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Irreversible hydrocolloids
1) Sets -> cant go back to original form
2) Add h2O: it will set
Agar-agar: manipulation, how to use it.....
Lastomeric more accurate but alginate
1) Cheap
2) Easily come out

Impression Materials Properties

1) Non-toxic, non-irritating
2) Acceptable odor, taste and color
3) Suitable working and setting time
4) Strength to resist tearing
5) Compatible with model and die materials
6) Easy to dispense , proportion , mix
7) Facilitate visualization of finish line
8) Permit multiple die pours
9) Faciltate clinical identification of beginning and end of cure
10) Inexpensive Infinite shelf life Easy to clean up

Based on the mechanism of setting
I) Chemical reaction

II) Thermal reaction : modelling plastic, impression waxes, natural resin
Based on elasticity
I) Inelastic or Rigid : plaster of paris, metallic oxide pastes
II) Elastic : Reversible and irreversible hydrocolloid , Mercaptan

Based on viscosity
I) Mucostatic
II) Mucocompressive
Based on the use
I) Materials used for the dentulous mouth
II) Materials used for the edentulous mouth

Irreversible Hydrocolloid “Alginate”

- called anhydro- -d-mannuronic acid or alginic acid.
1. Type I - fast setting

2. Type II - Normal setting

Gelatin Process

Factors Affecting Gelation

1) Amount of accelerators and retarders

2) The temperature of the water used for mixing
3) Water:Powder ratio
1) The material deteriorates at elevated temperatures therefore it should be stored in cool, dry
2) The lid of the bulk package tin, should be firmly replaced as soon as possible after each use, so as to
minimize moisture contamination
1) Should be rapid to prevent dimensional change- after removal from mouth
2) Hydrocolloids 
 disinfected by 10 minutes immersion in, or spraying with, an antimicrobial agent such
as Sodium hypochlorite and glutaraldehyde without significant dimensional changes. 

Advantages of Alginate impression material Disadvantages of Alginate impression material

1) It is easy to mix and manipulate 
 1) It is not possible to prepare metal dies. 

2) Minimum requirement of equipment 
 2) It is not accurate enough for crown and bridge

3) Flexibility of the set impression 

3) It cannot be used alone for compressing the
4) Low cost 


5) Comfortable to the patient 

4) It cannot be corrected 

6) Accuracy if properly handled 
 5) Distortion may occur without it being obvious if
7) It is hygienic, as fresh material must be used for the 
 material is not held stationary in
each impression 
 relation to the tissues throughout its setting
8) It gives a good surface detail even in very wet period. 


Modified Alginate
- sol containing the water but no source calcium ions. - A reactor of plaster of Paris can then be
added to the sol.
- Two paste system (Alginate sol, Ca reactor) – supplied in both tray and syringe viscosity
- Dust free alginate - Addition of Glycerine
Type of failure
- Elasticity improves with time, so longer the impression can remain in the mouth before removal, greater
the accuracy.
- Polysulfide ranks as one of the least stiff of the elastomeric impression materials.
- Pour within one hour
1) Polysulfide
2) Polyether
3) Condensation Silicone
4) Polyvinyl siloxane
1) Viscosity
- Very high- putty

- High- heavy body, tray consistency
- Medium- regular

- low viscosity- light, syringe consistency
2) Method of polymerization: -
- Condensation
- Addition
3) Method of activation:
- Chemically activated
- Light activated
4) Clinical application:

- Double mix single impression
- Double mix double impression
- Single mix single impression

Base :
- Mercaptan polysulfide
- Lithopone/ titanium dioxide
Catalyst :
- Lead dioxide
- Dibutyl pthalate Sulfur
3 viscosities
- Light body
- medium body
- heavy body.
 - polysulfide Disadvantages- - polysulfide
1) High tear strength 1) Messy Unpleasant odour
2) Easier to pour 2) Long setting time
3) Fair stability

- It has the best compatibility with stone.

- Care not to break teeth when separating cast

Polyether polymer
Colloidal silica Glycolether/pthalate

Alkyl aromatic sulphonate
Filler Plasticizer
3 viscosities
Light body
Medium body
Heavy body
Advantages - polyether Disadvantages
1) Dimensional stability 1) Set material very stiff
2) Accuracy
 2) Imbibition

3) Short setting time 3) Short Working time
4) Automix available
5) Hydrophilic

Condensation Silicone
- Stiffer and harder than polysulfide.
- The hardness increases with time.
- Pour immediately

- Care to avoid bubbles while pouring
- Poly dimethyl siloxane
- Alkyl ortho silicate/organo hydrogen siloxane
- Silica
- Stannous octate suspension

- Alkyl silicate filler
3 viscosities
- Light body
- Medium body
- Putty body
Advantages – condensation silicone Disadvantages - condensation silicone
1) Pleasant to use 1) Hydrophobic
2) Short setting time 2) Low stability

Addition Silicone
- Delay pour
- Avoid bubbles when pouring

Polymethyl hydrogen siloxane
Chloroplatinic acid
Retarder Silica
4 viscosities
Light body
Medium body
Heavy body
Advantages - Addition Silicone Disadvantages - Addition Silicone
1) Dimensional stability 1) Hydrophobic

2) Pleasant to use

2) Release hydrogen

3) Short setting time
3) Hydrophilic formulation imbibe
4) Automix available
Additional Properties

 most to least
polyether > addition silicone > condensation silicone >

Tear strength
 greatest to least

polysulfide > addition silicone > polyether >
condensation silicone

Dimensional stability best to worst

addition silicone > polyether > polysulfide >
condensation silicone

 best to worst

polyether > hydrophilic addition silicone > polysulfide >
hydrophobic addition silicone = condensation silicone
 best to worst
hydrophilic addition silicone > polyether > polysulfide >
hydrophobic addition silicone = condensation silicone
Zinc Oxide Eugenol Impression material (ZoE)
- rigid ,thermo set ,mucostatic impression material
- high degree of accuracy and good surface details
1) Type l hard set impression paste (10 minutes)

2) Type ll soft set impression paste (15 minutes)

Setting Reaction
1) Acid- Base Reaction
2) Chelation

3) Auto-catalytic reaction

Advantage Disadvantage
1) Sufficient flow
 1) Require closely fitting trays

2) Minimum tissue distortion
 2) Sticky

3) Ease in beading and boxing
 3) Tissue irritation

4) Not washed out by 4) Temperature & humidity affects
 Adequate dimensional setting time
5) Profuse secretion causes distortion
 6) Can not be used in undercut areas
5) Adequate working time
 Brittle, require support
6) Can be check in mouth repeatedly
7) Does not require separating
8) Minor defects can be corrected

Non-Eugenol Pastes
- A material similar zinc oxide eugenol reaction
- can be formed by a saponification reaction to produce an insoluble “soap” if the zinc oxide is reacted
with carboxylic acid.
ZnO + 2RCOOH (RCOO)2Zn + H2O

1) Eugenol reaction are eliminated
2) Not much affected by temperature & humidity 

3) Bactericides or other medicaments can be added. 

4) CADCO company supplies two types of non-eugenol pastes ( ZONE ) 

Q& A
First, mix alginate before used. Why?
1) Prevent clump
2) .....
Why alginate colourful?
1) See colour change
Maniplation of setting time
1) Cold water
Ideal depth tray and sulcus?
1) 3mm buccal and lingually – to record reflectant mucosa
2) Why not just about sulcus?: tray impinging on tissue
Why cant put powder then water?
1) Prevent air bubble
What if the tooth is mobile?
1) Cover with wax
2) So tooth wont come out when impression is taken
Disinfectant for different impression material?
1) ..
2) ..
3) ..


Primary Impression: a negative reproduction made for the purpose of diagnosis, treatment planning, or the fabrication of a tray.

Stock tray: a metal prefabricated impression tray typically available in various sizes and used principally for preliminary

Primary Cast: a cast formed from a preliminary impression for use in diagnosis or the fabrication of an impression tray.

Impression Material: irreversible hydrocolloid impression material (Alginate) is the best and most commonly used material
for recording primary impression.

Other materials needed : dental stone, spatula and rubber bowl.

Making primary impression

Procedure- Mandible
1) 2 scoop alginate and water to second line (water first)
2) Retract cheek , put metal tray into patients mouth mandibular
3) 3mm lingual and buccally
4) Add more alignate mixture if decifient
5) Use light finger pressure on the sides at the premolar areas- about 3 minutes
6) After the material has completely set, remove it quickly in the line with the long axis of teeth to prevent any tear or
distortion that might occur. 

7) Take out impression see all the landmarks is it there

8) Use disinfectant
9) Rinse the impression free of saliva with slurry water or dust it with plaster then wash away gently using water

Procedure- Maxilla
1) 3 scoop
2) Mix
3) Put from behind of tray
4) Put some water on surface of mixture on impression tray
5) Put into mouth maxilla
6) If decient, add
7) If excess, remove - Dont allow material sink down then go into throat
Procedure- Cast Making
1) Green Base : 3 scoop, 50ml
2) White Base: 7 scoop, 90ml