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2019-20  Subject : Operating System Class : TYCM I & II CHAPTER 1 Overview
2019-20  Subject : Operating System Class : TYCM I & II CHAPTER 1 Overview
2019-20  Subject : Operating System Class : TYCM I & II CHAPTER 1 Overview
2019-20  Subject : Operating System Class : TYCM I & II CHAPTER 1 Overview

2019-20

Subject: Operating System Class: TYCM I & II

 Subject : Operating System Class : TYCM I & II CHAPTER 1 Overview of Operating

CHAPTER 1 Overview of Operating System

: TYCM I & II CHAPTER 1 Overview of Operating System Operating System –  Concept,

Operating System

Concept, Componenets of OS,

Operations of OS : Program Management, Resource Management, Security and Protection.

Views of OS: User view, System view.

Different types of OS

Batch Systems, Multiprogrammed Systems

Time Sharing Systems, Desktop Systems

Multiprocessor Systems, Distributed Systems

Real -Time Systems, Mobile OS (Android,

iOS)Handheld Systems

Command line based OS DOS, UNIX

GUI based OS WINDOWS, LINUX

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01 WINTER  A program that acts as an intermediary between a Template use of

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WINTER

A program that acts as an intermediary between a

Template

use of a computer and the computer hardware.

Operating system goals:

Execute user programs and make solving user problems easier.

Make the computer system convenient to use.

Use the computer hardware in an efficient manner.

Names of Operating Systems

UNIX

OS/2

True64

Solaris 2

Linux, windows NT, Windows 2000, 95, 98, 2003, XP, 2007,

2008, 2012.

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02 1. Hardware – provides basic computing resources (CPU, memory, I/O devices). Operating system –

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1.
1.

Hardware provides basic computing resources (CPU, memory, I/O devices). Operating system controls and coordinates the use of the hardware among the various application programs for the various users. Applications programs define the ways in which the system resources are used to solve the computing problems of the users (compilers, database systems, video games, business programs). Users (people, machines, other computers).

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2.
video games, business programs). Users (people, machines, other computers). 2. 3. 4. 2019-20 Mrs. M. P.
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3.
video games, business programs). Users (people, machines, other computers). 2. 3. 4. 2019-20 Mrs. M. P.
4.
4.

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02 Cont 2019-20 Mrs. M. P. Bhosale 5
02 Cont 2019-20 Mrs. M. P. Bhosale 5

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Operating System Definitions

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System View

Resource allocator manages and allocates resources.

Control program controls the execution of user programs and operations of I/O devices .

Kernel the one program running at all times (all else being application programs).

User View

Ease of computational use

Terminal for information exchange

Workstation

Digital Diary

Machine for any specific work e. g. mobile, washing machine or various types of meters

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Mainframe Systems

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Reduce setup time by batching similar jobs

Automatic job sequencing automatically transfers control from one job to another.

First rudimentary (Basic) operating system.

Resident monitor

initial control in monitor

control transfers to job

when job completes control transfers back to monitor

It includes :

Batch Systems Multiprogrammed Systems Time Sharing Systems

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Memory Layout for a Simple
Memory Layout for a Simple
Batch System
Batch System

Batch of various Jobs

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with similar needs Job1 Job2 Job3
with similar needs
Job1
Job2
Job3

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Multiprogramming Systems
Multiprogramming Systems

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Several jobs are kept in main memory at the same time, and the CPU is multiplexed among them.

at the same time, and the CPU is multiplexed among them. Multiple jobs with different needs

Multiple jobs with different needs of resources and utilized effectively

Resources may be CPU,

memory, Clock, I/O etc.

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OS Features Needed for Multiprogramming
OS Features Needed for
Multiprogramming

06Cont…

WINTER

I/O routine supplied by the system.

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Memory management the system must

allocate the memory to several jobs.

CPU scheduling the system must choose among several jobs ready to run.

Allocation of devices.

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Time-Sharing Systems
Time-Sharing Systems

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Also known as Interactive Computing or Multitasking System

The CPU is multiplexed among several jobs that are kept in memory and on disk (the CPU is allocated to a job only if the job is in memory).

A job swapped in and out of memory to the disk.

On-line communication between the user and the system is provided; when the operating system finishes the execution of one command, it seeks the next “control statement” from the user’s keyboard.

On-line system must be available for users to

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access data and code.

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Desktop Systems
Desktop Systems

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o

Personal computers computer system dedicated to a single user.

o

I/O devices keyboards, mice, display screens, small printers.

o

User convenience and responsiveness.

o

Can adopt technology developed for larger operating system’ often individuals have sole use of computer and do not need advanced CPU utilization of

protection features.

o

May run several different types of operating systems (Windows, MacOS, UNIX, Linux)

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Multiprocessor Systems

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or Parallel Systems
or Parallel Systems

Multiprocessor systems with more than one CPU in close communication.

Tightly coupled system processors share memory and a clock; communication usually takes place through the shared memory.

Advantages of parallel system:

Increased throughput

Economical

Increased reliability

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graceful degradation

fail-soft systems

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Symmetric Multiprocessor Systems



Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP)

09Cont…

Each processor runs and identical copy of the operating system.

All processors are peers, many processes can run simultaneously.

If N CPU; N processes can run without effecting on each other.

Many processes can run at once without performance deterioration.

They can communicate as needed.

Most modern operating systems support SMP

E.g. SunOS Version5 (Solaris 2)

needed.  Most modern operating systems support SMP  E.g. SunOS Version5 (Solaris 2) 2019-20 Mrs.

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Asymmetric Multiprocessing Architecture
Asymmetric Multiprocessing
Architecture

09Cont…

WINTER

Asymmetric multiprocessing

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Each processor is assigned a specific task; master processor

schedules and allocated work to slave processors.

More common in extremely large systems

Any Hardware or software can differentiate between SMP & AMP

E.g. SunOS Version 4

MONITOR

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Distributed Systems 
Distributed Systems

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Distribute the computation among several physical processors.

Loosely coupled system each processor has its own local memory; processors communicate with one another through various communications lines, such as high-speed buses or telephone lines.

Advantages of distributed systems.

Resources Sharing

Computation speed up load sharing

Reliability

Communications

Requires networking infrastructure.

Local area networks (LAN) or Wide area networks (WAN)

May be either client-server or peer-to-peer systems.

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Types of Distributed OS
Types of Distributed OS

Network Operating System 1. Remote Login 2. Remote File Transfer

10Cont…

Distributed Operating System 1. Data Migration

2. Computation Migration

3. Process Migration

General Structure of Client-Server

Migration 2. Computation Migration 3. Process Migration General Structure of Client-Server 2019-20 Mrs. M. P. Bhosale

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Real-Time Systems
Real-Time Systems

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Often used as a control device in a dedicated

application such as controlling scientific

experiments, medical imaging systems, industrial

control systems, and some display systems.

E.g. Live Cricket Match, a robot

Well-defined fixed-time constraints.

Processing must be done within the time or it fails.

Real-Time systems may be either hard or soft real-

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time.

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Real-Time Systems (Cont.)  Hard real-time:
Real-Time Systems (Cont.)
 Hard real-time:

12 Cont

Secondary storage limited or absent, data stored in short term memory, or read-only memory (ROM)

Data is in non volatile memory, can’t mix with time-sharing

Conflicts with time-sharing systems, not supported by general-

purpose operating systems.

guarantees that the critical task be completed on time.

Soft real-time

a critical task gets priority over other task.

Can be mixed with other type of operating systems.

Limited utility in industrial control of robotics

Useful in applications (multimedia, virtual reality) requiring

advanced operating-system features.

advanced scientific projects such as undersea exploration and planetary rovers.

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Mobile OS – Android,iOS
Mobile OS – Android,iOS

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WINTER

Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs)

Template

Cellular telephones or palm pilots

Web Clipping : small subset of web page is delivered and

displayed on it.

Low power

Wireless technology :Bluetooth

Camera and MP3 or MP4

User convenience and portability

Operating system: must be designed not to tax the processor

Issues:

Limited memory

Slow processors

Small display screens.

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Operations of OS
Operations of OS

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WINTER

Template

To ensure the proper execution of the operating system

there are two modes of operation:

User Mode

Kernel Mode

of the operating system there are two modes of operation:  User Mode  Kernel Mode

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Operations of OS
Operations of OS

User mode

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WINTER

Template

When the computer system run user application like

creating a text document or using any application program, then the system is in user mode.

Kernel mode

When the user application requests for a service from the operating system or an interrupt occurs or system call, then there there will be a transition

from user to kernel mode to fulfill the requests.

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Operations of OS
Operations of OS

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WINTER

When the computer system is executing on behalf of a user

application, the system is in user mode.

Template

However, when a user application requests a service from the

operating system (via a system call), it must transition from user to kernel mode to fulfill the request.

This architectural enhancement is useful for many other aspects of system operation as well.

At system boot time, the hardware starts in kernel mode.

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Operations of OS
Operations of OS

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WINTER

The operating system is then loaded and starts user

applications in user mode.

Template

Whenever a trap or interrupt occurs, the hardware switches

from user mode to kernel mode (that is, changes the state of the mode bit to 0).

Thus, whenever the operating system gains control of the computer, it is in kernel mode.

The system always switches to user mode (by setting the mode bit to 1) before passing control to a user program.

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Operations of OS
Operations of OS

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WINTER

Program Management

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Prorgram Execution

Resource Management Resource Allocation

Security & Protection ensure that an incorrect (or malicious) program cannot cause other programs to execute incorrectly.

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