens for Turbine
MHI for Boiler
L&T MHI Boiler & Turbine
MHI for Turbine
Toshiba JSW Turbine Toshiba
Alstom Bharat Forge Turbine GE-Alstom
Doosan Boiler Doosan
TB&W Boiler Babcock & Wilcox

Heat Rate Improvement with Supercritical & Ultra Supercritical


Parameters

To determine the steam conditions for the power cycle, potential increase in
the cycle efficiency gains at elevated steam pressures and temperatures needs to be
considered. Plant thermal efficiency and therefore environmental performance are

5.6
Chapter 5 : Analysis of Alternatives (Technology and Site)
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

enhanced by increasing steam pressure and temperature. Typical range of turbine


cycle heat rate for Supercritical / Ultra super critical parameters are given in Table 5.3.

Table 5.3 : Typical Range of Turbine Cycle Heat Rate for Supercritical (SC) / Ultra
Super Critical (USC) Parameters

Steam Conditions at Turbine inlet Cycle Heat rate*


(Pressure/ Steam Temperatures) (kCal/kWh) (Note 1)
250 kg/cm² (a)/ 565°C/ 565°C (SC) 1840 to 1860

250 kg/cm² (a)/ 565°C/ 593°C (SC) 1820 to 1835

270 kg/cm² (a)/ 600°C / 600°C C (USC) 1780 to 1800

* Above Turbine cycle heat rates are considering turbine driven boiler feed pump

5.2.6 Steam Parameters for Udupi 2 x 800 MW Plant

Ultra-supercritical (USC) technology and steam parameters are considered


for this project in order to have increased efficiency and to reduce the emissions per
kWh power generation.

Steam parameters at steam turbine inlet for Ultra Supercritical are: 270 bar
(a), 600/600°C.

Most of the leading OEMs are having proven design / operating experience
with the above parameters. Many utilities in India have started gaining operating
experience with the above ultra supercritical parameters. Proven materials for Boiler
pressure parts, critical piping, steam turbine parts are available.

CERC/CEA have stipulated operating norms which requires turbine cycle


heat rate of 1850 kCal/kWh with turbine driven boiler feed pumps and 1810 kCal/kWh
for motor driven boiler feed pump. Most turbine suppliers can meet the above norms at
270 bar (a) steam pressure with 600°C main steam and 600°C reheat steam
temperatures.

The above steam parameters for Ultra-Supercritical are considered in this


expansion project.

5.2.7 Environmental Benefits

Gains in efficiency will result in the environmental benefits, i.e. reduced


specific coal consumption and hence lower amount of CO2, NOx, SO2 and
Mercury(Hg) emission per kWh of power generated using efficient supercritical plants.

5.7
Chapter 6 : Environmental Monitoring Program
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Chapter 6
Environmental Monitoring
Program
Based on the baseline data collected on various environmental parameters
and with the prediction of impacts, it is desirable to have an environmental monitoring
program to establish the trend of various environmental parameters and also to check
their compliance with the discharge limits specified by the regulatory agencies. The
details of the proposed environmental monitoring program are summarized below.

6.1 Existing Monitoring Programme with Future


Requirements
The various components of the environment need to be monitored on regular
basis as per the requirements of regulatory agencies as well as for trend monitoring of
the pollutants levels. For the project, an Environmental Management Apex Review
Committee (EMARC) will be formed, which will review the effectiveness of
environmental management system of the project in line with ISO-14001 & ISO-18001
and shall monitor the effectiveness of Environmental Management Programs (EMP)
implementation for the project during the construction and operational phase of the
project.
EMARC will work out a schedule for monitoring and will meet regularly to
review the effectiveness of the EMP implementation. The data collected on various
EMP measures would be reviewed by this committee and if needed, corrective action
will be formulated for implementation. EMARC will form short term & long term plans
for environmental issues, which will require monitoring and effective implementation.
Monitoring of environmental components during operation phase is a part
and parcel of the environmental mitigation measures. Only frequent monitoring can
assess the functioning and efficacy of all pollution control equipment. Thus the project
proponent has to establish a separate full-fledged environmental laboratory (or use
NABL accredited laboratory) to monitor various environmental quality parameters of
air, water, noise level in the plant as well as in the surrounding impact zone. For this
purpose a strategic post project monitoring plan is suggested, which shall be followed
by the project proponent.

Monitoring activity is mainly envisaged covering the following aspects:

x Air Quality (stack emissions & ambient air including fugitive emissions)
x Water and Effluent Quality
x Soil Quality
x Ecology

6.1
Chapter 6 : Environmental Monitoring Program
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

x Noise Levels
x Green Belt Development
x Social Welfare Activities Undertaken

The environmental quality-monitoring program will be carried out in the


impact zone with suitable sampling stations and frequency for environmental
parameters with respect to different environmental components.

Details of existing environmental monitoring programme including number of


sampling locations, parameters to be monitored, frequency of monitoring done by
UPCL for the existing 2x600 MW plant and further additional requirement for
environmental monitoring for the proposed expansion is given in Table 6.1.

Table 6.1 : Existing environmental monitoring programme with


additional requirement for the proposed expansion
S. Environmental Location Parameters Frequency Additional
No Monitoring requirement
for proposed
expansion
Offline Environmental Monitoring Program (through NABL Accredited Laboratory)

1. Ambient Air 6 Locations All 12 parameters as per Twice in a 2 Additional


Quality NAAQS plus Hg week and 104 Locations
measurements
for year
2. Emission Stack at 90 m PM, SO2, NOx, CO and Hg Once in 15 Stack at 90 m
Source height Days height
3. Surface 1 location pH, colour, odour, DO, Once in a 1 additional
Water (Mulki river) BOD, TDS, hardness, Cl, F, Month location for
SO4, alkalinity, NO3, Ca, Udayverna
Mg, Na, K, Cu, Cr, Cd, CN, River
Phenols, Pb, Zn, O&G, total
coliforms
4. Ground 9 Locations/ As per the parameters Once in a No additional
water villages specified under Month location
IS:10500:2012; and ground
water levels
5. Ambient 6 location at Noise level in dB(A) Once in a 2 Additional
Noise AAQ stations Month Locations at
AAQ stations
6. Soil 5 Locations Colour, textural class, grain Once in Six 5 Additional
villages size, distribution, pH, Months Locations
electrical conductivity, bulk
density, porosity, infiltration
rate, moisture retention
capacity, wilting co-efficient,
organic matter Na, N, K,
PO4, SO4, SAR, base
exchange capacity, Pb, Cu,
Zn, Cd, Fe.
7. Ecology 10 Km radius Vegetation density and Bio Once in a 10 Km radius
study area Diversity Year study area
8. Discharge to Outlet pH, TSS, Odor, Color Once in a Outlet
Sea discharge at BOD,COD, Heavy metals Week discharge at
9. Treated guard pond & (Arsenic, Total Chromium, proposed
Effluent ETP Hexavalent Chromium, Iron, guard pond &

6.2
Chapter 6 : Environmental Monitoring Program
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Copper) ETP
10. Test Wells 4 Nos Test As per the parameters Once in a 4 Additional
surrounding wells specified under IS:10500; Month Test wells
Ash Pond ground water levels
11. Ground 6 Nos Test As per the parameters Once in a No additional
Water along Wells specified under Month location
the pipe line IS:10500:2012; and ground
corridor water levels
12 Marine Near Intake Sea Water Quality Once in a Near Intake
Water and Outfall Parameters, Phytoplankton month and Outfall
Quality Locations diversity and biomass, locations
Monitoring Zooplankton diversity and
biomass, Macrobenthos
and Lethaltoxity test
Online Environmental Monitoring Program (In-house Facility)

1. Ambient Air 4Nos PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, Continuous


Quality CO
2. Emission Stack at 90 m PM, SO2, NOx, CO and Hg Continuous Stack at 90 m
Source height height
3. Meteorology 1 Met station at Wind speed, wind direction, Continuous No addition as
Data plant site temperature, relative already
humidity and rainfall existing at
plant site
4. Discharge to Outlet pH, TSS, DO, Conductivity, Continuous Outlet
Sea discharge at Temperature discharge at
guard pond guard pond
5. Treated Outlet pH, Conductivity, Continuous Outlet
Effluent discharge at Temperature discharge of
ETP proposed ETP

Note: All the parameters are being monitored as per applicable standard methods
and the same shall be followed for future expansion also.

Offline monitoring for various parameters is carried out through NABL


accredited laboratory, whereas online monitoring is done by in-house facility.

It is proposed to develop in-house monitoring capability for all the offline


parameters in due course of time (with NABL accreditation), which will meet the
requirement of total power plant after expansion.

6.2 Staff Requirement for Environment Management


Considering the importance of the pollution control and environmental
protection, a group of personnel is already identified for the existing plant, which will
take care of future requirement also with suitable technical and support staff. Further,
to meet the additional requirement, if any, manpower from operations and
maintenance wing is engaged. Organization structure of environmental management
department for the existing plant is shown in Fig. 6.1, which will be suitably augmented
by employing relevant subject/discipline experts at an appropriate time.
The company has a full-fledged safety department to look after the safety
issues of the plant. The same shall be followed in future expansion also.

6.3
Chapter 6 : Environmental Monitoring Program
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Vice President Vice President


Station Head-UPCL (Corporate Head –Env)
(Supported by 5 officials including
1 ECOLOGIST (M.Sc Terrestrial
Ecology)
and
Safety Management – 6 1 MARINE BIOLOGIST
Officials supported by 15 (M. Sc Marine Biology, PhD.)
Safety Stewards
For common function to all projects

Sr. Manager Env - UPCL


(BE, ME – Env Engg)

Manger – Env (M.Tech –


Horticulture -2 Officials Env, Gold Medal) One middle management
(B.Sc – Agriculture Assistant Manager Officer for Proposed Project
(B.tech. Env)

30 Numbers Contract 5 Numbers Contract 3 Numbers Contract


Manpower for Manpower for ETP/STP Manpower for ETP/STP
Horticultural Operations Operations Operations

Fig. 6.1 : Organization Structure of Environmental Management Department


(Existing and Additional Requirement)

6.3 Operation and Maintenance of Pollution Control


System
Normally persons engaged in production are also entrusted with operation
and maintenance of pollution control systems. This may result in neglect of these
systems as priority is given to production equipment. In view of this and the
requirement of ensuring emission and ambient air and water standards, an officer of
the plant shall be made responsible for the effective functioning of all pollution control
systems. He will report to the Head of the Maintenance Department. Whenever
required, he will draw crew from the main plant maintenance team for maintenance of
pollution control system.

6.4 Budgetary Provisions


Appropriate budgetary provisions towards environmental monitoring program
for the proposed project will be made. The details of the same are provided in the
Chapter 10.

6.4
Chapter 6 : Environmental Monitoring Program
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

6.5 Submission of Monitoring Reports to MoEF&CC


As required, the status of environmental clearance stipulation implementation
will be submitted to MoEF&CC in hard and soft copy by 1st December for the period
from April to September and by 1st June for the period from October to March of every
year. These reports will be put up on MoEF&CC web site as per their procedure and
will be updated every six months. The conventional pollutants will be monitored on
monthly basis and reports will be submitted to SPCB, as per the requirements.
In addition to the compliance monitoring requirements, it is proposed that the
project proponent shall prepare Environmental Sustainability Report comprising
analysis of all the environmental quality data collected during the year, coupled with
details of green belt development, ecology of the region and social welfare measures
undertaken with resultant improvement in quality of life of the people in the region on
annual basis. The report shall be published by September every year, containing the
analysed data for the previous financial year.

6.5
Chapter 7 : Additional Studies
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Chapter 7
Additional Studies

M/s Udupi Power Corporation Limited (UPCL) a subsidiary of Adani Power


Limited, is proposing for expansion of existing 1200 MW (2x600 MW – Phase -1) to
2800 MW by addition of 1600 MW (2x800 MW – Phase -2) in notified industrial area in
village Yelluru and Santhuru, Taluka Udupi, Dist. Udupi in Karnataka state. The
following studies have been carried out by various organizations:

1. EIA Studies for the Seawater Intake & outfall and identification of suitable
intake location by CSIR-NIO, Goa (June 2016)
2. Hydrogeological study by Geo Engineering Services, Vadodara, Gujarat
(June 2016)
3. Socio-economic study, need assessment and CSR Plan by Department of
Social Work, Mangalore University, Mangalore (June 2016)
4. Wild life study and conservation plan by Dr. Bharat Jethva, a senior wildlife
ecologist and category-A, accredited (MoEF-QCI-Government of India) expert
of Ecology and Biodiversity.
Key findings of the above studies have been incorporated in this chapter.
Further, details of CSR initiatives undertaken by UPCL and interaction with the public
by the NEERI study team are included.

7.1 Marine EIA Study conducted by CSIR-NIO, Goa


x Udupi Power Corporation Limited (UPCL) a subsidiary of Adani Power
Limited, is proposing for expansion of existing 1200 MW (2x600 MW –
Phase -1 ) coal based thermal power plant at village Yelluru and
Santhru and sea water pipeline landfall point at Yermal – Tenka, Tehsil
Udupi, Karnataka to 2800 MW by addition of 1600 MW (2x800 MW
super critical units in Phase 2)
x M/s UPCL approached NIO to suggest suitable intake and outfall
locations for the cooling system. Accordingly, NIO has taken up this
project and carried out environmental impact assessment study and
numerical modelling study to find out (i) a suitable intake/outfall point in
the vicinity of the existing pipeline corridor and (ii) any possibility of
discharged warm and high saline water reaching the revised intake
point and (iii) suggest a comprehensive environment management plan
to be implemented during the construction, operation and post
operational phase of the UPCL plant.

7.1
Chapter 7 : Additional Studies
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

7.1.1 Salient Findings of the Study


x Surface meteorological parameters showed diurnal variation during the
study period (December 3-5, 2015). Tide was mixed semidiurnal in
nature with maximum amplitude of 1.6 m in spring and minimum
amplitude of 0.4 m in neap phase. Current during this period was
predominantly driven by tides that change direction from north to south
with an average intensity of 0.25 m/s. Warm sea surface (~29.5°C) was
observed in the study region, where the Hydrographic observation
revealed a warm, low saline patch of water close to the shore stations.
x The hydrographic parameters and total petroleum hydrocarbons were
within the normal range of values that reported from unpolluted coastal
areas. The water column exhibited slightly alkaline pH in the entire
study region. Well oxygenated conditions prevailed in the entire study
region. The observed low BOD indicated that this region was devoid of
organic matter pollution.
x The nutrient elements such as N, P and Si were present only in µM
levels and are comparable with reported values from other coastal
areas of the Arabian Sea. The PHC values in water column and
sediments were well below the threshold levels so that they cannot
exert adverse biological effects.
x Heavy metals in the study area remained below effective range - low
levels (ER-L) indicating that it may not pose harmful effects to the biota.
x The bacteriological investigation in the study area showed that the
water quality sustains a good biodiversity. Heterotrophic bacterial
abundance varied from 0.024-3.19 x104 cfu/ml. The total and fecal
coliform counts were less indicating a minimum human induced
bacterial contamination. Though there were variations in the total
counts (0.28-2.53 x105 cells/ml at surface waters and 0.20 -1.48 x105
cells/ml at bottom waters) the spatial variations in the abundances were
not significant.
x The distribution of phytoplankton biomass, abundance, composition and
species diversity did not show any significant spatial variation. Majority
of the sampling locations showed chlorophyll a content less than
1 mg/m3, which indicates the normal condition of tropical coastal waters
in terms phytoplankton biomass. The dominance of diatoms (40-60%)
over other phytoplankton groups also showed the normal characteristic
feature of tropical coastal waters.
x The meso-zooplankton community in the vicinity and surrounding areas
of the seawater inlet & outfall, other sampling locations and the
reference station did not show any major variations. The general
composition of zooplankton at all the stations remained more or less
similar to that of the reference station.

7.2
Chapter 7 : Additional Studies
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

x In case of the macrobenthic community, the density in the inlet, outfall,


other sampling locations and reference station did not show much
variation. The biomass in the reference station remained more or less
similar to the other stations.
x The observed medium lethal temperature (35.9°C and 39.81ºC) of both
Prawn post larvae and artemia nauplii is far higher than the observed
ambient water temperature (i.e. 29.0°C and 32.0ºC). Hence, we may
not anticipate any major impact on the organisms residing in the area
due to the discharge of coolant water from the power plant.
x To conclude, the prevailing environmental and ecological features in the
vicinity and surrounding area of the power plant seawater inlet and
outfall points did not exhibit any adverse conditions that may affect the
survival and propagation of the biota in the region. However,
precaution may be taken to maintain similar conditions in the future too.

7.1.2 Modelling Study Results


x This report describes the hydrodynamics, temperature and salinity and
aspects of the coastal waters off Udupi. The field data collected from
the site during Nov-Dec 2015 has been applied for numerical modelling
of hydrodynamics and the dispersion of thermal and saline plumes.
x The currents observed off Suratkal and Mulki were southerly direction
with a maximum speed of 0.32 m/s during the measurement period.
Also, there were frequent spells of current reversal with weak northerly.
currents.
x Surface elevations at Mangalore and Malpe have been predicted using
the four major tidal constituents M2, S2, K1 and O1, available for these
stations. The maximum water level obtained during spring tide is 1.65m.
x MIKE21 Hydrodynamics (HD) Model has been used to simulate water
levels, currents and effluent dispersion off Mangalore during Nov-Dec
2015, i.e., calm period. Model validation experiments show that the
surface elevations and the components of the currents are in good
agreement with the predicted tides and measured currents respectively.
x The currents were predominantly tide-driven, reversing under tidal
phase during Nov-Dec 2015. Under these currents, the cumulative
dispersion of water released from the proposed outfall advected
southward and northward as a plume and it did not exhibit any
recirculation towards the near shore regions.
x The intake/outfall pipeline corridor extends to the sea upto 1750 m off
the coastline which can be used for installing outfall diffuser. Cooling
water to be drawn from the sea at a distance of 650 m. Outfall will have
a source temperature +5ºC, above the ambient temperature and a
source salinity of 55.7 psu with a flow rate of 20,000 m3/h.

7.3
Chapter 7 : Additional Studies
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

x Model results indicated that the impact of high saline, warm water
released into the coastal sea is very negligible as the net excess
temperature is 0.66qC and excess salinity is 1.19 psu at the proposed
outfall location. The warm and high saline water discharge were
confined within an area of 500 sq. m around the outfall location and no
change in the water quality of the coastal environment is envisaged due
to the discharge.
x An increase of 0.02°C and 0.08 psu have been noticed in temperature
salinity at the proposed intake point during the entire simulation period
covering spring tide, neap tide and calm periods, which can be
considered negligible.

7.1.3 Potential Marine Environmental Impacts


x The proposed marine activities at UPCL plant will have at the most
temporary localized impact on the marine environment. A localized
increase in turbidity may temporarily affect the dissolved oxygen,
biological oxygen demand and photosynthetic activity in the open
coastal region. The disturbance of the bottom sediment may liberate
some of the nutrients and heavy metals and increase their
concentration in the water column temporarily. However, since the
sediment is uncontaminated, the biota would not be exposed to high
levels of pollutants due to sediment disturbance.
x Some damage to sub-tidal and inter-tidal benthic fauna may occur in
the narrow corridor of about 50 m width along the pipeline route. These
impacts are, however, temporary during the construction phase and are
reversible with short recovery period because laying of the submarine
pipeline for coolant water discharge is a one-time activity.
x The intake/outfall pipeline corridor extends into the sea upto 1750 m off
the coastline which can be used to discharge warm waters. Cooling
water is to be drawn from the sea at a distance of 650 m. Outfall will
have a source temperature +5ºC, above the ambient temperature and
a source salinity of 55.7 psu with a flow rate of 20,000 m3/h.
x Model results indicated that the impact of high saline, warm water
released into the coastal sea is very negligible as the net excess
temperature is 0.62°C and excess salinity is 1.24 psu at the proposed
outfall location. The warm and high saline water discharge were
confined within an area of 500 sq. m around the outfall location and no
change in the water quality of the coastal environment is envisaged due
to the discharge.
x An increase of 0.07°C and 0.25 psu have been noticed in temperature
and salinity at the proposed intake point during the entire simulation
period covering spring tide, neap tide and calm periods, which can be
considered negligible.

7.4
Chapter 7 : Additional Studies
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

7.1.4 Socio-economic Conditions


x The marine activities by UPCL at Udupi may initially cause some
temporary impact. However, it is possible to control them by suitable
mitigation measures. It is fact that an establishment of power plant
besides generating employment to local people may promote other
industries in the area and raise the socio-economic status of the people,
the benefit of such development will most probably outweigh the
adverse effects, if any, in the long run.

7.1.5 Mitigation and Precautionary Measures


x Although the impacts arising during construction phase will be of
temporary in nature, proper care should be taken to reduce possible
risks.
x The pipeline in the inter tidal and sub tidal areas should be buried to a
safe depth (1m below the surface sediment) to avoid any interference
with the smooth fishing operations in the area.
x Inter tidal and sub tidal areas should be restored to their original
contours after the pipe laying activities are completed.
x A thorough study of the various operational and post operational
activities should have provision to efficiently deal with various types of
environmental impacts to preserve the environment.

7.1.6 Environmental Management Plan


x The design and operation of sub marine pipeline should be leak proof.
A comprehensive management plan in respect of the marine
environment will have to be worked out by the UPCL.
x Coolant seawater has to be regularly monitored through post project
monitoring.
x Spot sampling of environmental parameters should be taken
periodically to ensure the health of the marine environment around the
discharge site.
x Proper care should be taken to check and clean the diffuser pipe.
x The results of the post monitoring phase should be compared with the
baseline data to delineate the changes, if any, in the water quality and
marine life.
x The results of this report are site specific and based on post monsoon
observations. The delicate ecological balance should be maintained
while carrying out the marine activities considering the socio-economic
benefits to the local population.

7.5
Chapter 7 : Additional Studies
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

7.2 Hydro-geology Study Conducted by Geo Engineering


Services, Vadodara
Hydro-geology study of the proposed project is conducted through Geo
Engineering Services, Vadodara, Gujarat.

7.2.1 Summary of Hydro-Geology Study


The UPCL, a subsidiary of Adani Power Limited (APL) proposes for
expansion of 1200 MW (2x600 MW) to 2800 MW by addition of 1600 MW
(2x800 MW). The study work of geo-hydrological conditions of the surrounding 10 km
radius of the project area was awarded to Geo Engineering Services, Vadodara vide
Service Order No. 5700172316 dated 15.02.2016 as per condition number XXV of the
Terms of Reference for expansion of existing 2x600 MW power plant as granted by the
MoEFCC.

Detailed introduction of the project site and study area is given in Chapter 2
of the hydro-geology study. Methodology adopted, instruments and equipment
deployed during the study are discussed in Chapter 3. Chemical analysis of the
surface water samples infer that there is seawater influence in the estuary and along
the coastal zone during high tide due to mixing of fresh water with seawater. Tube and
open wells do not show much variation with respect to drinking water standard
IS 10500:2012, which is dealt in detail in the Chapter 4. Electrical resistivity analysis of
the study area as depicted in Chapter 5 shows that there is shallow water zone in all
locations. Major water bearing formation in the study area is laterite followed by
weathered granite and gneisses.

Aquifer Performance Test conducted in the study area is discussed in the


Chapter 6, which infers that performance of shallow aquifer in the study area is good,
whereas in the deep aquifer drawdown is a bit high owing to lesser field permeability.

The impact on the hydrogeological environment of the study area is


estimated both quantitatively and qualitatively in Chapter 7 of the Hydro-Geology
Report.

7.2.2 Qualitative and Quantitative Impact Assessment


Water requirement of existing 2x600 MW units of UPCL is met by
de-salination of sea water. Water requirement of proposed 2x800 MW units are also
planned to be met out by using de-salined sea water. No surface water from lake/river
or ground water shall be sourced for operation of 2x600 MW and 2x800 MW units, as
proposed by the project proponent. Presently, for 2x600 MW units, sea water intake
and outfall is done through closed pipelines from the sea to plant. After expansion by
2x800 MW units also, it is proposed by the project proponent that sea water intake and
outfall shall be through the pipelines within the existing land corridor. No connection
with any surface water source for any intake and outfall water is proposed for this
power plant. The impact on the hydrogeological environment particularly on

7.6
Chapter 7 : Additional Studies
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

groundwater regime is estimated and given in Table 7.1. The score and type of
impact is assessed as per the category given in Table 7.2.

Table 7.1 : Qualitative and Quantitative Impact Assessment on Ground and


Surface Water
Score/
Method/ tools Expected
Parameter Present condition Impact
for estimation Impact
Type
Qualitative Examination
Groundwater Sampling/ Water quality is fair to good No impact 5
Chemical (Neutral)
analysis
Surface Sampling/ - No Impact 5
water Chemical (Neutral)
analysis
Quantitative Examination
Groundwater Water level Water level is shallow No Impact 5
measurement (Neutral)
Aquifer type Semi confined-consolidated - 5
(Neutral)
Aquifer Permeable strata / Less - 6
Performance test drawdown (Neutral)
Water Balance Water used from Sea. - 5
Proposed 2x800 MW units (Neutral)
shall also be sea water based.
Groundwater No groundwater is used by the No Impact 5
extraction Existing 2x600 MW units. No (Neutral)
groundwater is proposed for
operation of proposed 2x800
MW units also.
Surface Surface water Sea water is used by the No impact 5
water extraction or existing 2x600 MW units and on surface (Neutral)
discharge into same shall be used for water of
surface water operation of proposed 2x800 lake / river
MW units also. quality and
quantity

Table 7.2: Environment Impact Category


Score Description
1 Significant Adverse Impact on Ground and Surface water environment
2 to 3 Negative Adverse Impact on Ground and Surface water environment
4 to 7 Neutral Impact on Ground and Surface water environment
8 Good Positive Impact on Ground and Surface water environment
9 Very Good Positive Impact on Ground and Surface water environment
10 Excellent Positive Impact on Ground and Surface water environment

The overall impact of the project site is assessed in terms of water quality
and quantity. The water level in the study area is shallow.

7.7
Chapter 7 : Additional Studies
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

7.2.3 Water Resource Management Plan


The water resource management plan addresses potential adverse or
negative impacts and to introduce standards of good practice to be adopted. The
Water Resource Management plan describes both generic and specific measures, the
implementation of which is aimed at mitigating potential impacts associated with the
geo hydrological environment.

After assessment it is found that in normal course of operation there shall


not be any negative impact on surface or groundwater environment due to the project
as water requirement of existing 2x600 MW units as well as proposed 2x800 MW
units. Sea water intake and outfall is proposed through closed pipelines within existing
pipeline land corridor.

7.2.4 Study Recommendations


1. Sea water pipelines should be of adequate strength and material as per
applicable IS standards to avoid any leakage chances.

2. Seawater storage pond should be lined with impermeable membrane


and adequate design of PCC/RCC layer to avoid any breakage and
leakage of bottom lining. Bottom lining of the sea water reservoir should
be designed by institute of repute like Central Water and Power
Research Station (Pune) or expert engineering agency like Engineers
India Limited or Tata Consultancy Engineers (TCE).

3. 6 to 8 test-wells along the sea water pipeline and 4 to 6 test wells


around the sea water reservoir to be developed for groundwater water
monitoring on monthly basis.

4. To the possible extent water is saved at each point of use by taking


proper care in maintenance of drain pipe, tap etc from leakage. There
should be display board for optimum use of water in wash room, toilet
or at other appropriate locations.

5. Use of recycled water, if possible, in cleaning of toilets or gardening


after proper treatment and testing for its intended use.

6. Use of sprinkler or drip irrigation method in garden irrigation

7. Develop rainwater harvesting for the purpose of utilizing rain water use
within plant along with de-salined water.

7.8
Chapter 7 : Additional Studies
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

7.3 Socio-economic Study Conducted by Mangalore University


Socio-economic aspects linked to the proposed expansion of power plant
capacity may not be much different from those of the existing power plant. However
this being an expansion of production capacity, its effects may be experienced over
larger area.

Detailed Socio-Economic and CSR Need Identification Study was


conducted by project proponent through Mangalore University, Mangalore.

The scope of the study was to address the related points of Terms of
Reference (ToR), dated: 13.08.2015, granted by MoEF& CC for EIA studies for the
expansion of UPCL power plant by addition of 2 x 800 MW units.

Based on the detailed study carried out by the Mangalore University


and the suggestions made, M/s UPCL has incorporated the recommendations in
their CSR activities for the proposed power plant.

CSR activities undertaken in the region and also proposed are briefly
described here.

7.3.1 CSR Initiatives of the Company


The CSR agenda is planned in consultation with the community through a
systematic independent need assessment, as well as through a Participatory Rural
Appraisal (PRA). The inputs are also taken from an Advisory Committee, eminent
personalities from the field and senior members from the Adani Foundation which is
CSR guiding wing of the company. CSR initiatives of the company are aligned with
Sustainable Development Goals.

The Adani Foundation through UPCL has formed a separate team of


committed professionals under the CSR wing to implement the CSR programmes in
communities with their support and participation. Further to enable holistic
development, the foundation is working on a number of issues in each community and
evaluation of the implemented CSR programmes have been undertaken
simultaneously.

The Foundation runs the CSR activities majorly in following four key areas:

1. Education especially primary and elementary education.

2. Community Health - Reaching out with basic health care to all (bridging
the gap).

3. Sustainable Livelihood Projects – Holding hands of all marginalized


groups to improve livelihood opportunity, thus improving their quality of
life.

7.9
Chapter 7 : Additional Studies
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

4. Rural Infrastructure Development- Need based quality infrastructure to


improve quality of life.

The CSR activities are being executed in the villages falling under the
following Grama Panchayat limits:
x Yelluru
x Mudarangady
x Tenka
x Bada
x Padubidri
x Belapu
x Palimar
x Inna

7.3.1.1 Facilitating for Primary and Elementary Education


To achieve quality education in government schools surrounding the plant,
Adani Foundation through UPCL provides support for infrastructural improvement and
material support by providing drinking water purifiers and storage units, separate
toilets for girls and boys, sponsoring for sports and cultural events in the schools.

To support the poor and needy students in the surrounding villages, Adani
Foundation through UPCL is distributing education kits in the Government and
Government Aided Schools.

CC cameras and Solar lighting systems are installed in the two Schools and
provision of the same is under progress for many other schools.

Construction of Toilets in four government schools under ‘Green Nurturing


Program’ is under progress.

7.3.1.2 Community Health Initiatives

UPCL is organizing regular medical camps, health camps and health


awareness programs in surrounding villages in collaboration with various multi-
speciality hospitals. Their community mobilisers and project officers strive to spread
the awareness on health and sanitation issues with women as well as youth groups.
Further the importance of sufficient intake of nutritious food is highly required for the
growth and development of adult, child and women; hence the CSR wing of the UPCL
has also planned some awareness programmes for the benefit of local population.

UPCL runs Mobile Health Unit with one doctor and nurse, especially meant
for catering to the needs of nearby villagers for their medical checkups and assistance,
for meeting the requirements of villagers regularly in the surrounding villages.

7.10
Chapter 7 : Additional Studies
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Blood donation event in the name of GO-RED in the plant premises and
also in the villages of Inna and Paniyuru was conducted in association with District
Hospitals of Udupi and Mangaluru. 458 Units of Blood was collected and handed over
to District Hospitals.

Medical Camp was conducted at Hiriadka Sub Jail, Udupi District, in


association with Lions Club – Shirva and the event was organized by Ministry of
Prisons, GOI.

Women and Children Health Check-up and Dental Check-up Camps were
organized in surrounding villages in association with A.J. Institute of Dental Sciences,
Mangaluru and K.M.C, Mangaluru.

Under Village Sanitation programs, MS Powder Coated Dustbins are


distributed to village panchayats.

7.3.1.3 Sustainable Livelihood Programmes-Towards Improving Quality


of Life

The UPCL has undertaken many initiatives to provide diverse livelihood


avenues within the community. The various sustainable livelihood programmes they
are running are based on multiple study reports and observations in the vicinity. CSR
wing of UPCL is aiming to make the livelihood of people in the community sustainable
in three ways such as:

1. Increase the socio-economic status through the income generation


activities

2. Equip the project affected population by improving earning capacity if


they are unemployed

3. Encourage savings

In addition to the above mentioned activities they have also taken up various
skills development initiatives for the women and youth and also they have planned
some innovative techniques in agriculture, provide support for common well and farm
pond deepening. In other initiatives, capacity building for various village institutions
and groups has also been undertaken.

7.3.1.4 Development of Rural Infrastructure

UPCL has undertaken Infrastructure projects like Installation of drinking


water plants, Installation of hand pump and construction of public toilets, etc..

Presently, safe drinking water plants (Reverse Osmosis) are operational at


two villages and installation work is under progress in another four villages. By end of
the year 2016-17, a total of six safe drinking water plants will support about 25000
people in the surrounding villages.

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Chapter 7 : Additional Studies
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MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Construction of public toilets is under progress in four villages under the


Swachchh Bharat Abhiyan Program.

Vanamahotsava programs are organized in Government & Government


Aided Schools every year before onset of monsoon as a part of World Environment
Day in the month of June by planting and distributing various local saplings,
indigenous fruit bearing saplings. Awareness programs are also organized in the
schools.

7.3.1.5 Other Community Initiatives

UPCL also sponsors for various sports and cultural programs organized
by the local youth associations in order to preserve local/ rural sports and cultural
activities.

UPCL also sponsors for Kambala Sports events, a local sport every year.

Glimpses of various activities undertaken in CSR are shown in Plates 7.3.1


and 7.3.2.

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Chapter 7 : Additional Studies
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Drinking water purification units donated in schools

Distribution of Education Kits Mobile Health Checkup in villages

CC TV Installation in schools Solar Lighting System in schools


Plate 7.3.1 : Glimpses of Various CSR Activities undertaken by UPCL

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Chapter 7 : Additional Studies
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Blood Donation Camp in Villages Health Checkup for Women & Children

Dental Checkup Camp Distribution of dustbins

Installation of RO plant in Belapu Van Mahotasava in Govt. School

Sponsorship for Sports and Cultural Activities


Plate 7.3.2 : Glimpses of Various CSR Activities undertaken by UPCL

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Chapter 7 : Additional Studies
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

7.3.2 CSR Activities Proposed


Keeping in view the suggestions / recommendations of the socio-economic
study conducted by Mangalore University, and the CSR initiatives of the Company,
comprehensive welfare measures have been proposed for the overall development of
the people of the region. These are summarized and given in Table 7.3.

Table 7.3 : Need Based CSR Interventions and Budgetary Estimate for Study
Area (10 Km radius area form proposed project)
Thematic Area and CSR Interventions Proposed Proposed Expenditure
(Rs. in crores)
Capital Recurring
A. Education
1. Support in improving the basic facilities amenities at the 9.0 2.0
schools like adding classrooms, auditorium or distribution of
uniforms, science lab.
2. Programme for skills improvement of teaching staff in the
elementary schools.
3. Increase the co-curricular and extra-curricular activities in the
schools to avoid dropouts.
4. Igniting minds of students through exposers to new age
technologies and scholarships.
B. Community Health
1. Mobile Health Care Units. 5.0 1.0
2. Poor Patient Assistance Programme and organize medical
camps including alcohol de-addiction camps.
3. Provide equipment’s for differently-abled and disabled people
in the community such as the disabled, to have an
autonomous life.
4. Establish and support blood bank in identified villages in
collaboration with health centers for the benefit of general
public during an emergency.
5. Generating awareness on issues related to tabooed health
practices in the society like personal hygiene and menstrual
hygiene for ladies and girls.
6. Scheme for psychiatric health in collaboration with the existing
health centers.
7. Medical insurance scheme for disabled and tribal population.
C. Livelihood Development
1. Vocational and skill development trainings for the household 6.0 1.5
women and to local youth of all communities as part of income
generation activities.
2. Extend assistance to start SHGs to empower women and
material and financial support to take up self-employment.
3. Alternate livelihood opportunities creation for the seasonally
unemployed people like fisher folk.
4. Creation of an endowment of Fishermen Welfare Fund to
enhance their quality of life through creation of facilities for fish
landing platforms / fishing harbour / cold storage, also to
provide relief in case of emergency situations such as missing
of fishermen on duty due to rough seas, tropical cyclones and

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Chapter 7 : Additional Studies
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Thematic Area and CSR Interventions Proposed Proposed Expenditure


(Rs. in crores)
Capital Recurring
storms etc.
5. Creation of an endowment fund for Tribal population to
enhance their quality of life through livelihood generation
activities, medical insurance and scholarships for tribal
students for primary, secondary and higher education.
D. Rural Infrastructure Development
1. Construction / Repairing of toilet facilities of Schools / 5.0 1.0
Anganwadi / Solar Street Light & other Green Nurturing
Programs / Swachch Bharat.
2. Upgrade primary health centers.
3. Support gram panchayats for renovation and expansion of
connectivity roads between village.
4. Create awareness and establish linkage between Government
Departments and Local people so that available schemes of
the government on solar lamps and solar pumps can be
availed in local area. Provide subsidy for solar lamps and
energy efficient equipment use by community on the line of
Government of India LED Lamps Scheme “Prakash Path” and
mitigate part of the CO2 emission also.
5. Support village Panchyats to upgrade existing and introduce
new public toilets.
6. Launch scheme for support and development of drinking water
in the area and support village Panchyats in installation of RO
based drinking water plants such as the installed at Belapu
and Mudrangady village.
7. Promote bio-gas installation in agri or animal husbandry based
families households.
8. Scheme for maintenance of drainage facilities to curb the
vector borne diseases and other diseases which spread
through unhygienic practices.
E. Community Environment
1. Large scale plantation support scheme (1 Lac Surviving Tree) 8.0 2.0
beyond green belt within 10 km area of the project within
project phase in participatory approach by including stake
holders, schools and community based organizations.
2. Organization of Eco-clubs in schools with over 1000 students
and teachers as members of the Eco Club in the area focused
on creating awareness among children and harnessing their
strength for environment protection activities including waste
management and plantation.
F. Monitoring and Evaluation of Sustainable Development
Activities
¾ Partnering and funding NGO’s and Research Institutes 2.0 0.5
working in related fields for CSR programme implementation,
monitoring and evaluation.
Total 35.0 8.0

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Chapter 7 : Additional Studies
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

The total budget required for implementation of CSR activities in all the
villages proposed by UPCL is Rs. 35.0 corers as capital expenditure, which will be
spent during project construction period of about five years. Subsequently, recurring
expenditure of, Rs. 8.0 crores per annum is proposed for various welfare activities
under CSR.

7.4 Site Specific Wild Life Study and Conservation Plan


Wild life study was been carried out by Dr Bharat Jethva, a senior wildlife
ecologist and category-A, accredited (MoEF-QCI-Government of India) expert of
Ecology and Biodiversity. Scope of the study covered identification of wild life species
falling under Schedule – 1 of Wild life Protection Act 1972 and preparation of site
specific conservation plan if any Schedule-1 species habitat or visit within 10 Km
area of the proposed project is observed. As per records of Range Forest Office,
Udupi, in last 5 years there has been one incidence of rescue of one Leopard from
village Kuthayaru which falls within 10 km of the project. The wild life conservation is
prepared in consultation with Divisional Forest Officer and enclosed as Annexure-21
in Volume II of the EIA report.

7.5 Risk Assessment


Details of risk assessment study are given in chapter 13 of this report.

7.6 Public Consultation / Public Hearing


As per the TOR for the proposed project, public hearing for the proposed project
was organized by KSPCB on 10th November 2016 at 10.30 am at Paniyuru Durga Devi
Higher Primary School Ground at Yelluru Village, Udupi District. The Deputy
Commissioner, Udupi District presided over the public hearing.

Proceedings of the environmental public hearing in English and Kannada (local


language) along with the copy of attendance sheet and written representations are
forwarded by KSPCB to MOEF&CC with copy to project proponent (copy enclosed in
VOL-III of EIA). Summary of the responses to major issues as captured in public
hearing proceedings and written representations is given in Table-7.4.

Table 7.4: Summary of Key Issues and Responses


Sl.
Key Issue/Concern Response
No.
1. Justification for coal based This is an expansion project to the existing
power plant in this area. Why 1200 MW thermal power plant. Expansion
not solar project in place of project shall be advantageous by using existing
coal based power plant. Why
infrastructure and optimizing all resources to
agriculture land conversion for
proposed project. generate power at optimal cost. Power plants
based on alternative energy sources are not
techno commercially viable at this place.

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Chapter 7 : Additional Studies
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

The additional land required for the proposed


project is 295.65 Ha (730 acres). After
expansion, total land for the project will become
1319.6 acres for 2800 MW as per the CEA
guidelines. As per the Karnataka Industrial
Development (KIADA 1966), the existing power
plant is in Notified Industrial area. As per the
notifications issued by State Government of
Karnataka in 1995 and 1998, the proposed land
is notified for industrial development.
Solar project shall require more land for
generating equal quantity of power. To
generate additional 1600 MW through solar PV,
land requirement will be minimum 6400 acres
(8.8 time more than the present requirement for
thermal power project).
The proposed coal based power plant will be
equipped with advanced environment pollution
control technologies which will meet the stack
emissions limits as per Notification dated 07th
Dec 2015 by MoEF&CC. After installation of
proposed pollution control equipment, ground
level concentration of pollutants are predicted to
be well within the limit for ambient air quality as
per NAAQS-2009.
2. Clarity on Land Aspects and Land acquisition is being done by Karnataka
R&R Packages Industrial Area Development Board (KIADB) as
x Compensation and job for per Karnataka Industrial Area Development Act
land losers 1966 which have inbuilt mechanism for
x Common Facilities in R&R
Resettlement and Rehabilitation (R&R). After
colony.
notification of 168.10 Ac land, which is part of
the total land, under section 28 (4) of KIADA,
Compensation Fixation Committee chaired by
District Commissioner of Udupi has fixed the
Compensation and R&R package with consent
of the all project affected people/land losers.
Remaining land area is in the process of
acquisition for which notification under section
28 (1) and 28 (3) of KIADA has been issued
and R&R package shall be fixed in similar
manner of mutual consultation with land losers
by Compensation Fixation Committee. M/s
UPCL shall abide by the recommendations of
the Compensation Fixation Committee.
UPCL shall provide employment/ compensation

7.18
Chapter 7 : Additional Studies
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

as per the statutory provisions. UPCL shall also


work towards skill development of the project
affected people for improving their
employability.
3. Clarity on Socio- economic As part of EIA study, need identification and
aspect / welfare measures socio-economic study has been conducted by
for the region: Mangalore University. Based on the need
x Livelihood development assessment of the area, proposed budget is
detailed in Sec 7.3.2 of EIA report for CSR
x Socio-Economic Aspects
programmes in following key area:
x Health Insurance
x Agriculture Extension 1) Education
programs and support to
farmers 2) Community Health

x Education support to 3) Sustainable Livelihood


youths
x Employment Opportunities 4) Rural Infrastructure Development
for locals
5) Community Environment Development

Various CSR activities under the programs as


briefed above, shall be taken to address all
major and valid issues raised in public hearing.

The CSR budget committed is Rs. 35.0 crores


as capital during project stage and Rs.8.0
crores as a recurring expenditure in operational
phase.. The budget for the CSR is decided on
the basis of need assessment study and
companies commitment towards sustainable
development goals of united nations which are
also committed by Govt. of India (Section 7.3.2
of this EIA report).

Community health development program under


CSR is already proposed which covers Medical
health insurance scheme, poor patient
insurance, mobile health care units as detailed
in EIA report under section 7.3.2. The activities
to address the public concerns on medical
facilities have been taken into account.

The proposed super critical technology based


power plant with latest pollution control
equipment shall meet the emission limits for
SOx, NOx and Particulate matter and no
adverse impact on agriculture productivity and

7.19
Chapter 7 : Additional Studies
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

health of the area is envisaged. Further, under


risk assessment and disaster management
plan in EIA, major risk scenarios due to
proposed project are studied. Impact in case of
any emergency also shall be confined to project
boundary not posing any risk outside the
project. Further, under CSR programme on
sustainable livelihood, UPCL CSR team shall
guide and support local farmers to utilize
applicable schemes of the government for crop
insurance like “Fasal Bima Yojna” and other
government schemes.

UPCL shall prefer eligible local people for


employment and people from outside will be
employed only when eligible local candidates
are not available.
4. Uninterrupted power supply The decision of free/subsidized power is to be
and Subsidized/free Power for taken up by the Government of Karnataka.
local area Whenever, the State Government comes up
with such a scheme, UPCL will actively
participate in the same for the benefit of the
local villages. UPCL is not into distribution of
Power. As a generating company, UPCL will
supply Power to the distribution companies in
the state (Discoms) as per the terms of the
PPA. UPCL is open if the state government
directs MESCOM to allocate/distribute free
power in the area. This expansion of UPCL
from 1200 MW to 2800 MW will improve overall
power availability for the distribution companies
in the state.
5. Environmental Issues/ The project is proposed with advanced
Impacts on the nearby environment pollution control technologies and
region details are provided in the EIA report (Chapter-
x Air quality 4). The report also recommended the mitigation
x Ground Water quality measures for different environmental
components in the environment management
x Noise levels
plan (Chapter-10). It has been found that the
x Ecology- biodiversity proposed power plant may have certain level of
x Green Belt within the plant marginal and insignificant impacts on the local
x Green Cover in the area environment but with the implementation of the
outside the project proposed pollution control equipment and
x Control of emissions environment management measures, even the
including SO2 by FGD and marginal impacts will be mitigated.

7.20
Chapter 7 : Additional Studies
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

environmental viability of On the other hand, development of this project


this project in this area. will have certain beneficial impact/effects in
terms of improving the availability of power for
distribution companies leading to overall
electrification in the State of Karnataka.
Expansion project will also provide employment
opportunities during construction as well as
operational phase of the project. Thus, in view
of considerable benefits from the project
without any significant adverse environmental
impact, the proposed project is advantageous
to the region as well as to the nation.
As detailed under section 3.5.4 of this EIA
report, proposed project is 30 km away from
the Ecological Sensitive Zone as per Draft
Notification for Western Ghats, September
2015.
Green belt within the power plant shall be
developed on 33% of the land area for this
project. Besides, large scale plantation (One
Lac Surviving Tree) will be carried out within 10
Km area under community environment
development component of CSR programme
through participatory approach including
stakeholders, schools and community based
organizations, as detailed in section 4.9 and
section 7.3.2 of this EIA report.
This study has been carried out for present fuel
quality and latest technology available for
power generation and pollution control
systems. The proposed FGD system shall be
able to control SO2 emissions to less than the
limits of 100 mg/Nm3. Total emissions (in TPD)
after expansion shall be less than the present
emissions due to installation of FGD systems
and De-NOx for 100% flue gas, as detailed in
section 4.4.1.1 in chapter-4 of EIA.
Applicable norms, rule and regulations and
guidelines as well as good practices for
construction and operation of power plant shall
be strictly followed to ensure minimal adverse
impact on the environment.
6 Impact of sea water quality Marine Environmental Impact Assessment has
and discharge

7.21
Chapter 7 : Additional Studies
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

been carried by NIO Goa.


Present hydrographic parameters and total
petroleum hydrocarbons are found within
normal range of values that are reported from
unpolluted coastal areas. Prevailing
environmental and ecological features in the
vicinity and surrounding area of the power plant
seawater inlet and outfall points did not exhibit
any adverse conditions that may affect the
survival and propagation of the biota in the
region.
It is proposed to have a common intake and
outfall for existing and proposed TPP. The
pipeline in the inter-tidal and sub tidal areas will
be buried to a safe depth to avoid interference
with fishing operations. Expansion project is
proposed with cooling towers and delta
temperature limitations of 50C as per applicable
standards.
Model results indicated that the impact of high
saline, warm water released into the coastal
sea is very negligible as the net excess
temperature is 0.60 degree C and excess
salinity is 1.15 psu at the proposed outfall
location. The warm and high saline water
discharge will be confined within an area of 500
sq. m around the outfall location and no change
in the water quality of the coastal environment
is envisaged due to the discharge.
Sea Water Quality monitoring is presently being
done through Fisheries College Mangalore,
which is an expert agency in this field. Besides
monthly monitoring of other water parameters
are conducted through NABL accredited
laboratory and reports are submitted to KSPCB
who closely monitor the environment as a
regulatory agency. Similar monitoring during
the operation stage of plant after expansion is
proposed to be continued.

In general majority of the people supported this expansion project and requested for
continued CSR activities with more demands/facilities for the overall development of
the region.

7.22
Chapter 8 : Project Benefit
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Chapter 8
Project Benefit

8.0 Introduction
The proposed developmental activities in this region will result in
improvement of infrastructure as well as upliftment of social structure in the area. The
people residing in the nearby areas will be benefited indirectly. It is anticipated that the
proposed power plant will provide benefits for the locals in two phases i.e. during
construction phase as well as during operational stage.
The major benefits envisaged from the project that it will boost to industrial
development of the region due to assure availability of power to Country/State and
industries. As a result, there would be more opportunities for employment generation
to the locals especially the young people. An estimated 1500 people shall be
employed during construction period and about 500 persons will get employment in the
project during the operation stage. The company also proposes to provide training to
local youths, so that their skills can be gainfully used in project activities. The project
will create opportunities for direct employment. The project will also create
opportunities for indirect employment due to increase in trades viz. stockist / retailers
of building material, groceries, provision shops, medical stores, garment shops,
furniture shops, etc.

8.1 Construction Phase Benefits

8.1.1 Employment
The major benefit due to the proposed project will be in the sphere of
generating temporary employment for substantial number of personnel. Approximately
1500 persons would be required for the construction work, most of them would be
unskilled workers, although the power plant construction needs a large number of
skilled personnel as well. These construction workers shall be taken from the study
area to the extent possible. Hence, the proposed project will benefit locals to some
extent.
8.1.2 Community Services
UPCL shall employee suitably local people to the extent possible in order to
reduce the need for additional infrastructure. In addition, UPCL shall develop
necessary infrastructure like accommodation, water supply, sewerage, medical facility,
etc. for catering to the needs of the project personnel and their families. The local
people will be indirectly benefited by these developments.

8.1
Chapter 8 : Project Benefit
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

8.2 Operational Phase Benefits


8.2.1 Improvement in Electricity Availability
The power demand in our country is increasing rapidly due to rapid
industrial and infrastructure developments. Lack of availability of sufficient electric
power has always been one of the greatest deterrents to the growth of industry in the
state. Based on demand projections, about 88537 MW of additional generation
capacity is required during 12th Plan (2012-2017). Capacity addition during 12th plan till
October 2015 is about 69210 MW. This included the completion of the units planned
during previous plan period also. To meet the increasing power demand in the country
Government of India is facilitating private sector participation and promoting power
generation by Independent Power Producers (IPP).
State Government of Karnataka has signed the MoU with Udupi Power
Corporation Limited, A Subsidiary of Adani Power Limited. Hence, with a view to
participate and benefit from this initiative, Adani Power Limited (APL) is in the process
of expanding the capacity in Udupi with a unit configuration of 2 x 800 MW in the
existing plant at Udupi District in Karnataka State.
Expansion of this power plant shall reduce the demad and supply gap in
Southern Grid and shall improve the electricity availability in the State of Karnataka.
8.2.2 Livelihood Opportunities and Direct & In Direct Employment
During the operational phase, about 500 people shall be employed.
Proposed project would add to the livelihood opportunities in the study area which
results in better scope for direct employment etc.
In addition to the direct employment mentioned above, there will be indirect
employment of local people by utilizing their expertise in different areas like
horticulture, site clearing, etc. Also, due to secondary development in the study area,
employment opportunities will be generated. About 2500 people are expected to get
direct and indirect employment.

8.3 Community Welfare Measures


Detailed socio-economic study of villages around the project site has been
undertaken by Mangalore University and an action plan for community development
has been proposed. The project in general would accelerate the overall socio-
economic development of the Udupi region by way of royalty, direct and indirect taxes,
resources utilization, employment and infrastructure development. Measures would be
adopted to minimize/mitigate these adverse impacts.
Under Corporate Social Responsibility, UPCL is committed to work towards
improvement in the living conditions of local population near the project, particularly in
the areas of Education, Rural Infrastructure, Community health & Sanitation,
Livelihood development and Community Environment.

8.2
Chapter 8 : Project Benefit
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

For proposed project of expansion by 2x800 MW Power Plant, it is proposed


to invest Rs 35 Cr during the project stage and Rs 8 Cr on yearly basis for the CSR
activities in operational stage of the project. Based on the detailed survey and need
assessment conducted by the Mangalore University, following key areas have been
identified and given in Table 8.1.
Table 8.1: Proposed CSR expenditure of various activities

(Rs. In crores)
Sr. Key Areas Identified for Capital Expenditure Recurring
No. Intervention through CSR for CSR Activities Expenditure for CSR
Activities by UPCL for during Project Stage Activities during
Sustainable Development Operational Stage
1. Education 9 2
2. Livelihood development 6 1.5
3. Community Health 5 1
4. Rural Infrastructure Development 5 1
5. Community Environment 8 2
6. Monitoring and Evaluation of 2 0.5
Sustainable Development Activities
7. Total Expenditure 35 8
To achieve the objectives in these thematic areas, CSR activities shall be
planned in participatory mode involving the local residents from the activity
identification and planning stage.

8.4 Green Belt Development


Besides the green belt development within the power plant premises in 33%
of the total land area for the project, mass plantation movement shall be initiated within
10 km area of the project under Community Environment initiative. It is planned that
under this initiative, eco-clubs shall be organized in schools with memberships of
school students and teachers. Mass plantation drive shall be executed through eco-
clubs.

8.3
Chapter 9 : Environmental Cost Benefit
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Chapter 9
Environmental Cost
Benefit

The proposed site for setting up power plant has been approved and in the
existing land available with Adani. The site is undulating with scrub vegetation, barren
land and some agriculture land. Therefore, it will not involve loss of vegetation and
biodiversity will not be affected as the vegetation is similar in the whole area with no
sensitive ecosystem or rare and endangered flora or fauna and hence no
environmental loss will be there in terms of net productivity value.
The project cost, expenditure and budgetary provision on the
implementation of the Environmental Management Plan (EMP) are presented in EMP
of Chapter 10 of the report. Besides the tangible benefits, the project has got number
of intangible benefits like minimum emissions of the green house gases, no adverse
impact on environment, socio economic benefits to the local people and the region and
enhancement of the fuel/energy for the country. The establishment of power plant at
Udupi site, when operated will provide significant supply of energy/electricity to the
consumers.

9.1
Chapter 10 : Environmental Management Plan
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Chapter 10
Environmental Management
Plan

Management plan for different environmental components during


construction and operation phase of the project shall be as follows.

10.1 Construction Phase


The impacts during the construction phase would be of transient in nature
and prevail for a shorter duration. However, the control of pollution during construction
phase is of considerable importance. Following control measures are recommended
to mitigate the probable adverse impacts:

x Sites for construction and workers camp would be clearly demarcated


to prevent occupational hazards. Provision for necessary basic needs
and infrastructure facilities such as water supply, sanitary facilities,
housing, domestic fuel etc. would be made.

x Preparation of site will involve excavation and transport of substantial


quantities of earthen material and generation of large quantities of
waste material. Site grading operations will also involve stockpiling of
backfill materials. Due care will be taken to avoid water pollution
problems during rainy season due to washout of waste material from
dump sites

x Where, gases or fumes are likely to be present in trenches/foundations,


sufficient mechanical/artificial ventilation shall be provided to protect the
health and safety of persons working there. The personnel working
there shall be provided with respiratory protective equipment when work
in such unhealthy conditions is to be carried out

x At the site of construction, where petrol and diesel powered equipment


are used and temporary storage of petroleum products (highly
inflammable) is done, these may cause fire hazard, if safety norms are
not strictly followed. Proper care would, therefore, be taken to avoid all
sources of ignition at such places

x During dry weather conditions, it is necessary to control the dust


emissions arising out of the excavation, leveling, transportation and
stockpiling activities by water sprinkling

10.1
Chapter 10 : Environmental Management Plan
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

x Though the effect of noise on the nearby inhabitants due to construction


activity will be negligible, noise prone activities would be restricted to
the extent possible during daytime in order to have minimum noise
impact during night time.

x Onsite workers would strictly use noise protection devices like earmuffs.
The construction machinery would be so maintained to minimize the
noise levels generated

x Accidental spillages of oil from construction equipment and storage


sites would be prevented

x Tree plantation (large size species) would be undertaken at the time of


preparation of the site so that they would grow to considerable size by
the time of commissioning of the proposed project

x As soon as construction is over, surplus quantity of excavated soil


would be utilized to fill up low-lying areas, rubbish would be cleared and
all un built surfaces will be reinstated

10.2 Operation Phase


10.2.1 Air Environment

Coal based thermal power plants emit fly ash as the major pollutant besides
varying degree of other pollutants namely: coal dust, sulphur dioxide and oxides of
nitrogen, carbon monoxide, heat etc.

Coal Handling System

Dust emission is mostly of fugitive type and necessitates installation of close


conveyor system along with suitable dust trapping/control facility at various transfer
points. At coal yard, to prevent dust emission due to wind erosion, frequent spraying
of water is recommended. This also prevents spot fires.

Coal Crusher and Bunkers

For fine dust control, bag filters have been successfully tried in such
operations. Better efficiency dry collection system shall prove to be long term cost
effective because of possibility of coal recovery in the process.

Flue Gas

For high efficiency collection of fly ash in flue gas from the boiler, ESP will be
provided having collection efficiency of 99.99%. To control SO2 and NOx emissions,
flue gas desulphurization system and de-nox system shall be installed to achieve
applicable emission standards. Further stack height of 275 m shall be provided for
better atmospheric dispersion of air pollutants.

10.2
Chapter 10 : Environmental Management Plan
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Fly ash Handling System

Fly ash from the ESP hopper will be removed either pneumatically or by
hydraulic system. Proper maintenance of ESP would be done at regular intervals to
prevent fugitive emissions.

General Measures

The following air pollution control measures have been recommended for
implementation by UPCL at the proposed power plant:

x Attempts should be made to achieve/maintain the Plant Load Factor


(PLF) of atleast 85%. This will certainly help in minimizing
environmental damage. It is anticipated that a reasonably well
maintained system can operate over 85% PLF

x Furnaces and boilers would be operated with minimum excess air so


that fuel consumption is reduced and NOX emissions are minimized.
Low NOX system be installed for further reduction in NOX emissions

x The stack would have sufficient capacity to take care of emergency


release conditions, for additional load of flue gas under boiler start up
and shutdown periods

x Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) would be installed for control of SO2


emissions.

x All the internal roads would be asphalted to reduce dust emissions due
to vehicular movement

x The combustion units shall be maintained properly for obtaining


optimum efficiency and to ensure that the emission rates remain within
the prescribed norms

x Ambient air quality for PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO would be
regularly monitored around the project site. The identification of
monitoring locations shall be done in consultation with the State
Pollution Control Board officials. For AAQ monitoring more locations
shall be planned in downwind directions with one or two locations in
predominant upwind direction to delineate the impact from proposed
project

x Continuous flue gas monitors for measuring the levels of PM, SO2, NOX,
CO and Hg would be installed for the stack. Port hole and sampling
facilities would also be provided at suitable location to check stack
emissions at regular intervals through portable kits

x An electronic weather station for recording wind speed, wind direction,


temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation and rainfall has already
been installed and operated within the premises of existing power plant.

10.3
Chapter 10 : Environmental Management Plan
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

The data of the same shall be used as and when required for the
proposed plant.

x Greenbelt within the project premises would be developed/strengthened


in and around the existing as well as proposed units as detailed in land
environment for attenuation of fugitive emissions

x Mass plantation under community environment initiative shall be carried


in villages within 10 km surrounding area of the plant by establishing
Eco-clubs in schools

x Personal protective devices such as dust filters, ear plugs etc. would be
provided to the workers.

10.2.2 Noise Environment


x Manufacturers and suppliers of major noise generating machines/
equipments like compressors, turbines, generators would be asked to
take required measures for minimizing the noise levels generated by
the machines i.e. using noise absorbing material for enclosures or using
appropriate design/technology for fabricating / assembling machines

x The operator’s cabins (control rooms) would be properly acoustically


insulated with special doors and observation windows

x The operators working in the high-noise areas, i.e. compressor houses,


blowers, generators, feed pumps, steam generation plant, turbo-
generator area would be strictly instructed to use ear-muffs/ear-plugs

10.2.2.1 Measures for Minimizing Impacts due to Vibrations


x Low vibration generating machines/equipment would be selected for the
indent purpose with rugged bases to minimize propagation of vibrations

x Personnel working near the vibrating machines in different units would


be provided with well designed vibration resistant hand gloves/foot
wares

x Vibration generating sources and their platforms would be maintained


properly to minimize vibrations generated by them

x Regular screening of workers who are subjected to hand-arm vibrations


and body vibrations would be done. The general principles of medical
screening will follow those for hearing protection. Before employment in
a high vibration area, there would be an initial screening which would
include seeking information about previous vibration exposure of a
worker and relevant medical conditions.

x Training of personnel would be done to generate awareness about


damaging effects of vibrations and plan for appropriate corrective
measures.

10.4
Chapter 10 : Environmental Management Plan
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

10.2.3 Water Environment

10.2.3.1 Wastewater Management for Individual Sections

Demineralisation (DM) Plant Effluent

During treatment, acidic and alkaline effluent will be generated periodically.


The effluents will be collected in a neutralizing pit where the acidic and alkaline
effluents will be neutralized with each other. This will be pumped and mixed with other
effluents after filtration

Boiler Blow down

This effluent will be either reused as plant service water or sent to polishing
tank for mixing with other effluents after adequate treatment.

Effluent from Oil Handling Areas

The effluent carrying oil spillage etc. would be taken to oil/water separation.
The decanted oil (containing small amount of water) would be taken to a slop oil tank
for further separation. The decanted oil will be stored in a tank for reuse. The
supernatant water will be sent ETP for further treatment.

Coal Yard Drainage

During monsoon season, the problem of coal yard drainage becomes critical
due to coal particles and dust in the yard. To take care of this problem, the entire coal
storage yard would be provided with separate drains, which will be led to a common
sump of adequate capacity. The settleable solids will settle in the sump and the clear
water will be used for floor washing purpose/sprinkling.

Power House and Boiler Area Effluents (Containing Oil)

The power house and boiler area effluents are likely to contain oil/grease in
small quantity. These will be taken to the oil/water separators, slop oil tank and treated
in the same way as the oil handling area effluent.

Sanitary Waste

Sanitary waste from the plant premises would be treated in a sewage


treatment plant to be provided within the plant boundary area.

Treated wastewater will be used for horticulture/greenbelt development


collected. Schematic treatment flow sheet for existing and proposed wastewater
treatment is shown in Chapter 4, Figs. 4.5.1 – 4.5.2 respectively.

10.5
Chapter 10 : Environmental Management Plan
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

10.2.3.2 Wastewater Management for Zero Discharge

It has been proposed by UPCL to adopt zero discharge principle for the
proposed units. Zero discharge will be achieved by utilizing wastewater for ash
disposal using High Concentration Slurry Disposal system (HCSD) and for
gardening/greenbelt development.

10.2.3.3 General Recommendations for Wastewater Management


x The measures recommended for ETP would be planned, completed
and commissioned along with the commissioning of the 2x800 MW
Units

x Evaluation of the effluent treatment plant for its performance after its
commissioning would be undertaken at regular intervals to keep a
check on the treated effluent quality and sludge disposal/management

x Trained personnel would be engaged for operating the effluent


treatment plant

x In-plant control measures would be implemented to minimize the


quantities of wastewater generation

x Wherever possible, treated effluent would be recycled and reused for


plantation in order to conserve fresh water

x The oily sludge’s from oil separator would be disposed off at identified
location as per KSPCB requirements/guidelines.

10.2.4 Land Environment

10.2.4.1 Greenbelt Development

With a view to attenuate air pollutants, to absorb noise and to care of uptake
of water pollutants, it is proposed to develop a greenbelt all round the boundary (as
feasible) and at several locations within the power plant premises.

Criteria for selection of species for greenbelt

The plant species suitable for greenbelt development will be selected based
on the following criteria:

x Fast growing

x Thick canopy cover

x Perennial and evergreen

x Large leaf area index

x High sink potential

10.6
Chapter 10 : Environmental Management Plan
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

x Efficient in absorbing pollutants without significantly affecting their


growth

Guidelines for plantation

The plant species identified for greenbelt development would be planted


using pitting technique. The pit size would be either 45 cm x 45 cm x 45 cm or 60 cm
x 60 cm x 60 cm. Bigger pit size is preferred on marginal and poor quality soils. Soil
proposed to be used for filling the pit would be mixed with well decomposed farm yard
manure or sewage sludge at the rate of 2.5 kg (on dry weight basis) and 3.6 kg (on dry
weight basis) for 45 cm x 45 cm x 45 cm and 60 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm size pits
respectively. The filling of soils would be completed at least 5-10 days before the
actual plantation. Healthy seedlings of identified species would be planted in each pit.
Proper density of plants (no. per hectare) will require to be maintained within the
greenbelt.

Plantation Proposed around the Thermal Power Plant

Keeping in view the nature of pollutants expected from power plant and
pollution attenuation coefficient of plants, the following plant species are short-listed for
plantation:

Acacia nilotica (Babul)


Acacia catechu (Khair)
Azadirachta indica (Limba)
Calotropis procera (Mandare)
Pongamia pinnata (Karanji)
Calotropis gigantean (Rui)
Dendrocalamus sp. (Bamboo)
Ailanthus excelsa (Maharukh)
Bauhinia variegata (Kanchan)
Albizia lebbeck (Shiris)
Albizia procera (Safed shiris)
Cassia siamea (Sonmohor)
Ficus bengalensis (Wad)
Ficus hispida (Bhuiumbar)
Madhuca indica (Moh)
Terminalia arjuna (Anjan)
Terminalia catappa (Jangli badam)

10.7
Chapter 10 : Environmental Management Plan
Environmental Impact Assessment Study for Expansion of UPCL-TPP by 2x800
MW (Phase II), Yelluru, Dist. Udupi, Karnataka

Roadside plantation

Minimum two rows of plants are required for plantation on roadside to


minimize the pollution effects. While planting, care would be taken to ensure that
plants in second row fall in between the two plants of first row. The species suitable
for plantation on roadside are listed below:

Cassia siamea (Casia)


Samanea saman (Rain tree)
Azadirachta indica (Limba)
Tamarindus indica (Chinch)
Dendrocalamus strictus (Bamboo)
Saraca indica (Ashoka)
Pongamia pinnata (Karanj)
Bauhinia variegata (Bahunia)
Acacia nilotica (Babhul)
Aca