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# Preliminary Sizing

##  DETERMINATION OF SLAB THICKNESS

𝐿𝑙
If ≥ 2, design as ONE-WAY SLAB.
𝐿𝑠
𝐿𝑙
If ≤ 2, design as TWO-WAY SLAB.
𝐿𝑠

## NSCP 2010 table.

𝑃𝑎𝑛𝑒𝑙 𝑃𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 2(𝐿𝑙+𝐿𝑠)
min. h = =
180 180
where:
LS = length of the short span
LL = length of the long span
h = thickness of the slab

## Considering the largest tributary area at panel 1

𝑃𝑎𝑛𝑒𝑙 𝑃𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 2(𝐿𝑙+𝐿𝑠) 2(4500+3800)
h= = = = 92 mm say 100 mm
180 180 180

## Adopt h = 100 +30 = 130 mm for the entire structure.

 DETERMINATION OF BEAM SIZE/S
Establish dimensions by treating beam as SRB (Singly Reinforced Beam)
𝑀𝑢
Effective depth, d = √𝑅𝑢𝑏

## For NSCP 2010, factored load, u :

u = 1.2DL + 1.6LL = Wu
1
Mu = 12 WuL2

where:
b = base width of the beam
d = effective depth
h = depth of the beam = d + (90 to 100)
Mu = moment due to load carried by the beam

For short span:
WD∗Ls
WS = 3

## For long span:

𝐿𝑠 2
WD∗Ls 3−( )
𝐿𝑙
WL = 3
x 2

𝑓𝑦
Ru = ϕρfy (1 − 0.59ρ )
𝑓𝑐′

𝑓𝑐′ 600
𝜌b = 0.85 𝑓𝑦 β1 (600+𝑓𝑦)

3 𝑓𝑐′
𝜌max = 7 0.85β1 𝑓𝑦

3 𝑓𝑐′
𝜌0.005 = 8 0.85β1 𝑓𝑦

1.4 √𝑓𝑐′
𝜌min = ;
𝑓𝑦 4𝑓𝑦
For 𝜌b:
21 600
𝜌b = 0.85(275)(0.85) (600+275) = 0.0378

## Compare to 𝜌max and 𝜌min:

3 21
𝜌max = 7 0.85(0.85)(275) = 0.0236

1.4 √21
𝜌min = 275 = 0.0005 ; = 0.0004 The larger one controls
4(275)

∴ 𝜌min = 0.0005
𝜌b > 𝜌max and 𝜌min.
Say: 𝜌 = 70% (𝜌max)

𝜌 = 0.70(0.0236) = 0.0165

For 𝜌0.0005:
3 21
𝜌0.005 = 8 0.85(0.85) 275 = 0.0207

Since (𝜌 = 0.0165) < (𝜌0.005 = 0.0207) this means that the strain εt is larger than 0.005

∴ ϕ = 0.90
For Ru:
275
Ru = 0.90(0.0165)(275) (1 − 0.59(0.0165)( 21 ))

Ru = 3.56
B.1) For Roof Beam Dimensions

## Considering the most loaded beam

LONGITUDINAL BEAM
𝐿𝑠 2
DL∗Ls 3−( )
𝐿𝑙
WDL = 3
x 2
3.8 2 2.50 2
2.55∗3.8 3−( ) 2.55∗2.50 3−( )
WDL = [ 3
x 4.5
2
] +[ 3
x 2
4.5
] = 6.55 KN/m

## WDL = 5.33 + (Wt. of beam) = 5.33 + 4 = 9.33 KN/m

3.8 2 2.50 2
1.9∗3.8 3−( ) 1.9∗2.50 3−( )
WLL = [
3
x 4.5
2
] +[
3
x 4.5
2
] = 4.88 KN/m

## WU = 1.2WDL + 1.6 WLL

WU = 1.2(6.55) + 1.6(4.88) = 15.67 KN/m

1 1
Mu = 12 WuL2 = 12 (15.67) (4.5)2

Mu = 26.44 KN.m

TRANSVERSE BEAM
DL∗Ls 2.55∗3.80 2.55∗3.80
WDL = =[ ] +[ ] = 6.46 KN/m
3 3 3

## LL∗Ls 1.90∗3.80 1.90∗3.80

WLL = =[ ] +[ ] = 4.81 KN/m
3 3 3

## WU = 1.2WDL + 1.6 WLL

WU = 1.2(10.46) + 1.6(4.81) = 20.25 KN/m
1 1
Mu = 12 WuL2 = 12 (20.25) (3.80)2
Mu = 24.37 KN.m

## Assume values for “b” to determine values of “d”.

𝑀𝑢
Effective depth, d = √𝑅𝑢∗𝑏 where: Ru = 3.56 from previous

computation

## h = d + 100, Beam Size,

b, mm d, mm Rounded d, mm
mm mm

## 300 157.34 160 260

250 x 300
350 145.67 150 250

## 300 151.06 155 255

250 x 300
350 139.85 140 255

Check:

## Actual wt. of beam = 23.56KN/m (0.25m) (0.30m) = 1.767 KN/m

(Actual wt. of beam = 1.767 KN/m) < (Assumed wt. of beam = 4 KN/m), SAFE!
B.2) First Floor Beam

## Wt. of interior wall (3 x 2.25) = 6.75 KN/m

LONGITUDINAL BEAM
𝐿𝑠 2
DL∗Ls 3−( )
𝐿𝑙
WDL = 3
x 2
3.8 2 2.50 2
5.13∗3.8 3−( ) 5.13∗2.50 3−( )
WDL = [ 3
x 4.5
2
] +[ 3
x 2
4.5
] = 13.18 KN/m

## WDL = 13.18 + (Wt. of beam) + (Wt. of interior wall)

WDL = 13.18 + 4 + 6.75 = 23.93 KN/m

3.8 2 2.50 2
1.9∗3.8 3−( ) 1.9∗2.50 3−( )
WLL = [ 3
x 4.5
2
] +[ 3
x 4.5
2
] = 4.88 KN/m

## WU = 1.2WDL + 1.6 WLL

WU = 1.2(23.93) + 1.6(4.88) = 36.52 KN/m

1 1
Mu = 12 WuL2 = 12 (36.52) (4.5)2

Mu = 61.63 KN.m

TRANSVERSE BEAM
DL∗Ls 5.13∗3.80 5.13∗3.80
WDL = =[ ] +[ ] = 13 KN/m
3 3 3

## LL∗Ls 1.90∗3.80 1.90∗3.80

WLL = =[ ] +[ ] = 4.81 KN/m
3 3 3
WU = 1.2WDL + 1.6 WLL
WU = 1.2(23.75) + 1.6(4.81) = 36.20 KN/m

1 1
Mu = 12 WuL2 = 12 (36.2) (3.80)2

Mu = 43.56 KN.m

## Assume values for “b” to determine values of “d”.

𝑀𝑢
Effective depth, d = √𝑅𝑢∗𝑏 where: Ru = 3.56 from previous computation

## h = d + 100, Beam Size,

b, mm d, mm Rounded d, mm
mm mm

## 300 240.22 245 345

250 x 400
350 222.4 225 325

## 300 201.96 210 310

250 x350
350 186.98 190 290

Check:

## Actual wt. of beam = 23.56KN/m (0.25m) (0.40m) = 2.36 KN/m

(Actual wt. of beam = 2.36 KN/m) < (Assumed wt. of beam = 4 KN/m), SAFE!
SUMMARY:

## C.1) Second Floor Column

4.5 3.13 3.8 5.10
Largest tributary area = ( 2 + )x(2 + ) = 16.98 m2
2 2
Sides: Transverse = 3.815 m
Longitudinal = 4.45 m

BEAM DIMENSIONS

Transverse Longitudinal
Level
b, mm d, mm b, mm d, mm

## 1st Floor 250 350 250 400

Wt. of slab = 23.56 x 16.98 x 0.13 = 52.01
Roofing materials = 1.20 x 16.98 = 20.38
Ceiling materials = 0.20 x 16.98 = 3.40
Construction load = 1.10 x 16.98 = 18.68
Transverse beam = (0.25 x 0.30) x (23.56 x 3.815) = 6.74
Longitudinal beam = (0.25 x 0.30) x (23.56 x 4.45) = 7.86

Roof live load = 1.90 x 16.98 = 32.26 KN

## Axial Load, Pu = 1.2DL + 1.6LL

= 1.2(109.07) + 1.6(32.26)
Pu = 182.50 KN

## Size of the Column, b

b2 = Ag
1.8𝑃𝑢
Ag = 𝛼𝜙[0.85𝑓𝑐 ′ (1− 𝜌𝑔)+ 𝜌𝑔𝑓𝑦] where: 𝜌𝑔 = 0.02
𝜙 = 0.65
1.8(182.50∗1000)
Ag = 0.85∗0.65[0.85∗21(1− 0.02)+ 0.02∗275] 𝛼 = 0.85

Ag = 25858.75 mm2

## b = 160.81 mm say 300 mm

b = 300mm x 300mm

## C.2) First Floor Column

Wt. of slab = 23.56 x 16.98 x 0.13 = 52
Ceiling materials = 0.20 x 16.98 = 3.40
Construction load = 1.10 x 16.98 = 18.68
Floor finish = 0.77 x 16.98 = 13.07
Interior Partition = (2.25 x 3)(16.98) = 114.615
Transverse beam = (0.25 x 0.40) x (23.56 x 3.815) = 10.48
Longitudinal beam = (0.25 x 0.40) x (23.56 x 4.45) = 8.99
Column = (0.30 x 0.30)(3)(23.56) = 6.36

Roof live load = 1.90 x 16.98 = 32.26 KN

## Axial Load, Pu = 1.2DL + 1.6LL

= 1.2(227.6) + 1.6(32.26)
Pu = 325.74 KN

## Size of the Column, b

b2 = Ag

1.8𝑃𝑢
Ag = where: 𝜌𝑔 = 0.02
𝛼𝜙[0.85𝑓𝑐 ′ (1− 𝜌𝑔)+ 𝜌𝑔𝑓𝑦]
𝜙 = 0.65
1.8(324.74∗1000)
Ag = 0.85∗0.65[0.85∗21(1− 0.02)+ 0.02∗275] 𝛼 = 0.85

Ag = 46014.40 mm2

## b = 214.51 mm say 300 mm

b = 300mm x 300mm
SUMMARY:

STAIR DESIGN:
GIVEN:

fc’ = 21 MPa

Fy = 275 MPa

RISE – 200mm

SOL’N

## H = 130 mm (FROM PRELIMINARY SIZING)

A.) WEIGHT OF SLAB = (23.56) (0.130) (√(200)2 + (300)2 )/1000 = 1.10 KN/m²
WEIGHT OF STEPS = (23.56) (0.30) (0.20) = 1.41 KN/m²
STAIR FINISH = 1KN (GIVEN)

## B.) WEIGHT OF SLAB = (23.56) (0.13) = 3.06 KN/m²

STAIR FINISH = 1KN (GIVEN)

(SYMMETRICAL)
Vmax = 9.33KN

Let: Mu = øMn

## 11.4x106 = 0.90 (24) (1000) (130-20-6) ² (w) (1-0.59w)

W = 0.0503
𝑤 𝑓𝑐′ 0.0503 (21)
P= = = 0.00384
𝑓𝑦 275

MAIN BARS

As = P b d

As = 530.40 mm²

## 250𝜋 (∅2 ) 250𝜋 (122 )

S= = = 213.23 mm SAY 220mm O.C.
𝐴𝑠 530.40

TEMP. BARS

As = 0.002bh

As = 260 mm²

## 250𝜋 (∅2 ) 250𝜋 (102 )

S= = = 434.99 mm SAY 440 mm O.C
𝐴𝑠 260

SUMMARY

## TEMP. BARS 10mmø @ 390mm O.C.

STEEL TRUSS ANALYSIS

ROOFING MATERIAL (Asphalt Roof Shingles)= 0.1 KPa on roof surface
CEILING MATERIALS= 0.20 KPa on horizontal surface
Roof Live Load = 1KPa (Table 205-3)
WIND Velocity= 290 km/hr

BAYLENGTH= 4 m
TOP CHORD PANEL LENGTH (TCPL) = 1/3(2.02+42)1/2 = 1.50 m
BOTTOM CHORD PANEL LENGTH (BCPL) = 0.90 m

Let :
W1 = Weight of Roofing Materials + Weight of Purlins
W2 = Weight of Ceiling Materials + Weight of Truss + Roof Live Load

Where:
W1 = (Roofing material) (Bay Length) (TCPL) + (Weight of Purlins) (Bay Length)
W1= (0.1) (4) (1.5) + (Weight of Purlins) (4) = 0.6 KN/PANEL+ Weight of Purlins (3.5)

W2 = (Ceiling material) (Bay Length) (BCPL) + (w) (Bay Length) (BCPL) + (RL) (Bay Length)
(BCPL )
But w = 0.019+0.0063L
= 0.019+0.0063(4.5)
= 0.05KPa
RL = 1KPa
W2= (0.20) (4) (0.9) + (0.05) (4) (0.9) + (1) (4) (0.9)
W2 = 4.5 KN/Panel

## W3 = (Bay Length) (TCPL) (Pn)

P = q(GCp-GCpi)
Where: P = pressure due to wind in KPa
q = 0.613KzKztKd(V2)(l)
Kz = 0.724(interpolated from Table 207-4)
Kzt = 1
Kd = 0.85 (Table 207-2)
V = 290 kph = 80.56 m/sec
I = 1.15 (Importance Factor - Table 207-3)
G = 0.85 (Gust effect factor - Section 207.5.8)
GCpi = +0.18 and -0.18 (Product of Gust factor and internal pressure coefficient from
Fig. 207-5)
Cp = External pressure coefficient (Figure 207-6)
Cp Windward = +0.054 and -0.446 (Interpolated from Figure 207-6)
Cp Leeward = -0.6 (Figure 207-6)

q = 0.613(0.724)(1)(0.85)(80.562)(1.15) = 2.815KPa
P Windward = 2.815((0.85)(0.054+0.18)) = 0.56 Kpa
P Leeward = 2.815((0.85)(-0.6-0.18)) = -1.87 KPa
ϴ = 23.96
2𝑆𝑖𝑛𝛳
Pn = 𝑃𝑣
1 + 𝑆𝑖𝑛2 𝛳

2𝑆𝑖𝑛(23.96)
Pn = 0.56
1 + 𝑆𝑖𝑛(23.96)2
Pn = 0.39 Kpa
W3 Windward = (0.39) (4) (1.5) = 2.34 KN/Panel

2𝑆𝑖𝑛𝛳
Pn = 𝑃𝑣
1 + 𝑆𝑖𝑛2 𝛳

2𝑆𝑖𝑛(23.96)
Pn = −1.87
1 + 𝑆𝑖𝑛(23.96)2
Pn = -1.30 Kpa
W3 Leeward = (-1.22) (4) (1.5) = -7.32 KN/Panel
Design of Purlins:

Solution:
WD = (1.5) (0.1) = 0.15 KN/m
WLr = (1.0) (1) = 1.0 KN/m
Wwindward = (1.5) (0.56) = 0.84 KN/m
WLeeward = (1.5) (1.87) = 2.81 KN/m

4.5 42
MDx = 0.15 (4.92) ( 8 ) = 0.27 KN.m
4.5 42
MLrx = 1 (4.92) ( 8 ) = 1.83 KN.m
42
Mwindward x = 0.84 ( 8 ) = 1.68 KN.m
42
MLeeward x = 2.81 ( 8 ) = 5.62 KN.m

## Des. Mux = 1.2(0.27) +1.3 (1.68) + 0.5(1.83) = 3.42 KN.m

Des. Mux = 1.2(0.27) +1.3 (5.62) + 0.5(1.83) = 8.55 KN.m

2 42
MDy = 0.15 ( ) ( ) = 0.12 KN.m
4.92 8
2 42
MLry = 1 ( ) ( ) = 0.81 KN.m
4.92 8

## Des. Muy = 1.2(0.12) +1.6 (0.81) = 1.44 KN.m

LRFD Interaction Equation for Loads not applied thru Shear Center
𝑀𝑢𝑋 𝑀𝑢𝑌
+ Ø𝑏 𝑀𝑛𝑌 <1
Ø𝑏 𝑀𝑛𝑋
2

Where: Ø𝑏 = 0.9
𝑀𝑛𝑌 = FY ZY
𝑀𝑛𝑋 = FY ZX
4.5 42
MDx = 1.2 Wsw (4.92) ( 8 ) = 2.20 Wsw
2 42
MDy = 1.2 Wsw (4.92) ( 8 ) = 0.98 Wsw

## Try W100 X 19.3

Weight = 0.189 KN/m
Zx = 103x103
Zy = 48x103

## (8.55+2.20 (0.189))𝑥106 (1.44+0.98 (0.189))𝑥106

+ 0.9 (275)(48𝑥103)
<1
0.9 (275)(103𝑥103 )
2

0.63 < 1 ok
 Use W 100 X 19.3 for Purlins
Thus;
W1= 0.6 KN/PANEL+ Weight of Purlins (4)
W1= (0.6) + (0.189) (4) = 1.36 KN/PANEL
Computation for Reactions and Member Stresses
For Windward Direction

Rav = 32.42 Kn
Rah = 14.86 Kn
Rb = 21.80 Kn

## Member Axial Force Force Type

1 0.16 Tension
2 14.86 Compression
3 29.09 Compression
4 35.74 Compression
5 33.63 Compression
6 1.41 Compression
7 11.39 Tension
8 25.28 Tension
9 38.37 Tension
10 39.62 Tension
11 5.50 Tension
12 27.55 Tension
13 19.64 Compression
14 21.75 Tension
15 15.11 Compression
16 16.68 Tension
17 7.80 Compression
18 5.19 Tension
19 0.94 Tension
For Leeward Direction
USING MATRIX 2D

Rav = 19.02 Kn
Rah = 14.84 Kn
Rb = 22.96 Kn

## Member Forces by Matrix 2D

Member Axial Force Force Type
1 23.63 Compression
2 32.64 Compression
3 40.75 Compression
4 41.59 Compression
5 38.23 Compression
6 1.72 Tension
7 14.69 Tension
8 28.30 Tension
9 41.02 Tension
10 41.48 Tension
11 2.67 Tension
12 16.38 Tension
13 13.29 Compression
14 12.76 Tension
15 10.41 Compression
16 9.11 Tension
17 5.45 Tension
18 0.69 Compression
19 1.01 Tension

## Maximum stress = 41.59 (c) from member 4

For design of Truss:
𝐷𝐸𝑆.𝑇 41.59 𝑥103
1. AG = 0.6 𝐹𝑦 = = 252.06 mm2
0.6 (275)

## 𝐷𝐸𝑆.𝑇 41.59 𝑥103

2. AG = 0.5 𝐹𝑢 𝑈 = 0.5 (400)(0.9) =231.06 mm2

Try:
L51 X 51 X 9.5 (AG = 879 mm2, r= 9.95)
AG = 879 mm2 > 216.61 mm2 OK!
AG = 879 mm2 > 198.56 mm2 OK!
𝐿
Min. r = 300
1500
= 300

## Design of welding connections:

FOR WELDING:
P=T= 41.59 KN
Use E60

ASD:
T = 0.3FexxAw

0.101325
Fexx = 60,000( )
14.7
= 413.57 MPa
41.59 = 0.3(413.57)Aw

33.61(1000)
Aw = = 335.21 mm
0.3(413.57)

LRFD:
Pu = Ø(0.6)(Fexx)(Aw)
41.59=(0.75)(0.6)(413.57)(Aw)

41.59(1000)
Aw =(0.75)(0.6)(413.57) = 223.47 mm
Use Aw = 335.21 mm

Aw = 0.707wL
335.21 = 0.707wL

Use w =4.0

335.21
L = 0.707(4.0)

L = 118.53 mm