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Review Questions

1. Draw and explain the process of communication system model.

1- The information Source


*The message produced by the information source may not be electrical in nature such as
voice.
*An input transducer converts the message to a time-varying electrical quantity called a
message signal.
*At the destination, output transducer converts the electrical waveform to the appropriate
message.

2- The Transmitter
*Data generated by a source can not transmitted directly.
*A transmitter transforms information to EM signals that can be transmitted across the
transmission system.
*It processes and modifies the input for efficient transmission over a channel.
*Signal processing operations performed by the transmitter include amplification,
filtering, and modulation.

3- The Communication Channel


*The channel provides the electrical connection between the distant source and destination
user.
*The channel may be wired or wireless.
*During transmission, the signal gets distorted due to noise.
*Noise is always random in character and has a great effect on the signal.

4- The Receiver
*The receiver extracts the input signal from the degraded version coming from the
channel.
*The receiver performs this function through the process of demodulation in addition to
amplification and filtering.
2. Identify criteria for communication systems.

1. Data delivery
*The data should be delivered to the correct destination to assure confidentiality and
privacy.
2. Data integrity
*Data should be delivered accurately without no errors, no loss, no addition and no
duplication.
3. Timeliness of data transfer
*Data should be delivered without violating the delay constraints specific for each service.
*Uneven jitter in packet arrival may be annoying to the user.

3. Discuss the classification of communication system.


1. Analog communications systems.

It is designed to transmit analog data using analog modulation.


The AM, FM and TV transmissions are examples.
May be wired or wireless.

2. Digital communications systems

It is designed to transmit digital data using digital or analog modulation.


The data may be binary or binary coded of analog data.
It is termed as data commun system.

4. Why we use digital transmission?


 Use of modern digital technology.
 Data integrity.
 Ease of multiplexing and robust transmission.
 Security and privacy.
 ntegration of diverse services.
 Performance monitorability.
5. Draw and explain the process of digtal communication.

1-Information source
Based on its output, it may be analog or digital.
i- Analog information source
*Like a microphone actuated by speech or a TV camera.
* It emits continuously varying amplitude signals.
* It can be transformed into digital format.
ii- Discrete information source
*Its output consists of a sequence of binary bits.
*A familiar example of discreet data is text or character strings.

2- Source encoder/decoder
*Its input is a string of symbols at a rate rs symbols/sec.
*It converts input to a binary sequence of 0‟s and 1‟s.
*The source decoder converts this back to a symbol sequence.

3- Channel encoder/decoder
*Channel encoder adds extra bits to output of the source encoder to detect or correct
errors at the channel decoder.
*Channel encoder/decoder can realize high transmission reliability and efficiency.

4- Modulator/demodulator
*Modulator accepts a bit stream and converts it to an electrical waveform suitable for
transmission over channel.
*Demodulator extracts the message from the information-bearing waveform.
*The modulation process serves several purposes in communication systems.

6. Define the transmission modes.


The transmission of binary data across a link can be accomplished in either parallel or serial
mode.
7. What are the advantages of a multipoint connection over a point-to-point
connection?
1. Point-to-point .
It provides a dedicated link between two devices.
Entire link capacity is reserved for transmission between two devices.
Infrared remote control is a p-t-p connection.
It utilized in star and ring topology of computer networks.
2. Multipoint .
More than two specific devices share a single link.
The capacity of the channel is sharedbetween multiple devices.
This type of connection is employed inthe bus network topology.
It is also called multidrop.

8. Define and list types of line configuration.


line configuration :It refers to the way through which two or more communicating devices
attach to the transmission line.

Categories of line configuration : Point-to-point … Multipoint …

9. Explain the two modes for transmitting binary data across a link .
1. Parallel transmission

Multiple bits are sent with each clock tick.


Data are organized into groups of n bits transmitted through n wires.
** parallel transmission is usually limited to shorter distances.
2. Serial transmission
One bit follows another so it needs only one channel.
As communication within devices is parallel, conversion devices are required at
the interface.
It is designated as synchronous or asynchronous depending on how the timing and
framing information is transmitted.
**serial transmission is usually practical for long distances.

10.What are the advantages and disadvantages of parallel transmission ?


 Advantages of Parallel transmission
It is characterized by high speed of data transmission.
It can increase the transfer speed by a factor of n over serial transmission.
 Disadvantages of Parallel transmission
High cost as it requires n lines just to transmit data stream.
It is practical only for short distances.
** Consequently, parallel transmission is usually limited to shorter distances.

11.Compare the two methods of a serial transmission . Discuss the advantages and
disadvantages of each .
1.. Asynchronous Serial Transmission
Timing of a signal is unimportant.
Bits are grouped into bytes.
Each bit is sent independently along the link as a unit.
To alert the receiver to the arrival of a new group, a start bit is added at byte
beginning of each byte.
To alert the receiver know that the byte is finished, a stop bit is appended to the end
of the byte.
Each byte is thus increased to 10 bits.
The transmission of each byte is followed by a gap.
** Advantages of Asynchronous transmission
It is cheap and cost-effective.
This makes it an attractive choice for situations like low speed communications.
** Disadvantages of Asynchronous transmission
It provides slower data rate due to the addition of stop and start bits as well as the
insertion of gaps into the bit stream.
2.. Synchronous Serial Transmission
The bit stream is combined into longer frames that may contain multiple bytes.
Bits are sent one after another without start/stop bits or gaps.
Receiver will group the bits into bytes or characters to reconstruct the information by
counting the arrived bits.
There are synchronization characters that are transmitted at beginning of every data
block to achieve synchronization.
Such systems are more expensive and complex but extremely efficient.
** Advantages of synchronous transmission
It provides higher speed than asynchronous transmission and therefore, it is more
useful for high-speed applications.
** Disadvantages of synchronous transmission
The timing becomes very important.

12.Describe the three characteristics of a sine wave .

A sine wave is denned by its amplitude, frequency, and phase.


** The amplitude of a signal is the value of the signal at any time.
**The period T is the time needed to complete one cycle.
**The frequency f is the number of periods in one second.
**The wavelength λ is the distance traveled in one period.
**The phase describes the position of the waveform relative to time zero.

13.What is the spectrum of a signal ?


The spectrum of a signal is the collection of all the frequency components it contains.
14.What is the difference between information and signals ?
Information convey meaning while signals are electric or electromagnetic convey these
information.
15.Give two examples of analog information .

TV , Voice , photos , Microphone .

16.Give two examples of digital information .

Numbers , character , string .

17.contrast an analog signal with a digital signal .


** Analog and digital signals can be periodic and aperiodic .
Analog signals :can be classified as simple or composite.it is denned by its amplitude,
frequency, and phaseThe frequency spectrum of a signal is the collection of all the frequency
components it contains.The bandwidth of a signal is the width of the frequency spectrum
.Analog refers to something that is continuous
Digital signal :Data can be represented by a digital signal Most digital signals are aperiodic
Two new terms, bit interval (instead of period) and bit rate (instead of frequency) are used to
describe digital signals.A digital signal can be decomposed into an infinite number of simple
sine waves called harmonics.Digital signal contains an infinite number of frequencies.We can
recreate it if we send only significant components.This is the significant spectrum, and its
bandwidth the significant or effective bandwidth.
18.contrast a periodic signal with an aperiodic signal .

A periodic signal : completes a pattern within a period .It repeats that pattern over
identical subsequent periods.

An aperiodic, or non-periodic, signal changes constantly without exhibiting a pattern or


cycle that repeats over time.

** A signal is periodic if its frequency domain plot is discrete; a signal is nonperiodic


if its frequency domain plot is continuous.

19.What is the difference between digital data and analog data ?


** Data can take either analog or digital form.Analog refers to something that is
continuous.Digital refers to something that is discrete.
20.A signal has been received that only has values of -1 ,0, and 1 . Is this ananalog or
digital signal ?digital signal .
21.What is the relationship between period and frequency ?
T = 1/ f and f = 1/T that's mean Frequency and period are the inverse of each other.
22. What are the units of period ?second .( seconds, milliseconds, microseconds, nanoseconds,
and picoseconds.)
23. What are the units of frequency ?Hz (Hz ,KHz, MHz, GHz, and THz ) .

24.Compare a high- frequency signal with a low- frequency signal .


In a high- frequency signal the period is low and in the low frequency signal the period is high .
25.What does the amplitude of a signal measure ?
The amplitude of a signal is the value of the signal at any time.
26.What does the frequency of a signal measure ?
The frequency f is the number of periods in one second. Unit : Hz
27.What does the phase of a signal measure ?
The phase describes the position of the waveform relative to time zero.
28.Compare the axes of a time-domain plot with the axes of a frequency-domain plot
Time-domain shows changes in signal amplitude with time.
The horizontal axis: time The vertical axis: amplitude
Frequency-domain plot shows the relationship between amplitude and frequency.
The horizontal axis: frequencyThe vertical axis: amplitude
29.What is the difference between a simple periodic signal and a composite
periodicsignal ?
* simple periodic signal : A periodic signal completes a pattern within a period.
*composite periodic signal : Any periodic signal can be decomposed into a collection of sine
waves.
30.Which type of plot shows the components of a composite signal ?
* Time-domain illustrates a composite signal as a single entity.
* Frequency-domain shows it as a series of component frequencies.
(Frequency-domain) ..
31.Which type of plot shows the amplitude of a signal at a given time ?
(time domain ) ..
32.Which type of plot shows the phase of a signal at a given time ?
(time domain ) ..
33.How is the bandwidth of signal related to its spectrum ?
**The frequency spectrum of a signal is the collection of all the frequency components it
contains.
** The bandwidth of a signal is the width of the frequency spectrum.
34.How can a composite signal be decomposed into its individual frequencies
* Fourier series gives the discrete frequency domain of aperiodic signal.
*Fourier transform gives the continuous frequency domain of a nonperiodic signal that we
encounter in communications .
35.What is a bit interval and what is its counterpart in an analog signal ?
The bit interval is the time required to send one single bit (instead of period ) , its counterpart in
an analog signalis period.
36.What is bit rate and what is its counterpart in an analog signal ?
The bit rate is the number of bit interval per second(instead of frequency ) , its counterpart in an
analog signal is frequency.
Multiple Choice Questions:

1. Before information can be transmitted, it must be transformed_______.


a. periodic signals.
b. electromagnetic signals .
c. a periodic signals.
d. low-frequency sine waves .
2. A periodic signals completes one cycle in 0.001 second. What is the frequency?
a. 1 Hs
b. 100 Hz
c. 1 KHz
d. 1 MHz
3. Which of the following can be determined form a frequency-domain graph of a
signal ?
a. frequency
b. phase
c. power
d. all of the above
4. Which of the following can be determined form a frequency-domain graph of a
signal ?
a. bandwidth
b. phase
c. power
d. all of the above
5. In a a frequency-domain plot, the vertical axis measures the __________.
A. peak amplitude
b. frequency
c. phase
d. slope
6. In a a frequency-domain plot, the horizontal axis measures the __________.
A. peak amplitude
b. frequency
c. phase
d. slope
7. In a a time-domain plot, the vertical axis measure of __________.
a. amplitude
b. frequency
c. phase
d. time
8 .In a time-domain plot, the horizontal axis measure of __________.
a. signal amplitude
b. frequency
c. phase
d. time
9. If the bandwidth of a signal is 5 KHz and the lowest frequency is 52 KHz, What is
the highest frequency ?
a. 5 KHz
b. 10 KHz
c. 47 KHz
d. 57 KHz
10. What is the bandwidth of a signal that ranges from 40 KHz to 4 KHz ?
a. 36 KHz
b. 360 KHz
c. 3.96 KHz
d. 396 KHz
11. When one of the components of of a signal has a frequency of zero, the average
amplitude of the signal _______ ?
a. is greater than zero
b. is less than zero
c. is zero
d. a or b
12. A periodic signal can always be decomposed into __________.
a. exactly an odd number of sine waves
b. a set of sine waves
c. a set of sine waves. One of which must have a phase of zero degrees
d. none of the above
13. As frequency increases, the period __________.
a. decreases
b. increases
c. remains the same
d. doubles
14.Given two sine waves A and B. if the frequency of A is twice then of B,
then the period of B is ________then of A .

a. one-half .

b. twice

c. the same as

d. indeterminate from

15. A sine wave is __________.

a. periodic and continuous

b. aperiodic and continuous


c. periodic and discrete

d. aperiodic and discrete

16. If the maximum amplitude of a sine wave is 2 volts, the minimum amplitude is
____________volts.

A. 1

b. 2

c. -2

d. between-2and 2

17. A sine wave completes 1000 cycles in one second .what is its period?

a. 1 ms

b. 10 ms

c. 100 ms

d. 1000 ms

18. How many KHz are

a. in one Hz?1/10^3=0.001 KHz

b. in one MHz?10^3 = 1000 KHz

c. in one GHz?10^6 = 1000 000 KHz

d. in one THz?10^9 = 1000 000 000 KHz

19. Rewrite the following :

a. 10,000 Hz in KHz .10 000 hertz = 10 kilohertz

b. 25,340 KHz in MHz .25 340 kilohertz =25.34 megahertz

c. 108 GHz in KHz .108 gigahertz =108 000 000 kilohertz

d. 2,456,746 Hz in MHz .2 456 746 hertz =2.456746 megahertz

20. Rewrite the following :

a. 0.005 second in milliseconds.0.005 seconds = 5 milliseconds


b. 0.1231 milliseconds in microseconds. 0.1231 milliseconds = 123.1
microseconds

c. 0.0000234 second in picoseconds.0.0000234 seconds = 23 400 000


picoseconds

d. 0.003451 second in nanoseconds.0.003451 seconds = 3 451 000


nanoseconds

21. Given the frequencies listed below, calculate the corresponding periods.
Express the result in seconds, milliseconds, microseconds, nanoseconds, and
picoseconds.

a. 24 Hz.. p=1/f .. p=1/24s .. milliseconds=(1/24)* 10^3 .. microseconds=(1/24)* 10^6 ..


nanoseconds=(1/24)* 10^9 .. picoseconds=(1/24)* 10^12

b. 8 MHz.. p=1/f .. p=1/8s .. milliseconds=(1/8)* 10^3 .. microseconds=(1/8)* 10^6 ..


nanoseconds=(1/8)* 10^9 .. picoseconds=(1/8)* 10^12

c. 140 KHz.. p=1/f .. p=1/140s .. milliseconds=(1/140)* 10^3 .. microseconds=(1/140)*


10^6 .. nanoseconds=(1/140)* 10^9 .. picoseconds=(1/140)* 10^12

d. 12 THz.. p=1/f .. p=1/12s .. milliseconds=(1/12)* 10^3 .. microseconds=(1/12)* 10^6 ..


nanoseconds=(1/12)* 10^9 .. picoseconds=(1/12)* 10^12

22. Given the following periods, calculate the corresponding frequencies.


Express the frequencies in Hz ,KHz, MHz, GHz, and THz .

a. 5s.. f=1/p .. f=1/5hz .. KHz=(1/5)/ 10^3 .. MHz=(1/5)/ 10^6 .. GHz=(1/5)/


10^9 .. THz=(1/5)/ 10^12

b. 12 us .. f=1/p .. f=1/(12 μs) = 1 / (0.000012 s) = 83.3x10^3 Hz = 83.3 KHz

c. 220 ns .. f=1/p .. f=1/(220 ns) = 1 / (0.000000220 s) = 4.55x10^6 Hz = 4.55


MHz

d. 81 ps.. f=1/p .. f=(1/81* 10^-12)=0.0123* 10^-12 s

23. What is the phase shift for the following?

a. A sine waves with the maximum amplitude at time zero .90 degree

b. A sine waves with maximum amplitude after 1/4 cycle .0 degree

c. A sine waves with zero amplitude after 3/4 cycle and increasing .90 degree
d. A sine waves with minimum amplitude after 1/4 cycle .180 degree

24.show the phase shift in degrees cooresponding to each of the following delays
in cycles :Rule : 360 * cycle

a.1 cycle( 0 degree or 360 degree )

b. 1/2 cycle(180 degree )

c. 3/4 cycle( 270 degree )

d. 1/3 cycle( 120 degree )

25. show the delay in cycles corresponding to each of the following degrees :
Rule : degree /360

a.45( 1/8 cycle )

b.90( 1/4 cycle )

c.60( 1/6 cycle )

d.360( 1 cycle )

26.What is the bit rate for each of the following signals ?Rs = 1/T0

a. A signal in which a bit lasts 0.001 second .rs =0.001/1 bps

b. A signal in which a bit lasts 2 milliseconds .rs=2/1 bpms

c. A signal in which 10 bits last 20 microseconds .rs=20/10 bpms

d. A signal in which 100 bits last 250 picoseconds .rs=250/100 bpps

27 . What is the duration of a bit for each of the following signals ?

a. A signal with a bit rate of 100 bps .T0=1/100 bps


b. A signal with a bit rate of 200 Kbps .T0=1/200 Kbps
c. A signal with a bit rate of 5 Mbps .T0=1/5 Mbps
d. A signal with a bit rate of 1 Gbps .T0=1/1Gbps

28. A device is sending out data at the rate of 1000 bps.


a. How long does it take to send out 10 bits ?Timeto send 10 bits = 10 /1000 =0.01 s
b. How long does it take to send out a single character(8 bits)?Time to send 8 bit =
8/1000 = 8*10^-3 sec
c. How long does it take to send a file of 100.000 characters?
Bit = 100.000 * 8 = 800 bits
Time = 800/1000=0.8 sec
29. In -------------- transmission, the channel capacity is shared by both
communicating devices at all times?
a. Simplex b. Half- duplex c. Full-duplex d. Half- simplex
30. Communication between a computer and a keyboard involves --------------
transmission.
a. Automatic b. Half- duplex c. Full-duplex d. Simplex
31. A television broadcast is an example of --------------transmission.
a. Half- simplex b. Half- duplex c. automatic d. Simplex
Exercises

1. Draw the time-domain plot of a sine wave (for only 1 second) with maximum
amplitude of 15 volts, a frequency of 5, and the phase of 270 degrees.

2. Draw two sine waves on the same time-domain plot. The characteristic of each
signal are given below:

Signal A: amplitude 40, frequency 9, phase 0.

Signal B: amplitude 10, frequency 9, and phase 90.

3. Draw two periods of a sine wave with a phase shift of 90 degrees. On the same
diagram, draw a sine wave with the same amplitude and frequency but with a
90 degrees phase shift from the first.
4. What is the bandwidth of a signal that can be decomposed into four sine waves
with frequencies at 0 Hz, 20 Hz, 50 Hz, and 200 Hz? All maximum
amplitudes are the same. Draw the frequency spectrum.

5. A periodic composite signal with a bandwidth of 2000 Hz is composed of two


sine waves .The first one has a frequency of 100 Hz with a maximum
amplitude of 20 volts ; the second one has a maximum amplitude of 5 volts .
Draw the frequency spectrum.

6. Show how a sine wave change its phase by drawing two periods of an arbitrary sine
wave with phase shift of 0 degrees followed by the two periods of the same signals
with a phase shift of 90 degrees .
7. Imagine we have a sine wave called A. Show the negative of A. In other words,
show the signal –A .Can we relate the negation of a signal to the phase shift?
How many degrees?

Ans. The same phase shift = 0 degree

** signal (A) :

** signal (- A) :

8. Which signal has a higher bandwidth: A signal that changes 100 times per
second or a signal that changes 200 times per second?

The signal that changes at a higher rate occupies greater bandwidth. That’s mean a signal that
changes 200 times per second higher than A signal that changes 100 times per second.
9. What is the bit rate for the signal in figure (1)?

Figure (1)

Bit rate (rs ) : is the number of bit intervals per second.


(16 nanoseconds = 1.6 × 10-8 seconds )
Bit rate= bit interval / sec =8/ 1.6 × 10-8 = 500 000 000 bps
10. What is the frequency of the signal in Figure (2)?
Figure (2)

(4 microseconds = 4.0 × 10-6 seconds)


f = 8 / 4.0 × 10-6 = 2 000 000 Hz
11. Draw the time-domain representation (for the first 1/100 second) of the signal
shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3

Answer:

 First we determine the period of the above signal in order to draw the signal in the time domain.
Period = 1/f = 1/2500 = 0.4 millisecond
 Based on the period calculation one cycle will take 0.4 milliseconds,
Number of cycles being sent for 0.01 sec = 0.01/0.4×10-3 = 25 cycles.
12. Draw the frequency domain representation of the signal shown in Figure (4).
Figure (4)

(7 microseconds = 7.0 × 10-6 seconds)


14/7 = 2 cycles per microseconds =2 000 000 cycles per second = 2MHz

13. What is the bandwidth of the composite signal shown in Figure (5)?
Figure (5)

Bandwidth = 5×5= 25 Hz
14. What is the bandwidth of the signal shown in Figure (6)?
Figure (6)

Bandwidth = 0 HZ

15. A composite signal contains frequencies from 10 KHz to 30 KHz, each with
amplitude of 10 volts. Draw the frequency spectrum .

16. A composite signal contains frequencies from 10 KHz to 30 KHz. The amplitude
is zero for the lowest and the highest signals and 30 volts for the 20-KHz signal.
Assuming that the amplitudes change gradually from the minimum to the
maximum, draw the frequency spectrum .
17. Two signals have the same frequencies. However, whenever the first signal is at
its maximum amplitude, the second signal has amplitude of zero. What is the
phase shift between the two signals?

The phase shift between the two signals= Maximum amplitude of the first signal.