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Chapter 1



Motivation influences how and why people learn as well as how they

perform.Pintrich &Schunk,(1996). According to Oxford dictionary Motivation is the

word derived from the word ’motive’ which meansneeds, desires, wants or drives within

the individuals. It is the process of stimulating people to actions to accomplish the goals.

Monica A. Frank, Ph.D.(2018) said that there are two types of motivation which

is the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation is an external form of

motivation and it doesn't always have to be another person, but it is some outside

demand, obligation, or reward that requires the achievement of a particular goal.While

the intrinsic motivationis an internal form of motivation. You strive towards a goal for

personal satisfaction or accomplishment. You may even work towards a long-term

reward such as the development of a business or participating in a competition, but the

primary motivator is internal.

The teachers can motivate the students by engaging the respondent inactivities

that they find interesting to learn.Given the opportunity to engage in a learning activity, a

student may determines if the activity is one that is known to be interesting andif so, the

student may engage in the activity.Ames. R.S. (1984) "Motivation is theoretical concept

that accounts for why people choose to engage in particular activities at particular

times”.Kendra Cherry (2018) the motivation to engage in a behavior arises within the

individual because it is naturally satisfying to you.


Children naturally have intrinsic motivation when born; they explore their

environment and discover their abilities for enjoyment or personal satisfaction or mastery

over their bodies. However, these explorations quickly become paired with external

motivators such as the parent's encouragement or smile.Frank, (2018)It is also the same

in the school, when the teachers commanded the students to do the school activities even

the student have no intrinsic motivation they must follow to do so. But when the student

have the intrinsic motivation they will have the initiative to do it regarding the school


The students may affect each of them whether good or bad.Senior high school

students of Ventinilla high school may havelack of motivation therefore may quit their

study. The students,when havingschool activities, may not use to review or don’t put

effort and just rely on their classmates, boyfriend or girlfriend. Students, who have good

background in study and was being trained by their parents and already use to study so

hard, may put effort in reviewing and doing school works. Thelearning environment in

the edifice generates various effects towards the students. Therefore, resulting to how the

students scope up with their studies.

The students need motivation or else they may rather not to go to school or not

giving their best in terms of study because they may have no concrete reason at all. The

students might motivate in some partsuch as their peers, family, church mates, friends,

etc. But it has long been recognized that in the process of learning, the motivation of the

students play an important role in their performance academically.

Less motivation in studying may cause some negative effect in academic

performance. Researchers would like to observethe students motivation in terms of


studying. Senior high school students whom havepartner (boyfriend or girlfriend)

mayhave these kind of mindset that having a partner is good while studying and it gives

them motivation to study.

However it may also cause the student not to go to school concerning about the

relationship that the student have. In other hand, it affect their study instead of earning

money, having a time for themselves, focusing on their study, the student may pay more

attention to their partner, and sometimes it would become there reason whystudents

cannot go to school and may cause them to have trouble in their requirements that was

assigned to them. Thus, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation should develop and it may help

the respondent to become successful person.

Thus, the researchers would like to investigate the possible motivational factors of

students in VentinillaHigh Schoolwhether intrinsic or extrinsic motivation. The findings

of this study will provide encouragement and awareness not just only to the students but

also to the teachers, parents, administration and fellow students.

Statement of the problem

This study seeks to determine the factors that can motivate the student.

Specifically, this aim to answer the following questions:

1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of:

a. Sex;

b. Age; and

c. Economic status?

2. What are the motivationalfactors among the respondents in terms of:

a) Intrinsic; and

b) Extrinsic?

3. What recommendations can be drawn based on the findings of the study?

Significance of the study

This research aim that the respondent will be able to motivate in study specially

the senior high school students about the motivation. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation

was very important and can be benefit all the social groups and every individual’s such


Community- they can teach each fellow community to be motivate in many aspect of life

specially children who go to school

Parents- can follow up their children at home to study as well as to motivate them to

strive harder.

Student- they will be able to know the importance of education and how motivation can

help them to prioritize their studies.

Teachers- can also have many strategies how they can motivate the student to study

Future researcher- will have basis about this study and can also use in their research

Scope and delimitation

This study will be conducted to the senior high school students of VentinillaHigh

School for the school year 2018-2019. The study will focus on the ‘Motivational factors

of Senior high school students’. The researcher willmake use ofcheck list to the

respondents. The primary aim of the questionnaire and survey is to determine the

respondents profile and their motivational factors (intrinsic or extrinsic). The respondents

are the senior high school students with the total of 107, this exclude the 3 researchers.

Definition of terms

The following words are defined conceptually and operationally.

Economic status refers to themonthly income of the respondents parents.

Motivation internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people to be

continually interested and committed to a job, role or subject, or to make an effort to

attain a goal. (BusinessDictionary)

Motivational factors refers to the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation of the respondents.

Intrinsic motivation is an internal form motivation of the respondent towards school


Extrinsic motivation refers to behavior that is driven by external rewards such as

money, fame, grades, and praise. This type of motivation arises from outside the

individual, as opposed to intrinsic motivation.Montessorium(2016)

Recommendation these are the suggestion from the researchers so that the problem may


Chapter 2


This chapter presents related literature and studies which significantly contributed

to further deepen the understanding of the study.

Related literature

Francisco Sáez describe the intrinsic motivationas the drives for the individuals to

do things for the sake of doing them; intrinsic motivation exists within the individual,

while the extrinsic motivation is basing on receiving money, rewards and punishments, or

external pressures. It doesn’t mean that extrinsic motivation is not good in life but it can

be use as far as it is helpful. And it is usually helpful only to incentivize people to

complete routine, boring, and unchallenging tasks.

According to Arranz (2017) Motivation is a psychological process that canhelps

individual to make an action. Motivation makes all thingpossible when facing problem or

challenges in the peoples life. Intrinsic motivation comes from the inside and happens

when you are truly interested in something, without seeking a reward in return.

Many psychologists also define what is intrinsic motivation and first is Maslow

(2017) he is one of the most relevant theories when it comes to motivation. This humanist

psychologist is also as known for having Maslow’s Pyramid that provides a hierarchy of

human needs. Intrinsic motivation is usually in the top of the pyramid, based on the

necessities of self-realization. This is where the individual are able to reach maximum

existence and develop people identity.

Bandura (2017)likewise he is also a psychologist andcreated the theory of self-

efficacy, which is the idea that a person’s opinion about the execution of a task depends

on their expectations of success, perseverance, and how much they dedicate to it. He gave

an example, if you see that after spending time and working to improve, your Spanish or

French improves, you’ll feel proud and able to perfect the language at some point.

Eduardo Deci and Richard Ryan(2017) are same psychologists worked together to

create the theory of self-determination, which is the idea that the individuals doing an

activities and they feel enjoyable, rather than doing thing that doesn’t make you to enjoy

and interest. This theory is especially relevant and applied to athletics. It is important to

be independent when making decisions. Paul R. Pintrich (2003) The importance of

student motivation has varied from peripheral to central in psychological and educational

research over the years. Currently, research on student motivation seems to be central to

research in learning and teaching contexts.

Maria Guadalupe C. Salanga (1970) defined that the motivation is an important

multidimensional construct that is consistently associated with achievement in school, but

few theories conceptualize students’ lack of motivation as an explicit dimension of


Lee (2014) from the definition of “motivate” alone, telling how important it is.

Motivation could serve as a stimulus to get great things done. More than that, it could

transform individual’s attitude and mindset as they work towards achieving their goals.

Related studies


Cherry(2018 ) define the motivation is the process that can guide you to maintain

your goal and as well as you behaviors. Motivation is the reason why people act and it is

also the cause why you are doing your everyday chores no matter what, it could be right

or wrong.

There are two types of motivation according to KendraCherry(2018) the first one

is Extrinsic motivation it is the outside motivation of the individual and it is usually have

the rewards, money, trophies, social recognition, or praise. Monica A. Frank, Ph.D.(2018)

she also defined that the extrinsic motivation is an external form of motivation and it

doesn't always have to be another person, but it is some outside demand, obligation, or

reward that requires the achievement of a particular goal. As you can see kendra and

frank has the same definition about extrinsic motivation from there study.

The second type of motivation is the Intrinsic motivation, KendraCherry(2018) it

is what individual arise from their personalities just like doing complicated crossword

puzzlepurely for the personal gratification of solving a problem. While for Frank,

Ph.D.(2018) the intrinsic motivation is something to do with striving towards a goal for

personal satisfaction or accomplishment. Richard M. Ryan(2000) concluded that the

Intrinsic and extrinsic types of motivation have been widely studied, and the distinction

between them has shed important light on both developmental and educational practices.

However, in the school the motivation of the student is very essential

becausethese is the reason why they are doing the school works.Wigfield and

Tonks(2002)andGardner (2001)Motivation is the guide in order for the student to achieve

goals. Motivation is one of the major factors that is required to achieve anything in life.

Motivation pushesthe individual to do whatever it takes to become successful.

Demir (2011). Maintain that a motivated individual strives to achieve the goal,

and attentive to the task, enjoys running for the goal, regards success as positive

reinforcement, and uses strategies to reach the goal. Therefore,motivationcanbe

considered as goaldirected behaviorNadia Ayub (2010) concluded in his study illustrates

that motivation improves academic performance of the students. In addition, there is

gender difference in motivation type and academic performance.


Several theories on motivation have been developed throughout the years. A Society for

Human Resource Management (SHRM) white paper lists the following theories of

motivation as the most influential in generating understanding on the concept of

motivation within the workplace.Gina Hechanova (2014)

Agustin (2017) according to the author of “Factors affecting career reference

among senior high school students in Tacloban city” “Motivation is basically the

determinant of anyone’s decision.” Motivation can be good, bad or both and it is a choice

of everyone no matter who and what status you are in. The author observed that engaging

the students in school activities they will feel more interest and find satisfaction, through

these kind of activities they will formulate systematic goals and plans for there goodness.

By the study of Ouano(2011) the result of his study showed that the intrinsic

motivation had a positive predictive utility on positive emotions but negatively associated

with any negative types of emotions. While the extrinsic motivation has positively

predicted negative emotions. The predictive utility of the specific dimensions of intrinsic

and extrinsic motivation on academic emotions were also analyzed, and results supported

most of the hypotheses.

However ,there are also four influential learning according to the study of Lucas

(2010)The study investigated that young adult students was being influence (intrinsic

motivation) to learn the four communicative skills-writing, reading, speaking and

listening. Reyes (2009) he found that parents and family are a main source of motivation.

Conceptual Framework

The study aims to determine the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation of the senior

high school student in Ventinilla high school. The researcher would like to ask for

permission of the head teacher first as well as the teacher of the respondent.

This study will be able to get the respondent profile and economic status through

check list. After gathering the data the researcher will give recommendation that can help

the respondent to use their motivation to mold them to become successful person.

Figure 1 presents the paradigm of the study that indicates the process of the

present study.

-Profile of the
students in terms of:

a. Sex
b. Economic
status Check list Recommendations
Factors affecting the
student’s motivation

Figure 1.Research paradigm of the study.


Chapter 3


This chapter presents the methodology that will be used in the study and discus

the research design, locale of the study, respondents of the study, research instrument,

research procedure and statistical treatment.

Research design

The qualitative will be applied in this study, in which the objective would be able

to know and observe the respondent background about what is themotivational factorsin

study. The researchers design ischeck list for the data gathering process to achieve the

main objective of the study. This could help the researchers to search for the solution

even more.

Locale of the study

The coverage of the study is in the school that the researchers studying:Ventinilla

High SchoolPaniqui, Tarlac. This will not require the researcher to go out from the school

to get data but only the senior high school themselves.

Respondents of the study

The respondent of the study are the total population of the senior High School

with 107 students in VentinillaPaniqui, Tarlac. This study will use of purposive sampling

in the sense that the researcher will only chose the respondent to achieve their purpose.

This sampling method will be used because it occur when elements selected for the

sample are chosen by the judgment of the research


Research instruments

The instrument of this study will be a survey questionnaire and check list. The

researcher also want to get a permission from the head teacher and as well as the adviser

of the respondent before getting their information regarding the questions.

Research procedure

Before conducting the survey questionnaire and check list, the researcher will

make a request letter first in the head teacher and the adviser of the respondent for more

sucerity. During the break time or vacant time of the respondent, that would be the time

the researcher can give the survey questionnaire to the respondent to answer. The data

that will gather will be collect and tallying the score and apply the statistical treatment to

be use in the study.

Statistical treatment

The researcher will use a simple computation by using check list and scale.



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Name Delos Santos, Jun Lester Lopez

Age 16
Sex Male
Birthday June 24, 2002
Civil status Single
Address Nancamarinan, Paniqui, Tarlac
Father’s name Joelan Delos Santos
Occupation Farmer
Mother’ s name Elizabeth Delos Santos
Occupation Farmer


Elementary Nancamarinan Elementary School

Paniqui, Tarlac
S. Y. 2013-2014

High School Ventinilla High School

Paniqui Tarlac
S. Y. 2018-2019



Name Rabang, Mark Angelo Viduya

Age 18
Sex Male
Birthday August 20, 2000
Civil status Single
Address Ventinilla Paniqui, Tarlac
Father’s name Angel Rabang
Occupation Farmer
Mother’s name Monina Rabang
Occupation Farmer


Elementary Tomana West Elementary School

S. Y. 2012-2013

HighSchool Ventinilla High School

Paniqui, Tarlac
S. Y. 2018-2019



Name Estabaya, Mae ann Rirao

Age 17
Sex Female
Birthday July 24, 2001
Civil status Single
Address Tablang Paniqui, Tarlac
Father’s name Nolie Estabaya
Occupation Farmer
Mother’s name Milagrosa Estabaya
Occupation House keeper


Elementary: Tablang Elementary School

Paniqui, Tarlac
S. Y. 2013-2014

HighSchool: Ventinilla High School

Paniqui, Tarlac
S. Y. 2018-2019