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Phronesis - to read the situation to judge the best timing

for interaction, and to elicit empathy in


Three Types of Knowledge: return.
1. Episteme (Scientific Knowledge) - Knowledge Creation through Co-
Universal, context-free and objective knowledge (explicit transcendence
knowledge)
Ba(Platforming):
2. Techne (Skills and Crafts Knowledge) o Individual contexts are shared at
Practical and context-specific technical knowhow (tacit “here now” context of Ba.
knowledge) o Shared context becomes the base of
emerging knowledge.
3. Phronesis (Practical Wisdom) o Reading the Situation and Grasping
Experiential knowledge to make context specific
the Opportunity
decisions based on one’s own values/ethics (high quality
tacit knowledge)
3. Ability to perceive the reality as it is.
- The ability to recognize the constantly
What is Practical Wisdom:
changing situation correctly, and quickly
- A virtuous habit of making the “right”
sense what lies behind phenomena to
decisions and taking “right” actions in the
envision the future and decide on the action
particular context with values and ethics that
to be taken.
serve the common good.
- See Things as They are: The "untrapped
- A capability to find a “right answer” in
mind" is open enough to see many possibilities,
particular context. humble enough to learn from anyone and
o Contextual Judgment anything, forbearing enough to forgive all,
o Timely Balancing perceptive enough to see things as they really
- Can acquire only through high quality direct are, and reasonable enough
experiences with contemplation. to judge their true value.
- See Things in Dynamic Context: It is
What is Phronetic Leadership: impossible to apply universal rules derived from
past experiences, since customers’ need keeps
changing and each store is operating in different
context. We are successful only by denying the
past and constantly reflecting on the future to
find fundamental solutions in each particular
context.

4. Ability to articulate the essence


- The ability to conceptualize and articulate
subjective ideas in clear language, link
these ‘micro’ concepts to a macro historical
context and convincingly articulate them as
vision and story for the future.
- Pursuing the Essence: “Root cause rather
than source: root cause lies hidden beyond the
source.”
1. Ability to make a judgment on goodness - Harmonize the Concepts in ba/ Make Full
- Every sort of expert knowledge and every Use of Metaphor
inquiry, and similarly every action and - Need for Universal Theory for Total
undertaking, seems to seek some good. Optimization
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics -Respect for Sound Theory:
- Example: Self-sufficient values such as - “Action without philosophy is a lethal
happiness and self-actualization. weapon; philosophy without action is
meaningless.”
- “Just to be hard working has no value.
2. Ability to share contexts with others Rather, working hard in the wrong way
to create ba/shared sense. is worse than laziness. ‘The right theory’
- Imaginative capacity to understand and is the necessary premise for working
empathize with others through daily verbal hard.”
and nonverbal communication,
5. Ability to exercise political power
- The ability to bring people together and
spur them to action, combining and
synthesizing everyone’s knowledge and
efforts in pursuit of the goal, by choosing
and utilizing the means suitable to each
particular situation with shrewdness and
determination.
- Making Political Judgment: Phronetic
leaders exercise political judgment in such a
process by understanding others’ emotions, and
by giving careful consideration to the timing of
their interaction with others.
- Leadership to Exercise Political Power
Steve Jobs:
Reality Distortion Field
The reality distortion field was a confounding
mélange of a charismatic rhetorical style, and
indomitable will, and an eagerness to bend any
facts to fit the purpose at hand. In one line of
argument failed to persuade, he would deftly
switch to another. Sometimes, he would throw
you off balance and suddenly adopting your own
position as his own, without acknowledging that
he ever thought differently.
-Keep Communicating: “Persuasion is
important. Our goal is to move forward through
reform, and in many cases, reform means
destruction of the status quo. Persuasion is
necessary to turn those who oppose such
reform positive and bring out their efforts.”
- To Communicate: If you want to
communicate your thought to your subordinates,
you have to say it with passion, say repeatedly,
and explain why you are saying it.

6. Ability to foster phronesis in others


-The ability to create a system of distributed
phronesis by fostering and transferring the
existing phronetic capabilities of individuals
to others to build a resilient organization
which can respond flexibly and creatively to
any situation to pursue its own good.
- Mobilizing Everyone’s Knowledge:
“Management by all the members of the
company, through mobilizing their knowledge, is
what I have been trying to achieve as a CEO.
The more we utilize everyone’s knowledge, the
better the company becomes.”
- Fostering Phronesis:
•Present the issues to be worked out
•Constantly ask the question ‘what is good’
•Provide examples in each situation that can
teach the phronetic way of thinking in practice
Knowledge Management The SECI Model

There are two types of knowledge: explicit and tacit


(see Figure 1.) They have contrasting natures. That
is why it is interesting.

Constant interaction between the two types of


knowledge may generate contradiction and that
contradiction generates creativity. It is not easy to The SECI Model is a representation of the dynamic
convert tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge, way that knowledge flows from explicit to implicit
and back again to tacit knowledge. We cannot and back. It sets out to unite the Western
convert all of our tacit knowledge into an explicit preference for Explicit knowledge (‘Know why’ or, to
form. use the ancient Greek term, ‘episteme’) and the
Japanese focus on tacit knowledge (‘know how’, or
The basic model of organizational knowledge ‘techne’).
creation is a process of converting the tacit Nanaka and Takeuchi start their cycle with social
knowledge that people have into explicit knowledge knowledge sharing to build tacit knowledge and
that can be shared more broadly, using IT systems move around to internalization of explicit knowledge
for example, and then convert back into the tacit to make it implicit, or tacit. They then see that
knowledge of a larger number of people. knowledge being shared, restarting the cycle (they
originally drew it as a continuos spiral, but I prefer
the loop metaphor). At each stage, knowledge is
converted, and made more useful.

Socialization
The first step, consisting of tacit-to-tacit interaction,
is called “socialization,” which is the process of
converting tacit knowledge through shared
experiences in day-to-day social interaction. Tacit
knowledge is difficult to formalize and often is time
and space specific, so tacit knowledge must be
acquired through shared and direct experiences
such as spending time together or living in the
same environment. In the tradition of
apprenticeship, for example, the apprentice learns
the tacit knowledge needed in his or her craft
through hands-on experience. One can share the
tacit knowledge of customers, suppliers and even
competitors through shared experiences.
There is strong potential for increasing awareness
or getting new ideas through socialization. I can
see things from the perspective of a customer, for
example. But do not stop there. I have to convert
this awareness into language for two-way
communication and maybe elaborate that language
into a concept in a process called “externalization.”

Externalization
Here, tacit knowledge is made explicit so it can be
shared with others in the form of concepts, images
or written text, and become the basis of new
knowledge. At this stage, dialogue is an effective
method to articulate one’s tacit knowledge and to
share it with the articulated knowledge of others.
We have to have persistence to convert
continuously concepts into documentation.

Combination
In combination, the newly expressed knowledge is
disseminated among the members of the
organization. The use of computerized
communication networks and largescale databases
can facilitate this mode of knowledge conversion.
This includes the breakdown of concepts, such as
expressing a corporate vision as an operationalized
business or product concepts and so creating
systemic explicit knowledge.

Internalization
This stage can be understood as practice, where
knowledge is applied and used in a practical
situation to become the basis for global teamwork.
Knowledge expressed as a product concept,
manufacturing concept or service concept has to be
actualized or realized through action. Through
practice and reflection, concepts will be internalized
and become one’s own tacit knowledge.
Behavioral Patterns of Organizational Members 1-3 Ways of Autonomy
(Please see ANNEX A)
The process of Issue-identification and solution-
LEGEND creation is spontaneously and endogenously driven
by each section of the organization.
① The bracketed alphabet <S>, <E>, <C>, <I> (1) Frontline’s Capacity
denotes the linkage of the criterion to the stage of (2) Middle’s Capacity
the SECI process.
② The bracketed alphabet <A> denotes that the (3) Knowledge Activist
criterion is related to all the stages of the SECI (4) Serendipity
process. (5) Ubiquity
③ The bracketed alphabet <B> denotes that the
(6) Ownership
criterion is related to the condition of “Ba” in the
organizational activities. (7) Incentive
④ The bracketed alphabet (P) denotes the question (8) Compliance
is for the behavior of the respondent. (9) Work Ethics
⑤ The bracketed alphabet (O) denotes the question
is for the organizational behavioral patterns that
are perceived by the respondent. 2. Ways of Integration and Coordination
⑥ The number from 01 to 36 denotes the trait of the 2-1. Ways of Integration
organizational culture that is assumed to affect the Policy issues are holistically set from the
criterion.
perspective of overall operational optimization by
synthesizing perspectives of concerned sections,
1. Ways of Innovation
which keeps them from becoming “silos”.
1-1 Ways of Co-creation
(1) Vision & Belief
In the process of problem-solving, Issues are
(2) Strategic Management
identified and their solutions are created based on
(3) Tactical management
the tacit knowledge of stakeholders.
(4) Rationalization
(1) Empathy with Colleagues
(5) Organizational Paradigm
(2) Empathy with Stakeholders
(6) Spread-out
(3) Facilitation
(7) Overall Optimization
(4) Pursuing the True Cause
(8) Inter-Organizational Collaboration
(5) Quantification
(9) Procrastination:
(6) Conceptualization
(10) Participatory Planning
(7) Hypothesis Thinking
(8) Hypothesis Verification
2-2. Ways of Coordination
(9) Endogenous Process
An issue is identified and settled through the
(10) Open Innovation
intense process of interactions within a section,
between sections, as well as between
1-2 Ways of Adaptation
organizations.
Adopted knowledge is synthesized with local
(1) Team working
knowledge to fit for the local context as a
(2) Dialogue & Deliberation
customized solution.
(3) Middle Up & Down
(1) System Thinking
(4) Scrum- framework for project management that
(2) Local Knowledge
emphasizes teamwork, accountability and iterative
(3) Benchmarking
progress toward a well-defined goal
(4) Re-creation
(5) “Ringi” - consensus-based decisions
(5) Evidence-based Approach
(6) “Nemawashi” Prior Consultation
(6) Trial & Error
(7) Win-Win Collaboration
(7) Local discretion
(8) Administrative Guidance
2-3. Ways of Ba-Creation
A formal or informal space is agilely and flexibly 3-3. Ways of Human Development
arranged for stakeholders to facilitate knowledge The capacity development of organizational
co-creation. members is facilitated from long-term perspectives
(1) On-site visit through the acquisition of diverse quality
(2) Social Functions experiences.
(3) Networking (1) On-the-job Training
(4) Project Team Building (2) Knowledge Sharing
(5) Autonomous Unit (3) Artisanship
(6) “Waigaya” (4) Field Experiences
(7) Commendation (5) Leadership Development
(8) Organizational Reform (6) Technocrats
(9) Office Layout (7) Personnel Evaluation Method
(10) Independent Advisory Council

3. Ways of Growth
3-1. Ways of Learning
Stakeholders’ knowledge generated from an issue
process is converted to organizational knowledge
assets, which enhances organization’s capacity to
address further issues.
(1) Documentation
(2) Team Learning
(3) Standardization
(4) Knowledge Assets Creation
(5) Knowledge Assets Retrieving
(6) Practical Researches
(7) Formative Evaluation
(8) Audit
(9) Community of Practice

3-2. Ways of Transformation


Current business models and organizational
routines are relentlessly and endogenously
transformed, driven by the shared recognition of
changes in policy environment, bench-marked
organizations, stakeholders’ tacit knowledge, and
others.
(1) Kaizen ("change for better")
(2) Learning by Doing
(3) Political Initiative
(4) Emulation
(5) Successful experience
(6) Transaction Cost
(7) Over-adaptation
(8) Change-agent
Criteria of Organizational Practices 2-2. Ways of Coordination
And Examples of Questions Organizational practices to coordinate with others:
(Please see ANNEX B) colleagues, other sections within the same organization,
and other organizations.
① The set of criteria and their questions are used to
grasp institutionalized practices in an organization. 2-3. Ways of Ba-Creation
② Each criterion is presented with a pair of standard Organizational practices to activate candid
practices that generally represent the both ends of discourse and facilitate coordination among
the criterion’s spectrum. The figure “+” indicates a organizational members and stakeholders.
positive standard practice; the figure “-” indicates a
negative standard practice. 3. Ways of Growth
③ Surveyors ask the relevancy of both positive and
3-1. Ways of Learning
negative standard practices to actual behavioral
Organizational practices to share experiences, learn
patterns in their organization. Respondents select
lessons from experiences, and use the knowledge in
one of the five grades, from most relevant to least
activities.
relevant, to answer each question.
④ Presented with two opposite questions,
respondents can grasp the meaning of the 3-2. Ways of Transformation
questions more clearly. Nonetheless, surveyors Organizational practices to facilitate the transformation
can limit their question to either positive or of members’ mental models and organizational
negative practice to reduce the burden of practices.
respondents.
⑤ Presented standard practices are examples. 3-3. Ways of Human Development
Surveyors are expected to present standard Organizational practices to facilitate the capacity
practices more relevant to their contexts. Likewise, development of members.
surveyors can narrow the scope of criteria,
excluding those that are not relevant to their
contexts.

LEGEND

The bracketed alphabet <S>, <E>, <C>, <I>


denotes the linkage of a criterion to the stages of
the SECI process.

1. Ways of Innovation
1-1. Ways of Co-creation
Organizational practices to identify critical issues of
perceived problems, create solutions, and share tacit
knowledge in the processes.

1-2. Ways of Adaptation


Organizational practices to explore adaptable knowledge
in others, synthesize it with local knowledge, and
iteratively localize solutions that fit for the local contexts.

1-3. Ways of Autonomy


Organizational practices to spontaneously tackle
problems at every corner and level of the organization,
and endogenously solve them.

2. Ways of Integration and Coordination


2-1. Ways of Integration
Organizational practices to set strategies, ensure overall
optimization, and keep sections from becoming
independent “silos”.
Competency Framework 3. Strategic planning and policy development
New Zealand Society of Local Government Managers: - The ability to create policies that deliver on
Leadership and Management Competency Framework the promises and goals developed through
to the Local Government Sector the strategic planning process, and provide
a means to achieve those goals within the
The framework’s eight key competencies have near and long term horizon.
been further segmented into Leadership
Competencies (the Orange side of the pie) and 4. Strategic collaboration, community
Management Competencies (the Blue side of the consultation and engagement
pie). - The ability to take into consideration the views
As well there are four themes that run through all of all stakeholder groups to deliver the right
competencies: Informed Decision Making, Process outcomes that benefit the majority of
Improvement, Consultation, and Community stakeholders.
Outcomes. The framework is illustrated below:

MANAGEMENT COMPETENCIES
1. Managing within a political, legislative
and regulatory environment
- Understand your responsibilities and
accountabilities within a legislative and
regulatory framework including any
obligations for compliance within your
council.

2. Managing the business in the local


government context
- Applying industry standards and best
practice frameworks and models to assist
with informed decision making and
balancing the trade-offs between competing
resources.

3. Managing People
- Ensure a robust talent management
The eight key competencies in the framework are system is in place and create frameworks
described in the table below. that enable Councils to recruit the right
personnel for the right roles. Provide
LEADERSHIP COMPETENCIES opportunities to further develop Line
Managers’ ability to grow, develop and
1. Political acumen retain individuals and teams.
- The ability to see the ‘big picture’ and apply a
political lens to every decision you make. 4. Efficient and effective delivery of
Understanding how the key drivers of your services
council relate to each other based on your depth - The ability to manage contracted and
of perception and assessment of all the shared services in an efficient and effective
variables, and the ability to make sound way that ensures risks and rewards are
judgments and quick decisions. balanced and better outcomes are
delivered.
2. Developing a culture of excellence in local
government
- The ability to establish a baseline,
benchmark, and measure success through
sharing knowledge of local government best
practice both within New Zealand and in a
global context.
Annex A:
Behavioral Patterns of Organizational Members
LEGEND
⑥ The bracketed alphabet <S>, <E>, <C>, <I> denotes the linkage of the criterion to the stage
of the SECI process.
⑦ The bracketed alphabet <A> denotes that the criterion is related to all the stages of the SECI
process.
⑧ The bracketed alphabet <B> denotes that the criterion is related to the condition of “Ba” in the
organizational activities.
⑨ The bracketed alphabet (P) denotes the question is for the behavior of the respondent.
⑩ The bracketed alphabet (O) denotes the question is for the organizational behavioral patterns
that are perceived by the respondent.
⑪ The number from 01 to 36 denotes the trait of the organizational culture that is assumed to
affect the criterion.

1. Ways of Innovation

1-1. Ways of Co-creation


In the process of problem-solving, Issues are identified and their solutions are created based on
the tacit knowledge of stakeholders.
「組織内共感」:成員が深い思いや本音を互いに語り合い、共有している。
(1) Empathy with Colleagues:<S> 05, 12, 17, 22, 23, 24, 31, 33
(P) Share own true feelings about an issue with colleagues.
(O) Members mutually share their true feeling about an issue.

「共感・共鳴」:現場層が政策対象層と互いに暗黙知(思い、願い等)を共有し、深めている。
(2) Empathy with Stakeholders: <S> 04, 05, 12, 22, 30, 31, 35, 36
(P) Share true feelings with targeted stakeholders, seeing an issue from their perspectives.
(O) The frontline share true feelings with targeted stakeholders, deeply understanding their reality.

「ファシリテーション」:中間層が現場層に対して、現場層が政策対象層に対して、一方的な指
示や通達ではなく、自発的行動を促進することを心掛けている。
(3) Facilitation: <S><E><I> 07, 09, 22, 34, 36
(P) Adopt facilitative approaches to stimulate the spontaneous actions of subordinates or targeted
stakeholders rather than adopt directive approaches.
(O) Facilitative approaches are widely shared within the organization as ways to achieve
objectives, the middle facilitating the frontline, as well as the frontline facilitating targeted
stakeholders.

「真因追求」:課題設定にあたり、問題の真因が現場において徹底して追求されている。
(4) Pursuing the True Cause: <E> 04, 12, 14, 20, 22, 30, 31, 35
(P) Pursue the true cause of a problem thoroughly on the site before setting an issue to be
tackled.
(O) The true cause of a problem is thoroughly pursued on the site by concerned members before
they form a consensus on an organizational issue.

「データ本位」:社会的問題や組織内の問題の実態が、定量的データとしてまとめられ、課題設
定やソリューション創造に利用されている。
(5) Quantification: <E> 01, 03, 06, 14, 30
(P) Create or use quantitative data to objectify a problem in scoping an issue and creating
solutions.
(O) A quantitative approach is employed to objectify the reality of a problem, relying on data to
identify issues.

「概念形成」:課題設定にあたり、ステークホルダーとの対話から得られた個別の事象から概念
やモデルを形成する。
(6) Conceptualization:<E> 03, 04, 13, 14, 20, 22, 23, 30, 31
(P) Create a new concept/model to grasp the essence of a perceived problem through intensive
dialogue with stakeholders, synthesizing diverse individual cases. (O) In the course of problem
solving, concept creation is focused as a critical stage to identify an essential issue and form
stakeholders’ consensus, which ensures more effective approach to a perceived problem.

「仮説思考」:ソリューションを創造する前の段階で、課題の因果関係に関する仮説の検討が、
現地の現実に基づいて十分に行われる。
(7) Hypothesis Thinking: <E> 03, 04, 12, 13, 14, 20, 22, 23, 30, 31
(P) Create hypotheses about the causality of a problem based on the local reality before
identifying a critical issue and creating its solution.
(O) Organizational members commonly apply hypothesis thinking to solve an issue.

「仮説検証」:政策や事業の試行や本格実施の結果の把握と、依拠した仮説の妥当性の検証が、
政策・事業の当事者である中間層と現場層の手により行われている。
(8) Hypothesis Verification: <S><E> 03, 04, 12, 13, 14, 20, 23, 30, 31
(P) Upon the implementation of a project or a policy, verify the validity of its hypotheses, acquiring
knowledge to improve it.
(O) The middle and the frontline verify the validity of hypotheses of a project or a policy that has
been implemented by themselves with a view to learn lessons.

「内生的プロセス」:課題設定やソリューション創造の活動の大半が、成員の手で行われ、コン
サルタント等への外部委託が限定されている。
(9) Endogenous Process: <A><B> 05, 12, 13, 14, 18, 23, 25, 31, 32
(P) Try to refrain from relying on consulting services in setting an issue and creating solutions.
(O) The process of issue setting and solution creation is largely conducted by organizational
members, leaving a limited room for outsourcing to consultants.

「オープンイノベーション」:ソリューションの創造が、専門的な知識を有する多様なステーク
ホルダーとの協働で行われる。
(10) Open Innovation: <E><C> 04, 18, 20, 22, 23, 29, 30, 35, 36
(P) Invite outside stakeholders to participate in the activities of issue identification and solution
creation.
(O) The process of issue identification and solution creation is opened to outside experts, which
facilitates co-creation activities with them.

1-2. Ways of Adaptation


Adopted knowledge is synthesized with local knowledge to fit for the local context as a customized
solution.
「システム思考」:課題が体系的に捉えられ、複合的なソリューションが創造される。
(1) System Thinking: <E><C> 03, 04, 13, 14 20, 22, 23, 30, 31
(P) (O) Examine a problem holistically in a wider context so as to systematically identify an issue
and create effective solutions.

「地元知」:ステークホルダーの知識資産(知恵や技など)が、ソリューション創造に活かされ
る。
(2) Local Knowledge: <S><E><C> 04, 05, 12, 22, 23, 30, 31, 35, 36
(P) (O) Utilize stakeholders’ indigenous knowledge extensively to create a localized solution to an
issue.

「ベンチマーキング」:ソリューションの創造にあたり、ベンチマクーク事例が広く探索され、
最適のものが選択される。
(3) Benchmarking: <C> 12, 13, 14, 19, 22, 23, 24 30, 31
(P) (O) Explore benchmark cases widely before selecting the best cases for adaptation in creating
a solution.

「再創造」:ベンチマークとして選択された知識(技術)が、現場のコンテクストに適合するよ
う、地元の既存の知を活かして創り直される。
(4) Re-creation: <C> 04, 05, 12, 13, 14, 19, 22, 23, 25, 31
(P) (O) Synthesize the knowledge of adopted benchmark cases with indigenous knowledge to
create a solution suited to the local context.

「実証」:ソリューションの本格実施に先立ち、パイロット事業や社会実験などで試行が行われ
、妥当性が検証される。
(5) Evidence-based Approach:<E><B> 03, 04, 13, 14, 20, 21, 22, 31
(P) Verify the validity of a solution before its finalization by implementing a pilot project or a field
trial.
(O) A pilot project or a field trial is implemented to verify the validity of a solution within the context
of the targeted society.

「試行錯誤」:試行結果を受けて、課題設定の仕方やソリューションが柔軟に見直される。
(6) Trial & Error: <A> 03, 04, 13, 14, 20, 22, 23, 24, 30, 31, 34
(P) (O) Modify flexibly the scope of an issue and its solution based on the result of trials and
opinions of stakeholders.

「現地化の裁量」:上位機関において一元的に作成されたガイドラインやマニュアルを、各現場
が、現地の実情に応じて修正するなど、弾力的に運用する。
(7) Local discretion: <I> 01, 02, 04, 07, 10, 11, 12, 24, 25, 26, 31, 34
(P) Localize centrally compiled guidelines and manuals so that they become more relevant to local
conditions.
(O) The front-line has discretion to modify centrally compiled guidelines and manuals, based on its
particular local conditions.
1-3. Ways of Autonomy
The process of Issue-identification and solution-creation is spontaneously and endogenously
driven by each section of the organization.
「現場力」:現場層が自律的に考え、能動的に課題を見出し、上位機関に提起したり、自ら解決
したりしている。
(1) Frontline’s Capacity: <A> 04, 05, 07, 12, 23, 25, 26, 31, 33, 35
(O) The frontline proactively identifies essential issues of a perceived problem, propose them to a
higher body, and spontaneously solve problems.

「ミドル力」:中間層が、自部門・自組織の利益のために、権限や予算の拡大につながる政策課
題を、能動的に見出し、解決を発意している。
(2) Middle’s Capacity: <A> 04, 05, 07, 12, 13, 14, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 31, 33, 34
(P) Identify spontaneously a potential issue and initiate a transformative process by soliciting
support from colleagues and the management.
(O) The middle proactively identify policy issues and create solutions from the perspective of
organizational missions and interests. <A>

「ナレッジ・アクティビスト」:課題解決プロセスが、当該課題について経験を重ね、特に深い
思いを抱いている特定のテクノクラートにより推進されている。
(3) Knowledge Activist: <A><B> 05, 12, 13, 14, 23, 31, 32
(P) Pursue a societal objective as a life-long issue, cherishing deep belief about the issue.
(O) The process of institutional transformation about an issue is driven and facilitated by a
dedicated technocrat who has nurtured exceptionally deep belief about the issue.

「偶有性」:問題の兆候を早期に捉えられ、顕在化が進む以前の段階で、課題解決のプロセスが
開始される。
(4) Serendipity: <S><E><B> 03, 04, 05, 12, 14, 19, 21, 22, 23, 25, 31
(P) (O) Detecting by chance a symptom of a problem or an emerging opportunity at its early stage,
take preemptive actions to tackle the issue.

「遍在性」:新たな政策やビジネスモデルの創案が、企画部門に限らず、組織内の様々な部門に
より行われる。
(5) Ubiquity: <A><B> 11, 12, 19, 23, 25, 31
(O) An initiative to create a new policy or business-model is taken not only by a planning body but
also by any parts of the organization in a decentralized manner.

「オーナーシップ」:中間層と現場層が仕事に対して高いオーナーシップを持ち、より良い結果
のために能動的に創造活動に取り組んでいる。
(6) Ownership:<A> 05, 12, 16, 25, 31, 32
(P) Have a strong sense of ownership and responsibility of own work, proactively striving for a
better result.
(O) The middle and the frontline have a strong sense of ownership of their work, proactively
striving for a better result.

「インセンティブ」:中間層と現場層が仕事に対してやり甲斐を感じていて、金銭的インセンテ
ィブが決定的な意味を持たない。
(7) Incentive: <A> 05, 06, 07, 09, 12, 24, 25, 31, 32, 33, 35
(P) Finding own work meaningful, have a strong sense of fulfillment upon achieving an objective.
(O) The middle and the frontline are motivated for proactive and spontaneous actions by non-
monetary incentives.

「コンプライアンス」:組織的に定められた規範を遵守する。
(8) Compliance: <A> 01, 02, 06, 07, 10, 11, 24, 26, 35, 36
(P) (O) Strictly observe organizational rules, and keep discipline. <A>

「公務員倫理」:仕事から私的な利益を得えない。
(9) Work Ethics:<A> 01, 02, 10, 29, 35, 36
(P)(O) Strictly refrain from gaining personal benefit from the work.

2. Ways of Integration and Coordination

2-1. Ways of Integration


Policy issues are holistically set from the perspective of overall operational optimization by
synthesizing perspectives of concerned sections, which keeps them from becoming “silos”.
「ビジョン」:組織のビジョンが経営層により明確に定められ、成員に共有されている。
(1) Vision & Belief: <A> 01, 07, 09, 11, 24, 34
(P) Believe in organizational vision as one’s guiding principle.
(O) Defined clearly by the management, the vision of the organization is widely believed by its
members.
「戦略化」:経営資源(予算と人財)の配分について、組織の基本戦略に基づき、選択と集中が
徹底されている。
(2) Strategic Management: <E> 06, 07, 09, 11, 24, 27, 28
(P) Try to realize organizational strategies in one’s mandate, even accepting the reduction of
one’s power.
(O) Organizational resources are selectively concentrated on priority issues by the management
based on clearly defined organizational strategies.

「戦術化」:上位機関・部門が策定した戦略や計画が、各部門・現場において、固有のコンテク
ストを踏まえて、現実的な実行計画に翻案されている。
(3) Tactical management: <I> 04, 07, 09, 10, 12, 24, 26, 31, 34
(P) Translate strategies and plans formulated by an upper echelon into practical action-plans
based on the unique context of one’s section.
(O) Centrally formulated strategies and plans are translated into realistic action-plans by each
section of the organization based on its unique context and the reality.

「合理化」:重点課題に創造的に取り組むうえで、成員が十分に時間をかけることができるよう
、既往の業務が弾力的にされる。
(4) Rationalization: <A> 07, 09, 11, 19, 24, 27, 28, 34
(P) Following a newly set organizational strategy, reallocate flexibly one’s working time to new
tasks by scrapping a part of current works.
(O) On-going programs and activities and current procedures are constantly reduced to generate
sufficient working time for organizational members to concentrate on new strategic issues.

「パラダイム」:組織全体や政府の基本戦略や中長期計画が、中間層と現場層に十分に認識され
、行動の判断基準とされている。
(5) Organizational Paradigm: <A> 06, 07, 09, 10, 11, 24
(P) Always try to concretize basic strategies and long-term plans of the organization in one’s own
work rather than regard them as abstract references.
(O)The basic strategies and long-term plans of the organization are deeply embraced by the
middle and the frontline as their criteria of actions.

「横展開」:中間層や現場層が発意した優れた取り組みや提起した課題が、組織的に採用され、
取り組まれている。
(6) Spread-out: <S><E> 03, 04, 05, 12, 23, 25, 34
(O) A promising initiative independently commenced by the middle or the frontline is endorsed by
the management after the fact, and spread over the organization.

「全体最適」:自部門・自組織の権限・予算の維持や拡大自体が目的とされておらず、自部門・
自組織を越える全体最適の観点が、判断基準として用いられている。
(7) Overall Optimization: <S><E> 07, 08, 09, 11, 24, 27, 28, 35
(P) Keep the perspective of overall optimization in one’s mind in making a judgment on a conflict
between the interests of the section and those of entire organization.
(O) Each section of an organization is ready to give up a part of its power; mandate, budget,
personnel, for the overall interest of the organization.

「組織間協働」:他機関にも関係する課題について、単独で取り組むよりは、他機関との協働に
より取り組むことを優先する。
(8) Inter-Organizational Collaboration: <E><C> 15, 17, 24, 27, 28
(P) Propose collaborative actions to a concerned organization to solve a common problem, rather
than independently tackle it.
(O) Inter-organizational collaboration is chosen to tackle a problem that cannot be effectively
addressed by any single organization.
(9) 「先憂後楽」:困難な問題の解決が先送りされず、取り組まれている。
Procrastination: <E> 07, 08, 09, 11, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 31, 35, 36
(P) Persuade colleagues and subordinates to tackle a difficult issue without shelving it for future
actions.
(O) A challenging issue that entails a large transaction cost is agilely tackled without being
shelved.

「参加型計画」:課題設定やソリューション創造のプロセスにステークホルダーが参加している

(10) Participatory Planning: <S><E> 04, 05, 08, 12, 22, 23, 24, 29, 30, 35, 36
(P) Invite outside stakeholders to voice their ideas about an issue and its solution in a problem
solving process.
(O) Stakeholders are invited to participate in the formulation process of a basic strategy for a
problem.
2-2. Ways of Coordination
An issue is identified and settled through the intense process of interactions within a section,
between sections, as well as between organizations.
「チームワーク」:部門内の成員が互いに暗黙知を深く共有し、阿吽の呼吸で協働している。
(1) Team working: <A> 05, 09, 15, 17, 31, 33
(P) Closely collaborate with colleagues, anticipating the wishes of others.
(O) Organizational members mutually share their tacit knowledge deeply enough to anticipate
mutual wishes, which makes team working effective.

「対話・熟議」:目標と現実の乖離や全体と部分の利益の相反などの矛盾が、関係者間の対話に
より解決されている。
(2) Dialogue & Deliberation: <E> 05, 09, 15, 17, 24, 27, 28, 33, 34
(P) Solve an operational conflict that arises from differences between people, sections, and
organizations through intensive dialogue and deliberation.
(O) Organizational members are generally active in solving a conflict with others through dialogue
and deliberation.

「ミドル・アップ&ダウン」:経営層と現場層の擦り合わせに、中間層が重要な役割を果たして
いる。
(3) Middle Up & Down: <A><B> 04, 05, 09, 12, 24, 25, 31, 34
(P) As a middle manager, proactively try to narrow the gap between the views of the management
and the frontline, and coordinate with other sections within the organization or other organizations.
(O) The middle play crucial roles in adjusting views of the management and the frontline, and
coordinating with other sections within the organization or other organizations.

「スクラム」:複数の部門やチームが関係する課題について、関係部署が相互に緊密に擦り合わ
せながら同時並行的に仕事を進める。
(4) Scrum: <E><C><B> 05, 08, 09, 12, 15, 17, 24, 33
(P) In collaborating with colleagues or other sections, incessantly coordinate the progress of own
task with that of a partner.
(O) A complex issue is tackled by simultaneous concerted actions of several sections or teams
that meticulously adjust their actions each other.

「稟議」:事案の決定にあたり、関係する組織内部門に広く関与、審査が求められている。
(5) “Ringi”: <A><B> 01, 06, 07, 08, 12, 15, 27, 28, 34
(P) Submit a proposal to all the concerned officials for endorsement before submitting it for
approval at a higher level of the organization.
(O) An organizational decision is made as the consensus of all the concerned sections, by
circulating a proposal for their endorsement before a further decision is made at a higher level.

「根回し」:他部門や他組織に関係する事案について、公式な決定プロセスに入る前に、非公式
に事前調整を行われている。
(6) “Nemawashi” Prior Consultation: <A><B> 07, 08, 09, 15, 19, 27, 28, 34
(P) Complete behind-the-scenes consensus building with concerned parties before commence an
official decision-making process.
(O) An organizational decision is practically made through a behind-the-scenes consensus
building process rather than in a formal meeting or by a top-down manner.

「Win-Win関係」:共通の問題の解決に関係する個人や組織が、共通の目標のために、対等な立
場で、有している知識資産を互いに提供し合う。
(7) Win-Win Collaboration: <A> 05, 08, 09, 17, 22, 23, 27, 28, 29, 30
(P) Create a win-win situation with a potential partner by sharing a common goal, and offering own
knowledge assets for common use.
(O) An organizational collaboration is based on deep mutual trust that is nurtured by long-term
win-win relationship and sharing knowledge assets.

「行政指導」: 課題解決にあたり、特定のステークホルダーに対して、一定の作為または不作為
を、法令などに依らずに強制力を伴わない形で求める。
(8) Administrative Guidance: <I><B> 04, 05, 07, 08, 09, 14, 22, 29, 30, 34
(P) (O) In order to solve a societal problem, advise and recommend targeted stakeholders to take
voluntary actions rather than employ a measure of compulsory execution.
2-3. Ways of Ba-Creation
A formal or informal space is agilely and flexibly arranged for stakeholders to facilitate knowledge
co-creation.
「現場重視」:第一線の政策現場に足を運び、ステークホルダーと接する場をつくることが奨励
されている。
(1) On-site visit: <S><B> 04, 05, 09, 12, 14, 20, 22, 23, 24, 36
(P) Nimbly go to the field to create an opportunity to directly interact with stakeholders with a view
to grasping the reality of an issue.
(O) Organizational members are encouraged to go to the field to interact with stakeholders to
grasp their reality.

「交流会」:部門間や現場との信頼関係を促進するために、「呑み会」や「社員旅行」などの非
公式な「場」が積極的に設定される。
(2) Social Functions:<S><B> 05, 09, 15, 17, 24, 33, 34
(P) Promote mutual trust and team spirit by organizing a drinking party, an employees’ trip, a sport
event and others.
(O) The culture of socialization is widely shared by organizational members, promoting their
mutual trust within each section and between sections and organizations.

「ネットワーキング」:担当する課題について、組織外の専門家と協働する機会を積極的に設け
、継続的に関係を深める。
(3) Networking: 12, 13, 14, 22, 23, 31, 32
(P) Continuously cultivate relation with outside experts by creating opportunities to work with them
and learn from them.
(O) Organizational members are active in collaborating with outside experts and expanding one’s
professional network with them.

「プロジェクト・チームの機動性」:複数の部門にまたがる課題の解決を進めるためにプロジェ
クト・チームなどの臨時の「場」が機動的に作られる。
(4) Project Team Building: <A><B> 08, 10, 11, 23, 24, 27, 28
(O) A project team or other modes of temporal unit is agilely set up to tackle an issue that involves
several sections.

「プロジェクト・チームの自律性」:プロジェクト・チームなどの臨時の「場」において、成員
が既存の部門の利害から離れ、全体最適の観点から行動する自律性が確保されている。
(5) Autonomous Unit:<A> <B>15, 16, 24, 27, 28
(O) A project team or its equivalent is designed so that assigned members can solely dedicate
themselves to the objectives of the team, leaving the interests of their original sections.

「ワイガヤ」:組織戦略や重要プロジェクトなどの策定にあたり、関係者が肩書にとらわれずに
徹底して議論する場が設けられる。
(6) “Waigaya”: <E><B> 05, 09, 12, 22, 23, 24, 33, 34
(O) A special session is organized to forge a consensus on a strategic matter through intensive
discussion, in which concerned members of organization can voice their frank opinions
disregarding their official rank and seniority.

「表彰・ランキング」:成員の創造的な取り組みを促進する仕組みとして、優れた取り組みを組
織的に表彰したり、努力を可視化したりする仕組みが用いられている。
(7) Commendation: <A> 05, 06, 09, 12, 13, 23, 24, 32
(O) A system of commendation and competition/ranking is employed as an effective vehicle to
facilitate organizational members’ innovative and spontaneous initiatives.

「組織改革」:ビジネスモデルや業務量の変化に対応し、組織体制が弾力的に変更される。
(8) Organizational Reform: <A><B> 07, 11, 24, 27, 28, 34
(O) Organizational structure is flexibly changed depending on changes in business models and
work load.

「執務環境」:部門間や部門内における成員の協働を促進するために、執務室のレイアウトが工
夫されている。
(9) Office Layout: <A> <B> 05, 12, 15, 17, 22, 23, 24, 33
(P) Rearrange office layout with a view to facilitating collaboration among members.
(O) Office layout is designed to facilitate collaboration among organizational members within a
section as well as between sections.

「審議会」:部門間や他機関との調整が困難な課題について、外部の有識者に諮問がなされてい
る。<E><C><B>
(10) Independent Advisory Council: <E><C><B> 04, 18, 22, 29, 30, 34, 35
(P) Seek advice of outside experts who have a holistic perspective about the issue that is related
to several sections or organizations.
(O) An advisory council of distinguished experts plays a critical role in forging a consensus on a
controversial issue that is related to the interests of many sections and organizations.

3. Ways of Growth

3-1. Ways of Learning


Stakeholders’ knowledge generated from an issue process is converted to organizational
knowledge assets, which enhances organization’s capacity to address further issues.
「形式知化」:課題解決プロセスから得た経験(暗黙知)を、自ら文書(形式知)化している。
(1) Documentation: <E> 03, 04, 15, 20, 23, 31
(P) Externalize own acquired experiences from the process of a policy or a project into
documents.
(O) Organizational members are active in recording their experiences.
「チーム学習」:把握された政策・事業の現実と、仮説検証の結果から、政策・事業の当事者で
ある中間層と現場層が教訓を学び取っている。
(2) Team Learning: <S><E> 03, 12, 17, 20, 31, 33
(P) Clarify candidly lessons to be learned from the result of a project or a policy, examining the
validity of the original hypotheses.
(O) The team of organizational members that has implemented a project or a policy clarifies
candid lessons to be learned from its result.

「標準化」:政策や事業の現場から得た経験を、組織的に共有するためにガイドラインやマニュ
アルにまとめる。
(3) Standardization: <E><I> 01, 02, 06, 10, 11,
(P) Compile the externalized experiences of a policy or a project as guidelines or manuals so that
they will enhance the performance of other organizational members. (O) Synthesizing members’
experiences, guidelines and manuals are created to facilitate other members’ learning from them.

「知識資産創出」:組織の活動から得られた経験や教訓が、知識資産として活用されるように蓄
積されている。
(4) Knowledge Assets Creation: <S><E> 01, 02, 03, 04, 05, 13, 14, 31
(P) Treat experiences gained from organizational activities as the assets of the organization.
(O) Experiences and lessons acquired by organizational members are codified as the common
pool of knowledge assets so as to be accessible for knowledge creation activities by others.

「知識資産活用」:課題設定やソリューション創造に際して、組織の知識資産が活用されている

(5) Knowledge Assets Retrieving: <E><C> 04, 12, 14, 20, 23, 31, 32
(P) Explore and retrieve relevant knowledge assets accumulated within the organization to utilize
them in identifying issues and creating their solutions.
(O) Organizational members are active in utilizing existing organizational knowledge assets in
setting an issue and creating its solution.

「実践研究」:当事者により形式知された個々の政策・事業の経験が、組織内の研究部門や連携
する外部の学術機関により綜合され、汎用性を有する概念やモデルにまとめられている。
(6) Practical Researches: <E> 03, 14, 16, 18, 30
(O) Knowledge generated from the implementation of individual policies and projects are
synthesized as a guiding concept and model by an in-house research unit or partnered academic
organizations.

「形成的評価」:政策や事業の評価について、成果を判定するための総括的評価の側面よりも、
組織的学習を促す形成的評価の側面を重点において行われている。
(7) Formative Evaluation: <I><S> 04, 12, 14, 20, 23, 31
(P) Operate the evaluation of a project or a policy in a way that facilitates concerned members’
candid learning from the result, rather than facilitates their defensive self-justification.
(O) The official evaluation of policies, programs and projects are conducted as “peer review” to
facilitate candid organizational learning rather than measure the result as summative assessment.

「監査」:内部監査や外部監査が、試行錯誤の取組みを過度に抑制していない。
(8) Audit: <E><C> 10, 11, 12, 21, 23, 26, 31
(P) Try an innovative approach to solve a difficult problem without excessively worrying the risk of
a failure.
(O) Internal and external audit are conducted in a way that does not intimidate organizational
members into taking excessively cautious attitude toward innovative approaches to solve
problems by trial and error.
「コミュニティ・オブ・プラクティス」:専門分野を同じくする成員が、所属する部署の枠を越
えて、経験の共有を継続的に深めている。
(9) Community of Practice: <S><B> 05, 12, 13, 14, 17, 22, 23, 30, 31, 32, 33
(P) Mutually share expertise and experiences with colleagues specialized in the same field, jointly
forming a community of practice.
(O) Organizational members who share the same sectoral background continuously share their
experiences as an either formal or informal group regardless of their positions.

3-2. Ways of Transformation


Current business models and organizational routines are relentlessly and endogenously
transformed, driven by the shared recognition of changes in policy environment, bench-marked
organizations, stakeholders’ tacit knowledge, and others.
「カイゼン」:現場層が、仕事の改善に自発的かつ継続的に取り組んでいる。
(1) Kaizen: <A><B> 02, 04, 05, 12, 16, 24, 25, 31, 32, 33
(P) Continuously try to enhance the operational performance of the assigned section by improving
ways of work, jointly with colleagues.
(O) The frontline members continuously and spontaneously try to improve the performance of their
work as a group.

「経験学習(Learning by Doing)」:現状の変革につながり得る新たな試みを、限定的規模で機
動的に試行し、その結果に基づき本格実施の是非を検討する。
(2) Learning by Doing: <E><C><B> 04, 08, 12, 14, 21, 23, 25,
(P) Try flexibly a reform idea on an experimental scale to examine its validity and operational
feasibility rather than engage in lengthy planning.
(O) Experimental and agile actions are encouraged to create a transformative reform plan.

「政治的イニシャティブ」:政治的に選任された組織トップが示すビジョンを、各部門・現場が
、実態を踏まえた実行可能な計画として具体化する。<I>
(3) Political Initiative: <E><C> 04, 07, 11, 19, 24, 25, 26, 34, 35
(P) Embracing the vision and reforms idea of an elected or politically assigned leader, try to find a
way to concretize them as a feasible plan of actions based on the reality of the field, rather than
sparing the effort.
(O) Each organizational section translates the vision and reform plans of an elected or politically
assigned leader into a feasible plan of actions based on the reality of the field.

「エミュレーション」:自部門や自組織のパフォーマンスを高めるために、先進的なベンチマー
ク事例の探索と応用を常に試みる。
(4) Emulation: <E><C> 12,14, 19, 20, 22, 24, 30, 31
(P) Constantly explore progressive benchmark cases and try to adapt them in order to enhance
organization’s performance.
(O) Benchmark cases are rigorously explored and learned to enhance organizational
performance.

「成功体験」:長期間継続され、意義が低下している政策や事業について、改廃を発意する。
(5) Successful experience: <S><E> 04, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25
(P) Keeping oneself free from a fixed mindset rooted in past successful experiences, take an
initiative to discard an idolized policy/program that is observed to have lost its relevance to a
changing environment.
(O) A once thriving policy/program that is observed to have lost its relevance to a changing
environment is terminated or replaced with a new one.

「トランザクション・コスト」:改革に伴うトランザクション・コストを、短期的ではなく中長
期的観点から改革により得られる利益と比較し、改革の是非を判断する。
(6) Transaction Cost: <E> 03, 04, 11, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 27, 28, 34
(P) Judge the value of a reform plan by considering its long-term benefit without being
discouraged by a significant transaction-cost required to persuade internal and outside
stakeholders.
(O) The value of a reform is judged by weighing its transaction-cost against its long-term benefit.

「過剰適応」:環境に適応し精緻に構築された仕事の型やプログラムを、環境の変化に合わせて
変更する。
(7) Over-adaptation: <S><E> 03, 04, 11, 12, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 34
(P) Keep rules and business-models from excessively adapting to their environment so that they
can be transformed according as a change in the environment.
(O) A policy or a program is flexibly structured so as to be transformed or terminated once its
relevance is reduced or lost, lest it should be locked in a particular environment.

「チェンジ・エージェント」:特定の社会的課題のブレイクスルーを先導し得る能力を備えたテ
クノクラートが、困難な調整を要する組織的課題や社会的課題に取り組む機会を与えられている

(8) Change-agent: <A><B> 05, 06, 12, 14, 19, 20, 21, 23, 31, 34
(P) Provided with strategic opportunities, try to break through a critical organizational and societal
issue.
(O) A highly motivated technocrat who has potential capacity to break through a critical
organizational or societal issue is empowered and given chances to exercise the capacity.

3-3. Ways of Human Development


The capacity development of organizational members is facilitated from long-term perspectives
through the acquisition of diverse quality experiences.
「OJT」:経験の浅い成員の能力の向上を、経験豊富な成員が、実務の実施を通じて促進して
いる。
(1) On-the-job Training: <S> 04, 05, 09, 17, 24, 31, 32, 33
(P) Share own knowledge and skills with less experienced colleagues or subordinates through
practices.
(O) An experienced member facilitates the capacity development of a less-experienced member
through jointly executing their works.

「知識共有」:成員が海外や国内で得た専門知識が個人資産として独占されず、同僚と共有され
ている。
(2) Knowledge Sharing: <A> 13, 15, 31, 32, 33
(P) Share newly acquired knowledge from one’s work or a learning program with colleagues,
without keeping it as exclusive personal asset.
(O) A learning session is frequently organized to learn from those who have returned from an
overseas program or has expertise.

「職人気質」:中間層と現場層が、自己の仕事を天職としてみなし、自己研鑽に努めている。
(3) Artisanship: <A> 05, 06, 12, 13, 14, 31, 32
(P) Incessantly engage in self-improvement regarding own job as one’s true calling. (O) The
middle and the frontline engage in self-improvement regarding own job as one’s true calling.

「現場経験」:政策企画を将来的に担当することが予定されている者が、十分な現場経験をつむ
ように人事管理が行われている。
(4) Field Experiences: <S><B> 04, 05, 20, 22, 25, 30, 35, 36
(P) Welcome an opportunity to work in the field so as to gain direct experiences.
(O) Those expected to be entrusted with policy matters, or future policy planners, are assigned to
the frontline so that they have direct experiences about the reality in the field.

「幹部研修」:自己のパフォーマンスと能力を振り返り、自己研鑽に努めることが経営層に求め
られている。
(5) Leadership Development: <E> 07, 09, 12, 13, 20, 22, 33, 34, 35
(P) As a leader of a section, always reflect own performance and improve required capacity as a
leader.
(O) Leaders of sections undergo periodic learning programs to objectify and enhance their
capacity as an organizational leader.

「テクノクラート」:特定の課題について高い専門性と意欲を備えたテクノクラートが、長期的
観点から、組織的に育成されている。
(6) Technocrats: <A> 04, 05, 12, 13, 14, 23, 32, 35
(P) As a manager, facilitate a member with a technical background to enhance expertise by
assigning appropriate tasks.
(O) Technocrats who have specific expertise, rich experiences, and volition (will) are fostered
within the organization based on a long-term and strategic perspective.

「育成評価」:人事評価が、成果管理の側面よりも、成員の能力開発の側面に重点をおいて行わ
れている。
(7) Personnel Evaluation Method: <A> 05, 09, 12, 16, 31, 34
(P) Conduct the periodic personnel evaluation of one’s subordinates as an occasion for facilitating
their capacity development.
(O) The system of personnel evaluation is more focused on the aspect of capacity development
than on the aspect of performance assessment and rating.
ANNEX B
Criteria of Organizational Practices
And Examples of Questions

⑫ The set of criteria and their questions are used to grasp institutionalized practices in an
organization.
⑬ Each criterion is presented with a pair of standard practices that generally represent the both
ends of the criterion’s spectrum. The figure “+” indicates a positive standard practice; the
figure “-” indicates a negative standard practice.
⑭ Surveyors ask the relevancy of both positive and negative standard practices to actual
behavioral patterns in their organization. Respondents select one of the five grades, from
most relevant to least relevant, to answer each question.
⑮ Presented with two opposite questions, respondents can grasp the meaning of the questions
more clearly. Nonetheless, surveyors can limit their question to either positive or negative
practice to reduce the burden of respondents.
⑯ Presented standard practices are examples. Surveyors are expected to present standard
practices more relevant to their contexts. Likewise, surveyors can narrow the scope of criteria,
excluding those that are not relevant to their contexts.

LEGEND
The bracketed alphabet <S>, <E>, <C>, <I> denotes the linkage of a criterion to the stages of the
SECI process.

1. Ways of Innovation
1-1. Ways of Co-creation
Organizational practices to identify critical issues of perceived problems, create solutions,
and share tacit knowledge in the processes.
(1) Empathizing with colleagues <S>
+ I often show my feelings when I inform my colleague news related to our work, even when I
am anxious or upset. I can tell who is upset or sad even when they do not say anything.
- I always keep calmness in interacting with my colleagues, not showing my emotion, even
when I am angry or sad.
(2) Empathizing with stakeholders <S><I>
+ I get an urge to help when I find stakeholders of my organization have difficulties, putting
myself in their position to understand their feelings. I immerse myself in the targets of our
policies and project, feeling their problems from their situation.
- When I meet stakeholders of my organization, I try to be emotionally detached from them so
that I can objectively analyze their opinions and conditions.
(3) Facilitating Others <S><E>
+ Whenever my subordinates start to share a new idea, I tend to show them I am excited to
listen to them. I often ask questions to help my subordinates develop their ideas so that they
could be implemented in the reality.
- At our meeting, we rarely express our opinion openly to our superiors, waiting for their ideas
to follow.
(4) Pursuing Root Cause <S><E>
+ In solving a problem, we pursue its root cause, by persistently inquiring why it has happened
or emerged, not accepting superficial answers. We don’t outsource the inquiry to consultants
but execute it by ourselves.
- In most cases, the cause of our problem is apparent. Therefore, instead of spending much
time on scrutinizing it, we concentrate our effort on taking quick actions, and securing
necessary resources.
(5) Thinking Systematically <E>
+ In inquiring the cause of a problem, we examine the problem in a wider context and from a
holistic perspective, considering all probable causal chains and potential stakeholders. We
also examine the unintended consequences of our actions to solve the problem.
- We inquire the cause of a problem within the premise of our mandate. Even if we know that
we need to collaborate with other sections or organizations to effectively solve a problem, we
limit our inquiry to what we can execute independently.
(6) Valuing Evidence & Quantification <E><C>
+ We use quantitative data to justify our argument about problems in persuading our superiors
and decision-making bodies.
- We seldom use quantitative data in our assertion, relying on qualitative analyses. We
formulate policies and projects without clarifying supporting evidence because we intuitively
know the causality of targeted problems.
(7) Creating Concepts & Hypotheses <E> <C>
+ In formulating a solution to a problem, we intensively examine our assumptions about how
the problem can be solved, comparing several alternative solutions. After verifying its validity
in a limited trial, we modify and execute the solution.
+ We clarify our assumption not only by words but also by figures and models so that all of us
can clearly grasp its essence.
- In solving problems, we employ solutions that have been practiced and tested in similar
problems. Because we rarely create original solutions by ourselves, we rarely create
hypotheses in our problem-solving processes.

1-2. Ways of Adaptation


Organizational practices to explore adaptable knowledge in others, synthesize it with local
knowledge, and iteratively localize solutions that fit for the local contexts.
(1) Exploring Foreign Knowledge <E><C>
+ In solving a problem, we extensively look for adaptable knowledge in other countries
(provinces), finding out it even in seemingly remote cases. We send senior members to foreign
countries to identify adaptable cases, rather than for the purpose of their training.
- We don’t explore good practices of foreign countries. Our organization’s problems and
contexts are so unique that we cannot find out sufficiently relevant cases in others.
- My colleagues who visited foreign countries rarely propose feasible solutions to our
problems.
(2) Valuing Local Knowledge <S><E><C><I>
+ We value and utilize the indigenous knowledge and wisdom of local people as precious
resources for development. We try to improve existing ways rather than introducing new ways
to replace them.
- We don’t pay much attention to the knowledge of local people, regarding them as the
recipient of new knowledge from us.
(3) Localizing Foreign Knowledge <E><C><I>
+ In adapting foreign good practices about policies as solutions to our problems, we fully
localize them so that they suit our local contexts, by combining them with our existing
practices and technologies.
+ In introducing new technologies, we don’t replace existing technology by them. We try to
synthesize both technologies, enabling local engineers and technicians to play active roles in
adaptation processes.
- We directly apply foreign good practices to our problems, considering that they are
universally applicable to any countries. We ask foreign consultants to prepare solutions to our
problem whenever we have a budget to do so. .
(4) Iterating Trial and Error <I><S><E>
+ In solving problems, we agilely try tentative solutions to see how they work in local contexts.
We flexibly and continuously modify the solution based on the result of the trials, until it proves
to be sufficiently relevant to local contexts.
- We spend sufficient time on the planning of our solutions so that we can avoid modifying
them after their implementation, which is regarded as the lack of initial preparation.
- We attribute the ineffectiveness of solutions to the lack of our capacity to implement them,
rather than blaming their contents.
(5) Valuing Contradiction & Anomaly <I><S>
+ Leaders don’t ignore unexpected realities that emerged in executing plans and contradict
their original assumptions. They use the knowledge as a source of innovation, exploring why
they happened. We feel free to voice our opinions to leaders about what went wrong.
- Whenever leaders find a deviation from our plan, they instantly instruct us to correct it based
on the original plan. We refrain from voicing our opinions about the reality in the field.
(6) Valuing Stakeholders’ Knowledge: Open Innovation & Participatory Planning <E><C>
+ Whenever I try to solve a problem, I consult experts in the field and those who will be
affected by our actions. They are indispensable sources of knowledge in identifying critical
issues and creating solutions to their problems.
- We identify critical issues in a problem and create solutions basically by ourselves and hired
consultants.

1-3. Ways of Autonomy


Organizational practices to spontaneously tackle problems at every corner and level of the
organization, and endogenously solve them.
(1) Enabling Frontline’s Initiatives <S><E><I>
+ Those who execute policies and programs on the frontline are motivated to spontaneously
tackle operational problems, and propose necessary actions to higher bodies as soon as they
identify the symptom of emerging problems.
- Those who execute policies and programs on the frontline are passive in following the orders
of higher bodies, rarely spontaneously improve their activities.
(2) Empowering Knowledge Activist <S><E><C>
+ My organization allow us to continuously devote ourselves to specific issues and lead
organizational activities in the field, considering the career-path of those opt for specific
expertise.
- My organization doesn’t give special treatment to those who nurtured deep commitment to a
critical issue of the organization. We perform what leaders direct us to do, refraining from
pursuing our own visions, even though we believe that it benefits our organization.
(3) Trusting Subordinates <I>
+ Subordinates basically manage their activities by themselves. With self-discipline, they
execute their tasks properly as directed by superiors. Leaders minimize their interventions so
as not to demoralize them.
- Leaders minutely manage their subordinates, considering their lack of self- discipline.
(4) Tolerating Uncertainties & Risks <E><C><I>
+ Leaders allow us to try experimental projects to see if they work as planned even when we are
not quite certain of their outcome.
- Leaders allow us to try only those activities and projects about which we are fairly certain of a
success. They don’t allow us to implement experimental activities and projects for fear of their
potential failures and the scrutiny by auditors.
(5) Energizing by Performance Indicators <E><C><I>
+ We use numerical performance indicators to facilitate the result-oriented behaviors of
subordinates and contractors, intending to activate their innovative initiatives rather than
binding them to specific tasks.
- We use numerical performance indicators to rate the achievement of individuals and
sections. We control subordinates’ activities by setting the indicators.
(6) Enabling Serendipity <S><E><C><I>
+ We flexibly operate our projects and activities. Whenever we find unexpected opportunities,
we change the scope of activities to make the best use of them. Leaders encourage their
subordinates to attend seminars that are not directly related to their current tasks, facilitating
them to find out unexpected ideas from them.
- We execute our tasks based on original plans as exactly as possible. Even when we come
across unexpected chances that could potentially serve our overall purpose, we don’t take the
opportunities that deviate from our original plans.
(7) Enabling Ubiquity <S><E><C><I>
+ Any section of our organization can start the process of a reform or policy formulation by
initiating a pilot activity.
- Initiatives of reforms and new policies are exclusively taken by planning and administrative
sections. Other sections respect their mandate, refraining from taking the initiative by
themselves.
(8) Ensuring Endogenous Processes <S><E><C><I>
+ In solving problems, we rarely outsource our tasks to consultants. We directly conduct series
of tasks to analyze problems and create solutions.
- We often outsource problem solving activities to consultants in order to utilize their expertise.

2. Ways of Integration and Coordination


2-1. Ways of Integration
Organizational practices to set strategies, ensure overall optimization, and keep sections
from becoming independent “silos”.
(1) Sharing Vision and Beliefs <E>
+ We refer to the organizational vision as our practical guidance whenever we plan a policy
and program.
- We neither know our organizational vision nor refer to it as our practical guidance in planning
our policies and programs.
(2) Setting Priority: Strategic Management at Central Level <E>
+ Our strategies and master plans clearly define our priority issues. We selectively allocate
limited resources, such as budget and personnel, to priority programs based on them.
- Our strategies and master plans are regarded as referential guidelines that don’t force us to
reallocate our resources. Accordingly, we continue our existing programs regardless of
changes in our strategies and plans.
(3) Operationalizing Strategies: Tactical Management at Field Level <E><I>
+ At the level of sections and branch offices, we translate organizational strategies and plans
into practical and feasible operational plans within respective contexts.
- Local offices execute centrally developed guidelines and manuals as they are, without
localizing them to suit unique local conditions.
(4) Ensuring Overall Optimization <S><E>
+ We give up the mandate and resources of our section for the sake of the overall objective of
our organization, without resisting the judgment of top leaders.
- Whenever we are expected to give up our sectional mandate and resources for the sake of
overall objective of our organization, we defend what we have as much as possible, astutely
evading the organizational decisions.
(5) Ensuring Inter-Organizational Optimization <S><E><C>
+ We actively collaborate with other organizations in tackling problems that require
coordinated efforts with them, by following the initiatives of higher coordination bodies. We
also spontaneously propose collaboration to concerned organizations.
- We seldom collaborate with other organizations, tackling our problems independently. We
rather fight other organizations over our “turf”, defending our mandate and budget against their
intrusion.
(6) Ensuring Compliance <I>
+ We strictly observe our organizational regulations and refrain from gaining personal benefit
from our work.
- We flexibly interpret regulations so as to accommodate them to our day-to-day realities.
(7) Commending High Performers <S><E><C><I>
+ We employ various methods of commendation and competition/ranking as effective vehicles
to facilitate organizational members’ innovative and spontaneous initiatives.
- We seldom employ commendation and competition as means to encourage members to
create innovative ideas or challenge difficult tasks. A commendation or competition without the
prospect of physical reward isn’t seriously regarded by us.
(8) Operationalizing Meritocracy <S><E><C><I>
+ My organization rewards those who made a significant contribution to organizational goals
by promoting them to more important and challenging positions, or by raising their salary and
providing bonuses.
- My organization promotes members to senior positions considering their seniority and
obedience to leaders.

2-2. Ways of Coordination


Organizational practices to coordinate with others: colleagues, other sections within the
same organization, and other organizations.
(1) Team-Working <S><E><I>
+ When we work as a team, we intensively help each other to jointly execute tasks without
demarcating our individual tasks and responsibilities, continuously sharing each other’s
progress and difficulties.
- When we work as a team, the scope of each member’s task is clearly defined so as to
minimize unnecessary coordination among team members. Each member independently
executes his or her task in a parallel way.
(2) Valuing Dialogue and Deliberation <S><E>
+ We solve operational problems that arise with other sections and organizations through
candid dialogue with them.
- When we have a problem with any other section or organization, we simply shelve it or ask for
the intervention of a higher body to intermediate us, rather than trying to solve it between
ourselves.
(3) Empowering Middle Managers <S><E><C><I>
+ Middle managers, who are positioned between top leaders and frontline staff, play active
roles in solving any contradiction that emerges in our operation. They take the lead in creating
innovative and feasible solutions that synthesize leader’s visions and frontline’s realities, as
well as conflicting motives of organizations.
- Middle managers passively execute what their leaders instructed them to do. Their roles are
to convey their leaders’ intention to their subordinates and supervise the execution, without
judging by themselves. They play very limited roles in negotiation with other organizations,
which is normally directly done by leaders.
(4) Building Consensus: “Ringi” <E>
+ We obtain prior written consent from all concerned sections before sending a proposal to top
leaders for their formal decision. Although it takes time, the process ensures organization-wide
commitment to the decision.
- Organizational decisions are agilely made by a small number of directly responsible officials
and top leaders without spending time in forging consensus among various sections within the
organization.
(5) Consulting Informally: “Newamashi” <S><E>
+ An organizational decision is more often made through a behind-the-scenes consensus
building than in a formal meeting, with a view to ensuring everyone’s commitment and
avoiding the exposure of internal discordance.
- We openly discuss important organizational issues at formal meetings and make decisions.
We frankly exchange contradicting views to reach consensus, without having bitter feeling
against each other.
(6) Ensuring Long-term & Win-Win Collaboration <S><E><C>
+ In coordinating with other public and business organizations, we actively try to establish win-
win and long-term partnership with them, identifying common goals, conceding to them, and
nurturing mutual trust.
- In coordinating with other organizations, we focus on immediate issues in question, without
making additional effort to nurture mutual trust and long-term constructive relationship.
(7) Facilitating Broad Consensus among Stakeholders: Independent Advisory Council <E><C>
+ In reaching a consensus among stakeholders, we set up advisory councils to seek unbiased
opinions from third-party experts. Their neutral and authoritative advice facilitate consensus
among us, enabling us formulate effective policies and programs.
- We internally formulate policies and coordinate with stakeholders by ourselves, without
relying on the neutral advice or recommendation of outside experts.

2-3. Ways of Ba-Creation


Organizational practices to activate candid discourse and facilitate coordination among
organizational members and stakeholders.
(1) Activating Frontline: Ground Truth <S><I>
+ We visit the field of policies to directly interact with the stakeholders, facilitating their candid
views about the actuality of policies and programs. We carefully design events so that women
and disadvantaged people can share their true feeling.
- We seldom visit the field of policies due to lack of time and travel budget, relying on periodic
reports from frontline staff for our monitoring.
(2) Socializing with Colleagues <S>
+ In my organization, we often organize events such as drinking parties, vacation trips, sport
events to promote mutual trust and team spirit among members.
- In my organization, we seldom share our private time with each other. Our relation with
colleagues rarely extends beyond office hour because we prefer to spend our time with our
family and friends.
(3) Deep Dive Brainstorming: “Waigaya” <S><E>
+ In deciding on a strategic issue, we often organize a special session or retreat that enables
key members to spend a few days together to forge a solid consensus through intensive
discussion. In the session, every participant is encouraged to voice his or her frank opinion
disregarding official rank and seniority.
- We discuss strategic issues in formal and conventional meetings, not bothering to arrange
special brainstorming sessions for the purpose.
(4) Building Task Team <S><E>
+ When we tackle a difficult task that requires the joint effort of several sections, we temporally
set up a special unit staffed by the members of concerned sections. Lead by a single leader,
members assigned from different sections can intensively collaborate with each other.
- We don’t set up special units to tackle a challenging task that requires the joint effort of
several sections. Concerned sections independently tackle their parts of the task, coordinating
with each other whenever it is necessary.
(5) Reforming Organization <S><E><C><I>
+ My organization flexibly changes its structure and resource allocation patterns upon
changing organizational strategies, which enables us to depart from old ways.
- The structure and resource allocation patterns of my organization are very stable over the
years. New strategies are formulated basically on the premise of existing organizational
conditions.
(6) Designing Office <S><E><I>
+ Our office layout is designed so as to facilitate collaboration within each section as well as
between sections. For instance, open meeting places are arranged within close proximity of
members’ desks; members’ desks are not walled with high partitions; and several sections
share a large office room.
- Our office is designed to physically segment members’ working places. Senior members such
as heads of departments and divisions have their own compartments. Meeting rooms are
formally decorated as places where important decisions are made.
3. Ways of Growth
3-1. Ways of Learning
Organizational practices to share experiences, learn lessons from experiences, and use the
knowledge in activities.
(1) Documenting & Reporting <E><C>
+ We methodically record operational processes and results, filing produced documents
systematically filed.
- We record only a part of our activities. A large part of our experiences acquired from our
activities is kept only as our personal memory.
(2) Standardizing Activities <E><C><I>
+ We compile guidelines and manuals for every our major activity so that all the staff can
efficiently learn basic ways to perform their tasks.
- We don’t rely on written guidelines and manuals in executing our tasks. We learn what to do
and how to do through day-to-day practices.
(3) Creating Knowledge Assets <E><C>
+ In my organization, we often spontaneously organize learning sessions and practical research
projects to study emerging issues, inviting outside experts if necessary. We utilize the acquired
and created knowledge in our activities.
- We rarely organize learning sessions or research projects by ourselves, waiting for
opportunities offered by the government and foreign organizations.
(4) Using Knowledge Assets <E><C><I>
+ In planning policies and projects, we frequently refer to reports and other records about our
past activities in order to find adaptable lessons and avoid repeating the same mistakes. If we
cannot find relevant documents, we interview those who were involved in the activities.
- We rarely refer to our past records. We also don’t utilize reports produced by research
institutes and scholars, not valuing their relevancy to our practical issues.
(5) Evaluating Formatively <E>
+ We evaluate our policies and projects to learn lessons from mistakes and failures in order to
improve our operation based on the acquired lessons.
- We evaluate our policies and projects to rate them and explain our performance to our
stakeholders.
(6) Evaluating Qualitatively <E>
+ We don’t use numerical performance indicators as decisive yardsticks to measure our
achievement because they don’t necessarily imply the quality and effectiveness of our work. We
remind our staff that indicator is not an end in itself, facilitating them to focus on the quality of
their work.
- We judge the achievement of sections and individuals by employing numerical performance
indicators. We can objectify not only the efficiency but also quality of their achievement by
devising effective indicators.
(7) Learning as a Team <S><E>
+ Upon completing a project or an activity, concerned members share their candid views to
clarify the lessons to be learned, examining the validity of original hypotheses.
- In a review meeting on an unsuccessful project and activity, we refrain from sharing our frank
views with our leaders and colleagues for fear of offending them. Review meetings tend to be
not so much a learning session as a ceremony.
- We don’t organize a review meeting upon completing a project.
(8) Forming Community of Practice <S><E><C>
+ I belong to a formal or informal group of colleagues specialized in the same expertise,
periodically sharing experiences and problems with them.
- I don’t have any colleagues from whom I can easily acquire technical advice whenever I face
difficulty.
(9) Networking beyond Organizational Boundary <S><E><C>
+ I continuously cultivate relation with outside experts by actively creating opportunities to work
with them and learn from them whenever I have a chance.
- We seldom extend our personal network beyond organizational boundary. Since each of us
performs respective functions as a part of our organization, we refrain from developing personal
relationship with outsiders.

3-2. Ways of Transformation


Organizational practices to facilitate the transformation of members’ mental models and
organizational practices.
(1) Improving Continuously: Kaizen <I>
+ In my section, we continuoulsly and spontaneouly improve our ways of work, periodically
reviewing the efficiency of what we are doing, and creating solutions for small improvements.
- We try to improve our ways of work only when a superior body directed us to do so.
(2) Emulating Benchmarks <E><C>
+ In improving the performance of our organization, we identify our models in our country or
other countries. By comparing us with them, we learn what we need to do to transform
ourselves.
- We don’t have a particular model for our organization. Our mission and mandates is so unique
that we cannot find out sufficiently relevant model organizations anywhere.
(3) Spreading-out <C><I>
+ Whenever we come across a good practice in other sections, we agilely adopt it as our
practice. Top leaders of my organization often direct or encourage all the sections to adopt a
good practice generated by a section as our standard practice.
- Good practices within my organization are generally unnoticed by leaders, remaining as local
practices that don’t influence others.
(4) Avoiding Over-adaptation to Environment and Successful Experiences <S><E>
+ We flexibly terminate once-successful policies and programs as soon as they have lost their
relevance to the changing societal environment.
- We don’t terminate policies and programs as long as we can justify their continuation even
after their significance is reduced by societal changes because we cannot easily dismantle
organizational systems that we have developed over the years to implement the plocies and
programs.
(5) Weighing Institutional Costs <I>
+ We force a painful reform plan in spite of opposition from colleagues and outside
stakehodlers, tenaciously persuading them of its ncessity and long-term benefit.
- We refrain from forcing a painful reform plan when we face oposition from colleagues and
outside stakeholders even when we need to take the actions without delay.
(6) Avoiding Procrastination <I>
+ We don’t lose time in taking actions when we formulate a new policy, or detect a potential
problem. We set up a clear timeline for concrete actions and keep track of their progress.
- We put off necessary actions to solve a problem when we find the task too demanding for our
capacity.
(7) Empowering Challengers & Change-agents <S><E><C><I>
+ Leaders give a chance to those who courageously pioneer a reform, and encourage those
who challenge difficult problems, by rewarding them for a success with promotion and securing
them from the potential charges. Because of that, we can try innovative approaches without
worrying about our future career.
- We avoid trying challenging activities that involve uncertainty and the risk of failure, minimizing
potential risks of accusation by others. We also refrain from questioning leaders’ ideas. Only top
leaders take the initiative in reforming our organization. Those at middle and frontline positions
passively follow the inititaves.
(8) Institutionalizing Political Initiatives <I><S><E>
+ Reform initiatives taken by elected or politically assigned leaders are sustained even after
their departure from our office. We make efforts to continue what they started by convincing
their successors of the necessity to keep the initiatives.
- We stop continuing reform programs initiated by elected leaders when their successors
changed policies. We refrain from defending the on-going programs because lected leaders are
responsible for judging policies.

3-3. Ways of Human Development


Organizational practices to facilitate the capacity development of members.
(1) Developing Capacity through Practices: On-the-job Training <S><I>
+ In my section, we impart our knowledge and skill to less experienced staff by working jointly
with them.
- We acquire the knowledge and skill required for our work basically by our personal effort or in
traning programs.
(2) Valuing Artisanship & Expertise <S><E><C><I>
+ I constantly and voluntarily try to improve my expertise to execute my tasks better because I
like my work as my vocation.
+ Leaders assign appropriate tasks to subordinates based on their expertise, facilitating their
capacity development as technocrats.
- I try to improve my expertise as long as it is necessary to execute my tasks.
- Leaders seldom consider the technical background and long-term carrer development of their
subordinates in assigning tasks to them.
(3) Valuing Field Experiences <S>
+ My organization assigns promising talents to field offices so that they can gain direct
experiences about the actuality of policies and progrmas.
- My organization continuously keeps promising talents at the central office so that they can
gain experiences in planning and coordination, not assigning them to field offices.
(4) Sharing Knowledge <E><C>
+ Upon completing an officially funded overseas training program, we share newly acquired
knowledge with colleagues in a debriefing session.
- We rarely share our expertise with our colleagues even if we acquired it in an officially funded
program. We regard our knowledge as our personal assets.
(5) Developing Leadership <S><E><C><I>
+ I frequently reflect my own performance as the leader of a section and take opportunities to
improve my leadership skill.
+ My organization actively organizes learning programs for senior leaders and send them to
leadership training programs organized by the govnerment or foreing organizations.
- My organization rarely organizes learning programs for senior leaders. Leaders rarely recieve
frank feedback from their subordinates about their leadership capacity.
(6) Organizing Learning Programs <S><E><C><I>
+ My organization runs learning programs as opportunities of action-learning in which lecturers
continuously facilitate participants to solve their practical problems in their respective offices.
- My organization run learning programs as traditional training courses in which lecturers
transfer their knowledge and skills to participants.
(7) Evaluating Personnel Performance <S><E><C><I>
+ We spend a long time for periodical evaluation meetings with our suboridinates with a view to
facilitating their capacity development, rather than simply rating their contribution to section’s
achivement.
- We periodically evaluate the performance of our subordinates to identify candidates for
promotion and bonus. We don’t spend much time for evalutaion meeting with each subordinate.
(8) Fostering Capacity by Promotion & Demotion <S><E><C><I>
+ We always understand why a colleague has been promoted or demoted. Leaders of my
organization strategically utilize personnel promotion and demotion as means to clarify values
and capacity required of us.
- We don’t change our behavior by knowing our colleagues’ promotion and demotion. The
criteria of promotion and demotion are not sufficiently clear for us to grasp their implications.