Hawasssa University iOT, School of Civil Engineering Reinforced concrete Structures I
Reinforced Concrete Slab
A slab is a two dimensional structure, it carries load primary by bending action and transfers the load to the supporting beams or walls and sometimes directly to columns. A structural section to be considered as a slab, the minimum span shall not be less than four times the overall slab thickness. Slab is used to from a variety of building elements like floors, roof, stair cases etc
Classification of slabs
I. Based on support condition
Edge supported:each corner of the slab is supported by beams
Edge unsupported:the corner of the slab is free from beam support; the slab is rest on columns (Flat Slab).
II. Based on structural section
Solid: A slab that is uniform in section
Ribbed: A slab that has a variation in section or hole in the slab.
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Hawasssa University iOT, School of Civil Engineering Reinforced concrete Structures I
III. Based on structural action
One way slabs They transfer load in one direction (In the short direction)
_{} Long dimension
_{}
Short dimension
_{} ≥ 2
Two way slabs They transfer load in two directions.
_{} Long dimension
_{}
Short dimension
< 2
EBCS2 recommendation on designing of slabs
Thickness The following minimum thicknesses shall be adopted in design:
60 mm for slabs not exposed to concentrated loads (e.g. inaccessible roofs)
80 mm for slabs exposed mainly to distributed loads.
100 mm for slabs exposed to light moving concentrated loads (e.g. slabs accessible to light motor vehicles)
120 mm for slabs exposed to heavy dynamic moving loads (e.g. slabs accessible to heavy vehicles)
150 mm for slabs on point supports (e.g. flat slabs)
Flexural Reinforcement
The ratio of the secondary reinforcement to the main reinforcement shall be at least equal to 0.2.
The geometrical ratio of main reinforcement in a slab shall not be less than
^{} ^{=}
0.5
^{}
The spacing between main bars for slabs shall not exceed the smaller of 2D or 350 mm.
The spacing between secondary bars shall not exceed 400 mm.
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Hawasssa University iOT, School of Civil Engineering Reinforced concrete Structures I
Analysis and design of oneway solid slabs
If a slab is said to be one way then the ratio of the larger dimension to the short one is greater than or equal to 2. This means the main reinforcement runs in one direction only.
The analysis carried out by assuming a beam of unit width (shaded area of 1m width in the above picture) with a depth equal to the thickness of the slab and effective span length equal to the distance between the supports. The strip of unit width may be analyzed in the same way as singly reinforced rectangular section beam. As the loads being transmitted to the supported beam, all reinforcement shall be placed at right angles to these beams. However some additional bars may be placed in the other direction to carry temperature and shrinkage stresses. Generally, the design consists of selecting a slab thickness for deflection requirements and flexural design carried out by considering the slab as a series of rectangular beams side by side.
To calculate spacing between bars, by selecting the diameter of the bar, a _{s} = 1000 _{}
The maximum spacing between bars is
_{} _{}_{}_{} _{=} _{} 2 , ℎ ℎ
350
Minimum area of steel
≥ 0.5
^{}
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Date:November 29, 2017
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Hawasssa University iOT, School of Civil Engineering Reinforced concrete Structures I
Design Example
Design the floor system of an Exhibition room which consists of oneway solid slab supported by beams. It also subjected to a uniform load of 3KN/m ^{2} for partition wall. Use concrete C25 and steel S300 class I works and the floor finish is ceramic tile.
Solution
+ 0.0035 = 0.0253
0.0035
200000 ^{}
260.87
Design constant
^{}
1.25 ^{=}
=
= 0.85 _{}_{}
^{} ^{=}
=
25
_{1}_{.}_{2}_{5} = 20
=
0.85 × 20
ϒ
=
_{1}_{.}_{5}
= 11.33
300
_{1}_{.}_{1}_{5} = 260.87
ϒ
^{} ^{}^{}
0.8 _{}_{}
=
260.87
0.8 × 11.33 ^{=} ^{2}^{8}^{.}^{7}^{8}
=
_{} = 200,000
_{} _{} _{+} _{} = 0.8
_{} = ^{} ^{}^{} _{} = 0.0035
_{} = 0.8
^{}
^{}
260.87 ^{} ^{}
11.33
To assure ductility
= 0.75 _{} = 0.019
Check of oneway structural action
Panel 
Lx 
(m) 
Ly (m) 



≥ 2 

1 
3 
7 
2.33>2 ,oneway 

2 
3 
7 
2.33>2 ,oneway 

3 
3.5 
7 
2 =2 ,oneway 
Depth for deflection
= 0.4 + 0.6
^{}
^{}
400
Panel 
Le 
(mm) 

d(mm) 
1 
3000 
24 
106.25 

2 
3000 
24 
106.25 

3 
3500 
24 
123.96 
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Hawasssa University iOT, School of Civil Engineering Reinforced concrete Structures I
Take the maximum value d=123.96mm
Overall depth D will be
Using
15mm concrete cover
Using ϕ10 reinforcement bar bottom
Using ϕ8 reinforcement bar transverse direction
D=123.96 + 15 + 10/2 =143.96mm, use 150mm
d=1501510/2=130mm
d _{1} =15015108/2=121mm
Design Load
From EBCS1, Table 2.8 Flooring and Walling, for PVC covering (Ceramic
tile) the density is 16kN/m ^{3} and its thickness=20mm
The density of the cement screed form EBCS1 Table 2.1 =23kN/m ^{3} and its
thickness=30mm
The density of C25 concrete is =25kN/m ^{3}
Selfweight of the slab = 0.15 × 25 / ^{} = 3.75 / ^{}
Cement screed= 0.03 × 23 / ^{} = 0.69 / ^{}
Ceramic tile = 0.02 × 16 / ^{} = 0.32 / ^{}
Partition load = 3 / ^{}

Total dead load DL=3.75 + 0.69 + 0.32 + 3 = 7.76kN/m ^{2}
Live load Form EBCS1, Table 2.9 category B C3, and form Table 2.10 we get the value
LL=5kN/m ^{2}
By considering one meter strip the design load will be _{} = 1.3 + 1.6 = 1.35 × 7.76 + 1.5 × 5 = (10.476 + 7.5) / _{} = Design dead load + Design Live load = (10.476 + 7.5)kN/m
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Hawasssa University iOT, School of Civil Engineering Reinforced concrete Structures I
Analysis
The variations in live load in different panels will result different bending moment values. We use a Structural Analysis program called SAP2000 to do the analysis.
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Hawasssa University iOT, School of Civil Engineering Reinforced concrete Structures I
Design the section for flexure (moment) M _{m}_{a}_{x} =21.688kN.m, b=1000mm, _{}_{} = 260.87 = 0.75 _{} = 0.019
=
^{}
0.2952 _{}_{} ^{=}
Reinforcement
^{}
21.688 × 10 ^{} _{0}_{.}_{2}_{9}_{5}_{2} _{} _{1}_{0}_{0}_{0} _{} _{1}_{1}_{.}_{3}_{3} = 79.80 < 130 … . !
_{} d=130mm, d _{1} =121mm, b=1000mm, _{}_{} = 11.33 , _{}_{} = 260.87
The maximum spacing between bars is
_{} _{}_{}_{} _{=} _{} 2 , ℎ ℎ
350
Minimum area of steel
_{=} _{} 2 × 150 = 300
350
=300mm
≥ 0.5
^{}
0.5 × 1000 × 130
=
300
= 216.67 ^{}
= _{} 1 − _{} 1 − _{}
^{}^{}
^{}
_{} =
, _{} = , _{} _{=} ^{}^{}^{}^{}^{} ^{}
× 10 ^{}
4
= 78.54 ^{}
^{,}
Minimum reinforcements is needed in transverse direction; using ϕ8 reinforcement bar
d _{1} =121mm
^{} ^{=}
0.5
^{}
0.5 × 1000 × 121
=
300
= 201.67 ^{}
_{} =
× ^{}
=
50.27 ^{} , = ^{}^{}^{}^{}^{} ^{}
× .
.
^{=}
= 249.27 , _{}_{}_{} = 400
_{U}_{s}_{e} ϕ8 C/C 240
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Hawasssa University iOT, School of Civil Engineering Reinforced concrete Structures I
Location 
Moment 
≤ 0.019 
_{} = 
Spacing S ≤ _{}_{}_{} 
Actual S 

(KN.m) 
^{} ^{≥} ^{} 
(mm) 
(mm) 

(mm 
^{2} ) 

FieldAB 
13.605 
0.003204 
416.54 
188.55 
180 

SupportB 
16.667 
0.003961 
514.94 
152.52 
150 

FieldBC 
6.548 
0.001512 
196.5 ≅216.67 
399.69≅300 
300 

SupportC 
21.668 
0.005230 
679.86 
115.53 
110 

FieldCD 
18.997 
0.004547 
591.11 
132.87 
130 
Reinforcement detail
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Hawasssa University iOT, School of Civil Engineering Reinforced concrete Structures I
Analysis and Design of TwoWay Solid Slabs
Towway slab are a floor system whose individual panel are rectangular and the ratio of the larger to smaller span is less than 2. They are composed of rectangular panels, supported at all four edges by beams or walls stiff enough to be treated as unyielding.
The general procedure to design twoway slabs
1. Depth determination The minimum effective depth for deflection can be calculated as
≥ 0.4 + 0.6
The overall depth D can be calculated = + concrete cover + Longitudinal reinforcement
^{}
^{}
400
2
Note that the reinforcement is in both directions
2. Design load calculation Base on the limit state design method, the design load P _{d} is computed as follows
_{} = 1.35 + 1.5 Where
DL 
is dead load including selfweight of the slab, partition wall, finishing etc… 
LL 
live load 
3. Analysis of individual panels (Moment) The first step is to determine support and span moments for all panels. The support
and span moments are calculated as follows
_{} = is the design moment per unit width at the point of reference.
_{}
_{} = the coefficient given in EBCS2 Table A1 as a function of (L _{y} /L _{x} ) and support
condition of the panel. _{} = Longer span of the panel _{} = Shorter span of the panel The subscript (i) has the following meaning S=support f=field (span) x=direction of shorter span y=direction of longer span
In table A1 of EBCS1 if the value of the aspect ratio (L _{y} /L _{x} ) is between two values then use linear interpolation. This method is intended for slabs with uniformly distributed loads. If a slab is subjected to a concentrated or line loads, in addition to a uniform load, these can generally be treated by considering them as equivalent uniform loads using Reynould’s method, provided that the sum of the nonuniform loads on panel does not exceed 20% of the total load.
4. Adjustments of support and span moment
_{} = _{} _{} _{}
= is a uniformly distributed design load
I. Support Moment Adjustment Let MR > ML If (MR _{} ML)/ MR * 100 < 20% then the design moment Md M _{d} = (MR+ML)/2 If (MR ML)/ MR * 100 ≥ 20% then distribute using their relative stiffness.
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Hawasssa University iOT, School of Civil Engineering Reinforced concrete Structures I
_{}
=
_{} −
_{} = _{} −
_{} +
_{}
_{} +
_{}
∆
=
_{}
− _{}
1
^{}
1
^{+}
1
_{}
∆ = _{} − _{}
1
^{}
1
^{+}
1
_{}
∆
∆
=
ℎ ℎ
,
,
∆ = _{} − _{}
_{} > _{}
∆ = _{} − _{}
_{}
_{}
>
<
_{}
_{}
_{} > _{}
II. Span Moment Adjustment If the support moment is decreased, the span moment M _{x}_{f} and M _{y}_{f} are then increased to allow for changes of support moments.
_{}_{} = _{}_{} + _{} ∆ ^{}
_{}_{} = _{}_{} + _{} ∆ ^{} Where ∆ ^{} = _{} _{,} _{} − _{} _{} , _{} = coefficients for adjusting span moments given in EBCS2 Table A2 If the support moment is increased, no adjustment shall be made to the span moment.
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Hawasssa University iOT, School of Civil Engineering Reinforced concrete Structures I
5. Check the depth for flexure
≥
^{}
0.2952 _{}_{}
If not satisfy, revise the design with a new depth calculated using the above equation.
6. Reinforcement design for flexure We can calculate the reinforcement area using equation or design chart. For a given and calculated data of
Material data C and S
Effective depth(d) ,Width(b=1000mm) and Design moment(M _{d} )
I. Using equation
= 1 − 1 −
2
^{} ^{}^{}
^{}
^{}
^{}
_{} =
II. Using design chart
_{} = _{}
→
_{}
_{} = ^{} ^{} ^{} To calculate spacing between bars, by selecting the diameter of the bar, a _{s} = 1000 _{}
Compare the above design spacing S, with the minimum provision given by our code.
^{} ^{=}
0.5
^{}
_{}_{}_{} =
2
350
7. Reinforcement detail The reinforcement bars can be detailed in such a way that at least 50% of the positive bars is extended into the support. The negative bars may be terminated at a distance of L _{x} /4 to L _{x} /3 from the respective centerline point of the support.
8. Load transfer to frames The design load on beams supporting solid slabs spanning into two direction at right angles supporting distributed load may be assessed from the following equations.
=
= EBCS2 Table A3 gives a value of load transfer coefficient _{}_{} , _{}_{} and the assumed distribution of this loading is shown below.
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Hawasssa University iOT, School of Civil Engineering Reinforced concrete Structures I
Design Example
Design the floor system of an office building. Load form partition 2kN/m ^{2} , from floor finishing and screed 1kN/m ^{2} .Using C25 and S300 class I works.
_{} = ^{} ^{}^{} _{} = 0.0035
_{} = 0.8
^{}
^{}
_{} = 200,000
_{} +
_{} = 0.8
260.87 ^{} ^{}
11.33
+ 0.0035 = 0.0253
0.0035
200000 ^{}
260.87
Solution
Design constant
To assure ductility
= . _{} = .
Step 1 : Depth determination
= 0.4 + 0.6
^{}
^{}
400
panel 
L 
x 
L 
y 
L 
_{y} /L _{x} <2 

d(mm) 
1 4000 
4000 
1 
40 
85 

2 4000 
6000 
1.5 
35 
97.143 

3 4000 
5000 
1.25 
37.5 
90.67 

4 5000 
6000 
1.2 
38 
111.84 

Maximum 
111.84 
Overall depth D will be using
15mm concrete cover
Using ϕ10 reinforcement bar bottom (it run perpendicular to the Longer span)
Using ϕ10 reinforcement bar transverse direction (above the bars that runs perpendicular to the longer span, which runs parallel to the longer span.)
= + concrete cover + Longitudinal reinforcement
2
= 111.84 + 15
+ ^{1}^{0}
_{2}
= 131.84
Let provide a minimum thickness for slab with concentrated load
D=150mm
d=1501510/2=130mm
d _{1} =150151010/2=120mm
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Hawasssa University iOT, School of Civil Engineering Reinforced concrete Structures I

Step 2 : Design load calculation 

Dead load 

The density of C25 concrete is =25kN/m ^{3} 

Selfweight of the slab = 0.15m × 25KN/m ^{} = 3.75kN/m ^{} 

Floor finishing and screed= 1kN/m ^{} 

Partition load = 2 / ^{} 

 

Total dead load DL=3.75 + 1+ 2 = 6.75kN/m ^{2} 

Live load Form EBCS1, Table 2.9 category B C1, and form Table 2.10 we get the value 

LL=3kN/m ^{2} 

_{} = 1.35 + 1.5 = 1.35 × 6.75 + 1.5 × 3 = 13.6125 N/m ^{} 


Step 3 : Analysis of individual panels (Moment) 

P _{d} =13.6125kN/m ^{2} 
_{} = _{} _{} _{} 


Panel 
Support 
L 
_{y} /L _{x} 
L 
x ^{2} 
M 
xs 
M 
xf 
M 
ys 
M 
yf 

Condition 
m 
α 
xs 
α 
xf 
α 
ys 
α 
yf 
kN.m 
kN.m 
kN.m 
kN.m 

1 
7 
1 
16 
0.058 
0.044 
0 
0.044 
12.632 
9.583 
0 
9.583 

2 
6 
1.5 
16 
0 
0.078 
0.045 
0.034 
0 
16.988 
9.801 
7.405 

3 
4 
1.25 
16 
0.066 
0.049 
0.047 
0.036 
14.375 
10.672 
10.237 
7.841 

4 
8 
1.2 
25 
0 
0.063 
0.058 
0.044 
0 
21.440 
19.738 
14.974 
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Hawasssa University iOT, School of Civil Engineering Reinforced concrete Structures I
Step 4 : Adjustments of support and span moment
I.
II.
Support Moment Adjustment
Adjustment between panel 1 and panel 2
M 
_{L} =12.632kN.m 
M 
_{R} =9.801kN.m 
_{} − _{} 100% = 12.632 − 9.801
12.632
× 100% = 22.41% > 20%
_{} = _{} −
1
∆ = 12.632 −
1
^{}
1
^{+}
1
4
4 × (12.632 − 9.801)
1
1
4 ^{+}
= 11.217 .
Adjustment between panel 2 and panel 3
M 
_{L} =9.801kN.m 
M 
_{R} =10.237kN.m 
_{} − _{} 100% = 10.237 − 9.801
10.237
× 100% = 4.26% < 20%
10.237 + 9.801
_{} =
_{2}
=
10.019 .
Adjustment between panel 3 and panel 4
M 
_{L} =14.375kN.m 
M 
_{R} =19.738kN.m 
_{} − _{} 100% = 19.738 − 14.375
19.738
× 100% = 27.17% > 20%
_{} = _{} −
1
∆ =
1
^{}
1
^{+}
19.738 −
1
5
4 (19.738 − 14.375)
1
1
5 ^{+}
= 17.514 .
Span Moment Adjustment
Panel 1
∆ ^{} = _{} − _{} = 12.632 − 11.2165 = 1.4185
_{}
_{} = 0.380
_{}_{} =
= 0.280
_{}_{} + _{} ∆ ^{} = 9.583 + 0.28 × 1.4185 = 9.980 .
_{}_{} = _{}_{}
+ _{} ∆ ^{} = 9.583 + 0.38 × 1.4185 = 10.080 .
Panel 3
∆ ^{} = _{} − _{} = 10.237 − 10.019 = 0.218
= 0.332
_{} = 0.154
_{}
_{}_{}
= _{}_{} + _{} ∆ ^{} = 10.672 + 0.332 × 0.218 = 10.744
_{}_{} = _{}_{} + _{} ∆ ^{} = 7.841 + 0.154 × 0.218 = 7.875
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Hawasssa University iOT, School of Civil Engineering Reinforced concrete Structures I
Panel 4
∆ ^{} = _{} − _{} = 19.738 − 17.514 = 2.224
_{}
_{} = 0.172
= 0.338
_{}_{}
_{}_{} = _{}_{}
= _{}_{} + _{} ∆ ^{} = 21.440 + 0.338 × 2.224 = 22.192
+ _{} ∆ ^{} = 14.974 + 0.172 × 2.224 = 15.357
Step 5 : Check the depth for flexure _{}_{}_{} = 22.192 . , _{}_{} = 260.87 , = 0.019, b=1000mm
=
0.2952 _{}_{} ^{=} ^{}
22.192 × 10 ^{} _{0}_{.}_{2}_{9}_{5}_{2} _{} _{1}_{0}_{0}_{0} _{} _{1}_{1}_{.}_{3}_{3} = 81.46 < 120 … . !
Step 6 : Reinforcement design for flexure
b=1000mm=1m, d1=120mm=0.12m, d=130mm=0.13m The maximum spacing between main bars is
_{} _{}_{}_{} _{=} _{} 2 , ℎ ℎ
_{=} _{} 2 × 150 = 300
350
350
Minimum area of steel
≥ 0.5
0.5 × 1000 × 130
300
^{}
=
= 216.67 ^{}
≥ 0.5 _{}
^{}
0.5 × 1000 × 120
=
300
= 200 ^{}
=300mm
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Hawasssa University iOT, School of Civil Engineering Reinforced concrete Structures I
By using design table
_{} =
→
_{} ,
_{} = ^{} ^{} ^{}
To calculate spacing between bars, by selecting the diameter of the bar, a _{s}
= 1000 _{}
, _{} =
× 10 ^{}
4
= 78.54 ^{}
d or 

Location 
Moment 
d1 
K m 
K 
A 
s 
S 
Provided 

KN.m 
s 
^{2} 
Spacing 

mm 
mm 

m 

M 
xs 
11.217 
0.13 
25.763 
3.999 
345.05 
228 
220 

M 
xf 
9.980 
0.13 
24.301 
3.985 
305.925 
256.73 
250 

Panel 1 
M 
ys 

M 
yf 
10.080 
0.12 
26.458 
4.008 
336.69 
233.27 
230 

M 
xs 

M 
xf 
16.7 
0.13 
31.435 
4.064 
522.07 
150.44 
150 

Panel 2 
M ys,R 
9.85 
0.13 
24.142 
3.984 
301.86 
260.18 
260 

M 
yf 
7.279 
0.12 
22.483 
3.973 
241 
325.9 
320 

M xs,L 
9.85 
0.13 
24.142 
3.984 
301.86 
260.18 
260 

M 
xf 
10.56 
0.13 
24.997 
3.990 
324.11 
242.32 
240 

Panel 3 
M ys,R 
17.13 
0.13 
31.837 
4.068 
536.04 
146.52 
140 

M 
yf 
7.739 
0.12 
23.183 
3.978 
256.55 
306.14 
300 

M 
xs 

M 
xf 
21.837 
0.13 
35.946 
4.109 
690.22 
113.79 
110 

Panel 4 
M 
ys 
17.13 
0.13 
31.837 
4.068 
536.04 
146.52 
140 

M 
yf 
15.11 
0.12 
32.393 
4.074 
512.98 
153.1 
150 
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Hawasssa University iOT, School of Civil Engineering Reinforced concrete Structures I
Step 7 : Reinforcement detail
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Hawasssa University iOT, School of Civil Engineering Reinforced concrete Structures I
Step 8 : Load transfer to frames
= =
P _{d} =13.6125kN/m ^{2}
Support Condition 
L 
x 
^{} 
^{} 
V 
x 
V 
y 

Panel 
L 
_{y} /L _{x} 
Discont 

m 
Cont. 
Discont. 
Cont. 
Discont. 
Cont. 
. 
Cont. 
Discont. 

1 
7 
1 
4 
0.45 
0.30 
 
0.30 
24.503 
16.335 
0 
16.335 

2 
6 
1.5 
4 
 
0.40 
0.40 
 
0 
21.780 
21.780 
0 

3 
4 
1.25 
4 
0.485 
0.32 
0.40 
0.26 
26.408 
17.424 
21.780 
14.157 

4 
8 
1.2 
5 
 
0.36 
0.45 
0.30 
0 
24.503 
30.628 
20.419 
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Hawasssa University iOT, School of Civil Engineering Reinforced concrete Structures I
Design of one way ribbed Slab
In one way ribbed slab, the supporting beams called joists or ribs are closely spaced. The ribbed floor is formed using temporary or permanent shuttering (form work) while the hollow block floor is generally constructed with block made of clay tiles or with concrete containing light weight aggregate. This type of floor is economical for buildings where there are long spans and light or moderate live loads such as in hospitals and apartment buildings.
General requirements:
Because joists are closely spaced, thickness of slab (topping), t _{s}_{l}_{a}_{b} ≥ 40 mm or 1/10 clear distance between ribs.
The topping shall be provided with a reinforcement mesh providing in each direction a cross sectional area not less than 0.001 of the section of the slab.
Unless calculation requires, minimum reinforcement to be provided for joists include two bars, where one is bent near the support and the other is straight.
Rib width b _{w} ≥ 70 mm, and overall depth D _{j} ≤ 4 b _{w}_{,}_{j}_{o}_{i}_{s}_{t} , excluding t _{s}_{l}_{a}_{b}
Rib spacing is generally less than 1m.
In case of rib spacing larger than 1m, the topping need to be designed as if supported on ribs (i.e. as one way solid slab between the ribs).
If the span of the ribs exceeds 6m, transverse ribs may be provided.
When transverse ribs are provided, the center to center distance shall not exceed 20 times the overall depth of the ribbed slab.
The transverse ribs shall be designed for at least half the values of maximum moments and shear force in the longitudinal ribs.
The girder supporting the joist may be rectangular or Tbeam, with the flange thickness equal to the floor thickness.
Procedure for design of a floor system of ribbed slab:
1. Thickness of topping and ribs assumed based on minimum requirements.
2. Loads may be computed on the basis of center line of the spacing of joists.
3. The joists are analyzed as continuous Tbeams supported by girders.
4. Determine flexural reinforcement and consider minimum provision in the final solution.
5. Provide the topping or slab with reinforcement as per temperature and shrinkage requirement.
6. Design the girder as a beam.
EBCS 2  provisions WebFlange Connections
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Hawasssa University iOT, School of Civil Engineering Reinforced concrete Structures I
Surafel T.
Date:November 29, 2017
Page 24
Hawasssa University iOT, School of Civil Engineering Reinforced concrete Structures I
Design Example of one way Ribbed Slab
Design the floor system shown below which is made of ribbed slab. Dead load from partition wall plus floor finishing and HCB block =3.5kN/m ^{2} and floor Live Load =2kN/m ^{2} . Column dimension 30x30cm and Use Materials C30, S300 class I works.
Step 1 Geometry
Effective depth of joist or rib Here Le = span of the joist = 5.5 m βa can be taken similar to flat slab = 24
= (0.4 + ^{} ^{.} ^{}^{} ^{}^{} )
=(0.4 + . ∗ )
=195mm
Using ϕ12, 15mm concrete cover, ϕ6 stirrups Over all depth D=195+15+6+12/2=222mm <260mm …………………Ok! Note:  overall depth (D) of the rib from the ribbed slab section is 260mm and its width
b _{w} =80mm.
Use D=260mm
Overall depth of the joist D= 260mm≤ 4 bw = 4(80) = 320 mm.
D provided is OK!
Thickness of slab (topping), ≥
40
_{}_{} ∗ ( )
From the ribbed slab section, the clear distance between ribs=320mm and the thickness of the topping slab=60mm
Surafel T.
Date:November 29, 2017
Page 25
Hawasssa University iOT, School of Civil Engineering Reinforced concrete Structures I
40
= 60 ≥ 10 _{∗} _{(}_{3}_{2}_{0} _{}_{} _{)} _{=} _{3}_{2} _{}_{} = 40 … … .
1
Step 2 Loading
Dead Load
Form selfweight topping slab + selfweight of the rib = (0.06m * 0.4m * 25kN/m ^{3} ) + (0.08 * 0.2 * 25) = 1kN/m
From partitions, Finishing and Block =3.5KN/m ^{2} * 0.4m = 1.4kN/m

Total Dead Load (DL)=1+1.4=2.4KN/m
Live Load(LL) = 2 * 0.4 = 0.8 KN/m
Design load(P _{d} )=1.35DL+1.5LL=1.35(2.4)+1.5(0.8)= 4.44kN/m Step 3 Analysis
Step 4 Design for flexure
Design constant
= . _{}_{}
ϒ
. ( ^{}^{}
.
)
.
=
= 13.6 , _{}_{} = ^{} ^{}^{}
ϒ
=
_{}_{} = 260.87
.
_{} = ^{} ^{}^{}
_{} _{}
_{} = 0.8
_{}_{} = _{} _{} , _{} = 0.0035
_{} = 200,000
^{}
^{}
_{} +
_{} = 0.8
260.87 ^{} ^{}
13.6
+ 0.0035 = 0.0304
0.0035
200000 ^{}
260.87
To assure ductility
_{}_{}_{} = . _{} = .
Surafel T.
Date:November 29, 2017
Page 26
Hawasssa University iOT, School of Civil Engineering Reinforced concrete Structures I
Check the depth for maximum moment M _{m}_{a}_{x} = 16.78kN.m, b = 80mm Check it by using the limiting depth d
=
^{=} ^{}
^{}
16.78 × 10 ^{} 0.2952 × 80 × 13.6 ^{=} ^{2}^{2}^{8}^{.}^{5}^{7} ^{}^{}
0.2952
_{}_{}_{}_{} = 260 − 15 − 6 − 6 = 233 > 228.57 … …
!
Design of the mid span Section as a Tbeam
_{} =
^{} ^{} ^{+} ^{} ^{}
5
= 80 + ^{5}^{5}^{0}^{0}
_{5}
= 1180
ℎ = 400
_{} = 400
Assuming the NA to fall in the flange,
M
_{u} =9.44KN.m
M _{u} = 0.8 x b _{e} f _{c}_{d} (d – 0.4x) 9.44 * 10 ^{6} = 0.8x (400)*(13.6)*(233 – 0.4x)
Or x ^{2} – 582.5x + 5422.794 = 0 On solving the above quadratic equation, x = 9.46mm Therefore, NA falls within the flange A _{s} = (0.8 x b _{e} f _{c}_{d} )/f _{y}_{d}
= (0.8 * 9.46 * 400 * 13.6)/260.87
= 157.87 mm ^{2}
Number of 12 mm diameter rods = 157.87 / (π * 12 ^{2} /4) = 1.4
Use 2ϕ12
Design of support section as a rectangular beam
Overall depth D = 260mm; d = 233 mm
Breadth b = 80mm;
M _{u}_{m}_{a}_{x} = 0.2952 f _{c}_{d} bd ^{2} = 0.2952 * 13.6 * 80 * 233 ^{2} * 10 ^{}^{6} = 17.44KNm > 16.78KNm the
section is single reinforced.
M _{m}_{a}_{x} = 16.78KNm
_{} = 0.0304 _{}_{}_{} = 0.61 _{} = 0.0185
= (1 − (1 −
_{} = (1 − (1 −
2 ∗ 16.78 ∗ 10
^{}
∗ 13.6 ^{)}^{)}
80 ∗ 233 ^{}
2 ∗
^{} ^{} _{}_{} ^{)}^{)} ^{}
^{} ^{=}
0.5 0.5
=
^{}
_{3}_{0}_{0} = 0.0017
13.6
_{2}_{6}_{0}_{.}_{8}_{7} = 0.0179
>
A _{s} = ρbd=0.0179*80*233=333.184mm ^{2} Number of 12 mm diameter rods = 333.184 / (π * 12 ^{2} /4) = 2.95 Use 3ϕ12
Surafel T.
Date:November 29, 2017
Page 27
Hawasssa University iOT, School of Civil Engineering Reinforced concrete Structures I
Transverse reinforcement at topping.
Crosssection area of the topping
Based on EBCS2, A _{s}_{t} = 0.001 A _{c} , A _{s}_{t} = 0.001*60000 = 60 mm ^{2} Reinforcement in a unit width (i.e. 1m)
A _{c} = 60 * 1000 = 60000 mm ^{2}
Spacing using ϕ6
=
. ×
= 471.17
Use Ф6mm @ c/c 400mm in both directions (since secondary reinforcements shall not be greater than 400mm spacing) Step 5 Design for Shear The design shear at d distance from the face of the support; we do center to center analysis so the distance will be=30/2 + 233mm=248mm=0.248m. The design is done for the maxmuim shear.
Maximum shear force at the support = 15.26kN Shear force at the critical section (V _{s}_{d} ) = 14.16kN V _{R}_{D} = 0.25 f _{c}_{d} b _{w} d = 0.25* 13.6 * 80 * 233 * 10 ^{}^{3} =63.38kN = 63.38KN >>14.16kN → ok
= . _{}_{} .
^{=}
. × ^{} .
=1.165Mpa
k _{1} = 1+50p = 1+50*0.0179 = 1.895≤ 2.0 k _{2} = 1.6 –d = 1.60.233 = 1.37 > 1.0
V _{c} = 0.25 f _{c}_{t}_{d} k _{1} k _{2} b _{w} d
= 0.25*1.165*1.895*1.367*80*233*10 ^{}^{3} = 14.06kN ≤ V _{s}_{d} =14.16kN Since V _{s}_{d} > V _{c} → provide shear reinforcements
V
= _{} _{}_{}
_{}
,
V _{s} =V _{s}_{d} V _{c}
Consider 6 mm diameter stirrups with 2 legs,
Av = 2 * 6 ^{2} * π / 4 = 56.55 mm ^{2}
_{} _{=}
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