Sei sulla pagina 1di 37

Chapter 1


The economic recession which commenced in 1945 has given rise to a serious

unemployment problem in Philippines. As stated by the National Statistics Office (2017) quoted

“The rate of unemployment is very high among college graduates, which partly reflects a

mismatch between what is produced by schools and what is required by the market.”. Locally,

Philippines still has the highest unemployment rate in Asia despite posting a 6.9-percent growth

in gross domestic product according to an independent research group. At least 18 percent of

unemployed in the country today are college graduates (Trading Economics, 2018). Work

provides the fundamental means to an individual’s livelihood and the absence of work has been

correlated to feeling of worthlessness and self doubt and to extent can cause numerous problems

for the individual, families, communities and society as a whole Balisacan (2016)

When people heard about unemployment, the first thing that got into their minds is

economic recession and financial loss. Mostly undermines the thinking of unemployment as a

degradation of wellbeing and self-worth that could lead to an onset of many psychosocial crisis

that could manifest into defiant behavioural patterns or the opposite of it (Bockerman &

Ilmakunnas, 2009). An unemployed person is in a frustrating situation, which is a consequence

of his/her social, physical losses and failure, affected by the feeling of worthlessness (Hollederer,

2012). Balisacan (2016) stated that employment provides the basic means to an individual’s

livelihood and the absence of not having a job has been associated to various issues not only for

the individual’s self worth and well being but to families, communities and society.
From a psychological perspective, unemployment could be a stressful phase in a person’s

life. The feeling of self-worthlessness, could become a psychological stressors and stress can be

feel at that phase and it became worsen. It creates self-doubt and feeling of worthlessness that

can cause mental illnesses such as anxiety, depression (Csurke, Voros, Osvath & Arkovits, 2009).

As a psychosocial crisis, unemployment is a phenomenon that becomes a big challenge as

for a person’s self-worth and psychosocial being state. This self-worth and psychosocial being

state means that the person can be part into the community and society again by having work and

coping strategies. Unexpected event such as unemployment can have a impact on their self-worth

s of a person which could have either harmful or good. This can be explained by the fact that the

person sustaining the loss would question his or her worth and would likely affect the use his or

her adaptation skills it which there is nothing to adapt to if work is loss. If people’s earlier

development in well being was healthy and they learnt the basic adaptation strategies, they

would solve this problem and control this new situation involving a temporary social vacuum.

However, if their earlier development was problematic, the crisis will be more serious (Hoare &

Machin, 2012).

Research studies have found evidence of decreased psychological well-being due to low self esteem and
feeling worthlessness among unemployed professionals, poorer outcomes among those unemployed
over the longer-term (Cassidy, 2001; Lucas et al., 2004; Mckee-Ryan et al., 2005). Furthermore, research
has shown that unemployed individuals who has college degrees are especially at risk of developing
psychological problems, including psychological scarring as a result of elevated levels of psychological
distress in adulthood wherein societal presusrre sit in (Daly & Delaney, 2013; Ferguson et al., 2011; Hess
et al., 2014; Meeus et al., 2012; Paul & Moser, 2009).

Moreover, The discussion of unemployment and its growing rate was talked broadly in the media

and other socioeconomic researches. Trading Economics (2018). Society and the media tend to

focus on the obvious effects of unemployment on an individual such as the financial loss of
income and the impact which high levels of unemployment have on government resources rather

than the psychological impact which can be just, if not more important. (CNBC, 2018, the

Philippine Statistics Authority (2017).There is very little research to date in Philippines on the

psychological effects particular on self esteem and self worth of unemployment on the

individual.. ((Johnson et. al., 2012 Rainer (2014), (Beland, Birch, & Stoddart, 2012). There are

qualitative studies regarding the lived experieces of unemployed individuals in connectiong to understand

how unemployment greatly affects not only their way living but also how it affects their perception of

their selves. (Feather, 2009) Schaufeli (2014) (Shamir, 2010). many literature entails that deeper

psychological impact such depression, aggression and suicide emerges in themes. ( (Al- Marzoqi, 2013,

James Lewis ,2014) Morin (2015))

In the same way, a vast number of quantitative studies have focused merely on the correlation between of

psychological symptoms such as self esteem, self efficacy, confidence and happiness to unemployment.

(Johnson et. al., 2012)., Rainer (2014), Ronnie Schob (2012)

For the most part, what is missing is a deeper understanding of how unemployed especially the one who
has college degrees and had long timed employed view their perception towards their selves particularly
their worth and how it affects their everyday lives. Rainer (2014) Miguel Martínez Lucio and Robert
MacKenzie (2017) Shob (2012). Also Mckee-Ryan (2015) pointed out certain gaps in unemployment
research and emphasised the need for more transactional research on how these unemployed
professionals cope with unemployment, the coping strategies they utilised, and why individuals with the
same circumstances during unemployment may appraise their situation differently. Further research is
needed to explore how perceived and received support aid in the adaptation of effective coping
strategies during unemployment. By researching this complex relationship between social support and
coping strategies, valuable information can be made available for the development of interventions to
help unemployed individuals cope with unemployment. Furthermore, De Witte (2012) recommend that
investigation into the experiences of the unemployed people, their job application behaviour and coping,
as well as their subjective well-being on how they see their selves and their worth in other contexts.
Similarly, the association between the various sources of psychological impacts e.g., depression or
aggression and mental illness and the likes, has been well established (Kobus and Jakubek, 2015)).;
Gallie, Marsg & Vogler (2012); Winkelmann (2014)), yet the underlying understanding through
which the connection could be describe are not very well understood on a personal level (Clemens
Hetschko, Andreas Knabe, and Ronnie Schöb (2013); Mcgee and Thompson(2010); Ronnie
Schob (2012), Teresa Toguchi Swartz (2009).Therefore, this indicates a need to understand the
various views in unemployement that exist among college graduates.
In addition, by studying it through a qualitative method, the researcher attempt to highlight this issue by
investigating certain aspects of the experiences of unemployed individuals that may help assist mental
health practitioners and concerned authorities in helping their views, behaviors and improve their overall
quality of life and also to emphasise a possibility of a national health problem a crisis of both the
individual and society, originating in the economic recession and unemployment, which affects
not only the whole Filipino society but also people’s mood almost all over the world.
Furthermore, by undertaking this research is to understand the experiences of being unemployed
as a college graduates in the Philippines and the impact of which unemployment has on the
individual self-worth from a psychological perspective. A lot of the individuals in society today
underwent unemployment. The researcher itself experience enduring experiences of being
unemployed and the idea of this research is born. Being unemployed is a phase when a person
feels that he or she is not contributing to the society. This burden doubles up if the individual has
has a college degree or has working experience (Balisacan, 2016).
The second reason this article was written was to inspire future researchers to focus more solely
on the self worthiness of the individual. More research projects are needed in Philippines. It
would be useful to study the psychological aspects of unemployment and compare the results
with the literature from different countries. Additionally, it may be reassuring and comforting for
the individual who experience unemployment to understand that they are not the only ones
experiencing these outlook, feelings, emotions and issues. The study also may act as a stimulus
to push them out of unemployment.

Purpose of the study

The purpose of this phenomenological study to understand the self-worth,

experiences of being unemployed and the effect which joblessness to a person. At this stage

in the research unemployment will be generally defined as the causing agent to self-worth,

experiences and the effects to the individual. Topic of unemployment and its developing rate

is canvassed generally in the media. Society and the media tend to concentrate on the

undeniable impacts of joblessness on an individual such as the budgetary loss of pay and the

effect which large amounts of joblessness have on government assets as opposed to the
psychological impact which can be simply, if not more important. Therefore, the study on

self-worth of unemployed individuals in Davao City will be implemented.

Research questions

The objective of the study was to know the experiences and impact of unemployment to

the individual in psychological perspective. Specifically, the study answered the following


How do unemployed college graduates perceive and react to their unemployment status?

How does unemployment impact on an individual’s psychological well-being?

What coping and survival strategies do the unemployed youth adopt and develop to deal with

Theoretical Lens

Self-worth theory will be use in this study. According to Martin Covington (1984) the

pioneer in the psychology field of self-worth and self-efficacy, most people will go to

extraordinary lengths to protect their sense of worth or self-value even if it infringes on the

ultimate outcome of their achievement. This theory asserts that a person's ability to achieve is

directly linked to their perceptions of themselves. For those people in positions either of power

(i.e. teachers, managers, etc.) or persuasiveness (i.e. retail, ecommerce, etc.), being aware of

these underlying psychological drivers can prevent failure due to issues such as fear and image

control. If issues with self-worth are removed from the situation, than a person is free to

experience the actual situation, and to succeed or fail as is appropriate.

Moreover, Bandura’s Social Cognitive Model (1986) will also use in this study. This

theory states that there are 3 factors that influence self-efficacy: Behaviours, environment, and

personal cognitive factors. They all effect each other, but the cognitive factors are important.

Self-efficacy developing from mastery experiences in which goals are achieved through
perseverance and overcoming obstacles and from observing others succeed through sustained

effort. Furthermore, self-efficacy and self-esteem are different concepts, but related. Self-efficacy

relates to a person’s perception of their ability to reach a goal, whereas self-esteem relates to a

person’s sense of self-worth.

Furthermore, another theory will be deep seated in this research the Life-span

Developmental theory by Erick Erickson (1959) in which he explained that there are eight stages

of life which each has conflicts and fixations associated with it and that a resolution could only

lead to a healthy psychosocial development. Erickson (1959) proposed that in adulthood stage

that a person wants to make self-improvement and enrich it by making means and by

contributing to their family and society thus it’s the only way to make an individual to have a

healthy wellbeing and emotional development in the said stage. Unemployment on the other

hand compromised the self-worth of the person leading to anxiety, depression and self-doubt.

Evidences suggesting in relation to adolescence some studies back up that psychological

development is deprived due to youth unemployment. A theory predicted it as it prevents the

development of occupational identity. (Gurney 2011).

Moreover, another theory entitled the Vitamin Model developed by Warr in 1987 that

explains unemployment affects not only the self-worth and wellbeing of a person but also the

mental health through an analogous manner to the way vitamins affects physical health. The

model assumes that there are nine features of the environment (opportunity for control,

opportunity for skill use, externally generated goals, variety, environmental clarity, availability of

money, physical security, opportunity for interpersonal contact, and valued social position) that is

vital to a person. Once the person become unemployed these features will be taken off and the
person wellbeing slowly deteriorated like as health becomes deteriorate when it is not given

proper vitamins.

Moreover, as indicated by the latent deprivation model jobless or unemployed

individuals that deprives important latent benefits which, in turn, leads to impaired well-being.

Psychological well-being is a multidimensional idea that includes self esteem,self worth and self

efficacy. In this manner, the effect of joblessness on psychological well-being is probably going

to be manifest in many form, including denigration of self-worth or self-esteem. The latent

deprivation model has increased extensive empirical support in recent years (Muller and Waters,

2012). Studies led in an assortment of Western nations demonstrated that employed people

report more access to the latent and benefits of work than jobless or unemployed individuals out

of the work constrain. This clarifies their comparably better well-being (Creed, Muller &

Machin, 2010; Paul and Batinic, 2010).

In addition, this study will also use the latent deprivation theory by Jahoda (1982). As indicated

by the deprivation model employment had a dormant capacity that gives a budgetary salary and

advantages. It empowers individuals to add to a higher aggregate reason, it enlarges people's

interpersonal organizations and beyond their private family. Furthermore, it gives status qou and

societal acknowledgment, notwithstanding organizing the day and enacting them making the

individual feel valued and feeling worthy.

Significance of the Study

This study aims to find out the self-worth of unemployed individuals in Davao city and

explore their experiences and coping mechanism on unemployment. This will provide
enhancement in the intrapersonal relationships of the respondents and coping mechanism of the

unemployed individuals.

By finding the experiences of joblessness and understanding the issues which

unemployed individual experience, it is hope that the information that will acquire in the

investigation may be utilized to enhance as well as create administrations which help the jobless

individual adapt to work misfortune and to enhance their chances to return to work. Moreover, it

might console for the individuals who encounter joblessness to understand that they are by all

account not the only ones encountering these feelings and emotions and this study may go about

as an impetus in driving them out of joblessness. This study hopes that this will help not just to

show what the causes are, but also to lower the increasing rate of unemployment. This research

study will benefit the following 1st the unemployed individuals, for them to know the impact of

unemployment to their self worth and mental health in their lives and to give an action and

solution to the problems with the help of this study. Second is the government; this research

study will be a help to the government since to lessen the impact of unemployment not just here

in Davao but as well as in the country. The recommendations in this study can be considered as

solution to the problems. Lastly to the future Researchers; this research study will be a big help

to the future researchers especially to those who have related topics in this research. This will

serve as their guidelines to conduct and fulfill a research study.

Definition of terms

For clearer understanding of the terms used in this study, below are their meanings:

Self- worth in this study as the value and self-respect of individual portray to oneself.

Unemployment as stated by is the situation of not having a job that provides financial

status. This definition is also used for the duration of the study.

Unemployed individuals as stated in the old definition by PSA (2017) quoted “the

unemployed are those persons 15 years old and over as of their last birthday and are reported as:

(1) without work or had no job/business during the basic survey reference period; and (2)

seeking work or had taken specific steps to look for a job or establish business”. In this study

unemployed graduates refers to the individuals who finished a degree on tertiary level or

unemployed professional who had experienced work.

Employed individuals as defined by the Bureau of Labour Statistics (2017) refers to the

individual on foundation finance who get pay for any piece of the payroll interval that

incorporates the twelfth of the month. Individuals are checked at their work environment as

opposed to at their place of living arrangement; those people showing up on more than one

finance are depended on every finance. In this study, the same definition will be adopted.

Delimitation and limitations of the study

This study only focuses on the experiences of unemployed individuals who is six months

above who still do not have a job or work and studies the underlying perceive self-worth of the
unemployed graduates. The researcher will only study these aspects; experiences, coping

mechanisms of unemployment and perception of self-worth of unemployed individuals. The

location of the study will be limited on Davao city. The length of the investigation will take one

to three months.

Organization of the study

Chapter two will review the literatures relating to this research. The current consensus of

unemployment in the Philippines, definition of work, employment and unemployment will be

discussed. The researcher will use past references of studies in unemployment that discuss the

psychological impact of unemployment on the individual’s self-worth. It also highlights the

importance of work and analyze the importance of it to individual’s life. Lastly, it will examine

on how the individual deals with the changes and how they cope with unemployment.

Chapter three will present the approach in method for this research studies. It will discuss

the rationale of why the researcher chose this study, the methods in collecting the data, the

reasons of why the sample was chosen and how they are chosen, and also the analysis of the data

gathered. Finally, ethical consideration and process will also be discussed.

Chapter four will mainly present the findings such as the different themes that will

emerged from the data that will be collected and that will undergo data analysis.

Chapter five will conclude the complete research summary briefly. It will give the full

interpretation of the results and finding gathered, the importance of the findings to the research

and the relation of the findings to other researches.

Chapter Two

Related Review of Literature

The aim of this chapter is to review the writing accessible on this research study of

unemployment. It will inspect the focal part which work contributes to an individual's life.

Moreover, it will look at the psychological and financial impacts of joblessness and present

diverse speculations created on the impacts of joblessness. At last, it will investigate how an

individual manages to deal unemployment and adapts to the progress.

Philippine current rate of unemployment and Definitions

Unemployment is a continuous issue in the Philippine society. The increasing and

decreasing growth of unemployment looks back to the year 2010. Joblessness has fallen in the

Philippine economic status late year 2010. However, advance has been uneven, and the

Philippines has one of the most elevated unemployment rate in the Asian region. As stated by

Trading Economics (2018) quoted "The unemployment rate in the Philippines in percentage

increased to 5.0 in the year of 2017 from 4.7 late year 2016. The unemployed individuals

increased by 148 thousand to 2.19 million while the number of employed fell by 134 thousand to

40.55 million. Meanwhile, the labor force participation rate decreased to 62.1 from 63.6 percent.
In light of the current Labor Force Survey that was released by the Philippine Statistics

Authority (2017) regions with lowest employment rates were Ilocos Region 89.6%, National

Capital Region (NCR) 92.8%, and Calabarzon 92.9%. The labor force participation rate in

year2017 was estimated at 61.4 percent given the labor force population of 69.6 million. Davao

Region recorded employment rate of 94.1 percent. Information assembled from PSA (2017)

likewise demonstrated that Davao Region's joblessness rate is at 5.9 percent while the

underemployment rate is at 14.6 percent.

One explanation behind this joblessness rate is that the quantity of individuals entering

the job market has been more prominent than the quantity of occupations made. Recently, work

creation has struggled to keep pace with a regularly extending populace. Regardless of fast

financial development in the Philippines joblessness remains a tireless issue for the sprawling

Southeast Asian country of more than 100 million individuals (CNBC, 2018).

Unemployment happens when an individual loses work. It is a typical component inside

any general public that there will dependably be some level of joblessness because of the

development of specialists, financial development or stagnation and the change in the free

market activity for them. Vandenberg (2010) described joblessness as an existence occasion in

which paid employment is automatically detracted from a person. A comparative clarification is

offered by OECD (2018) where the jobless are depicted as being without work yet searching for

work if there were occupations accessible to them. They are thought about piece of the

workforce and are distinguished from the economically inactive that pick not to work regardless

of whether an occupation was offered to them. Joblessness for some can be viewed as an

occasion which is predominantly undesirable, uncontrolled and unscheduled (Kruppe, Müller,

Wichert & Wilke; 2007). The effect of joblessness upon an individual is needy upon various
elements, for example, the assets and encouraging groups of people which a man has set up, their

money related circumstance and duties, sexual orientation, age, ethnicity, the economy, nearby

levels of joblessness and individual contrasts (, 2006; Kerkhoff & Kirk,

2017; Pettersson, 2012; Buckley, 2015).

Rainer Winkelmann (2014) further elaborated that unemployment affects distinctive

people and demeanors to losing an occupation will shift impressively, from one viewpoint a few

people may have an inspirational state of mind towards joblessness and see it as far as a pick up,

while others may see a greater number of issues than circumstances and along these lines see the

change contrarily and as far as a misfortune. This will rely upon the qualities of the individual


The role of work

Employment means that work is under contractual agreement that involves rewards.

(Jahoda,1982). Employment similarly according to Warr (2009) can be defined as work as a

form of contractual relationship between the individual and an employer. However, it does not

mean that work outside of paid employment such as decorating work, house work, voluntary

work and so on. Work takes many forms and these take place within employment, unemployment

and non-employment.

Moreover, employment according to Heathfield (2017) can be characterized as work

under contractual arrangements including material prizes. These material prizes are essential to

personality development like building self esteem and confidence. Be that as it may, this

definition excludes work outside of paid business, for example, enlivening work, house work,

deliberate work and so on. Econ (2012) described that work takes many structures and these
occur inside business, joblessness and non-business. To a great extent be that as it may, while

portraying work and business one consider that there are material rewards and these rewards

plays a crucial role to the indivuduals not only socially but psychologically particurlaly their

feeling of worthiness. .

There will be material rewards when it comes to work and employment however. Social,

personal and domestic welfare are one’s need and in today’s society only work is the only that

can access. One of the prerequisite to an individual’s well-being that can boast up self esteem

and feeling worthiness is the access of certain of standard of living and only work can ensure

that access. Multiple personal need are satisfied by the outcomes provided by it. (Hayes &

Nutman, 2014).

In the present society work can be regarded as a focal and key factor in one's social,

individual and local welfare. It guarantees access to a specific way of life and is viewed as an

essential to a person's prosperity both mentally and socially. It can give results that can fulfill

various individual psychological needs one of the example is feeling efficient, worthy and

confident (Andersen, 2009; Johnson, Sage, and Mortimer, 2012).

Furthermore, Filip Van, Droogen broecka, Bram Spruyta and Christophe Van (2014)

contended that the significance of work depends on a social structure made up, to some extent,

by the assorted scope of people experienced at work. Something else, the relational progression

that unfurl between individuals at work make a vital setting in which work implications are

made. The feelings of ambivalence and which can involve both feelings of obligation and choice,

benefits and costs is associated with work for many individuals. Work for some individuals is not

just a means of survival but a sense of meaning to which it they feel valued and worthy in the

society and routine which they desire, and it also provides them a sense of identity, self-esteem
income, social relationships and social outlet. But others may feel that their work offers them

very little than providing them the basic necessity for survival and a source of income (Warr,


Additionally, work for some, people can be related with sentiments of indecision and can

include the two sentiments of commitment and decision, advantages and expenses. For a few

people, work gives them a feeling of character, wage, social connections and a social outlet, a

feeling of worthiness and structure which they want. While others may feel that their activity

offers them almost no other than a method for survival and a wellspring of pay (Mäkikanga and

Kinnunen, 2013).

Moreover, Econ (2012) also attests the view that having paid work has not been

recognized as all around positive for the utilized person. It is clear that the quality and experience

of the activity has been recognized as assuming an imperative part in impacting the mental

prosperity of the utilized individual. Regularly, it will rely on the sort of employment which an

individual has that will decide how he/she feels about it. Also, there is developing proof that the

jobless don't all have comparative encounters of joblessness and are not all troubled with their

joblessness state (Johnson et. al., 2012). Rainer Winkelmann (2014) acknowledge that positive

help and worthiness originates from being engaged with the workforce, getting a charge out of

the status of a labourer and this is regardless of the kind of employment or the fulfilments that

can be gotten from doing the activity. Martyna Kobus and Marcin Jakubek (2015) proposed how

it is vital for psychological wellness to build up and accomplish reasonable objectives and it is

somewhat through a vocation that objectives might be characterized and accomplished These

discoveries feature the significance of different elements of work as opposed to only for

monetary profit.
However, the determination of the how the individuals feels like self-efficacy about it, is

the type of job in which individual depend one’s paid work wasn’t acknowledged that is entirely

positive for employed individual as affirmed by Creed et. al (2010). Establishing and attaining

realistic goals is important for mental health and it is that goals maybe defined and is achievable

through a job. The importance of other functions is highlighted in the findings rather that

financial purpose (Platt, 2009).


According to Rainer (2014) unemployment leads to deprivation in both manifest and

latent functions; however, it is the loss of the latent functions that impacts the most negatively on

psychological well-being and self worth. Work is therefore essential to be psychologically

healthy while unemployed individuals are at risk of experiencing feeling worthless. Also believes

that any job is better than the alternative of being unemployed. Unemployment is a status that is

supposed to be a transitory period in an individual’s life span. It is difficult to determine when an

individual will exit from being unemployed, this in turn creates a lot of uncertainty, feeling of

worthlessness and insecurity about the future and this insecurity is at the centre of the

unemployed experience (Strandh, 2010). Work provides an important element in the construction

and maintenance of a person’s sense of worth. In addition, Cassidy (2011) stated that work
proves a positive social identity which can be threatened by unemployment resulting in a loss of

self-esteem, self-worth and varying degrees of physical and psychological ill effects.

Moreover, a study carried by Miguel Martínez Lucio and Robert MacKenzie (2017) who

agreed that distinctions existed between the latent function of individuals who were utilized and

jobless and how it affects their self-esteem and efficacy, however differences were not

recognized over each of the five inert functions. Shob (2012) stated that the latent functions can

likewise be given somehow through extra means other than business, for instance, going to

business related preparing or instructive establishments to boast up self-esteem. These

investigations demonstrated that entrance to the latent arrangement of functions for jobless

individuals differs from employed individuals, and that those with better access will have better

psychological well-being self-esteem and self-worth (Rainer, 2014).

Joblessness is a status that should be a short-lived period in a person's life expectancy. It

is hard to decide when an individual will exit from being jobless, this thus makes a considerable

measure of vulnerability, feeling unworthy and uncertainty about the future and this weakness is

at the focal point of the jobless experience (Strandh, 2010). Work gives a critical component in

the development and support of a man's feeling of worthiness. Ronnie Schob (2012) expressed

that because of the disintegration of numerous conventional types of character, there is currently

a greater amount of an accentuation on the significance of work and occupation as a wellspring

of personality that includes self esteem and self efficat. They contend previously, in little rustic

groups individuals were recognized by their family, interests and abilities . In any case, they

stipulate as groups develop and turn out to be more mind boggling, a man's close feeling of

personality is lost, thusly connections have a tendency to be brief and momentary, along these
lines the activity a man has a tendency to accept a more self worthy importance in recognizing

the sort of individual that he or she is.

To be denied of the chance to work can undermine self esteem whereupon the personality

has being manufactured (Shob, 2012). Work likewise demonstrates a positive social character

which can be undermined by joblessness bringing about lost confidence, self efficacy and self

worth that can be fluctuating degrees of physical and mental sick impacts (Cassidy, 2011).

There are many impacts on character improvement including family impacts, social and

sexual orientation impacts and in addition the impact of joblessness. Specific expert role can

contribute in critical approaches to individual personality and self-observations (Pettersson,

2012). Jeylan Mortimer Mike Vuolo and Jeremy Staff (2016) expressed that you can't get a

genuine handle of who a man is until the point that you figure out what sort of work they do.

They additionally contended that when an individual has business automatically detracted from

them, they in this way lose some part of their very own character and this strongly affects their


Notwithstanding, Clemens Hetschko, Andreas Knabe, and Ronnie Schöb (2013) bring up

that when an individual ends up plainly jobless it isn't just an issue of the person who loses the

status of a working individual, however more critically he/she loses the methods by which the

respectability of the mental self-view is kept up. This absence of personality emerges on the

grounds that when people wind up plainly jobless, they are found as far as the gathering they

never again have a place with, not as a jobless individual. Mcgee and Thompson(2010) stated

that with joblessness the individual loses his presence of mind of esteems, his worth is lost in his

own perception and envisions, according to his companions.

According to Platt (2009) there are many influences on self development including

family influences, cultural and gender influences as well as the influence of unemployment.

Particular professional roles can contribute in important ways to personal identity and self-

perceptions . Platt (2009) also stated that you cannot get a true grasp of who a person is until you

determine what kind of work they do. Additionally, Platt 2009) argued that when an individual

has employment involuntarily taken away from them, they therefore lose some aspect of their

own personal identity and this has a strong impact on their self-esteem. In contrast, Fagin and

Little (2012) stated that work defines people in terms of status,worth and influence, establishing

hierarchies and groupings from which a sense of security, recognition, belonging and

understanding is derived. In addition, Fagin and Little (2012) argued that if an individual lacks

a sense of purpose in life it can result in feelings of powerlessness, isolation and self-

estrangement for them that equates an overall feeling of worthlessness towards self. When a

person loses their job, they lose the structure which a job gives their worth, resulting in high

levels of discontentment.

Furthermore, Eisenberg & Lazarsfeld (2009) noted the different effects on individuals;

first, if the prestige and status of holding jobs are high the unemployed are more likely to become

broken and feel worthless, whereas if prestige values are low or the individual has something

else to turn to, he is more likely to remain unbroken; secondly, young men still have hope of

getting work; older men have found their place in society and are content with that and once

taken out of them the feeling of lost and worthlessness take over them. It is therefore the middle

age groups, men in their thirties with responsibilities, who find it most difficult to adjust to

unemployment; third unemployment impacts more on the status of men than on women; fourth,

the greater the loss, in terms of unemployment, the greater the psychological impact like lost of
self esteem and confidence that can later on evolve to worse psychological ilnesses ; and lastly,

the length of unemployment has an effect in determining the person’s change in attitude and view

to one’s self worth creating the phases of unemployment for optimism, through pessimism to

fatalism. Long durations of unemployment make an individual especially apathetic and feeling


In addition, the SOL article (2018) depicted employment as a vital part for individuals as

far as individual's status and impact, building up pecking orders and groupings from which a

feeling that all is well with the world, acknowledgment, having a place, worthy and

comprehension is determined. Ronnie Schob (2012) likewise demonstrated how a man's

character and worth is characterized by their work; this enables others to extend their own

inclinations and presumptions with regards to the sort of individual he is, for example, his

instructive foundation, pay, way of life et cetera. Work not just impacts the status that is credited

to the labourer, but also it can likewise impact the status of their family.

Furthermore, Teresa Toguchi Swartz (2009) noted of that weight can exist inside the

family to keep up or enhance the social standing gave by business, and strife can emerge when

relatives are inconsistent with work status. For the family man this implies the family itself turns

into the fundamental wellspring of social contact and thusly the primary social setting inside

which the worries of joblessness are experienced and managed (Qian, 2012).

There are many personality factors which influence the lives of the unemployed.

According to Schaufeli (2014) individual who have high self-efficacy develops self-worth that

helps the lives of the unemployed. In spite of this fact, unemployed people know their self-worth

are more flexible in accepting any work opportunities. As a consequence, they have more
chances of finding a job. They structure their time better and it is easier for them to cope with

unemployment (Feather, 2009).

Experiences of suffering and feelings of emptiness, worthlessness, shame, sadness,

hopelessness, devaluation, anger, low self-esteem, and social exclusion are present in

unemployed workers, all of which influence the identities of these individuals, who end up

looking at their life history for causes that led to unemployment. On the other hand,

unemployment generates embarrassment and the unemployed individuals may feel insecurity

from not knowing how they will survive (Shamir, 2010).

The psychological impact of unemployment

There have been various studies did on the effect of joblessness on the mental strength of

jobless individuals from the 1930s to the present. The damaging impact on psychological health

and well-being of individual have been consistently demonstrated that unemployment has.

Additional stressors on individual, such as anxiety, worrying and financial and relationship stress

might be imposed by unemployment (Creed et al., 2010). These investigations have reliably

exhibited that joblessness damagingly affects the mental wellbeing due to low self esteem,

feeling worthless and not efficient enough of the individual’s involved (Kobus and Jakubek,


Moreover, Gallie, Marsg & Vogler (2014) emphasizes that individual’s psychological

health has deteriorated when they move from employment to unemployment. They recognized

that when the individual go to work their health is recovered. Provided by researchers to date
their views of themselseves can cause worthlessness, hopelessness, apathy, low self-esteem and

confidence which can lead to higher negative psychological effects like depression, anxiety, ,

inability to cope with problems, moodiness, alcoholism, and parasuicid. Joblessness may force

extra stressors on individuals, for instance, vulnerability, stress, and budgetary and relationship

troubles. Similar idea was imposed by Winkelmann (2014) that people’s psychological health

has deteriorated when they move from employment to unemployment and recovered when they

return to work. In addition, the negative psychological effects of unemployment provided by the

researchers to date include; depression, anxiety, hopelessness, apathy, low self-esteem and

confidence, inability to cope with problems, moodiness, alcoholism, and parasuicide (Johnson et.

al, 2012; Petterson, 2012; Lucas, Clark, Georgellis, & Diener, 2014).

A notable study also was carried out by Marie Jahoda, Paul Lazarsfeld and Hans Zeisel in

year 1999 in a village Austria in relation to unemployment on psychological consequences of

prolonged unemployment. There a textile industry in the year 1930 where the most villagers

mainly worked for years comes to its collapse and as a result almost 80 percent of the families in

that place has no work at that time. The findings of which recorded feelings of worthiness, lack

of confidence, resignation, apathy, depression; demoralization and passivity which were the

expected results as a consequence of mostly who are unemployed

According to quali Robin E. McGee and Nancy J. Thompson (2010) who also studied on

the psychological consequences of prolonged unemployment on an individual. Discovered that

the connection amongst joblessness and self worthlessness is critical among rising grown-ups.

With high rates of joblessness for this age gathering, this populace may profit by business and

psychological well-being engaged intercessions. The author's findings noted sentiments of

acquiescence, aloofness, self worthlessness, sadness; discouragement and resignation which were

exhibited as the results of joblessness for many.

Moreover, a study conducted by Ed Diener and Marissa Diener (2009) the relationship of

financial, companion, and family fulfilments with life satisfaction and with self-esteem

additionally differed crosswise over countries. Financial satisfaction was a more grounded

correspond of life fulfilment in poorer nations. It was discovered that self worth and self esteem

were plainly discriminable develops. Satisfaction ratings, aside from money related fulfilment,

changed between slightly positive and genuinely positive.

In 1982, Marie Jahoda furthered her research, she developed a model named Latent-

Deprivation Model which she proposed that principally individuals involved in paid work to get

the two main functions; the manifest function which is where the financial income comes in and

second is the latent functions which fulfil the psychological need of the individual like self

esteem, confidence and happiness. As highlighted by Jahoda (1982) the latent functions of work

includes time structure impositions which includes social contracts and experiences, social

participations, group goals and social status and identity role, and a regular activity is enforced

Furthermore, time structure was important of these latent functions. For unemployment

as the results these experiences will be take away from the individual. Quoted “Individuals have

deep seated needs for structuring their time use and perspective, for enlarging their social

horizon, for participating in collective enterprises where they can feel useful, for knowing they

have a recognized place in society, and for being active”. Earning one’s living was persuasive

reason which social institution such as family, religion or another social norm that enforce some

of these latent need none do so. Both manifest and latent functions are deprived when

unemployment happens. But what impacts most negatively on the psychological being is the loss
of the latent functions. Being unemployed put at risk of experiencing a loss in wellbeing and

self-worthlessness while being unemployed therefore makes essentially becomes psychologically

healthy. Any job would be a better alternative that being unemployed (Jahoda, 1982).

In relation to Jahoda’s research Miles & Howard (2014) acknowledge the existence of

different latent function of individuals that were employed and unemployed. Though for them

they didn’t emphasize the differences were not identified across the five latent functions. Latent

functions in some ways can be provided through attending work related workshop or training or

educational programs that can be through additional means other than employment. Creed,

Muller & Machin (2010) Seven Functions of work was further included by Hayes & Nutman

(2011) through their development of Jahoda’s study. Five human need with the inclusion of

income and other sources such as creativity and mastery as work functions

Furthermore, Ulla Kinnunen Jouko, NättiNele De Cuyper, Saija Mauno, Anne

Mäkikangas, and Hans De Witte (2016) showed that insecure employment and long-term

unemployment relate to more subjective complaints load and poorer health when compared to

secure permanent employment. Those individuals who has better access usually have better

mental health as these studies portray. It does differ that the accessibility of latent set of function

for those unemployed individuals does has difference from those who are employed. (Creed et

al., 2010). Another similar model which was proposed by Warr (1987) entitled the vitamin

model; a model from similar to vitamins on physical health. He documented that negative

psychological as well physical effects are results from unemployment. The positive benefits

associated with employment are involuntarily taken away once the individual got unemployed.

He outlines nine benefits, which include; opportunity for control, opportunity for skill use,

external generated goals, variety, environmental clarity, availability of money, physical security,
opportunity for interpersonal contact, and valued social position. These benefits if the individual

has work will no longer experience as a consequence due to loss of work. There are two levels

are thought to have effects on mental health, if low levels of these factors are thought to have

negative effects on mental health and if it is increasing it will be a positive effect on mental

health. However, Creed and Evan (2010) had criticism of Jahoda’s model. They note that Latent-

Deprivation model has failure one of which they take account is the individual differences such

as temperament, values, experience etc.

The financial impact of unemployment

Agency restriction model developed by Fryer (2015) explained the wellbeing and self

worth will become deteriorated because of unemployment. It also postulated that loss in manifest

function because of unemployment that impacted the individual most as a contrary to Jahoda’s

argument that it was the loss of latent functions. The agency restriction model also believes

humans to be “agents actively striving for purposeful self-determination, attempting to make

sense of, initiate, influence, and cope with events in line with personal values, goals, and

expectations of the future” Money in which allows people to make control on of their lives and

gives them with experience, roles and socialization which it is an important necessity for

development and maintenance of self-esteem and identity.

Furthermore, Al Marzoqi (2013) explained in his research entitled “The Adaptation

Concept, The Latent Depravation and Agency Restriction in the Employment Context” that

positive mental well being such as self esteem, confidence and feeling of worthniness can be

deprived of benefits if the individual once become unemployed. Moreover, he also used 3
important models of unemployment in his studies to make a proposition. Under one of the

proposition stated their the important of benefits to a person’s wellbeing. There are two of sets

of functions of benefits that a person needs; first is the manifest benefits. Though employment

one can access various need like food, housing, medical care, clothing et cetera in whch it well

boast up their self esteem. The other benefits are the latent which psychological need plays

along, being employed give you time structure, social contact, common goals with the crowd,

social status and doing activities which gives the feeling of belongingness and worthiness.

One of the development of self-worth and wellbeing of an individual is knowing that a

person has autonomy of all possibilities to set goals or attain a good lifestyle in which

unemployment delimits that. In local settings, it is widely neglected the study of the financial

impact of unemployment. It was not focus solely in financial stress to the individual that

financial strain of unemployment deduces their autonomy to their life choices, which results not

to attain their desired living standards (Al- Marzoqi, 2013).

Moreover, Long term goals and planning becomes impossible due to financial constrain in

individual’s life which lower their self esteem and overall view of themselves. Happiness and

satisfaction in self and life are greatly affected if your income is low. Receiving salary or income

fruited from your labor is a main factor to feel good and feeling of worthiness. Financial gain is

not the only reason why individuals go to work. Social interaction and time structure are also

evident to individual needs. Income or financial gain did not only provide basic needs but also a

sense of moral aspect in societal roles. (James Lewis ,2014).

Moreover, Al Marzoqi (2013) also acknowledged the importance of latent needs which he

highlighted the termed coercive poverty that financial hardship enforces on unemployed

individual has greater impact on psychological well-being and self efficacy. The reason for this is
that poverty takes away the person’s access to basic needs or the possibility of attaining it. In

developing and maintaining self-worth, income or financial resources give the individual a sense

of control of their lives. It could provide them sense of experiences, socializing which are

essential of it. Morin (2015) stated in her study what your financial health project your overview

on your oneself and how you act in the society.

In United States, depressed individual most likely to have more behaviour problems, by

internalizing of feeling worthless like acting sad, showing low self-esteem, not being functional.

This can lead to depression or symptoms of other mental disorders have important

intergenerational implication for individual’s behaviour and mental health. (White, 2014).

Worry, fear, hostility, aggression, sorrow, depression, loneliness are among the emotional

responses to feeling worthless due to job loss. Sometimes the above factors have a special order.

For example, worry and fear appear mainly around job loss knowing that the person has no

stability. These emotions can turn to anger if the unemployed person realiaze that does not

finding a job makes you worthless. Hostility means that the employed person thinks

unemployment is not his/her fault and the person blames another person. If the stress is

permanent the negative feelings turn inward and feelings of helplessness or low self-esteem can

appear. Further this feeling of worthlessness can lead to depression and loneliness. Unemployed

people experience lower activity levels, and some feel isolated because of their low self-efficacy

(Beland, Birch, & Stoddart, 2012).

Effects of Financial

Individual with families has higher impact to their self-worth that to single individuals in terms

of financial stress of unemployment. Providers such as parents or guardian faces anxiety and

doubts about their self-worth is they can provide for the basic means of the family

(Wiemers,2015). Families of unemployed individual, due to financial constraint faces struggle.

Major source of mental distress is the uncertainty of income result of unemployment because it

lead to lower the living standards (Simpsons, 2017). Moreover, George bangham (2017)

acknowledges that Paid work or income becomes viewed more important once the the struggles

and pressure is felt due to unemployment by the individual. It bcome to their senses that it’s the

only lifestyle that is socially accepted.

Transition to Unemployment

Employment to unemployment transition is one event that is life changing. The definition of

transition from employment to unemployment is an event that can be positive or negative or both

to individual’s mental satete. A major life events are seen in transition in relationship, schedules,

plans, routines and roles resulted from unemployment that affect persons point of view in life

and towards himself and it’s feeling of worthiness. The transition from employment to

unemployment can be a life changing event. A transition can be defined as an event that leads to

a change in social networks that can positively or negatively affect the individual’s self esteem

and self worth (Von, Hillmann & Dresden, 2016).

Moreover, Hill (2014) puts forward a three-stage theory which an individual’s passes through as

a result of job loss. The first stage is initial trauma in which the individual feels insecure, the

second stage is a process of accepting a new identity, involving boredom and stagnation here
where the individual feels unworthy, and finally adaptation to unemployment, where hope is

somewhat resignedyet the feeling of low self esteem is present.

Furthermore, Fagin & Little (2014) described the process as a normal process of mourning and

compared these stages to a few other situations of crisis with feelings of loss being similar to

divorce, demotion or imprisonment where the person feels completely unworthy. Burnett (2010)

argues that the idea of a set pattern of reactions and stages is too simplistic and not appropriate

because each individual’s experience of unemployment and the stages which they go through

will be different.

Coping Resources of Individuals

The coping style and coping strategies an individual adopts to cope with a stressful situation such as
unemployment is dependent on individual characteristics and the controllability of the situation, which
may lead to either the maintenance or deterioration of health (Dollard & Winefield, 2012; Endler et al.,
2010; Mckee-Ryan et al., 2015; Sojo & Guarino, 2011). Research conducted in the United Kingdom and in
South Africa has found that where unemployment levels are high, and where unemployment is the
norm, the less stigma there is attached to being unemployed, and that social disapproval is less prevalent
reducing some of the psychological consequences of unemployment (Cassidy, 2011; Powdthavee, 2015)

Al- Marzooqi (2013) stated that coping resource of individual lessen the consequences

ofunemlyment of individual. These coping resources consist of individual characteristics

(internal) and environmental conditions (external) that a person can utilise to cope with

involuntary job loss (Lazarus & Folkman, 2015). Furthermore, McKee-Ryan (2013) identified

four types of coping resources which include personal, social, and financial and a time structure

which are important for coping with job displacement. The leisure environment can provide an

alternative source for gaining access to the latent benefits and serve as a useful and

psychologically healthy way of coping with unemployment (Hoare & Machin, 2012).
The aim of this chapter is to review the literature of unemployment relations to mental health and

self-worth in which it is widely dissected and discussed, the contribution of work as a important

role to the individual. It also review the financial impact of unemployment and so does the ways

and utilities used by the individual to cope with job loss.



Discuss in this chapter are the details and processes on how the study will be conducted.

This includes the research design, respondents, locale, research instrument, and procedure as

well as the process on how the data will be analyze.

Research Design

This study will adapt the qualitative design since it aims to generate data about live

experiences of an individual where treatments or manipulation of variables are not introduced.

This study involved in-depth interview with each participant with the same set questions to

enable the researchers to reach beyond initial responses and rationales needed for data analysis;

audio and written recordings were also secured after the process. Quoted by Denzin and Lincoln

(2014) “Qualitative research is multimethod in focus, involving an interpretive, naturalistic

approach to its subject matter. This means that qualitative researchers study things in their natural
settings, attempting to make sense of, or interpret, phenomena in terms of the meanings people

bring to them”.

Role of the Researcher

Both quantitative and qualitative research is influenced in some way by the researcher,

but this is especially true in qualitative research because the researcher is an integral part of the

research process. In qualitative research the researcher is the primary instrument for both

collecting and analysing the data (Terre Blanche et al., 2006). the crucial part of the researcher is

included to all stages and process of the research from forming the concept, designing,

interviewing, transcribing, analyzing, verifying the data, categorizing the codes and themes. An

individual is as important as an essential piece of the process, whatever instrument is used in a

qualitative study. The main task of the researcher in the research is to gather and obtain the live

experience of the individual into data. The researcher will then comprehend these experiences

through processes, classify then and interpreted. The last stage would be the researcher will put

everything to writing which will give description of the phenomena

The benefit of the researcher as instrument is that the subjectivity of the researcher allows

the understanding of personal and social realities empathically (Terre Blanche et al., 2006). A

limitation of the researcher as instrument is that the biases, motivations, predispositions, and

perspectives of the researcher may have an influence on how data is collected and analysed

(Terre Blanche et al., 2006).

To minimise these potential influences by the researcher it is recommended that the

researcher describe and interpret their own presence appropriately by means of self-reflection in

any research project (Terre Blanche et al., 2006). Hunt (2011) suggests that researchers should
indicate to readers their roles in the study, including a description of their assumptions, an

indication of potential biases about the phenomenon in question, and how these were addressed

throughout the study. According to Morrow (2005) reflexivity, or self-reflection, on the part of

the researcher is a procedure used to establish trustworthiness in qualitative research. Reflexivity

often occurs in the form of a reflexive journal in which researchers write about their

‘experiences, reactions, and emerging awareness of any assumptions or biases that comes to the

fore’ (Morrow, 2005, p.254).

Research Participants/Materials

This study involved the participation of the unemployed individuals for at least 6 months

age 20-30 years old. The reason for such criteria is that the researchers believes that it can gain

different insights about work; for some of the individuals have already establish and benefit

economic stability during their employment and some haven’t yet started their career.. The

researchers have chosen them to be the respondents since the study’s aim was to assess the self-

worth that these unemployed individuals possess. Therefore, the respondents were currently

unemployed individuals; they were chosen via purposive sampling.

Data Collection

Audio recording devices or Dictaphones will used to record the interviews. A paper and

writing materials also will be used for recording. Then all verbatim will be transcribed.

The researcher prefers participants both who have job experience and are acquaintances to the

researcher. The participants will be contacted via text or call and email. Letter of confidentiality

will be sent to their address and also be sent to their emails containing details of the research. A

semi-structed interview will be conducted in a series of questionnaire in a form of interview

schedule. Additional questions are free to ask and explore in response to the participant which

include rapport and empathy (Bryman, 2014).

In advance, the researcher will prepare ahead of time an interview schedule. It includes

the structure and flow of the interview. A similar set of question will be presented to each

participants. The question will be relating to their overall experiences of unemployment to their

self-worth and the impact which it had on their lives. Mainly, the questionnaire will have open

ended questions. There will be also a few closed ended question. These close ended questions

relate to the information such as age, length of unemployment and so on. A need of balance with

the interview is needed because unemployment can be a very sensitive topic for some

participants. Thus, questions will not limit to the negative aspect of unemployment but also

highlight some positive aspect of it. This will also allow the researcher to rephrase difficulties in

the structure, resolve any wording in the questionnaire. This also will help identify questions that
will make the participant feel uncomfortable. The data in this process will not be included in the


Data Analysis

The audio recordings will be transcribed and will undergo Thematic Analysis using Colaizi’s

Seven Stage Process in order to identify recurring patterns or themes from the data gathered; the

themes were noted and were further discussed in the study.

The data that will be gathered will undergo a process; first it will be transcribe, it well be

coded, then analyzed, and interpreted. In transcribing the data gathered in the interview, this will

help the researcher gain more insights and understanding of the participants from repetitious

listening and rereading the data gathered in the interview.

After transcription, the next process is coding, wherein codes become keywords. This

then use to categorized and it is one of the crucial part of a qualitative research (Sarantakos,

2015). The data which emerge through the coding process will be cluster into themes and further

subthemes; in clustering it will go into the process of analyzing, categorizing and organizing the

data. Accordingly, codes will be assigned to the theme emerged. The next procedure is the

interpretation of data. In interpreting the data, the researcher must careful identify the

reoccurring themes thoroughly. The similarities and the differences found should be highlighted

in this process. The final procedure would be the verification according to Sarantakos (2015) this

process is one way to check the validity of the data gathered through rechecking the transcribe

data and codes. Through the researcher can verify and modify the previous hypothesis.

Trustworthiness as portrayed by Olivia (2017) it is alluded to as legitimacy and

unwavering quality for quantitative investigations. In any case, for qualitative investigation

reliability is tied in with setting up these four things; credibility, transferability, confirmability

and dependability.

Triangulation is expert by soliciting a similar research inquiry from various investigation

participant and by gathering information from various sources and by utilizing diverse strategies

to answer those research questions (De Vault, 2017). The qualitative data set in this study will do

in-depth investigation. According to Guba (2009) and Brewer and Hunter (2011) the utilization

of various techniques makes their individual constraints and exploits their advantages. By the

means of individual interviews, the experiences of the respondents will be clearly clarified and

explained (Holtzhausen, 2011). The findings of the study will be validated also by a panel of

experts. Moreover, multiple theories have been grounded on the study of unemployment. Warr

(1987), Jahoda (1982) and Seligman (1975) believed that exposure to such situation as

joblessness are equipped for hindering an individual's psychological well-being including

denigration of self-worth or self-esteem.

The findings on this study are solely based on the respondent’s responses and ethical

guidelines will be followed. The research process and the data analysis will be review and
examine by a panel of experts in order to ensure that the findings are consistent and could be

repeated. Debriefing will be made after the validation of the findings.

Ethical Consideration

An outline proposal will be submitted to the office of the Professional School in

University of Mindanao. It will be reviewed by the UMREC. An ethical approval will be granted

by the school before conducting the research. The researcher at all time is aware of the

consequences and the impact of their research to their participants and therefore must act

carefully at conducting any type of research. Accumulation of information without the

participants knowing it is unethical. Willingness and informed consent should be acknowledged

by the researcher (Kumar, 2015). It should be clear that the participants that their involvement in

the research must be on voluntary basis and that they have the freedom to withdraw at any time

from the research. Researcher must ensure informed consent from all the participants before

conducting the research.

The participants are not obliged to answer any question in which they are not comfortable

with. Prior to interview, participant will be given advance notice; these will be the outline of the

topic to be discussed, a required information required from the participants, the rationale of the

research why it is conducted and where will the information be used for. Before conducting each

interview the participant will be informed the possible amount of time involved in the interview

and the sufficient time for the participants to ask any question relating to the subject before and

after the interview. A consent form will be given and should be signed informing the participants
are willing to cooperate and participant. Though this we can ensure the confidentiality of any

information and the anonymity of the participant throughout the process.

Unemployment has a great impact to many individual and thus it is a very sensitive topic

and sometimes difficult because some participants might recall memories and traumas cause by

it. As researcher, it must be sensitive in preparing the question being asked. The vulnerability of

the participants toward the topic should be considered. Participants have different experiences

prior to unemployment thus the research must take note and be aware of that to some of them it

could be traumatic and upsetting to talk about. Pilot interview should be carried out before the

commence of the research to ensure that questions that are unsettling should be eliminated and

the approach to the participants will be practice through.