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Preliminary Sizing

 DETERMINATION OF SLAB THICKNESS


𝐿𝑙
If ≥ 2, design as ONE-WAY SLAB.
𝐿𝑠
𝐿𝑙
If ≤ 2, design as TWO-WAY SLAB.
𝐿𝑠

For minimum thickness of slab (h), refer to

NSCP 2010 table.


𝑃𝑎𝑛𝑒𝑙 𝑃𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 2(𝐿𝑙+𝐿𝑠)
min. h = =
180 180
where:
LS = length of the short span
LL = length of the long span
h = thickness of the slab

Note: Minimum thickness, h, required by the code is 100 mm.

PANEL LL, m LS, m LL/LS SLAB DESIGN min.h, m min.h, mm

1 4.5 3.8 1.18 TWO-WAY 0.092 92

2 3.8 3.13 1.21 TWO-WAY 0.077 77

3 3.13 2.3 1.36 TWO-WAY 0.06 60

4 3.13 2.8 1.12 TWO-WAY 0.066 66

5 4.5 3.5 1.29 TWO-WAY 0.089 89

6 3.13 2.2 1.42 TWO-WAY 0.059 59

For the two-way slab:

Considering the largest tributary area at panel 1


𝑃𝑎𝑛𝑒𝑙 𝑃𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 2(𝐿𝑙+𝐿𝑠) 2(4500+3800)
h= = = = 92 mm say 100 mm
180 180 180

Adopt h = 100 +30 = 130 mm for the entire structure.


 DETERMINATION OF BEAM SIZE/S
Establish dimensions by treating beam as SRB (Singly Reinforced Beam)
𝑀𝑢
Effective depth, d = √𝑅𝑢𝑏

For NSCP 2010, factored load, u :


u = 1.2DL + 1.6LL = Wu
1
Mu = 12 WuL2

where:
b = base width of the beam
d = effective depth
h = depth of the beam = d + (90 to 100)
Mu = moment due to load carried by the beam
Wu = factored load
DL = dead load
LL = live load

LOAD DISTRIBUTION
For short span:
WD∗Ls
WS = 3

For long span:


𝐿𝑠 2
WD∗Ls 3−( )
𝐿𝑙
WL = 3
x 2

𝑓𝑦
Ru = ϕρfy (1 − 0.59ρ )
𝑓𝑐′

𝑓𝑐′ 600
𝜌b = 0.85 𝑓𝑦 β1 (600+𝑓𝑦)

3 𝑓𝑐′
𝜌max = 7 0.85β1 𝑓𝑦

3 𝑓𝑐′
𝜌0.005 = 8 0.85β1 𝑓𝑦

1.4 √𝑓𝑐′
𝜌min = ;
𝑓𝑦 4𝑓𝑦
For 𝜌b:
21 600
𝜌b = 0.85(275)(0.85) (600+275) = 0.0378

Compare to 𝜌max and 𝜌min:


3 21
𝜌max = 7 0.85(0.85)(275) = 0.0236

1.4 √21
𝜌min = 275 = 0.0005 ; = 0.0004 The larger one controls
4(275)

∴ 𝜌min = 0.0005
𝜌b > 𝜌max and 𝜌min.
Say: 𝜌 = 70% (𝜌max)

𝜌 = 0.70(0.0236) = 0.0165

For 𝜌0.0005:
3 21
𝜌0.005 = 8 0.85(0.85) 275 = 0.0207

Since (𝜌 = 0.0165) < (𝜌0.005 = 0.0207) this means that the strain εt is larger than 0.005

∴ ϕ = 0.90
For Ru:
275
Ru = 0.90(0.0165)(275) (1 − 0.59(0.0165)( 21 ))

Ru = 3.56
B.1) For Roof Beam Dimensions

Wt. of ceiling materials 0.20 KPa

Wt. of Galvanized Corrugated Roofing (GCR) 1.20 KPa

Wt. of steel truss, w 0.04735 KPa

Plumbing and Electrical Fixtures 1.10 KPa

Total Dead Load 2.55 KPa

Live Load (Roof Live Load) 1.90 KPa

Assumed Wt. of beam 4 KN/m

Considering the most loaded beam

LONGITUDINAL BEAM
𝐿𝑠 2
DL∗Ls 3−( )
𝐿𝑙
WDL = 3
x 2
3.8 2 2.50 2
2.55∗3.8 3−( ) 2.55∗2.50 3−( )
WDL = [ 3
x 4.5
2
] +[ 3
x 2
4.5
] = 6.55 KN/m

WDL = 5.33 + (Wt. of beam) = 5.33 + 4 = 9.33 KN/m


3.8 2 2.50 2
1.9∗3.8 3−( ) 1.9∗2.50 3−( )
WLL = [
3
x 4.5
2
] +[
3
x 4.5
2
] = 4.88 KN/m

WU = 1.2WDL + 1.6 WLL


WU = 1.2(6.55) + 1.6(4.88) = 15.67 KN/m

1 1
Mu = 12 WuL2 = 12 (15.67) (4.5)2

Mu = 26.44 KN.m

TRANSVERSE BEAM
DL∗Ls 2.55∗3.80 2.55∗3.80
WDL = =[ ] +[ ] = 6.46 KN/m
3 3 3

WDL = 6.46 + 4 = 10.46 KN/m

LL∗Ls 1.90∗3.80 1.90∗3.80


WLL = =[ ] +[ ] = 4.81 KN/m
3 3 3

WU = 1.2WDL + 1.6 WLL


WU = 1.2(10.46) + 1.6(4.81) = 20.25 KN/m
1 1
Mu = 12 WuL2 = 12 (20.25) (3.80)2
Mu = 24.37 KN.m

Assume values for “b” to determine values of “d”.

𝑀𝑢
Effective depth, d = √𝑅𝑢∗𝑏 where: Ru = 3.56 from previous

computation

Longitudinal Beam(Long Span)

h = d + 100, Beam Size,


b, mm d, mm Rounded d, mm
mm mm

250 175.4 180 280

300 157.34 160 260


250 x 300
350 145.67 150 250

400 136.26 140 240

Transverse Beam(Short Span)

250 167.4 170 270

300 151.06 155 255


250 x 300
350 139.85 140 255

400 130.82 135 235

USE: 250mm x 300mm

Check:

Actual wt. of beam = 23.56KN/m (0.25m) (0.30m) = 1.767 KN/m

(Actual wt. of beam = 1.767 KN/m) < (Assumed wt. of beam = 4 KN/m), SAFE!
B.2) First Floor Beam

Wt. of ceiling materials 0.20 KPa

Construction load 1.10 KPa

Floor finish 0.77 KPa

Slab thickness (23.56 x 0.13) = 3.65 KPa

Total Dead Load 5.13 KPa

Live Load 1.90 KPa

Assumed Wt. of beam 4 KN/m

Wt. of exterior wall (3 x 2.75) = 8.25 KN/m

Wt. of interior wall (3 x 2.25) = 6.75 KN/m

LONGITUDINAL BEAM
𝐿𝑠 2
DL∗Ls 3−( )
𝐿𝑙
WDL = 3
x 2
3.8 2 2.50 2
5.13∗3.8 3−( ) 5.13∗2.50 3−( )
WDL = [ 3
x 4.5
2
] +[ 3
x 2
4.5
] = 13.18 KN/m

WDL = 13.18 + (Wt. of beam) + (Wt. of interior wall)


WDL = 13.18 + 4 + 6.75 = 23.93 KN/m

3.8 2 2.50 2
1.9∗3.8 3−( ) 1.9∗2.50 3−( )
WLL = [ 3
x 4.5
2
] +[ 3
x 4.5
2
] = 4.88 KN/m

WU = 1.2WDL + 1.6 WLL


WU = 1.2(23.93) + 1.6(4.88) = 36.52 KN/m

1 1
Mu = 12 WuL2 = 12 (36.52) (4.5)2

Mu = 61.63 KN.m

TRANSVERSE BEAM
DL∗Ls 5.13∗3.80 5.13∗3.80
WDL = =[ ] +[ ] = 13 KN/m
3 3 3

WDL = 13 + 4 + 6.75 = 23.75 KN/m

LL∗Ls 1.90∗3.80 1.90∗3.80


WLL = =[ ] +[ ] = 4.81 KN/m
3 3 3
WU = 1.2WDL + 1.6 WLL
WU = 1.2(23.75) + 1.6(4.81) = 36.20 KN/m

1 1
Mu = 12 WuL2 = 12 (36.2) (3.80)2

Mu = 43.56 KN.m

Assume values for “b” to determine values of “d”.

𝑀𝑢
Effective depth, d = √𝑅𝑢∗𝑏 where: Ru = 3.56 from previous computation

Longitudinal Beam(Long Span)

h = d + 100, Beam Size,


b, mm d, mm Rounded d, mm
mm mm

250 263.15 265 365

300 240.22 245 345


250 x 400
350 222.4 225 325

400 208.04 210 310

Transverse Beam (Short Span)

250 221.23 230 330

300 201.96 210 310


250 x350
350 186.98 190 290

400 174.9 180 280

USE: 250mm x 400mm

Check:

Actual wt. of beam = 23.56KN/m (0.25m) (0.40m) = 2.36 KN/m

(Actual wt. of beam = 2.36 KN/m) < (Assumed wt. of beam = 4 KN/m), SAFE!
SUMMARY:

LEVEL LONGITUDINAL TRANSVERSE

ROOF BEAM 250 mm x 300 mm 250 mm x 300 mm

1st and 2nd FLOOR 250 mm x 400 mm 250 mm x 350 mm

 DETERMINATION OF COLUMN SIZE/S

C.1) Second Floor Column


4.5 3.13 3.8 5.10
Largest tributary area = ( 2 + )x(2 + ) = 16.98 m2
2 2
Sides: Transverse = 3.815 m
Longitudinal = 4.45 m

BEAM DIMENSIONS

Transverse Longitudinal
Level
b, mm d, mm b, mm d, mm

Roof Beam 250 300 250 300

2nd Floor 250 350 250 400

1st Floor 250 350 250 400

DEAD LOADS
Wt. of slab = 23.56 x 16.98 x 0.13 = 52.01
Roofing materials = 1.20 x 16.98 = 20.38
Ceiling materials = 0.20 x 16.98 = 3.40
Construction load = 1.10 x 16.98 = 18.68
Transverse beam = (0.25 x 0.30) x (23.56 x 3.815) = 6.74
Longitudinal beam = (0.25 x 0.30) x (23.56 x 4.45) = 7.86

TOTAL DEAD LOAD = 109.07 KN

LIVE LOADS
Roof live load = 1.90 x 16.98 = 32.26 KN

Axial Load, Pu = 1.2DL + 1.6LL


= 1.2(109.07) + 1.6(32.26)
Pu = 182.50 KN

Size of the Column, b


b2 = Ag
1.8𝑃𝑢
Ag = 𝛼𝜙[0.85𝑓𝑐 ′ (1− 𝜌𝑔)+ 𝜌𝑔𝑓𝑦] where: 𝜌𝑔 = 0.02
𝜙 = 0.65
1.8(182.50∗1000)
Ag = 0.85∗0.65[0.85∗21(1− 0.02)+ 0.02∗275] 𝛼 = 0.85

Ag = 25858.75 mm2

b = 160.81 mm say 300 mm


b = 300mm x 300mm

C.2) First Floor Column

DEAD LOADS
Wt. of slab = 23.56 x 16.98 x 0.13 = 52
Ceiling materials = 0.20 x 16.98 = 3.40
Construction load = 1.10 x 16.98 = 18.68
Floor finish = 0.77 x 16.98 = 13.07
Interior Partition = (2.25 x 3)(16.98) = 114.615
Transverse beam = (0.25 x 0.40) x (23.56 x 3.815) = 10.48
Longitudinal beam = (0.25 x 0.40) x (23.56 x 4.45) = 8.99
Column = (0.30 x 0.30)(3)(23.56) = 6.36

TOTAL DEAD LOAD = 227.60 KN

LIVE LOADS
Roof live load = 1.90 x 16.98 = 32.26 KN

Axial Load, Pu = 1.2DL + 1.6LL


= 1.2(227.6) + 1.6(32.26)
Pu = 325.74 KN

Size of the Column, b


b2 = Ag

1.8𝑃𝑢
Ag = where: 𝜌𝑔 = 0.02
𝛼𝜙[0.85𝑓𝑐 ′ (1− 𝜌𝑔)+ 𝜌𝑔𝑓𝑦]
𝜙 = 0.65
1.8(324.74∗1000)
Ag = 0.85∗0.65[0.85∗21(1− 0.02)+ 0.02∗275] 𝛼 = 0.85

Ag = 46014.40 mm2

b = 214.51 mm say 300 mm


b = 300mm x 300mm
SUMMARY:

LEVEL COLUMN SIZE

1st 300 mm x 300 mm

2nd 300 mm x 300 mm


STAIR DESIGN:
GIVEN:

main bars = 12mm

Temp. bars = 10mm

fc’ = 21 MPa

Fy = 275 MPa

RISE – 200mm

TREADS – 300mm

STAIR FINISH – 1KN

LIVE LOADS – 5KN

ɣ concrete – 23.56 KN/m3

SOL’N

H = 130 mm (FROM PRELIMINARY SIZING)

DEAD LOAD (GOING)

A.) WEIGHT OF SLAB = (23.56) (0.130) (√(200)2 + (300)2 )/1000 = 1.10 KN/m²
WEIGHT OF STEPS = (23.56) (0.30) (0.20) = 1.41 KN/m²
STAIR FINISH = 1KN (GIVEN)
LIVE LOAD = 5KN (GIVEN)

FACTORED LOAD

Wu = 1.2(1.1+1.41+1.0) + 1.6(5) = 12.21 KN/m²

B.) WEIGHT OF SLAB = (23.56) (0.13) = 3.06 KN/m²


STAIR FINISH = 1KN (GIVEN)
LIVE LOAD = 5KN (GIVEN)

FACTORED LOAD

Wu = 1.2(3.06+1.0) + 1.6(5) = 12.87 KN/m²

GOING = 12.87 (0.5) (1) = 6.44 KN

LANDING 1 = 12.21 (0.5) (1) = 6.11 KN

LANDING 1 = 12.21 (0.5) (1) = 6.11 KN

TOTAL LOAD = 6.44 + 6.11 + 6.11 = 18.66 KN

R1 = R2 = (6.11(0.50)) + 6.44(1.5)) + (6.11(2.50))/3.0 = 9.33 KN


(SYMMETRICAL)
Vmax = 9.33KN

Mmax = Mu = 11.4 KN-m

Let: Mu = øMn

Mu = 0.90 fc’ b d² w (1-0.59w)

11.4x106 = 0.90 (24) (1000) (130-20-6) ² (w) (1-0.59w)

W = 0.0503
𝑤 𝑓𝑐′ 0.0503 (21)
P= = = 0.00384
𝑓𝑦 275

Pmin = 1.4/275 = 0.0051

USED P = Pmin = 1.4/275 = 0.0051

MAIN BARS

As = P b d

As = (0.0051) (1000) (104)

As = 530.40 mm²

250𝜋 (∅2 ) 250𝜋 (122 )


S= = = 213.23 mm SAY 220mm O.C.
𝐴𝑠 530.40

TEMP. BARS

As = 0.002bh

As = 0.002 (1000) (130)

As = 260 mm²

250𝜋 (∅2 ) 250𝜋 (102 )


S= = = 434.99 mm SAY 440 mm O.C
𝐴𝑠 260

Smax = 3(130) = 390 mm < 450 mm

S = 440 > Smax , USED S = 390 mm

SUMMARY

MAIN BARS 12mmø @ 220 mm O.C.

TEMP. BARS 10mmø @ 390mm O.C.


STEEL TRUSS ANALYSIS

LOADINGS:
ROOFING MATERIAL (Asphalt Roof Shingles)= 0.1 KPa on roof surface
CEILING MATERIALS= 0.20 KPa on horizontal surface
Roof Live Load = 1KPa (Table 205-3)
WIND Velocity= 290 km/hr

BAYLENGTH= 4 m
TOP CHORD PANEL LENGTH (TCPL) = 1/3(2.02+42)1/2 = 1.50 m
BOTTOM CHORD PANEL LENGTH (BCPL) = 0.90 m

LOAD COMPUTATION:
Let :
W1 = Weight of Roofing Materials + Weight of Purlins
W2 = Weight of Ceiling Materials + Weight of Truss + Roof Live Load
W3 = Wind Load

Where:
W1 = (Roofing material) (Bay Length) (TCPL) + (Weight of Purlins) (Bay Length)
W1= (0.1) (4) (1.5) + (Weight of Purlins) (4) = 0.6 KN/PANEL+ Weight of Purlins (3.5)

W2 = (Ceiling material) (Bay Length) (BCPL) + (w) (Bay Length) (BCPL) + (RL) (Bay Length)
(BCPL )
But w = 0.019+0.0063L
= 0.019+0.0063(4.5)
= 0.05KPa
RL = 1KPa
W2= (0.20) (4) (0.9) + (0.05) (4) (0.9) + (1) (4) (0.9)
W2 = 4.5 KN/Panel

W3 = (Bay Length) (TCPL) (Pn)


P = q(GCp-GCpi)
Where: P = pressure due to wind in KPa
q = 0.613KzKztKd(V2)(l)
Kz = 0.724(interpolated from Table 207-4)
Kzt = 1
Kd = 0.85 (Table 207-2)
V = 290 kph = 80.56 m/sec
I = 1.15 (Importance Factor - Table 207-3)
G = 0.85 (Gust effect factor - Section 207.5.8)
GCpi = +0.18 and -0.18 (Product of Gust factor and internal pressure coefficient from
Fig. 207-5)
Cp = External pressure coefficient (Figure 207-6)
Cp Windward = +0.054 and -0.446 (Interpolated from Figure 207-6)
Cp Leeward = -0.6 (Figure 207-6)

q = 0.613(0.724)(1)(0.85)(80.562)(1.15) = 2.815KPa
P Windward = 2.815((0.85)(0.054+0.18)) = 0.56 Kpa
P Leeward = 2.815((0.85)(-0.6-0.18)) = -1.87 KPa
ϴ = 23.96
2𝑆𝑖𝑛𝛳
Pn = 𝑃𝑣
1 + 𝑆𝑖𝑛2 𝛳

2𝑆𝑖𝑛(23.96)
Pn = 0.56
1 + 𝑆𝑖𝑛(23.96)2
Pn = 0.39 Kpa
W3 Windward = (0.39) (4) (1.5) = 2.34 KN/Panel

2𝑆𝑖𝑛𝛳
Pn = 𝑃𝑣
1 + 𝑆𝑖𝑛2 𝛳

2𝑆𝑖𝑛(23.96)
Pn = −1.87
1 + 𝑆𝑖𝑛(23.96)2
Pn = -1.30 Kpa
W3 Leeward = (-1.22) (4) (1.5) = -7.32 KN/Panel
Design of Purlins:

Solution:
WD = (1.5) (0.1) = 0.15 KN/m
WLr = (1.0) (1) = 1.0 KN/m
Wwindward = (1.5) (0.56) = 0.84 KN/m
WLeeward = (1.5) (1.87) = 2.81 KN/m

4.5 42
MDx = 0.15 (4.92) ( 8 ) = 0.27 KN.m
4.5 42
MLrx = 1 (4.92) ( 8 ) = 1.83 KN.m
42
Mwindward x = 0.84 ( 8 ) = 1.68 KN.m
42
MLeeward x = 2.81 ( 8 ) = 5.62 KN.m

Des. Mux = 1.2(0.27) +1.3 (1.68) + 0.5(1.83) = 3.42 KN.m


Des. Mux = 1.2(0.27) +1.3 (5.62) + 0.5(1.83) = 8.55 KN.m

2 42
MDy = 0.15 ( ) ( ) = 0.12 KN.m
4.92 8
2 42
MLry = 1 ( ) ( ) = 0.81 KN.m
4.92 8

Des. Muy = 1.2(0.12) +1.6 (0.81) = 1.44 KN.m

LRFD Interaction Equation for Loads not applied thru Shear Center
𝑀𝑢𝑋 𝑀𝑢𝑌
+ Ø𝑏 𝑀𝑛𝑌 <1
Ø𝑏 𝑀𝑛𝑋
2

Where: Ø𝑏 = 0.9
𝑀𝑛𝑌 = FY ZY
𝑀𝑛𝑋 = FY ZX
Additional Weight due to Self-Weight
4.5 42
MDx = 1.2 Wsw (4.92) ( 8 ) = 2.20 Wsw
2 42
MDy = 1.2 Wsw (4.92) ( 8 ) = 0.98 Wsw

Try W100 X 19.3


Weight = 0.189 KN/m
Zx = 103x103
Zy = 48x103

(8.55+2.20 (0.189))𝑥106 (1.44+0.98 (0.189))𝑥106


+ 0.9 (275)(48𝑥103)
<1
0.9 (275)(103𝑥103 )
2

0.63 < 1 ok
 Use W 100 X 19.3 for Purlins
Thus;
W1= 0.6 KN/PANEL+ Weight of Purlins (4)
W1= (0.6) + (0.189) (4) = 1.36 KN/PANEL
Computation for Reactions and Member Stresses
For Windward Direction

USING MATRIX 2D:


Rav = 32.42 Kn
Rah = 14.86 Kn
Rb = 21.80 Kn

Member Forces by Matrix 2D

Member Axial Force Force Type


1 0.16 Tension
2 14.86 Compression
3 29.09 Compression
4 35.74 Compression
5 33.63 Compression
6 1.41 Compression
7 11.39 Tension
8 25.28 Tension
9 38.37 Tension
10 39.62 Tension
11 5.50 Tension
12 27.55 Tension
13 19.64 Compression
14 21.75 Tension
15 15.11 Compression
16 16.68 Tension
17 7.80 Compression
18 5.19 Tension
19 0.94 Tension
For Leeward Direction
USING MATRIX 2D

Rav = 19.02 Kn
Rah = 14.84 Kn
Rb = 22.96 Kn

Member Forces by Matrix 2D


Member Axial Force Force Type
1 23.63 Compression
2 32.64 Compression
3 40.75 Compression
4 41.59 Compression
5 38.23 Compression
6 1.72 Tension
7 14.69 Tension
8 28.30 Tension
9 41.02 Tension
10 41.48 Tension
11 2.67 Tension
12 16.38 Tension
13 13.29 Compression
14 12.76 Tension
15 10.41 Compression
16 9.11 Tension
17 5.45 Tension
18 0.69 Compression
19 1.01 Tension

Maximum stress = 41.59 (c) from member 4


For design of Truss:
𝐷𝐸𝑆.𝑇 41.59 𝑥103
1. AG = 0.6 𝐹𝑦 = = 252.06 mm2
0.6 (275)

𝐷𝐸𝑆.𝑇 41.59 𝑥103


2. AG = 0.5 𝐹𝑢 𝑈 = 0.5 (400)(0.9) =231.06 mm2

Try:
L51 X 51 X 9.5 (AG = 879 mm2, r= 9.95)
AG = 879 mm2 > 216.61 mm2 OK!
AG = 879 mm2 > 198.56 mm2 OK!
𝐿
Min. r = 300
1500
= 300

Min. r = 5 < 9.95 OK!

 Use L51 X 51 X 9.5

Design of welding connections:

FOR WELDING:
P=T= 41.59 KN
Use E60

ASD:
T = 0.3FexxAw

0.101325
Fexx = 60,000( )
14.7
= 413.57 MPa
41.59 = 0.3(413.57)Aw

33.61(1000)
Aw = = 335.21 mm
0.3(413.57)

LRFD:
Pu = Ø(0.6)(Fexx)(Aw)
41.59=(0.75)(0.6)(413.57)(Aw)

41.59(1000)
Aw =(0.75)(0.6)(413.57) = 223.47 mm
Use Aw = 335.21 mm

Aw = 0.707wL
335.21 = 0.707wL

Min w, controlled by material thickness


Use w =4.0

335.21
L = 0.707(4.0)

L = 118.53 mm

ADOPT:
Weld size, w = 4.0 mm
Length of weld, L =120 mm