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Amity Business School

Amity Business School


MBA Class of 2011, Semester III
Consumer Behaviour
Module-II

Vivek Singh Tomar


vstomar@amity.edu

1
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Module II (Content)
• Consumer as an Individual

• Motivation, Needs, Goals

• Personality, Self and Self Images

• Perception, Imagery

• Learning, Cues, Response, Reinforcement

• Behavioral Learning and Cognitive Learning Theory

• Brand Loyalty
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Module-II (Objectives)

• To understand consumer as an individual and


affect of his individual psychological makeup
on his buying behavior
• To understand the buying implication of
consumer Motivation, Personality, Perception
and learning
• To understand the concept of Brand loyalty
and how it develops
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The Consumer as an
Individual - Motivation
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• Understand the nature of motivation, the role it plays


in consumer behavior and how marketers can use
motives in developing marketing strategy.

• Understand the approaches to determining which


motives are behind the purchase of products and
brands as well as the difficulties in making such
determinations.
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Model of the Motivation Process

Learning
Learning

Goal
Goaloror
Needs
Needs need
need
wants,
wants,and
and Tension
Tension Drive
Drive Behavior
Behavior fulfill-
fulfill-
desires
desires ment
ment

Cognitive
Cognitive
processes
processes

Tension
Tension
reduction
reduction
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• Needs Versus Wants


– Want: The particular form of consumption used to satisfy a
need.
• Types of Needs
– Biogenic needs: Needs necessary to maintain life
– Psychogenic needs (Acquired needs): Culture-related
needs (e.g. need for status, power, affiliation, etc.)
– Utilitarian needs: Implies that consumers will emphasize
the objective, tangible aspects of products
– Hedonic needs: Subjective and experiential needs (e.g.
excitement, self-confidence, fantasy, etc.)
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Goals
• Generic Goals
– the general categories of goals that consumers
see as a way to fulfill their needs
– e.g., “I want to get a MBA degree.”
• Product-Specific Goals
– the specifically branded products or services
that consumers select as their goals
– e.g., “I want to get an MBA in Marketing from
Amity Business School.”
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The Selection of Goals

• The goals selected by an individual depend on


their:
– Personal experiences
– Physical capacity
– Prevailing cultural norms and values
– Goal’s accessibility in the physical and social
environment
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Achieving Goals by
Subscribing to a
Magazine
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Different Appeals for Same Goal Object


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Motivations and Goals


• Positive Motivation • Negative Motivation
– A driving force – A driving force
toward some away from some
object or object or condition
condition • Avoidance Goal
• Approach Goal – A negative goal from
– A positive goal which behavior is
toward which directed away
behavior is directed
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Rational Versus Emotional Motives

• Rationality implies that consumers select


goals based on totally objective criteria such
as size, weight, price, or miles per gallon
• Emotional motives imply the selection of goals
according to personal or subjective criteria
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The Dynamic Nature of Motivation

• Needs are never fully satisfied


• New needs emerge as old needs are satisfied
• People who achieve their goals set new and
higher goals for themselves
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New and Higher Goals Motivate


Behavior
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Changing
Consumer
Needs
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Failure to achieve a goal


may result in
frustration. Some adapt;
Frustration others adopt defense
mechanisms to protect
their ego.
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Methods by which
people mentally
Defense redefine frustrating
Mechanism situations to protect
their self-images and
their self-esteem.
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Defense
Mechanisms

• Aggression • Projection
• Rationalization • Autism
• Regression • Identification
• Withdrawal • Repression
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Arousal of Motives

• Physiological arousal
• Emotional arousal
• Cognitive arousal
• Environmental arousal
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Cognitive Need Arousal


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Philosophies Concerned With


Arousal of Motives
• Behaviorist School
– Behavior is response to stimulus
– Elements of conscious thoughts are to be ignored
– Consumer does not act, but reacts
• Cognitive School
– Behavior is directed at goal achievement
– Need to consider needs, attitudes, beliefs, etc. in
understanding consumer behavior
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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs


• Four Premises:
• All humans acquire a similar set of motives through
genetic endowment and social interaction.
• Some motives are more basic or critical than others.
• The more basic motives must be satisfied to a minimum
level before other motives are activated.
• As the basic motives become satisfied, more advanced
motives come into play.
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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs


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Murray’s List of
Psychogenic Needs
Needs Associated with Inanimate Objects:
Acquisition, Conservancy, Order, Retention, Construction

Needs Reflecting Ambition, Power,


Accomplishment, and Prestige:
Superiority, Achievement, Recognition, Exhibition, Infavoidance

Needs Connected with Human Power:


Dominance, Deferrence, Similance, Autonomy, Contrariance
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Murray’s List of
Psychogenic Needs

Sado-Masochistic Needs :
Aggression, Abasement

Needs Concerned with Affection between People:


Affiliation, Rejection, Nurturance, Succorance, Play

Needs Concerned with Social Intercourse:


Cognizance, Exposition
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McGuire’s Psychological Motives


• Classification System with 16 categories
• Two criteria determine 4 major categories:
– Is mode of motivation cognitive or affective?
– Is the motive focused on preservation or
growth?
• Four categories subdivided further:
– Is the behavior initiated or a response?
– Is this behavior internal or external?
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McGuire’s Cognitive Motives


• Cognitive Preservation Motives
– Need for Consistency (active, internal)
– Need for Attribution (active, external)
– Need to Categorize (passive, internal)
– Need for Objectification (i.e., cues) (passive, external)
• Cognitive Growth Motives
– Need for Autonomy (i.e., Independence) (active, internal)
– Need for Stimulation (active, external)
– Teleological Need (i.e., desired outcomes or end states)
(passive, internal)
– Utilitarian Need (i.e., problem solvers)
(passive, external)
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McGuire’s Affective Motives


• Affective Preservation Motives:
– Need for Tension Reduction (active, internal)
– Need for Expression (active, external)
– Need for Ego Defense (passive, internal)
– Need for Reinforcement (passive, external)
• Affective Growth Motives:
– Need for Assertion (active, internal)
– Need for Affiliation (active, external)
– Need for Identification (passive, internal)
– Need for Modeling (passive, external)
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Discovering Purchase Motives


• Manifest motives are those that are known and
acknowledged.
• Latent motives are those that are either unknown
to the customer or ones that the customer are
reluctant to acknowledge.
• Researching latent motives often requires use of
projective techniques.
Latent and Manifest Motives
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Motivation Research
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Projective Technique Example


What do you think of the I haven’t used it much
new software that the yet, but...
company installed?
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Projective Technique Example


• Someone who drinks hot tea is ______________.
• Tea is good to drink when __________________.
• Making hot tea is _________________________.
• My friends think tea is _____________________.
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Projective Technique Example


Results of a word association test with alternative brand
names for a new fruit-flavored sparkling water drink
included the following:

Possible Brand Name Associated Words


Ormango Green, tart, jungle
Tropical Fruit Juice, sweet, island
Orange Sparkle Light, bubbly, cool
Paradise Passion Fruity, thick, heavy
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Means-End Analysis

• The benefit chain or laddering technique (based on Means-


End Theory) seeks a deeper understanding of how product
attributes are associated with personal beliefs and goals.
• Thus, it provides insights into why the customer thinks various
benefits are important.
• Knowing why customers care about certain attributes may
suggest the kinds of quality improvements that will be most
meaningful to customers.
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• Here is a typical chain or ladder obtained from a secretary


discussing why she would prefer to use an overnight
package delivery service that has drop boxes available:
Drop Box
Convenient
Save Time
Can Do More
Personal Satisfaction
Accomplishment
Self-Esteem
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Most Ads
appeal to
Multiple
Motives
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Motivation Conflict
• Approach-Approach Conflict – choice between
2 attractive alternatives.
• Approach-Avoidance Conflict – both + and –
consequences in purchase of particular product.
• Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict – choice
between 2 undesirable alternatives.
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Appeal to Egoistic Needs


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Appeal to
Self-
Actualization
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A Trio of Needs

• Power
– individual’s desire to control environment
• Affiliation
– need for friendship, acceptance, and belonging
• Achievement
– need for personal accomplishment
– closely related to egoistic and self-actualization needs
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Appeal to Power
Needs
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Appeal to
Affiliation
Needs
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Appeal to
Achievement
Needs
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Personality and
Consumer Behavior
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The inner psychological


characteristics that both
What is
determine and reflect how
Personality?
a person responds to his
or her environment.
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The Nature of Personality

• Personality reflects individual differences


• Personality is consistent and enduring
• Personality can change
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Theories of Personality
• Freudian theory
– Unconscious needs or drives are at the heart of
human motivation
• Neo-Freudian personality theory
– Social relationships are fundamental to the
formation and development of personality
• Trait theory
– Quantitative approach to personality as a set of
psychological traits
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Freudian Theory
• Id
– Warehouse of primitive or instinctual needs for
which individual seeks immediate satisfaction
• Superego
– Individual’s internal expression of society’s moral
and ethical codes of conduct
• Ego
– Individual’s conscious control that balances the
demands of the id and superego
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Ad
Portraying
the Forces
of the Id
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A Representation of the Interrelationships among


the Id, Ego, and Superego

Gratification ID
ID EGO
EGOSystem
System
System
System11 33

SUPEREGO
SUPEREGO
System
System22
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Freudian Theory and


“Product Personality”
• Consumer researchers using Freud’s
personality theory see consumer purchases as
a reflection and extension of the consumer’s
own personality
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Snack Food Personality Traits


Potato Chips:
Ambitious, successful, high achiever, impatient

Tortilla Chips:
Perfectionist, high expectations, punctual, conservational

Pretzels:
Lively, easily bored, flirtatious, intuitive

Snack Crackers:
Rational, logical, contemplative, shy, prefers time alone
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Horney’s CAD Theory

• Using the context of child-parent relationships,


individuals can be classified into:
– Compliant individuals
– Aggressive individuals
– Detached individuals
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One who desires to be


Compliant
loved, wanted, and
Personality
appreciated by others.
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One who moves


against others (e.g.,
Aggressive
competes with others,
Personality
desires to excel and
win admiration).
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One who moves away


from others (e.g., who
Detached desires independence,
Personality self-sufficiency, and
freedom from
obligations).
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Ad Applying
Horney’s
Detached
Personality
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Trait Theory
• Personality theory with a focus on
psychological characteristics
• Trait - any distinguishing, relatively
enduring way in which one individual differs
from another
• Personality is linked to how consumers
make their choices or to consumption of a
broad product category - not a specific
brand
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Personality Traits and Consumer


Innovators
• Innovativeness • Optimum
• Dogmatism stimulation level
• Social Character • Variety-novelty
• Need for seeking
uniqueness
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The degree to which


consumers are
Consumer
receptive to new
Innovativeness
products, new services
or new practices.
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A Consumer Innovativeness Scale


1. In general, I am among the last in my circle of friends to buy
a new (rock albuma) when it appearsb.
2. If I heard that a (new rock album) was available in the store,
I would be interested enough to buy it.
3. Compared to my friends, I own few (rock albums).b
4. In general, I am the last in my circle of friends to know the
(titles of the latest rock albums).b
5. I will buy a new (rock album), even if I haven’t heard it yet.
6. I know the names of (new rock acts) before other people do.
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A personality trait that


reflects the degree of
rigidity a person displays
Dogmatism toward the unfamiliar and
toward information that is
contrary to his or her own
established beliefs.
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Dogmatism
• Consumers low in dogmatism (open-minded)
are more likely to prefer innovative products to
established or traditional alternatives
• Highly dogmatic consumers tend to be more
receptive to ads for new products or services
that contain an appeal from an authoritative
figure
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Ad
Encouraging
New Product
Acceptance
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Social Character
Inner-Directed Other-Directed
• Consumers who tend • Consumers who tend
to rely on their own to look to others for
inner values direction
• More likely to be • Less likely to be
innovators innovators
• Tend to prefer ads • Tend to prefer ads
that stress product that feature social
features and benefits acceptance
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Consumers who avoid


Need for appearing to
conform to
Uniqueness
expectations or
standards of others.
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A personality trait that


measures the level or
amount of novelty or
complexity that
Optimum
individuals seek in their
Stimulation
personal experiences.
Levels (OSL)
High OSL consumers tend
to accept risky and novel
products more readily
than low OSL consumers.
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A personality trait
characterized by the need
for varied, novel, and
Sensation
complex sensations and
Seeking
experience, and the
(SS)
willingness to take physical
and social risks for the sake
of such experience.
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A personality trait similar


to OSL, which measures a
consumer’s degree to
variety seeking
Variety-
Novelty
Examples:
Seeking
•Exploratory Purchase
Behavior
•Use Innovativeness
•Vicarious Exploration
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Cognitive Personality Factors

• Need for cognition


– A person’s craving for enjoyment of thinking
• Visualizers versus verbalizers
– A person’s preference for information presented
visually or verbally
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Need for Cognition (NC)

• Consumers high in NC are more likely to


respond to ads rich in product-related
information
• Consumers low in NC are more likely to be
attracted to background or peripheral aspects
of an ad
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Targeting
Visualizers
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Ad Targeting
Verbalizers
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From Consumer Materialism to


Compulsive Consumption
• Consumer materialism
– The extent to which a person is considered
“materialistic”
• Fixed consumption behavior
– Consumers fixated on certain products or
categories of products
• Compulsive consumption behavior
– “Addicted” or “out-of-control” consumers
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Materialistic People

• Value acquiring and showing-off possessions


• Are particularly self-centered and selfish
• Seek lifestyles full of possessions
• Have many possessions that do not lead to
greater happiness
Sample Items - Materialism
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SUCCESS
The things I own say a lot about how well I’m doing in life.
I don’t place much emphasis on the amount of material objects people
own as a sign of success.a
I like to own things that impress people.
CENTRALITY
I enjoy spending money on things that aren’t practical.
I try to keep my life simple, as far as possessions are concerned.a
Buying things gives me a lot of pleasure.
HAPPINESS
I’d be happier if I could afford to buy more things.
I have all the things I really need to enjoy life.a
It sometimes bothers me quite a bit that I can’t afford to buy all the
things I’d like.
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Fixated Consumption Behavior


• Consumers have
– a deep interest in a particular object or product
category
– a willingness to go to considerable lengths to
secure items in the category of interest
– the dedication of a considerable amount of
discretionary time and money to searching out the
product
• Examples: collectors, hobbyists
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Consumers who are


compulsive buyers
have an addiction; in
some respects, they are
Compulsive out of control and their
Consumption actions may have
Behavior damaging
consequences to them
and to those around
them.
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Sample Items to Measure Compulsive


Buying
1. When I have money, I cannot help but spend part or the
whole of it.
2. I am often impulsive in my buying behavior.
3. As soon as I enter a shopping center, I have an
irresistible urge to go into a shop to buy something.
4. I am one of those people who often responds to direct
mail offers.
5. I have often bought a product that I did not need, while
knowing I had very little money left.
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Consumer Ethnocentrism

• Ethnocentric consumers feel it is wrong to


purchase foreign-made products
• They can be targeted by stressing nationalistic
themes
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Sample Items from the CETSCALE


1. American people should always buy American-made products instead of
imports.
2. Only those products that are unavailable in the U.S. should be imported.
3. Buy American-made products. Keep America working.
4. Purchasing foreign-made products is un-American.
5. It is not right to purchase foreign products, because it puts Americans out
of jobs.
6. A real American should always buy American-made products.
7. We should purchase products manufactured in America instead of letting
other countries get rich off us.
8. It is always best to purchase American products.
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Brand Personality
• Personality-like traits associated with brands
• Volvo - safety
• Perdue - freshness
• Nike - the athlete
• BMW - performance
• Levi’s 501 - dependable and rugged
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A Brand Personality Framework

Brand
Personality

Sincerity Excitement Competence Sophistication Ruggedness

•Down-to- •Daring •Reliable •Upper class •Outdoorsy


earth •Spirited •Intelligent •Charming •Tough
•Honest •Imaginative •Successful
•Wholesome •Up-to-date
•Cheerful
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The Personality-like Associations of


Selected Colors
Commands respect, • America’s favored color
authority • IBM holds the title to blue
• Associated with club soda
BLUE • Men seek products packaged in blue
• Houses painted blue are avoided
• Low-calorie, skim milk
• Coffee in a blue can be perceived as “mild”
Caution, novelty, • Eyes register it faster
YELLOW temporary, warmth • Coffee in yellow can be perceived as “weak”
• Stops traffic
• Sells a house
Secure, natural, • Good work environment
relaxed or easy going, • Associated with vegetables and chewing gum
GREEN living things • Canada Dry ginger ale sales increased when it
changed sugar-free package from red to green and
white
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continued
Human, exciting, hot, • Makes food “smell” better
passionate, strong • Coffee in a red can be perceived as “rich”
RED • Women have a preference for bluish red
• Men have a preference for yellowish red
• Coca-Cola “owns” red
Powerful, affordable, • Draws attention quickly
ORANGE
informal
Informal and relaxed, • Coffee in a dark-brown can was “too strong”
BROWN
masculine, nature • Men seek products packaged in brown
Goodness, purity, • Suggests reduced calories
chastity, cleanliness, • Pure and wholesome food
WHITE
delicacy, refinement, • Clean, bath products, feminine
formality
Sophistication, power, • Powerful clothing
BLACK authority, mystery • High-tech electronics
SILVER, Regal, wealthy, stately • Suggests premium price
GOLD
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Different Self-Images

Actual Self-Image Ideal Self-Image

Ideal Social
Social Self-Image
Self-Image

Expected
Self-Image
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Ad
Contemplates
Consumer Self-
Image
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Possessions Act as Self-Extensions

• By allowing the person to do things that


otherwise would be very difficult
• By making a person feel better
• By conferring status or rank
• By bestowing feelings of immortality
• By endowing with magical powers
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Sample Items from an Extended Self-


Survey*

My ___ holds a special place in my life.


My ___ is central to my identity.
I feel emotionally attached to my ___.
My ___ helps me narrow the gap between what I am and
try to be.
If my ___ was stolen from me I would feel as if part of
me is missing.
I would be a different person without my___.
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Virtual Personality

• Online individuals
have an opportunity to
try on different
personalities
• Virtual personalities
may result in different
purchase behavior
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Consumer Perception
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•The process by which an


individual selects,
organizes, and interprets
stimuli into a meaningful
Perception and coherent picture of
the world

•How we see the world


around us
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Elements of Perception

• Sensation
• Absolute threshold
• Differential threshold
• Subliminal perception
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The immediate and direct


response of the sensory
organs to stimuli.
Sensation
A perfectly unchanging
environment provides
little to no sensation at all!
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Increased
Sensory
Input
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A theory concerning the


perceived differentiation
between similar stimuli of
Weber’s Law varying intensities (i.e., the
stronger the initial stimulus, the
greater the additional intensity
needed for the second stimulus
to be perceived as different).
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Marketing Applications
of the JND
• Need to determine the relevant j.n.d. for their
products
– so that negative changes are not readily
discernible to the public
– so that product improvements are very apparent to
consumers
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Betty Crocker Changes Fall Below the J.N.D.


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Gradual Changes in
Brand Name Fall
Below the J.N.D.
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Perception of very
weak or rapid stimuli
Subliminal
received below the
Perception
level of conscious
awareness.
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Subliminal Perception

• 1957: Drive-In Movie Theater


• 1974: Publication of Subliminal Seduction
• 1990s: Allegations against Disney
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Is Subliminal Persuasion Effective?

• Extensive research has shown no evidence


that subliminal advertising can cause behavior
changes
• Some evidence that subliminal stimuli may
influence affective reactions
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Subliminal
Embedding
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Aspects of Perception

Selection

Organization

Interpretation
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Perceptual Selection

• Depends on two major factors


– Consumers’ previous experience
– Consumers’ motives
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Concepts Concerning Selective


Perception

• Selective Exposure
• Selective Attention
• Perceptual Defense
Gestalt • Perceptual Blocking
Psychology
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The Unexpected
Attracts
Attention
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Principles of Perceptual
Organization
• Figure and ground
• Grouping
• Closure
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Influences of Perceptual Distortion

• Physical Appearances
• Stereotypes
• First Impressions
• Jumping to Conclusions
• Halo Effect
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Ads Depicting Stereotypes


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Issues In Consumer Imagery

• Product Positioning and Repositioning


• Positioning of Services
• Perceived Price
• Perceived Quality
• Retail Store Image
• Manufacturer Image
• Perceived Risk
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Using Imagery
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Establishing a specific
image for a brand in
Positioning
relation to competing
brands.
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Repositioning
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Positioning Techniques
• Umbrella • Conveying a
Positioning Product Benefit
• Positioning • Taking an Unowned
Against Position
Competition • Positioning for
• Positioning Based Several Positions
on a Specific • Repositioning
Benefit
Apple’s 1984 Ad Positions
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Against the Competition


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A research technique
that enables marketers
to plot graphically
Perceptual
consumers’ perceptions
Mapping
concerning product
attributes of specific
brands.
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Perceptual Mapping
Fashion Coverage

Fashion
Splash

More More
Copy Artwork
Crash
Bash
Splash

Club Coverage
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Pricing Strategies Focused on


Perceived Value

• Satisfaction-based Pricing
• Relationship Pricing
• Efficiency Pricing
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Issues in Perceived Price


• Reference prices
– Internal
– External
• Tensile and objective price claims
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Acquisition-Transaction Utility

• Acquisition utility • Transaction utility


represents the consumer’s concerns the perceived
perceived economic gain pleasure or displeasure
or loss associated with the associated with the
purchase financial aspect of the
• Function of product utility purchase
and purchase price • Determined by the
difference between the
internal reference price and
the purchase price
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Tensile and Objective


Price Claims
• Evaluations least favorable for
ads stating the minimum
discount level

• Ads stating maximum discount


levels are better than stating a
range
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Perceived Quality

• Perceived Quality of Products


– Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Cues
• Perceived Quality of Services
• Price/Quality Relationship
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Characteristics of Services

• Intangible • Perishable
• Variable • Simultaneously
Produced and
Consumed
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SERVQUAL Dimensions for Measuring


Service Quality
DIMENSION DESCRIPTION

•Tangibles Appearance of physical facilities, equipment,


personnel, and communication materials
•Reliability Ability to perform the promised service
dependably and accurately
•Responsiveness Willingness to help customers and provide
prompt service
•Assurance Knowledge and courtesy of employees and
their ability to convey trust and confidence
•Empathy Caring, individualized attention the firm
provides its customers
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Ad
Emphasizing
Tangible
Cues
Conceptual Model of the Consequences ofSchool
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Service Quality

Service Behavioral
Quality Intentions +$
Ongoing Revenue
Superior Favorable Remain Increased Spending
Price Premium
Referred Customers

Behavior Financial
Consequences
-$
Decreased Spending
Inferior Unfavorable Defect Lost Customers
Costs to Attract
New Customers
Focus of present study
Empirical links demonstrated in macro studies
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The perception of price


as an indicator of
Price/Quality product quality (e.g.,
Relationship the higher the price, the
higher the perceived
quality of the product).
Conceptual Model of the Effects of Price, Brand
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Name, and Store Name on Perceived Value

Objective
Price

+ Perception +
of Price

Perceived Perceived
Quality Sacrifice
Perceived
+ Value -
+ -
Willingness
to Buy
A. Conceptual Relationship of Price Effect
continued Amity Business School

Brand Store
Name Name Objective
Price

Perception Perception + Perception +


of Brand of Store of Price
+ Perceived Perceived
Quality Sacrifice
+
+ Perceived -
B. Extended Conceptualization Value
to Include Brand Name and + -
Store Name Willingness
to Buy
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Perceived Risk
Types
The degree of
uncertainty • Functional Risk
perceived by the • Physical Risk
consumer as to the • Financial Risk
consequences • Psychological Risk
(outcome) • Time Risk
of a specific
purchase decision.
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How Consumers Handle Risk

• Seek Information
• Stay Brand Loyal
• Select by Brand Image
• Rely on Store Image
• Buy the Most Expensive Model
• Seek Reassurance
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Consumer Learning
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Importance of Learning

• Marketers must teach consumers:


– where to buy
– how to use
– how to maintain
– how to dispose of products
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Learning Theories
• Behavioral Theories: • Cognitive Theories: A
Theories based on the theory of learning based
premise that learning on mental information
takes place as the result processing, often in
of observable response to problem
responses to external solving.
stimuli. Also known as
stimulus response
theory.
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A process by which
individuals acquire the
purchase and
Consumer
consumption knowledge
Learning
and experience
that they apply to
future related behavior.
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Learning Processes

• Intentional: learning • Incidental: learning


acquired as a result acquired by accident
of a careful search or without much
for information effort
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Elements of Learning Theories

• Motivation
• Cues
• Response
• Reinforcement
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A positive or negative
outcome that
influences the
likelihood that a
Reinforcement specific behavior will
be repeated in the
future in response to a
particular cue or
stimulus.
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Product Usage Leads to


Reinforcement
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Behavioral Learning Theories

• Classical Conditioning
• Instrumental Conditioning
• Modeling or Observational Learning
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A behavioral learning
theory according to
which a stimulus is
paired with another
Classical
stimulus that elicits a
Conditioning
known response that
serves to produce the
same response when
used alone.
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A behavioral theory of
learning based on a trial-
and-error process, with
Instrumental
habits forced as the result
(Operant)
of positive experiences
Conditioning
(reinforcement) resulting
from certain responses or
behaviors.
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Pavlovian Model of Classical Conditioning

Unconditioned Stimulus
Meat paste
Unconditioned Response
Salivation
Conditioned Stimulus
Bell

AFTER REPEATED PAIRINGS


Conditioned Stimulus Conditioned Response
Bell Salivation
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Analogous Model of Classical Conditioning

Unconditioned Stimulus
Dinner aroma
Unconditioned Response
Salivation
Conditioned Stimulus
6 o’clock news

AFTER REPEATED PAIRINGS


Conditioned Stimulus Conditioned Response
6 o’clock news Salivation
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Cognitive Associative Learning

• Classical conditioning is viewed as the


learning of associations among events that
allows the organism to anticipate and
represent its environment.
• From this viewpoint, classical conditioning is
not reflexive action, but rather the acquisition
of new knowledge
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Neo-Pavlovian Conditioning

• Forward Conditioning (CS Precedes US)


• Repeated Pairings of CS and US
• A CS and US that Logically Belong to Each
Other
• A CS that is Novel and Unfamiliar
• A US that is Biologically or Symbolically
Salient
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Strategic Applications of
Classical Conditioning
• Repetition
• Stimulus Generalization
• Stimulus Discrimination
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Repetition
Figure 7.3 Cosmetic
• Repetition increases Variations in Ads
strength of
associations and
slows forgetting but
over time may result in
advertising wearout.
• Cosmetic variations
reduce satiation.
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Substantive
Variations
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Three-Hit Theory

• Repetition is the basis for the idea that three


exposures to an ad are necessary for the ad to
be effective
• The number of actual repetitions to equal
three exposures is in question.
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The inability to perceive


Stimulus differences between
Generalization slightly dissimilar
stimuli.
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Stimulus Generalization and


Marketing
• Product Line, Form and Category Extensions
• Family Branding
• Licensing
• Generalizing Usage Situations
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Product Line
Extension
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Product Form Extensions


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Product
Category
Extensions
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Shoe
Manufacturer
Licenses
Its Name
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The ability to select a


specific stimulus from
Stimulus
among similar stimuli
Discrimination
because of perceived
differences.

Positioning

Differentiation
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Stimulus
Discrimination
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A Model of Instrumental Conditioning


Try Unrewarded
Brand A Legs too tight

Try Unrewarded
Brand B Tight in seat
Stimulus
Situation
Try Unrewarded
(Need good-
looking jeans) Brand C Baggy in seat

Try Reward
Brand D Perfect fit
Repeat Behavior
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Instrumental Conditioning

• Consumers learn by means of trial and error


process in which some purchase behaviors
result in more favorable outcomes (rewards)
than other purchase behaviors.
• A favorable experience is instrumental in
teaching the individual to repeat a specific
behavior.
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Instrumental Conditioning and


Marketing
• Customer Satisfaction (Reinforcement)
• Reinforcement Schedules
– Shaping
• Massed versus Distributed Learning
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Reinforcement

• Positive Reinforcement: • Negative Reinforcement:


Positive outcomes that Unpleasant or negative
strengthen the likelihood outcomes that serve to
of a specific response encourage a specific
• Example: Ad showing behavior
beautiful hair as a • Example: Ad showing
reinforcement to buy wrinkled skin as
shampoo reinforcement to buy skin
cream
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Other Concepts in Reinforcement

• Punishment
– Choose reinforcement rather than punishment
• Extinction
– Combat with consumer satisfaction
• Forgetting
– Combat with repetition
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A process by which
individuals observe the
behavior of others, and
Observational
consequences of such
Learning
behavior. Also known
as modeling or
vicarious learning.
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Consumers
Learn by
Modeling
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Holds that the kind of


learning most
characteristic of human
Cognitive
beings is problem
Learning
solving, which enables
Theory
individuals to gain
some control over their
environment.
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Appeal to
Cognitive
Processing
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A cognitive theory of
human learning
patterned after computer
Information information processing
Processing that focuses on how
information is stored in
human memory and
how it is retrieved.
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Information Processing and Memory Stores

Working
Working
Memory
Memory Long-
Long-
Sensory Sensory
Sensory (Short-
(Short- term
term
Input Store
Store Rehearsal Encoding Retrieval
term
term Store
Store
Store)
Store)

Forgotten; Forgotten; Forgotten;


lost lost unavailable
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Retention

• Information is stored in
long-term memory
– Episodically: by the order in
which it is acquired
– Semantically: according to
significant concepts
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Models of Cognitive Learning

Decision- Innovation Innovation


Promotional Tricompetent Making Adoption Decision
Model Model Model Model Process
Attention Cognitive Awareness Awareness
Sequential Knowledge Knowledge
Stages Interest Affective Interest
of Processing
Desire Evaluation Evaluation Persuasion
Action Conative Purchase Trial Decision
Postpurchase Adoption Confirmation
Evaluation
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A theory of consumer
learning which postulates
that consumers engage in
a range of information
Involvement
processing activity from
Theory
extensive to limited
problem solving,
depending on the
relevance of the purchase.
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Figure 7.14 Split Brain


Theory
• Right/ Left Brain
Hemispheres specialize
in certain functions
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Encouraging
Right and Left
Brain
Processing
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Issues in Involvement Theory

• Involvement Theory and Media Strategy


• Involvement Theory and Consumer Relevance
• Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuasion
• Measures of Involvement
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A theory that proposes that


highly involved consumers are
best reached through ads that
Central and focus on the specific attributes
Peripheral of the product (the central
Routes to route) while uninvolved
Persuasion consumers can be attracted
through peripheral advertising
cues such as the model or the
setting (the peripheral route).
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A theory that suggests


that a person’s level of
Elaboration involvement during
Likelihood message processing is a
Model critical factor in
(ELM) determining which route
to persuasion is likely to
be effective.
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Peripheral
Route to
Persuasion
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Unexpected Headline Metaphor


Increases Impact
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The Elaboration Likelihood Model

Involvement
HIGH LOW

Peripheral
Central Route
Route

Message
Peripheral
Arguments
Cues Influence
Influence
Attitudes
Attitudes
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Measures of Consumer Learning

• Recognition and Recall Measures


– Aided and Unaided Recall
• Cognitive Responses to Advertising
• Copytesting Measures
• Attitudinal and Behavioral Measures of
Brand Loyalty
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Starch
Readership
Scores
Measure
Learning
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Phases of Brand Loyalty

• Cognitive
• Affective
• Conative
• Action
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Brand Loyalty As A Function of


Relative Attitude and Patronage Behavior

Repeat Patronage
High Low
Latent
High Loyalty
Relative Loyalty
Attitude Spurious No
Low
Loyalty Loyalty