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SCIENCE REVIEWER - sagas

12 SDGs

DON’T FORGET THE 3 P’S OF SCIENCE


PEOPLE
PLANET/ENVIRONMENT
PROFIT/ECONOMY
Scientific Method
Process
1. Observe a phenomenon
2. Ask questions
3. Formulate a hypothesis
4. Experimental Design
5. Gather Materials
6. Execute experiment
7. Gather data
8. Analyze the data.
9. Make a conclusion
10. Give recommndations
11. Re-test (BACK TO #6)
12. Revise (BACK TO#3)
13. Communicate results
14. Application/Theory

BACKGROUND

Galileo Galilei

- Father of experimental modern science (As viewed from a Physics standpoint)


- Developed a systematic method of observation, experimentation and analysis
- The Scientific Method (As viewed from Chemistry’s POV)
Galileo Galilei and Sir Francis Bacon

Science is defined as

- A body of knowledge
- A process of finding solutions for problems

Scientific method

- Cyclical process, not a linear one.

Process Skills

1. Observe

Use of senses to gather info.

2. Inferring,

Making interpretations based on the gathered info from observation.


3. Predicting

Forming an idea about an expected result based from present knowledge and
understanding.

4. Formulating Hypothesis
5. Experimenting
6. Identifying and Controlling variables
7. Collecting Data
8. Classifying
9. Measuring
10. Using number relationship
11. Making models
12. Interpreting Data/Analysis
13. Communicating

Problem Statement

Factors in an experiment

- Variables
IV, DV, CV
- IV
Manipulated
- DV
Dependent on the IV. Changes because of changes in IV.

- CV
Variables used to keep the experiment controlled.

Measurement

- Comparison of an unknown quantity to a standard


- “How much of what?”
- Process that is precise in describing “How much of what” of a property in a
particular situation.
- There is a number with an estimated/doubtful figure (last digit) followed by a unit.
- Number should also be as precise as the measurement

NOTE : NO MEASUREMENT IS EXACT

English System and Metric System

Conversion Rates

12 inches = 1 foot

3 feet = 1 yard

5280 feet = 1 mile

- Measured in terms of 10.

Standards and Units

Physical quantity – any number used to describe a physical phenomenon quantitatively.

1. Fundamental physical quantities


- Defined by describing how to measure them.
2. Derived physical quantities
- Defined by describing how to calculate them from other quantities.

SI BASE UNITS
BASE QUANTITY UNIT
Mass Kg/kilogram
Length m/meters
Time s/seconds
Temperature K/Kelvin
Amount of Mol
substance/matter
Electric Current A/Ampere
Luminous Intensity Cd/candela

SIG FIGS
RULE 1

- All non-zero digits are significant

RULE 2

- All final zeroes after the decimal place are significant

RULE 3

- All zeroes between sig figs are significant.


- 404.0m = 4 sigfigs

RULE 4

- Zeroes used solely for spacing the decimal point are not significant
- 0.003303m = 4 sigfigs

RULE 5

- In scientific notation, all figures to the left of “x^10EXP” are significant. The
exponent has no effect on the amount of sigfigs.

RULE 6

- Any zero present after a non-zero without a decimal point is not a sigfig
I.E 118680 = 5 sig figs
SIGFIG OPERATIONS
1. When multiplying or dividing, the answer must have the same amount of sig figs
as the lowest quantity.

I.E 1.55/5 = 1 sig fig answer

(Number with the fewest sig figs determines the number of sig figs in the final
answer)

2. When adding or subtracting, the answer must be rounded to the place value of
the least precise quantity.

I.E 2.53s + 7.4s = 9.93s = 9.9s


2.53 = hundredths
7.4 = tenths
Least precise is tenths.
3. Conversion factors don’t affect the number of sig figs. Answer should have the
same amount of sig figs as the quantity you started with.
568 g = 0.568 kg = 3 sig figs

Accuracy and Precision


Accuracy

- How close a measurement is to the correct value.

Precision

- Consistency of repeated measurements.

Scientific Notation

- Format for Sci-Not


Mantissa x Base^Power

Rule for Addition and Subtraction

- In order to add or subtract numbers written in scientific not, you must express
them with the same powers of 10.
- 5.8 x 10^3 + 2.16 x10^4
5.8 x 10^3 + 21.6 x 10^3 = 27.4 x 10^3 = 2.74 x 10^4

Rule for Multiplication and Division

- When multiplying numbers in sci-not, multiply the first factors and add the
exponents.
- When dividing numbers in sci-not, divide the first factor in the numerator by the
first factor in the denominator. Then subtract the exponent in the denominator
from the exponent in the numerator.

Avogadro’s number

- 6.02 x 10^23

Avogadro’s Number
- Therefore, a 12.01 g sample of carbon contains 6.02 x 10^23 carbon atoms.
- Avogadro’s Number = 6..02 x 10^23
- Mole/Mol is unit of measurement for an amount of a chemical substance.

PROJECTILE MOTION
- Displacement: change in position
- Projectile: an object thrown w/ an initial horizontal velocity and acted ONLY by
earth’s gravity
- Acceleration of gravity is = to -9.8m/s^2
- Scalar: magnitude (it’s the number of a measurement) (ex. Distance, speed,
time)
- Vector: magnitude + direction (ex. Velocity, acceleration)
- Acceleration: rate at which the velocity of an object changes. Vf – Vi all over time
is the formula.
- Thrown horizontally
- Dx = Vxt (This equation is along the x-axis, think of it like a graph in math,
meaning horizontally)
- Dy= 1/2(-9.8)t^2 (for thrown horizontally wala muna yung initial velocity along y
(Viyt)
- Release at an angle
- Dxmax = Vxt (total)
- Dymax = Vyit + ½(-9.8m/s^2)t^2 Vyit is initial velocity along the y- axis times
time)
- Vyi = sin theta Vi ( yung theta is the angle that will be given in the problem)
- Vx= cos theta Vi

Momentum and Impulse


- p=mv (formula for momentum, m=mass, v=velocity)
- F delta T = m delta v (formula for impulse, delta means change so, force times
the change in time is equal to mass times the change in velocity)
- Impulse is also the change in momentum

Electricity
- Voltage is the work that pushes the electric current
- Source (15k V)  Transmission lines (70k V)  Substation (14k V) 
Distributing Substations (1400 V)  Post transformers (220-240 V)
- Sources of energy:
- Fossil fuels: coal, oil, gas
- Nuclear energy:
- Energy from falling water (hydroelectric) :
- Wind energy
- Solar energy
- Geothermal energy: underground water heated by molten rock (volcano) can turn
in to steam to turn the turbines for electrical energy
- Energy from the tides