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Kemp Stephen A. Abuloc

BSME-2

1 . Define what is probability?

Probability is a branch of mathematics that deals with calculating the likelihood of

a given event's occurrence, which is expressed as a number between 1 and 0.

An event with a probability of 1 can be considered a certainty: for example, the probability of a coin toss resulting in either "heads" or "tails" is 1, because there are no other options, assuming the coin lands flat. An event with a probability of .5 can be considered to have equal odds of occurring or not occurring: for example, the probability of a coin toss resulting in "heads" is .5, because the toss is equally as likely to result in "tails." An event with a probability of 0 can be considered an impossibility: for example, the probability that the coin will land (flat) without either side facing up is 0, because either "heads" or "tails" must be facing up. A little paradoxical, probability theory applies precise calculations to quantify uncertain measures of random events.

2. Cite two examples demonstrating finding the probability of an event.

Probability of events

Probability is a type of ratio where we compare how many times an outcome can occur compared to all possible outcomes.

Probability=

Example

What is the probability to get a 6 when you roll a die?

A die has 6 sides, 1 side contain the number 6 that give us 1 wanted outcome in

6 possible outcomes.

Independent events: Two events are independent when the outcome of the first event does not

Independent events: Two events are independent when the outcome of the first event does not influence the outcome of the second event.

When we determine the probability of two independent events we multiply the probability of the first event by the probability of the second event.

P(XandY)=P(X)P(Y)P(XandY)=P(X)P(Y)

To find the probability of an independent event we are using this rule:

Example

If one has three dice what is the probability of getting three 4s?

The probability of getting a 4 on one die is 1/6

The probability of getting 3 4s is:

P(4and4and4)=

1

1

1

6 6 6 =

1

216

When the outcome affects the second outcome, which is what we called dependent events.

Dependent events: Two events are dependent when the outcome of the first event influences the outcome of the second event. The probability of two

dependent events is the product of the probability of X and the probability of

Y AFTER X occurs.

P(X and Y) = P(X) P(Y afterx)

3. Differentiate between dependent and independent events. Give two examples each.

An independent event is an event in which the outcome isn't affected by another event. A dependent event is affected by the outcome of a second event.

Examples from the business environment:

Dependent events: Company A has two different services. You can only choose one: Service X or Service Y. Choosing X and choosing Y: these events are dependent because the choice of one service guarantees that you cannot choose the other one.

Dependent events: ABC Company has 3 services. You must choose Service 1 if you choose Service 2 and 3. Choosing Service 1 and service 2 are dependent events.

Independent events: Customers going to a restaurant in Georgia and customers going to a restaurant in California.

Independent events: XYZ Company has 5 different services. You can choose as many services as you like in any combination. Choosing service 1 and service 2, 3, 4, 5 are independent events.