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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION

Agriculture’s share in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has declined from over half
at Independence to less than one-fifth currently, agriculture remains the
predominant sector in terms of employment and livelihood with more than half of
India’s workforce engaged in it as the principal occupation. Agriculture still
contributes significantly to export earnings and is an important source of raw
materials as well as of demand for many industries. India’s agriculture sector has
an impressive long-term record of taking the country out of serious food shortages
despite rapid population increase.

This was achieved through a favourable interplay of infrastructure, technology,


extension, and policy support backed by strong political will. The main source of
long-run growth was technological augmentation of yields per unit of cropped area.
This resulted in tripling of food grain yields, and foodgrain production increased
from 51 million tonnes in 1950–51 to 217 million tonnes in 2006–07. Production of
oilseeds, sugarcane, and cotton have also increased more than four-fold over the
period, reaching 24 million tonnes and 355 million tonnes and 23 million bales,
respectively, in 2006–07. 1.3 But, although GDP from agriculture has more than
quadrupled, from Rs 108374 crore in 1950–51 to Rs 485937 crore in 2006–07
(both at 1999–2000 price), the increase per worker has been rather modest. GDP
per agricultural worker is currently around Rs 2000 per month, which is only about
75% higher in real terms than in 1950 compared to a four-fold increase in overall
real per capita GDP. While slower growth of GDP in agriculture than non-
agriculture is expected, the main failure has been the inability to reduce the
dependence of the workforce on agriculture significantly by creating enough non-
farm opportunities to absorb the labour surplus in rural areas and equipping those
in agriculture to access such opportunities. Half of those engaged in agriculture are
still illiterate and just 5% have completed Higher Secondary education. Incomes
and education are of course least among agricultural labourers. Even families
operating farms now suffer from much smaller holdings (70% below 1 hectare in
2003 compared to 56% in 1982), and farming members in such families are twice
as likely to be illiterate as non- farming members. Ensuring food security and
farmer welfare thus require support
systems to extend technology and scale benefits in a sustainable manner to a huge
existing workforce in agriculture that lacks non-farm skills and is also ageing and
getting feminized.

Growth of agricultural GDP decelerated from over 3.5% per year during 1981– 82
and 1996–97 to only around 2% during 1997–98 and 2004–05 . This deceleration,
although most marked in rainfed areas, occurred in almost all States and covered
almost all major sub-sectors, including those such as horticulture, livestock, and
fisheries where growth was expected to be high. Consequently,

growth of agricultural GDP has been well below the target of 4% set in both Ninth
and Tenth Plans. In fact, Tenth Plan growth averaged even less than that during

Ninth Plan because, as was noted in the MTA, growth plummeted to below 1%
during its first three years, that is from 2002–03 to 2004–05. There has been some
upturn since then and growth has averaged more than 4% in the subsequent two
years, with early indications that this is likely to be maintained in 2007–08 also.
This revival gives hope that at least some of the causes of recent poor agricultural
performance are being reversed and that the Eleventh Plan target, set at 4%, may
actually be attainable. 1.6 The improved performance in the second half of Tenth
Plan is a welcome development, but there is no reason for complacency. Not only
is the period too short to reach firm judgment on trends, the prolonged deceleration
over several years has meant that despite the improvements, per capita output of
cereals, pulses, oilseeds, and also of some major vegetables and fruits (e.g.,
potatoes and bananas) in 2006–07 remained below 1996–97 levels. Moreover,
despite significant imports, food prices flared up in 2006. This was unlike during
2000–05 when, although production was even lower, prices remained subdued
because of low domestic demand and depressed world prices. Part of the recent
production upturn is clearly price-led, following a marked hardening of world
commodity prices and possibly also responding to the fact that domestic food
demand has responded positively to higher overall GDP growth at the introduction
of Rural Employment Guarantee. However, although important in the short-run,
such price response alone cannot be the basis of sustained agricultural growth at
4%. The
recent trend towards diversion of food crops for biofuels in surplus countries means
that food security needs a stronger production response based on tackling supply
side problems in the foodgrains sector. The supply side performance of agriculture
is affected by a large number of factors, several of which interact among each
other.

These factors are the natural resource base (including rainfall), technology,
infrastructure (including irrigation), and the economic environment comprising
price signals and institutions . Analysis by the Steering Group for the Eleventh Plan
has identified technological change (using yield potential of varieties of major
crops released by the National Agricultural Research System [NARS] as a proxy),
public investment (including investment on irrigation), and diversification
(represented by area under fruits and vegetables) as the most important proximate
determinants of growth. The Steering Group analysis shows that progress on first
two of these factors slowed down from early 1990s. However, the negative effect
in growth was offset by private investment, which was the fourth most important
factor in the analysis, because the terms of trade, which affect profitability and thus
private investment, improved during 1990–97. As a result, growth continued to be
relatively high in this period. However, terms of trade turned against agriculture
from 1999– 2000 to 2004–05 and reduced profitability of farming quite sharply.

Agricultural Marketing Infrastructure (AMI)

There is a need to promote agricultural marketing infrastructure projects for


reducing intermediation and the post-harvest losses by integrating supply chain
which ensures better remuneration to the farmers and supply of better quality
products to both consumers and processing industries. It is estimated that there is
an investment requirement of Rs. 56,000 crores for different marketing
infrastructure and value chain development during the XII plan period. In this
connection Department of Agriculture and Cooperation (DAC), Govt. of India has
now introduced Agri Marketing Infrastructure (AMI) scheme by merging erstwhile
Grameen Bhandaran Yojana (GBY) and Scheme for Development/ Strengthening
of Agricultural Marketing Infrastructure, Grading and Standardization (AMIGS).

Medium Term Refinance Scheme for financing Agricultural Projects

NABARD has been providing financial assistance by way of refinance to financial


institutions for providing production and marketing credit for a period not
exceeding 18 months (short term finance) besides for long term investment
activities with a repayment period of 3 years onwards. In a market where interest
rates are dynamic, Banks have been providing investment credit with shorter
duration for financing various agricultural and allied activities and fixing
repayment periods from 1 year but below 3 years and are not eligible to claim
refinance for such financing

KISAN CREDIT CARD

Under this scheme, farmers can get financial assistance for Agriculture related
activities for Medium and long term. The loan is given as under :-

Repayment
Scheme Unit cost
Period

Kisan credit card


scheme
upto 3 lakh 5 years
Agriculture & allied
activities

Kisan credit card


scheme 3 lakh to 10
7 years
Agriculture & allied lakh
activities

Kisan credit card


scheme 10 lakh to 18
10 years
Agriculture & allied lakh
activities

Kisan credit card


scheme upto 3 lakh 5 years
Non farm sector

Kisan credit card


scheme 3 lakh to 10
7 years
lakh
Non farm sector

Kisan credit card 10 lakh to 18


10 years
scheme lakh
Non farm sector

DAIRY ENTREPRENEUR DEVELOPMENT SCHEME

Under this scheme, the borrower has to deposit 10% as the margin money.

Under this scheme, subsidy of 25% to 33.33% is provided by NABARD. The


subsidy is given according to availability of funds.

Loan is given for a unit of 2 to 10 animals for a maximum of 5 lakh Rupees.

TYPE OF LOANS FOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENTS

TUBEWELLS

Loan for the purpose of installing new tubewells can be granted only in those
blocks which fall in the category of semi critical and safe zones as approved by the
Agricultural Department or NABARD.

No loan id granted for the installation of tubewells in over expokited and critical
areas.

Loan is granted for the purchase of pipes, footvalves, fans, diesel engine and
electricity motors. The amount of loan depends on the depth of water.

This loan has to be repaid within 9 years with interest .

The machinery that has been purchased with this loan has to be
insured.
Unit cost (in Loan
Type of tubewell Specification
Rs.) repayment

61 Metre
Tubewell alongwith (200"deep) 2,73,526/- 9 Years
Pump set 92 Metre 4,02,156/- 9 years
(300" deep)

Pumpset Replacement 45,000/- 9 Years

Replacement/Renovation
Tubewell

DRIP IRRIGATION

Drip irrigation, also known as trickle irrigation or micro irrigation or localized


irrigation,is an irrigation method that saves water and fertilizer by
allowing water to drip slowly to the roots of plants, either onto the soil surface or
directly onto the root zone, through a network of valves, pipes, tubing,
and emitters. It is done through narrow tubes that deliver water directly to the base
of the plant.
Unit Cost of Installing Drip Irrigation on a 1 Hectare Plot is as follows:

Plant
Sr. Repayment
spacing (in Amt. (in Rs.)
No. period(years
metres)

Wide spaced
1 23000/- 9
(10X10 m.)

Medium
2 spaced 60,000/- 9
(2.5X2.5 m)

Closed
3 spaced 1,10,000/- 9
(1.2X0.6 m)

This loan has to be repaid within 9 years in annual installments.

SPRINKLER IRRIGATION

Water is a key factor in increasing agricultural production. About 78% of India's


water resources are used for agriculture out of this only 50% is actually used by
plants and the remaining water resources are wasted either as deep percolation or as
evaporation. Excess irrigation not only reduces crop production and damages soil
fertility but also causes ecological hazards like water logging and salinity. With
competitive use of water and its increasing scarcity, it has become imperative to
economise water use for optimum productivity. This is possible only through
improved water management and adopting advanced techniques of irrigation. One
such method of modern irrigation is sprinkler irrigation system which is becoming
more and more popular among the farmers across the country. Sprinkler irrigation
system saves upto 50% of water compared to surface irrigation method and
increases productivity by about 15-25 %.
Sprinkler irrigation method distributes water to crops by spraying it over the
crop area like a natural rainfall. The water under pressure flows through
perforations or nozzles and sprays over the area. The pressure is provided by a
pump of suitable capacity and horsepower. With careful selection of nozzle sizes,
operating pressure and spacing, the actual water required for maintaining the soil
moisture at field capacity is applied uniformly at a rate to suit the infiltration rate of
soil thereby obtaining efficient water application.
It is estimated that the sprinkler irrigation system substantially reduces the
use of water and the crop productivity also increases.

Suitable Crops
Nearly all crops are suitable for sprinkler irrigation system except crops like
paddy, jute, etc. The dry crops, vegetables, flowering crops, orchards, plantation
crops like tea, coffee are all suitable and can be irrigated through sprinklers.

Advantages
Fertilizers and pesticides can be effectively applied in split doses through
sprinklers at little extra cost. This facilitates uniform fertilizer application and
effective pest control.
The overall cost of labour is generally reduced.
Erosion of soil cover which is common in surface irrigation can be eliminated.

Unit Cost of Installing Sprinkler Irrigation on a 1 Hectare Plot is as follows:

Specification Unit cost(in Repayment


Rs.) period (9
years)

1-2 hectare 32000/- 9


SOLAR PUMPSET SCHEME:

Under this scheme, the agriculturist can get his case sponsored from PEDA (Punjab
Energy Development Agency), Chandigarh or from the concerned Manager avail
of the subsidies offerred . Under it, for a 3.5 horsepower set, a loan of 4.50 lakh Rs.
is disbursed. Repayment of loan is 9 years in equated annual installments.

RAINWATER HARVESTING TANK SCHEME:

Under this scheme, for a 10m longX10 m broad X 10 m depth tank, loan of Rs.
35000/- is disbursed. Loan Repayment is 9 years in equated annual installments
and grace period is 2 years.

SOIL CONSERVATION SCHEMES

Under this scheme, the loan is provided for the following purposes:-

LAND DEVELOPMENT SCHEMES

Under these schemes, the loans are given as under:-

Unit Cost in Repayment Grace


Purpose
Rupees period period

1,00,000/- per
Soil conservation 10 years 1
acre

Reclamation of land 1,00,000/- per acre 10 years 1

Underground
90,000/- per hectare 10 years 1
channels/pipelines

REQUIREMENTS:

Loan applications under the above scheme shall be recommended by the Soil
Conservation Department, Punjab.Applications should accompany the lay out plan
and estimated cost approved by the Soil Conservation Department.The agriculturist
can procure pipes from an Agency of his choice.

The farmer should have his own means of irrigation or iner his fields.

Loan upto 2 lakh shall be done directly to the borrower, the condition being that
only I.S.I. marked pipes and other material be used.
Loan above 2 lakh for ISI marked pipes shall be disbursed directly to the firm
supplying it (the firm can be of the choice of the borrower).

PURCHASE OF LAND

For purchase of land, the loan has to be repaid in 10 years in annual equated
installments.

Margin money is 10% of the advance given for the purchase of land.

The borrower should not have more than the following size of land, including the
land to be purchased:-

Sr.
Name of the District Size of land
No.

Amritsar, Ludhiana,Patiala,Sangrur (Except Barnala 5.50 acre for


block) irrigated land
1.
Jalandhar,Kapurthala and Gurdaspur (only for Batala and 8.50 for rainfed
block) land

6.75 acre for


Ferozepur,bathinda,Faridkot and Sangrur(only for irrigated land
2.
Barnala block) and 9.75 acre
rainfed

8.50 acre irrigated


Ropar,Hoshiarpur and Gurdaspur (except Batala land
3.
block) and 12.25 acre
rainfed land

RECLAMATION OF MORTGAGED LAND

Loan is given for reclamation of mortgaged land.

Repayment period is 10 years in 10 equated installments.

Rahennama has to be produced for the mortgaged land.


AGRICULTURE POLICIES:

The beneficial impact on agricultural situation in India of a host of well-


intentioned government policies has not been as great as originally envisaged.
Agriculture being a State subject, India lacks an Agricultural Policy at the National
level and the onus of framing policies for agricultural development lies with the
State government. The Standing Advisory Committee on Agriculture, appointed
during 1989-90 made a note of it and commented, Even after four decades of
independence, India has not been able to come out with a comprehensive
agricultural policy nor has there been any worthwhile debate on the role of
agriculture in the process of economic development. The earlier school of thought,
that growth and advances in the industrial and service sector would transitively
benefit the agricultural sector on the whole, has always cast agricultural
development in the shadows of industrial growth.

Industrial growth in India has always been given precedence over agricultural
growth and the emphasis and favours bestowed on it have continued even beyond
the stage of infancy. The simplistic, reductionist assumption that agricultural sector
would automatically respond to the exogenous stimuli through the trickle-down
effect generated by the forces of development in industrial, trade and service
sectors has prove to be a misplaced conceptualisation under the existing agrarian
structure and socio-economic setup of the farming community. Industrial sector so
far has been receiving a major portion of the incentives and subsidies, at the cost
and neglect of the agricultural sector. It has led to a constant decline in the share of
agriculture in India s Gross Domestic Product since independence, with no
decrease in proportion of employment provided by this sector.

Nevertheless, statistics pertaining to performance of Indian economy in the late


nineties indicate that agricultural performance has a vital role to play in boosting
the overall economy. The economic data for 1998-99 reveals that agriculture has
once again come to the rescue of Indian economy by maintaining a high growth
rate.

Projections for 1999-2000 provided by Central Statistical Organisation points out


that even if the industry maintains a low growth rate of 5.7 percent, the bumper
agricultural performance during this year could help scale India's Gross Domestic
Product of 6 percent.

India has made impressive strides on the agricultural front during the last three
decades. Much of the credit for this success should go to the several million small
farming families that form the backbone of Indian agriculture and economy. Policy
support, production strategies, public investment in infrastructure, research and
extension for crop, livestock and fisheries have significantly helped to increase
food production and its availability. During the last 30 years, India’s foodgrain
production nearly doubled from 102 million tons in the triennium ending 1973 to
nearly 200 million tons (mt) in the triennium ending (TE) 1999. Virtually all of the
increase in the production resulted from yield gains rather than expansion of
cultivated area. Availability of foodgrains per person increased from 452
gm/capita/day to over 476 gm/capita/day, even as the country's population almost
doubled, swelling from 548 million to nearly 1000 million.

Increased agricultural productivity and rapid industrial growth in the recent years
have contributed to a significant reduction in poverty level, from 55 percent in
1973 to 26 percent in 1998. Despite the impressive growth and development, India
is still home to the largest number of poor people of the world. With about 250
million below the poverty line, India accounts for about one-fifth of the world’s
poor. Child malnutrition extracts its highest toll in this country. About 25%
children suffer from serious malnutrition. More than 50 percent of the pre-school
children and pregnant women are anemic. The depth of hunger among the
undernourished is also high.

India has high population pressure on land and other resources to meet its food and
development needs. The natural resource base of land, water and bio- diversity is
under severe pressure. The massive increase in population (despite the slowing
down of the rate of growth) and substantial income growth, demand an extra about
2.5 mt of foodgrains annually, besides significant increases needed in the supply of
livestock, fish and horticultural products. Under the assumption of 3.5% growth in
per capita GDP (low income growth scenario), demand for foodgrains
(including feed, seed, wastage and export) is projected in the year 2020 at the level
of 256 mt comprising 112mt of rice, 82mt of wheat, 39mt of coarse grains and 22mt
of pulses. The demand for sugar, fruits, vegetables, and milk is estimated to grow
to a level 33mt, 77mt, 136mt and 116mt respectively. The demand for meat is
projected at 9mt, fish 11mt and eggs 77.5 billion (Table 1).

Future increases in the production of cereals and non-cereal agricultural


commodities will have to be essentially achieved through increases in productivity,
as the possibilities of expansion of area and livestock population are minimal. To
meet the projected demand in the year 2020, country must attain a per hectare yield
of 2.7 tons for rice, 3.1 tons for wheat, 2.1 tons for maize, 1.3 tons for coarse
cereals, 2.4 tons for cereal, 1.3 tons for pulses, 22.3 tons for potato, 25.7 for
vegetables, and 24.1 tons for fruits. The production of livestock and poultry
products must be improved 61% for milk, 76% for meat, 91% for fish, and 169%
for eggs by the year 2020 over the base year TE 1999. Average yields of most
crops in India are still rather low.

Emerging Trends

The agriculture sector recorded satisfactory growth due to improved technology,


irrigation, inputs and pricing policies. Livestock, poultry, fisheries and horticulture
are surging ahead in production growth in recent years and will have greater
demand in the future. Industrial and service sectors have expanded faster than
agriculture sector resulting in declining share of agriculture in national accounts.
Despite the structural change, agriculture still remains a key sector, providing both
employment and livelihood opportunities to more than 70 percent of the country's
population who live in rural areas. The contribution of small farmers to the national
and household food security has been steadily increasing. The water availability for
agricultural uses has reached a critical level and deserves urgent attention of all
concerned.
India has high population pressure on land and other resources to meet its food and
development needs. The natural resource base of land, water and bio- diversity is
under severe pressure. Food demand challenges ahead are formidable considering
the non-availability of favourable factors of past growth, fast declining factor
productivity in major cropping systems and rapidly shrinking resource base.

Vast uncommon opportunities to harness agricultural potential still remain, which


can be tapped to achieve future targets. There are serious gaps both in yield
potential and technology transfer as the national average yields of most of the
commodities are low, which if addressed properly could be harnessed.

Concentration was on enhanced production of a few commodities like rice and


wheat, which could quickly contribute to increased total food and agricultural
production. This resulted in considerable depletion of natural resources and the
rainfed dry areas having maximum concentration of resource poor farmers
remained ignored, aggravating problems of inequity and regional imbalances. This
also led to a high concentration of malnourished people in these rainfed, low
productive areas. This era also witnessed rapid loss of soil nutrients, agro-
biodiversity including indigenous land races and breeds.

The agriculture policy must accelerate all-round development and economic


viability of agriculture in comprehensive terms. Farmers must be provided the
necessary support, encouragement and incentives. It must focus both on income
and greater on-farm and off-farm job and livelihood opportunities.

NATIONAL RESEARCH CENTRE FOR WOMEN IN AGRICULTURE (NRCWA):

The National Research Centre for Women in Agriculture(NRCWA) has been


functioning at Bhubaneshwar, Orissa,for developing methodologies, for
identification of gender implications in farming systems approach and to develop
women specific technologies under different production systems. There are 16
ongoing research
projects in the areas of gender study on agriculture and household economy, management of
coastal agro-eco system, extension methods for farm women, standardization of women
specific field practices, occupational health hazards, reducing drudgery of women in
agricultural operations, improvement of farming system suited to farm women, eco-friendly
pest management technologies for vegetables among farm women, evaluation of interactive
learning modules, technological needs in empowering women in rural aquaculture, and
improvement in storage practices of seeds and grains.

Under project on Development and testing of extension methods for farmwomen in eastern
India, the extent of participation of farm women in different farming systems and farm
enterprises and the role of change agents in that context, were studied. Contrary to the
situation at coastal tract the male extension agents maintained higher contacts with
farmwomen than the lady extension agent.

The studies under Identification and improvement of farming systems suited to farmwomen in
Eastern India project revealed that there is intense involvement of farmwomen in vegetable
cultivation necessitating to take follow up supportive activities and interventions in the area
of vermicomposting, natural plant pesticides, biological control and IPM.

Under the project Standardization of women specific field practices in rice in Orissa data
were collected from women heads of 50 farm families on participation of women in relation
to varying operations in rice cultivation. Women of family contributed highest hours per
season (61.66) in harvesting and post harvesting operations and participated lowest in land
preperation. Same pattern was observed from the paid women and total women (family +
paid labour).
CHAPTER 2

RESEARCH METHDOLOGY
Need for the study
Agriculture is the most important sector of Indian economy.

 Raising agricultural productivity unit of land,


 Reducing rural poverty,
 Ensuring that agricultural growth responds to food security needs,

Statement of the problem


Agriculture is the main occupation of most of the population in India the development

of agriculture depends on various aspects they have lack of mechanization it includes the

main problems like

 Small and fragmented land -holding


 Seeds
 Fertilizer
 Irrigation
 Scarcity of capital

Research methodology
Secondary data:

Secondary date is collected through journals books for reference and website.
DATA TYPE: In this research the type of data collection is

 Primary data
 Secondary data

DATA SOURCE: The sources of collection of secondary data are:


 Questionnaire
 Books
 Websites
 Magazine
 Brochure

SAMPLING PLAN:

It is very difficult to collect information from every member of a population .As time
and costs are the major limitation that the researcher faces.

A sample of 100 was taken the sample size of 100 individuals were selected on the basis
of convenient sampling technique. The individuals were selected in the random manner
to form sample and data were collected from them for the research study.

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION:


Data collection through questionnaire and personnel interview resulted in availability of
the desired information but these were useless until there were analyzed. Various steps
required for this purpose were editing, coding and tabulating. Tabulating refers to
bringing together similar data and compiling them in an accurate and meaningful
manner. The data collected by questionnaire was analyzed, interpreted with the help of
table, bar chart and pie chart.
Objective of the study
 To assess the existing mechanization in the village
 To know the role of government on agricultural mechanization
 To find out the problems of agricultural mechanization
 To estimate the growth rate of productivity of the crops

Scope of the study


This is to study about to know the use of machines and technology in the agriculture sector
and to develop the role of mechanization in agriculture sector.
CHAPTER 3

SWOT ANALYSIS
SWOT Analysis

History

In the 1960’s and 70’s, Albert Humphrey is said to have developed this strategic planning
tool using data from the top companies in America at the time. Its basic organizing
principles have remained largely unchanged in the field of strategic management. It is a
systematic framework which helps managers to develop their business strategies by
appraising their internal and external determinants of their organization’s performance [1].

2. Definition of SWOT:

A SWOT Analysis is a business analysis method that organization can perform for each of
its
products, services and markets when deciding on the best approach to achieve future growth.
A
SWOT Analysis is a tool which permits users to look at the direction a company or
organization
may wish to move towards in the future. SWOT Analysis looks at the strengths,
weaknesses,
opportunities and threats that are relevant to an organization in a new venture. A SWOT
Analysis
is a useful tool, which in conjunction with others can help make informed decisions.
By
specifying clear objectives and identifying internal and external factors that are either helpful
or
not, a short and simple SWOT analysis is a useful resource which may be incorporated into
an
organizations strategic planning model [2].
i. Strengths- Internal attributes those are helpful to the organization to achieving
its

objective.

ii. Weaknesses - Internal attributes that are harmful to the organization to achieving its

objective.

iii. Opportunities - External factors that help the organization achieve its objective.

iv. Threats - External factors that are harmful to the organization to achieving its
objective.
CHAPTER 4

DATA ANALSIS AND INTERPRETATION


Introduction :

Nationalized Banks have played a very vital role in the development of agriculture and
business sector in urban and rural area of Ahmednagar district. Since the district is basically
village oriented with a powerful agrarian economy; it is but natural that the institutions set up
to finance rural needs have a rural inclination. The commercial banks operating in the district
have a rural inclination. Ahmednagar district is the largest of Maharashtra with geographical
area of 17413 sq. km spread over 14 blocks and 14 Tahsils. The network of bank branch is
also sizeable with 258 branches of commercial banks and 295 branches of co-operative
banks, are catering to the needs of customers of the Ahmednagar district.

Central Bank of India has a wide network of 61 branch in Ahmednagar district. Out of which,
44 branches are rural, 16 are semi-urban and one branch is urban. It means rural area
branches are 3 times as compared semi-urban branches. Hence, Central Bank of India is
giving maximum efforts in rural area through these branches (specifically in agricultural
sector.)

As per the data made available by Lead Bank Cell, Ahmednagar and Central Bank of India,
Regional Office, there are 61 branches of Central Bank of India in Ahmednagar District. The
sample for the study consisted of 12 branches (i.e. 20% of 61 branches) selected as
convenient sample for in depth study. As
Ahmednagar district is geographically largest district, with variety of Tahsils such as Urban,
rural, Tribal, Irrigated (100%), Famine- stricken. For sampling purpose, Ahmednagar district
divided into north and south zone. Six branches each, with variety of geographical pattern
were selected from North and South Ahmednagar district. From north zone, Sangamner,
Akole, Shrirampur Tahsils showing Famine-stricken, Tribal and Irrigated characteristics were
selected respectively. From south zone, Ahmednagar, Shrigonda, Parner were selected
showing urban, irrigated and famine-stricken characteristics. Akole, Kalas, Shrirampur,
Ukkalgaon, Sangamner, Ashwi, Ahmednagar, Nagapur, Parner, Kanhur Pathar, Shrigonda,
Belvandi etc. were the selected sample of 12 bank branches.

All the 12 bank branch managers were contacted and due appointment was taken to visit the
branch whenever necessary, and all managers were personally available for interview. The
personal interview was very informative.

Printed questionnaires were prepared for the borrowers. From every bank branch, 30
borrowers were selected. From Ahmednagar, Nagapur, Sangamner, Shrirampur, Parner,
Akole branches, 180 borrowers (30 x 6 branches) were selected which were from business
sector. And Shrigonda, Belvandi, Kalas, Kanhur Pathar, Ashwi, Ukkalgaon etc., 180
borrowers (30 x 6 branches) were selected who were from agriculture sector. The
questionnaires were distributed among these 360 borrowers and the doubts raised regarding
questionnaire were absolved immediately.
A suitable, personal interview schedule was structured for this primary data collection. As a
result of which, in addition to structured questions, additional information was also readily
available.

This chapter aims at the detailed analysis of the information collected through the
questionnaire and personal interview.

Analytical Study of Development of Agriculture Sector :

Shrigonda, Belvandi, Kanhur Pathar, Kalas, Ashwi and Ukkalgaon branches were the sample
selected branches of Central Bank of India. From these branches 30 borrowers each were
selected for agriculture sector (i.e. 180). All the borrowers were agriculturists.

From the above bank branches 180 agriculturists were interviewed, and printed questionnaire
was used for specific and additional information.

The detailed analysis of the information collected through the questionnaire and personal
interviews is given below. It will show the real picture of agriculture sector in Ahmednagar
district.

Age of Farmers (Agriculturists) :

It is common in agriculture sector, that new generation involved in farming at the early age
because manpower (labour) is essential requirement of farming. But, bank finance is
available to only those farmers, who have attained age of majority i.e. 18 yrs. Age of sample
agriculturists is given below.
Gender of Farmers

Sex No. of Respondents Percentage (%)

Male 138 76.67

Female 42 23.33

Source : Primary Data

42

Male

Table shows,

76.67 percent of the farmers are male farmers and 23.33 percent are female farmers, with
somewhat property.

The ratio of Male : Female is 3:1, but it is not disappointing one. It means that, females are
not just shouldering the tasks involved in farming, but they are also sharing and performing
financial responsibilities of farming.

It reveals that, young women are involved in farming. Women are supporting their families
for performing agricultural activities not only physically but also through sharing financial
responsibilities. Most important
conclusion is, (society) males are accepting the rights of women in the family maters, by
admitting women as partner in land holdings.

Education of Farmers :

Good education background and success in farming may not be positively related. But, good
educational background reveals, educated farmers, techno savvy farming possibility, modern
farming, use of new technology in farming, new experiments in farming. The statistics of
education of farmers is as follows -

Table No. 6.2.4 Education of Farmers

Education No. of Percentage


Respondents (percent)

upto 10th 71 39.50

10th to 12th 49 27.30

Graduate 37 22.00

Post Graduate 21 11.20

Highly qualified

Total 180 100.00

Source : Primary Data


d
u 22
c
a
t
i
o

0 10 20 30 40

The table shows -

39.50 percent farmers are in upto 10th education group.27.30 percent farmers are
10th to 12th education group.

22.00 percent farmers are graduate.

Highly qualified farmers are less in number.

From above analysis, it reveals that, due to early entry in farming sector
farmers are not highly qualified, they have to stop their education due to
household responsibilities.